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The Nature And Structure Of Temperament In Early And Middle Childhood: A Multi-Method Approach, Yuliya Kotelnikova 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Nature And Structure Of Temperament In Early And Middle Childhood: A Multi-Method Approach, Yuliya Kotelnikova

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Structural work on the nature of child temperament has lagged far behind parallel research with adults. Further, the structure of extant parent-report questionnaires has been examined only at the higher-order level, using small samples of children. This dissertation addresses this important gap in three studies, examining the lower- and higher-order structure of two widely used parent-reports of child temperament (Studies 1 and 2) and an observational battery of temperament (Study 3). The first study examined the lower- and higher-order structure of the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ; Rothbart, Ahadi, Hershey, & Fisher, 2001) in a large community sample of children at ages 3 (N=944) and 5/6 (N=853). The second study extended this work by examining the structure of the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; Simonds & Rothbart, 2004) in a large (N = 654) sample of ...


Parametrically Constrained Lightness Model Incorporating Edge Classification And Increment-Decrement Neural Response Asymmetries, Michael E. Rudd 2016 mrudd@u.washington.edu

Parametrically Constrained Lightness Model Incorporating Edge Classification And Increment-Decrement Neural Response Asymmetries, Michael E. Rudd

MODVIS Workshop

Lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments has the form of a parabolic (2nd-order polynomial) function when matches are plotted against annulus luminance on log-log axes. Rudd (2010) has proposed a computational cortical model to account for this fact and has subsequently (Rudd, 2013, 2014, 2015) extended the model to explain data from other lightness paradigms, including staircase-Gelb and luminance gradient illusions (Galmonte, Soranzo, Rudd, & Agostini, 2015). Here, I re-analyze parametric lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments by Rudd and Zemach (2007) and Rudd (2010) for the purpose of further testing the model and to try to constrain the model parameters. Specifically, I test the model assumptions that: 1) lightness is computed by a process that spatially sums steps in log luminance across space, giving 1/3 the weight to incremental steps in log luminance that it gives to decremental steps in log luminance (defined in terms of luminance steps from the background to the target); 2) only luminance steps that are interpreted by the observer as steps in surface reflectance (as opposed to steps in illumination) contribute to the lightness computation. The quantitative analysis confirms these assumptions in the ...


An Image-Based Model For Early Visual Processing, Heiko H. Schütt, Felix A. Wichmann 2016 University of Tübingen

An Image-Based Model For Early Visual Processing, Heiko H. Schütt, Felix A. Wichmann

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


A Learning Model For L/M Specificity In Ganglion Cells, Albert Ahumada 2016 NASA Ames Research Center

A Learning Model For L/M Specificity In Ganglion Cells, Albert Ahumada

MODVIS Workshop

An unsupervised learning model for developing L/M specific wiring at the ganglion cell level would support the research indicating L/M specific wiring at the ganglion cell level (Reid and Shapley, 2002). Removing the contributions to the surround from cells of the same cone type improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the chromatic signals. The unsupervised learning model used is Hebbian associative learning, which strengthens the surround input connections according to the correlation of the output with the input. Since the surround units of the same cone type as the center are redundant with the center, their weights end up ...


Assessment Of Neurotensin Receptor Agonist Effects On Fear-Potentiated Startle, Mark Aaron Vanden Avond 2016 Northern Michigan University

Assessment Of Neurotensin Receptor Agonist Effects On Fear-Potentiated Startle, Mark Aaron Vanden Avond

All NMU Master's Theses

Systemic administration of the NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 has exhibited anxiolytic effects in male rats. The present study sought to further evaluate the potential anxiolytic effects of PD149163 by assessing this compound in both male and female C57BL/J6 mice using the fear-potentiated startle (FPS) paradigm. Startle chambers were equipped with a shock-grid floor, fluorescent light, and an acoustic startle speaker. Conditioning took place between the light and floor shock, and test sessions measured startle to a 90 dB noise burst while the light was on (FPS) or off. Startle magnitude did not differ between the male and female ...


Examining Internalizing Symptoms In Child And Youth Victims Of Emotional Abuse And Bullying: The Mediating Effects Of Individual And Family Strength Factors In Clinical Samples, Amani M. Elrofaie 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Examining Internalizing Symptoms In Child And Youth Victims Of Emotional Abuse And Bullying: The Mediating Effects Of Individual And Family Strength Factors In Clinical Samples, Amani M. Elrofaie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Child and youth experiences of emotional abuse and bullying are harmful interactions by caregivers and peers, which produce adverse mental health and social outcomes (Glaser, 2011). This study examined the relationships between trauma exposure and internalizing outcomes through individual and parenting level strength factors. The study comprised 1,297 child and youth participants, aged 4 to 18, from inpatient and outpatient mental health facilities across Ontario, who were administered the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health assessment (ChYMH; Stewart, Hirdes et al., 2015) with their parents/caregivers. Generalized linear modelling (Nelder & Wedderburn, 1972) was used to determine the relationships between ...


