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Jangle Fallacy: Is Grit Distinct From Other Psychological Constructs?, Natasha Godkin 2020 East Tennessee State University

Jangle Fallacy: Is Grit Distinct From Other Psychological Constructs?, Natasha Godkin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This paper assessed the redundancy of the construct of grit (Crede, Tynan, Harms, 2017) compared to other similar constructs using structural equation modeling to remove the effect of measurement error. A series of models regressed grit and its subdomains (passion and perseverance of effort) on self-control, conscientiousness, achievement striving, and resilience. The R-squared values for these models ranged from 0.62 to 0.89. It is concluded that the concept of grit is mostly redundant with other constructs and is therefore an example of a Jangle fallacy (Kelley, 1927). The unique aspect of grit is mostly related to its passion ...


Implicit Bias And Voluntarily Childfree Adults, Virginia Elizabeth Powell 2020 Abilene Christian University

Implicit Bias And Voluntarily Childfree Adults, Virginia Elizabeth Powell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This quantitative study aimed to determine if there is a negative bias towards voluntarily childfree adults or an association of negative views and attitudes with voluntarily childfree adults, controlling for other participant characteristics such as race, religion, or sexual orientation. At this stage in the research, voluntarily childfree adults are generally defined as legal adults who have the intention to remain childfree for the rest of their lives, due to reasons other than fertility issues. A negative view or bias is defined as any attitude which is not a desirable interpretation of behavior or lifestyle. A negative bias against voluntarily ...


Editorial, Your Null Hypothesis Must Be False: Test It Anyway To Determine Direction, Frank Corotto 2020 University of North Georgia

Editorial, Your Null Hypothesis Must Be False: Test It Anyway To Determine Direction, Frank Corotto

Georgia Journal of Science

A historical criticism of null hypothesis testing is that a null hypothesis cannot be correct in the first place. The reason that many nulls cannot be correct is that what makes a null hypothesis a null hypothesis is its infinite precision. Only an infinitely precise hypothesis can be used to generate an infinitely precise prediction, such as t will be zero. It is around that infinitely precise prediction that we would construct a probability density function. If you are thinking, I just want to know if the difference is significant, and if you mean important, a null hypothesis test will ...


Measuring Intergroup Forgiveness: The Enright Group Forgiveness Inventory, Robert D. Enright, Julie Johnson, Fu Na, Tomaz Erzar, Matthew Hirshberg, Tina Huang, John Klatt, Chansoon (Danielle) Lee, Benjamin Boateng, Preston Boggs, Tung-En Hsiao, Chelsea Olson, Mei Ling Shu, Jacqueline Song, Peiying Wu, Baoyu Zhang 2020 University of Wisconsin-Madison and International Forgiveness Institute, Inc.

Measuring Intergroup Forgiveness: The Enright Group Forgiveness Inventory, Robert D. Enright, Julie Johnson, Fu Na, Tomaz Erzar, Matthew Hirshberg, Tina Huang, John Klatt, Chansoon (Danielle) Lee, Benjamin Boateng, Preston Boggs, Tung-En Hsiao, Chelsea Olson, Mei Ling Shu, Jacqueline Song, Peiying Wu, Baoyu Zhang

Peace and Conflict Studies

Until recently, researchers operationalized and measured the psychological construct of forgiveness at the individual, rather than the group, level. Social psychologists started applying forgiveness to groups and examining the role intergroup forgiveness may have in conflict resolution and peace efforts. Initial attempts to define and measure forgiveness at the group level either assumed individual and group capacities were the same, or insufficiently described what intergroup forgiveness meant. We developed a new measure of intergroup forgiveness, and a novel group administration process, that operationalized the construct in a philosophically coherent way. Our conceptualization of intergroup forgiveness was rooted in what groups ...


Differential Patterns Of Theta Activation Underlying Various Cognitive Control Strategies, Jarrod Eisma 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Differential Patterns Of Theta Activation Underlying Various Cognitive Control Strategies, Jarrod Eisma

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this study, EEG was recorded from 157 participants at the University of Arkansas as they performed three computer tasks that tested inhibitory control (Go/Nogo Task), proactive and reactive control (AX-Continuous Performance Task), and resolving response conflict (Global/Local Task- modified Flanker Task). Time-frequency analysis (ERSP) was the primary focus of this study, in order to take advantage of the temporal and frequential characteristics of EEG recordings. The ERSPs and following statistical analysis showed significantly higher midfrontal theta band (4-8 Hz) power values for target trials (those that required more cognitive control) than control trials, which indicated that the ...