The Effects Of Styles Of Dress On First Impressions, Ashley Dibert, Ashley Laird, Di Wu 2016 Cedarville University

The Effects Of Styles Of Dress On First Impressions, Ashley Dibert, Ashley Laird, Di Wu

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Many factors influence our first impression. Previous research found that clothes may affect people’s perceptions and attitudes toward others. Even subtle changes in the style of dress would affect others’ perceptions on multiple characters such as success, trustworthiness and reliability (Howlett, Pine, & Orakcioglu, 2013). It has also been found that the amount of similarities between raters and the individuals rated were positively correlated with the rating scores of favorable characteristics (Michinov & Michinov, 2011).The current research aimed to investigate how a person’s own style of dress would influence their perception on attraction based on those individuals’ style of ...


Virginity And Guilt Differences Between Men And Women, Caitlin M. Lipman, Alexis J. Moore 2016 Hanover College

Virginity And Guilt Differences Between Men And Women, Caitlin M. Lipman, Alexis J. Moore

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

In this research, the authors measured the levels of sexual guilt between two groups of people on multiple levels, virgins and nonvirgins, by gender. The differences between men and women when it comes to virginity will also be studied. Based on the sample size of college students, N = 364. College students (N=364) completed a 34-item online survey of questions that measure guilt levels. Ten out of the twenty questions are demographic questions, such as: age, ethnicity, religion, year, etc. The other questions were a combination of Likert scaled questions and open ended responses. We predicted that females will produce ...


Birds Of A Feather Learn Together: Learning Community Outcomes Assessment Using Propensity Score Matching, Elisabeth M. Pyburn, Heather Dawn Harris 2016 James Madison University

Birds Of A Feather Learn Together: Learning Community Outcomes Assessment Using Propensity Score Matching, Elisabeth M. Pyburn, Heather Dawn Harris

Graduate Showcase of Scholarship and Creative Activities

The goal of the study was to provide an example of propensity score matching techniques within the context of higher education assessment. At our institution, a select number of incoming first-year students participate in major-specific learning communities. Because the decision to join the communities is purely voluntary, one might expect that students who elect to join the program may differ from those who do not. Thus, important covariates related to self-selection into the learning community were identified. Two years of Arts learning community data were analyzed to compare the academic performance and civic-mindedness of learning community students to an arts ...


Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level Re-Examined: Creating A Uniform Method For Calculating Readability On A Certification Exam, Emily Neuhoff, Kristiana M. Feeser, Kayla Sutherland, Thomas Hovatter 2016 Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level Re-Examined: Creating A Uniform Method For Calculating Readability On A Certification Exam, Emily Neuhoff, Kristiana M. Feeser, Kayla Sutherland, Thomas Hovatter

Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development

Abstract

Objective: This study attempted to establish a consistent measurement technique of the readability of a state-wide Certified Nursing Assistant’s (CNA) certification exam. Background: Monitoring the readability level of an exam helps ensure all test versions do not exceed the maximum reading level of the exam, and that knowledge of the subject matter, rather than reading ability, is being assessed. Method: A two part approach was used to specify and evaluate readability. First, two methods (Microsoft Word® (MSW) software and published readability formulae) were used to calculate Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level (FKRGL) for multiple ...


Team Interaction Dynamics During Collaborative Problem Solving, Travis J. Wiltshire, Stephen M. Fiore Ph.D. 2016 University of Central Florida

Team Interaction Dynamics During Collaborative Problem Solving, Travis J. Wiltshire, Stephen M. Fiore Ph.D.

Human Factors and Applied Psychology Student Conference

The need for better understanding collaborative problem solving (CPS) is rising in prominence as many organizations are increasingly addressing complex problems requiring the combination of diverse sets of individual expertise to address novel situations. This research draws from theoretical and empirical work that describes the knowledge coordination arising from team communications during CPS and builds from this by incorporating methods to study interaction dynamics. Interaction between team members in such contexts is inherently dynamic and exhibits nonlinear patterns not accounted for by extant research methods. To redress this gap, the present study draws from methods designed to study social and ...


The Reliability Of Crowdsourcing: Latent Trait Modeling With Mechanical Turk, Matt Baucum, Steven Rouse Dr., Cindy Miller-Perrin, Elizabeth Mancuso Dr. 2016 Pepperdine University

The Reliability Of Crowdsourcing: Latent Trait Modeling With Mechanical Turk, Matt Baucum, Steven Rouse Dr., Cindy Miller-Perrin, Elizabeth Mancuso Dr.

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Mechanical Turk, an online crowdsourcing platform, has recently received increased attention in the social sciences as studies continue to suggest its viability as a source for reliable experimental data. Given the ease with which large samples can be quickly and inexpensively gathered, it is worth examining whether Mechanical Turk can provide accurate experimental data for methodologies requiring such large samples. One such methodology is Item Response Theory, a psychometric paradigm that defines test items by a mathematical relationship between a respondent’s ability and the probability of item endorsement. To test whether Mechanical Turk can serve as a reliable source ...


The Effects Of Scaling On Trends Of Development: Classical Test Theory And Item Response Theory, Weldon Z. Smith 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Effects Of Scaling On Trends Of Development: Classical Test Theory And Item Response Theory, Weldon Z. Smith

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

The scale metrics used in educational testing are often arbitrary, and this can impact interpretation of scores on measurements. Both classical test theory sum scores and item response theory estimates measure the same underlying dimension, but differences in the two scales may lead one to be more preferential than the other in interpreting data. Mismatch between individual ability and test difficulty can further result in difficulties in correctly interpreting trends of development in longitudinal data. A previous limited simulation by Embretson (2007) demonstrated that classical test theory sum scores result in misinterpretation of linear trends of development, and that item ...


The Construct And Predictive Validity Of Psychosocial Correlates Of Television Viewing, Raheem Paxton, Pascal Jean-Pierre, Saehwan Park, Yong Gao Dr., Stephen Herrmann, G J. Norman 2016 University of North Texas Health Science Center

The Construct And Predictive Validity Of Psychosocial Correlates Of Television Viewing, Raheem Paxton, Pascal Jean-Pierre, Saehwan Park, Yong Gao Dr., Stephen Herrmann, G J. Norman

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Background: Many studies have examined the consequences of prolonged television viewing, but few studies have examined the psychological states that contribute to this behavior. In this study, we evaluated the construct and predictive validity of psychosocial correlates of television viewing in a population of African American (AA) breast cancer survivors (BCS).

Methods: AA BCS (N = 342, Mean age = 54 years) completed measures of decisional balance, self-efficacy, family support, and time spent watching television online. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was used to examine the construct and predictive validity as well as the differential item functioning of the instruments among population ...


Self-Expansion And Romantic Partner Request For Friendship Termination, Emily C. Wages 2016 Scripps College

Self-Expansion And Romantic Partner Request For Friendship Termination, Emily C. Wages

Scripps Senior Theses

According to self-expansion theory, there is an innate drive to gain new resources, identities, and perspectives, which causes people to seek and maintain interpersonal relationships. However, an individual’s relationship partners may come into conflict with each other. In the current research, 656 adults in established monogamous romantic relationships completed an online questionnaire about romantic partners asking them to give up a friendship. The researcher explored the prevalence of this friendship interference phenomenon and its relationship to sources of self-expansion. The amount of self-expansion provided by a friendship was manipulated through vignettes. Additional measures assessed the relationship between amount of ...


The Role Of Illness Intrusiveness And Personal Control In Mediating The Relationship Between The Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment Experience And Quality Of Life In Neurological Autoimmune Patients, Pamela Jane Gennari 2016 Walden University

The Role Of Illness Intrusiveness And Personal Control In Mediating The Relationship Between The Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment Experience And Quality Of Life In Neurological Autoimmune Patients, Pamela Jane Gennari

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a common treatment for the neurological autoimmune diseases multiple sclerosis, multifocal motor neuropathy, myasthenia gravis, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. However, there is scant literature regarding the psychological effects of this treatment on quality of life (QOL). Using illness intrusiveness theory and personal control theory, this correlational, cross-sectional study examined the relationship between the IVIG treatment experience and QOL in neurological autoimmune patients. Surveys were employed to collect data from 79 patients at a neurological infusion center in Phoenix, AZ. Quantitative analyses included correlation, multiple regression, and mediation analyses to determine whether (a) IVIG treatment experience ...