Effects Of The Imposter Phenomenon, Stress, And Belonging On Perfectionism In Freshmen Undergraduate Students, Taylor M. Pratt 2020 Western University

Effects Of The Imposter Phenomenon, Stress, And Belonging On Perfectionism In Freshmen Undergraduate Students, Taylor M. Pratt

Brescia Psychology Undergraduate Honours Theses

This study investigated whether students who scored high in Perfectionistic Concerns (i.e., unhealthy perfectionists) would have higher Imposter Phenomenon and stress scores, as well as lower self-efficacy, belonging, and social acceptance scores. Additionally, the study sought to clarify how the two dimensions of perfectionism, Concerns and Strivings, are associated with the Imposter Phenomenon. The sample consisted of 48 female undergraduate students at a university in London, Ontario. A Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between Perfectionistic Concerns and the Imposter Phenomenon. A significant positive correlation was also found between stress and the Imposter Phenomenon. Additionally, a significant ...


Can Ratings Of Item Location Enhance Statistical Item Parameter Estimation? Extending The Feasibility Of Unfolding Irt Models, Michael McKenna 2020 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Can Ratings Of Item Location Enhance Statistical Item Parameter Estimation? Extending The Feasibility Of Unfolding Irt Models, Michael Mckenna

Dissertations

Research and development of modern psychometric methods such as item response theory have drastically changed the way we understand and carry out the measurement of psychological constructs. Despite this, there has been relatively little adoption by psychological researchers to incorporate these methods into their research. While multiple explanations are surely valid, one oft stated reason is the large sample size requirements of these methods. The sample size requirements of item response theory are needed so that effective estimation of item parameters can be carried out. In an attempt to make these modern measurement methods more accessible and feasible to psychological ...


Testing The Convergent Retrieval Learning Theory Of Testing Effects, William J. Hopper 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Testing The Convergent Retrieval Learning Theory Of Testing Effects, William J. Hopper

Doctoral Dissertations

What is learned from retrieving a memory that is not learned by studying the same information? In response to this question, I have proposed a new theory of retrieval-based learning in which I argue that retrieval strengthens the ability to completely activate all portions of a memory trace from an initial state of partial activation. In effect, retrieval serves to unitize the features of a memory, making the entire memory remain retrievable in the future when cue-related activation may be weaker. This theory, called the Primary and Convergent Retrieval (PCR) model, explains why practice tests produce both better long-term retention ...


A New Perspective To Measuring Employee Growth: Developing A Successful Aging At Work Scale, Stanimira K. Taneva, Georgi P. Yankov 2020 University of Nottingham

A New Perspective To Measuring Employee Growth: Developing A Successful Aging At Work Scale, Stanimira K. Taneva, Georgi P. Yankov

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

The aging of the world’s population has become a grand societal challenge, which requires an urgent response from researchers, professionals, and the wider society. One way to respond to this challenge is by supporting individuals in sustaining longer and healthier working lives, that is, age successfully. Although the advantages of promoting and enabling successful aging at work have been widely acknowledged, no single instrument for measuring this construct has been published so far. We develop and test in three consecutive samples a two-dimensional successful aging at work scale. This novel instrument is rooted conceptually in the most recent theoretical ...


Identifying Construct-Irrelevant Variance And Construct Under-Representation As Support Of External Evidence Of Validity, Jennifer Case 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Identifying Construct-Irrelevant Variance And Construct Under-Representation As Support Of External Evidence Of Validity, Jennifer Case

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Test validity has commonly been defined in terms of a test measuring what it is supposed to measure, however there has been a century of discussion and debate on test validity and what qualifies as evidence of test validity. Some argue in favor of restricting test validity evidence to that which is internal to the test, such as the test items, while others argue that external information, such as the relationships with other variables, also offers evidence toward test validity. Cronbach and Meehl’s groundbreaking paper in 1955 introduced the concept of the nomological net, which is the construct’s ...


Phenotype Extraction: Estimation And Biometrical Genetic Analysis Of Individual Dynamics, Kevin L. McKee 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Phenotype Extraction: Estimation And Biometrical Genetic Analysis Of Individual Dynamics, Kevin L. Mckee

Theses and Dissertations

Within-person data can exhibit a virtually limitless variety of statistical patterns, but it can be difficult to distinguish meaningful features from statistical artifacts. Studies of complex traits have previously used genetic signals like twin-based heritability to distinguish between the two. This dissertation is a collection of studies applying state-space modeling to conceptualize and estimate novel phenotypic constructs for use in psychiatric research and further biometrical genetic analysis. The aims are to: (1) relate control theoretic concepts to health-related phenotypes; (2) design statistical models that formally define those phenotypes; (3) estimate individual phenotypic values from time series data; (4) consider hierarchical ...


The Effectiveness Of Implementing A Collaborative Mental Health Approach On Quality Of Life For Individuals Of Low Socioeconomic Status, Tyler Z. Tooley 2020 Missouri State University

The Effectiveness Of Implementing A Collaborative Mental Health Approach On Quality Of Life For Individuals Of Low Socioeconomic Status, Tyler Z. Tooley

MSU Graduate Theses

The ultimate purpose of this study is to provide insight and education to mental health clinicians, politicians and the general public of the numerous effects poverty has on mental health, in addition to the most beneficial ways to combat those insidious effects. The specific barriers met by individuals of low socioeconomic status severely affect psychological and physical health, as well as social and environmental relationships, which therefore diminish overall quality of life. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of implementing a collaborative mental health approach for low income individuals on length of engagement in services and ...