The Effect Of Anchoring Vignettes On Factor Structures: Student Effort As An Example, Carolyn A. Miesen 2016 James Madison University

The Effect Of Anchoring Vignettes On Factor Structures: Student Effort As An Example, Carolyn A. Miesen

Masters Theses

Anchoring vignettes are used as a methodological technique for removing differential interpretation of response categories (DIRC) from scores on subjective self-report measures (King, Murray, Slomon, & Tandon, 2004). This technique requires participants to read one or more short scenarios, or vignettes, designed to represent various levels of a construct. Vignette ratings are used as an indication of DIRC, which is a source of differential item functioning (DIF). Prior research primarily used indirect methods for evaluating vignette quality. In response, the present set of studies proposes using invariance testing as a more direct evaluation of how the use of anchoring vignettes impacts ...


The Influence Of Discrete Emotional States On Preferential Choice, Andrea M. Cataldo 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Influence Of Discrete Emotional States On Preferential Choice, Andrea M. Cataldo

Masters Theses May 2014 - current

Past research has shown that emotion affects preferential choice outcomes. The goal of the present study was to further research on emotion and preferential choice by using mathematical modeling to investigate the effects of specific dimensions of emotion on the underlying mechanisms of preferential choice. Specifically, we aimed to determine whether the concurrent effects of positive-negative valence and situational certainty on attention and information accumulation threshold, respectively, would influence the magnitude of the similarity effect, a robust phenomenon in preferential choice. Participants first underwent either an Anger (negative and certain), Fear (negative and uncertain), or no (Control) emotion manipulation. All ...


Mathematical Modeling Of Stress Management Via Decisional Control, Matthew J. Shanahan 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Mathematical Modeling Of Stress Management Via Decisional Control, Matthew J. Shanahan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Engaging the environment through reason, humankind evaluates information, compares it to a standard of desirability, and selects the best option available. Stress is theorized to arise from the perception of survival-related demands on an organism. Cognitive efforts are no mere intellectual exercise when ontologically backed by survival-relevant reward or punishment. This dissertation examines the stressful impact, and countervailing peaceful impact, of environmental demands on cognitive efforts and of successful cognitive efforts on a person’s day-to-day environment, through mathematical modeling of ‘decisional control’. A modeling approach to clinical considerations is introduced in the first paper, “Clinical Mathematical Psychology”. A general ...


The Embodied Causal Learner, Vanja Vlajnic 2015 Seton Hall University

The Embodied Causal Learner, Vanja Vlajnic

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Traditionally, cognitive psychology has assumed a disembodied learner and thinker. However, an emerging approach known as embodiment posits that seemingly irrelevant motor or perceptual aspects of a task can affect higher-level cognition. The findings from such embodiment studies have also been shown to extend into real-world settings. For example, children who were taught mathematical concepts while required to make gestures consistent with the problem’s solution were more likely, on average, to apply the mathematical concepts correctly in the future (Cook, Mitchell, & Goldin-Meadow, 2008). For this specific study, the area of causal learning was examined.

The primary goal of this specific study was to investigate whether elements of embodiment, and any mechanisms therein, would be found in the area of causal learning. That is, would motor actions irrelevant to determining causal relationships affect an individual’s causal learning? In a paradigm similar to that of Goedert and Spellman (2005), participants learned about the effects of different liquids on plant blooming on a trial-by-trial basis. Two separate liquids were used with differing causal power values, one a non-causal condition in which there was no relation between the liquid being used and plant blooming and one in which the use of the liquid was associated with a small increase in plant blooming. During the experiment, participants saw a liquid being applied to the plant or not (i.e., cause present vs. absent). In half of the conditions the cause-effect relation proceeded from left to right (cause à effect) with a liquid shown on the left side of the computer screen, pouring onto a plant on the right and during the other half of the conditions the cause-effect relation was reversed (effect ß cause). Participants then made a prediction as to whether the plant would bloom and received feedback as to whether the plant bloomed. At the end of the series of trials, they made a causal judgment regarding how effective they believed the liquid was in causing plant blooming. In order to assess embodiment effects, participants were randomly sorted into one of three movement conditions in which they moved marbles left-to-right, right-to-left, or performed no movements at all. Participants in the movement condition performed the movements throughout the experiment. A secondary goal of the experiment was to determine the mechanism of any observed embodiment effects by assessing reaction time and eye-movements. An issue with microphone sensitivity rendered reaction times unmeasurable, however, eye-movements were able to be analyzed.

Because of an order effect in the causal ratings, I analyzed the causal ratings participants performed first, but did not find an effect of embodiment. The data did not support the hypotheses and an effect of contingency was not found; furthermore, the contingency effect trended in the direction opposite the hypothesis. However, eye tracking data revealed a significant ...


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