Atheoretical Versus Theory-Based Approaches In Promoting Safer Adhd-Medication Prescribing For Adults, Kathleen A. Fairman 2020 Walden University

Atheoretical Versus Theory-Based Approaches In Promoting Safer Adhd-Medication Prescribing For Adults, Kathleen A. Fairman

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Gaps between treatment guidelines and medical decisions persist despite interventions with physicians, which are mostly atheoretical. The purpose of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to compare atheoretical and theory-based logistic regression models of a binary outcome: potentially unsafe prescribing of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications to adults. Social cognitive theory and self-determination theory provided the framework for the study. Predictors were framed as social cognitive theoretical constructs: knowledge (e.g., physician specialty) and environmental influence (e.g., interventions). Atheoretical hypotheses were based on legislation mandating meaningful use of electronic health records and computerized decision support (CDS). Theory-based hypotheses were derived ...


Evaluation Of Modern Missing Data Handling Methods For Coefficient Alpha, Katerina Matysova 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evaluation Of Modern Missing Data Handling Methods For Coefficient Alpha, Katerina Matysova

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

When assessing a certain characteristic or trait using a multiple item measure, quality of that measure can be assessed by examining the reliability. To avoid multiple time points, reliability can be represented by internal consistency, which is most commonly calculated using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. Almost every time human participants are involved in research, there is missing data involved. Missing data means that even though complete data were expected to be collected, some data are missing. Missing data can follow different patterns as well as be the result of different mechanisms. One traditional way to deal with missing data is ...


知的生産性を飛躍させる録音システム, Yoshihiko Ariizumi 2019 Brigham Young University - Provo

知的生産性を飛躍させる録音システム, Yoshihiko Ariizumi

Learning, Teaching, & Researching Optimization

This article explains the benefits of using a recording system, what it is, and why it works. Our intelligence has many unexplored potentials, and by using this recording system, such latent abilities can be utilized for intellectual productivity.


Recording System That Dramatically Increases Intellectual Productivity, Yoshihiko Ariizumi 2019 Brigham Young University - Provo

Recording System That Dramatically Increases Intellectual Productivity, Yoshihiko Ariizumi

Learning, Teaching, & Researching Optimization

この記事は、録音システムを使う利点、それが具体的にはどのような活動であり、なぜそのような効果が出るのかについて説明されている。私たちの知性にはまだ多くの研究されていない潜在的な能力があり、この録音システムを使うことによって、そのように眠っている能力を知的生産性のために利用することができる。


Examining The Effects Of Specifying Bayesian Priors On The Wald's Test For Dif, Paulius Satkus, Christine E. DeMars 2019 James Madison University

Examining The Effects Of Specifying Bayesian Priors On The Wald's Test For Dif, Paulius Satkus, Christine E. Demars

Department of Graduate Psychology - Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


An Applied Example Of A Two-Tier Multiple-Group Testlet Model, Paulius Satkus, Christine E. DeMars 2019 James Madison University

An Applied Example Of A Two-Tier Multiple-Group Testlet Model, Paulius Satkus, Christine E. Demars

Department of Graduate Psychology - Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Estimation Of Correlation Confidence Intervals Via The Bootstrap: Non-Normal Distributions, John Mart V. DelosReyes 2019 Old Dominion University

Estimation Of Correlation Confidence Intervals Via The Bootstrap: Non-Normal Distributions, John Mart V. Delosreyes

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for the correlation has been a challenge. The challenge stems from the metamorphic nature of the sampling distribution of the correlation being bound by-1≤ρ≤1. The nonparametric nature of the bootstrap makes it a good option for estimating correlation CIs. However, there have been mixed results about the robustness of bootstrap CIs for the correlation with non normal data. This had led the literature to suggesting the use of transformation methods to estimate correlation CIs. However, transformation methods carry a risk of the original data being misrepresented. Thus, further investigation of bootstrap CIs for the ...


The Development And Validation Of An Ideal Point Measure Of Work Engagement, Michael M. DeNunzio 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Development And Validation Of An Ideal Point Measure Of Work Engagement, Michael M. Denunzio

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Work engagement has been an extremely popular area of research and practice over the past two decades. However, organizational scholars have yet to thoughtfully consider alternative and potentially more appropriate ways of modeling how individuals report their work engagement and, relatedly, measuring the construct. This dissertation seeks to establish and support the position that (1) individuals use an ideal point (vs. dominance) process to identify how engaged they are and respond to work engagement items, and (2) an ideal point framework can be used to develop a construct valid work engagement scale with good psychometric properties. Since no such scale ...


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