Individual Differences In Stress And Coping: Testing A Model Of Decisional Control, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
Individual Differences In Stress And Coping: Testing A Model Of Decisional Control, Bryan D. Grant
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Quantifying the processes of coping is one way to make the concept both descriptive and testable. Decisional Control (DC) is a formal, mathematically-specified, normative model which prescribes that an individual faced with a variety of alternatives in a stressing situation will attempt to minimize objective and perceived threat of an adverse event inherent within their choices. In this study, a game-theoretic probability mixture model created for DC was evaluated using established indexes of model fit to empirical decision and choice data. Sources of empirical departure from the fully normative model predictions, notably individual and group cognitive mapping of choice linked ...
The Psychometric Evaluation And Validation Of A Measure Assessing Pharmacological And Social Alcohol Expectancies In Adolescents, 2016 University of South Florida
The Psychometric Evaluation And Validation Of A Measure Assessing Pharmacological And Social Alcohol Expectancies In Adolescents, Megan Victoria Mcmurray
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Extending prior alcohol expectancy measurement research, this researcher (McMurray, 2013) recently developed the Pharmacological and Social Alcohol Expectancy Scale (PSAES). The PSAES is the only alcohol expectancy measure to date that provides adequate coverage of both social expectancies and the anticipated positive pharmacological effects resulting from alcohol consumption, and was developed and validated in a sample of young adults (aged 18-23). Research has shown that adolescents at high risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) hold higher expectations of reward from alcohol, suggesting that expectancy patterns may help distinguish at-risk youth. Building upon the previous PSAES validation study, the primary purpose ...
The Nature And Structure Of Temperament In Early And Middle Childhood: A Multi-Method Approach, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
The Nature And Structure Of Temperament In Early And Middle Childhood: A Multi-Method Approach, Yuliya Kotelnikova
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Structural work on the nature of child temperament has lagged far behind parallel research with adults. Further, the structure of extant parent-report questionnaires has been examined only at the higher-order level, using small samples of children. This dissertation addresses this important gap in three studies, examining the lower- and higher-order structure of two widely used parent-reports of child temperament (Studies 1 and 2) and an observational battery of temperament (Study 3). The first study examined the lower- and higher-order structure of the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ; Rothbart, Ahadi, Hershey, & Fisher, 2001) in a large community sample of children at ages 3 (N=944) and 5/6 (N=853). The second study extended this work by examining the structure of the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; Simonds & Rothbart, 2004) in a large (N = 654) sample of ...
Parametrically Constrained Lightness Model Incorporating Edge Classification And Increment-Decrement Neural Response Asymmetries, Michael E. Rudd
Lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments has the form of a parabolic (2nd-order polynomial) function when matches are plotted against annulus luminance on log-log axes. Rudd (2010) has proposed a computational cortical model to account for this fact and has subsequently (Rudd, 2013, 2014, 2015) extended the model to explain data from other lightness paradigms, including staircase-Gelb and luminance gradient illusions (Galmonte, Soranzo, Rudd, & Agostini, 2015). Here, I re-analyze parametric lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments by Rudd and Zemach (2007) and Rudd (2010) for the purpose of further testing the model and to try to constrain the model parameters. Specifically, I test the model assumptions that: 1) lightness is computed by a process that spatially sums steps in log luminance across space, giving 1/3 the weight to incremental steps in log luminance that it gives to decremental steps in log luminance (defined in terms of luminance steps from the background to the target); 2) only luminance steps that are interpreted by the observer as steps in surface reflectance (as opposed to steps in illumination) contribute to the lightness computation. The quantitative analysis confirms these assumptions in the ...
An Image-Based Model For Early Visual Processing, 2016 University of Tübingen
An Image-Based Model For Early Visual Processing, Heiko H. Schütt, Felix A. Wichmann
No abstract provided.
A Learning Model For L/M Specificity In Ganglion Cells, 2016 NASA Ames Research Center
A Learning Model For L/M Specificity In Ganglion Cells, Albert Ahumada
An unsupervised learning model for developing L/M specific wiring at the ganglion cell level would support the research indicating L/M specific wiring at the ganglion cell level (Reid and Shapley, 2002). Removing the contributions to the surround from cells of the same cone type improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the chromatic signals. The unsupervised learning model used is Hebbian associative learning, which strengthens the surround input connections according to the correlation of the output with the input. Since the surround units of the same cone type as the center are redundant with the center, their weights end up ...
Assessment Of Neurotensin Receptor Agonist Effects On Fear-Potentiated Startle, 2016 Northern Michigan University
Assessment Of Neurotensin Receptor Agonist Effects On Fear-Potentiated Startle, Mark Aaron Vanden Avond
All NMU Master's Theses
Systemic administration of the NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 has exhibited anxiolytic effects in male rats. The present study sought to further evaluate the potential anxiolytic effects of PD149163 by assessing this compound in both male and female C57BL/J6 mice using the fear-potentiated startle (FPS) paradigm. Startle chambers were equipped with a shock-grid floor, fluorescent light, and an acoustic startle speaker. Conditioning took place between the light and floor shock, and test sessions measured startle to a 90 dB noise burst while the light was on (FPS) or off. Startle magnitude did not differ between the male and female ...
Examining Internalizing Symptoms In Child And Youth Victims Of Emotional Abuse And Bullying: The Mediating Effects Of Individual And Family Strength Factors In Clinical Samples, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
Examining Internalizing Symptoms In Child And Youth Victims Of Emotional Abuse And Bullying: The Mediating Effects Of Individual And Family Strength Factors In Clinical Samples, Amani M. Elrofaie
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Child and youth experiences of emotional abuse and bullying are harmful interactions by caregivers and peers, which produce adverse mental health and social outcomes (Glaser, 2011). This study examined the relationships between trauma exposure and internalizing outcomes through individual and parenting level strength factors. The study comprised 1,297 child and youth participants, aged 4 to 18, from inpatient and outpatient mental health facilities across Ontario, who were administered the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health assessment (ChYMH; Stewart, Hirdes et al., 2015) with their parents/caregivers. Generalized linear modelling (Nelder & Wedderburn, 1972) was used to determine the relationships between ...
The Effects Of Styles Of Dress On First Impressions, 2016 Cedarville University
The Effects Of Styles Of Dress On First Impressions, Ashley Dibert, Ashley Laird, Di Wu
The Research and Scholarship Symposium
Many factors influence our first impression. Previous research found that clothes may affect people’s perceptions and attitudes toward others. Even subtle changes in the style of dress would affect others’ perceptions on multiple characters such as success, trustworthiness and reliability (Howlett, Pine, & Orakcioglu, 2013). It has also been found that the amount of similarities between raters and the individuals rated were positively correlated with the rating scores of favorable characteristics (Michinov & Michinov, 2011).The current research aimed to investigate how a person’s own style of dress would influence their perception on attraction based on those individuals’ style of ...
Virginity And Guilt Differences Between Men And Women, 2016 Hanover College
Virginity And Guilt Differences Between Men And Women, Caitlin M. Lipman, Alexis J. Moore
Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research
In this research, the authors measured the levels of sexual guilt between two groups of people on multiple levels, virgins and nonvirgins, by gender. The differences between men and women when it comes to virginity will also be studied. Based on the sample size of college students, N = 364. College students (N=364) completed a 34-item online survey of questions that measure guilt levels. Ten out of the twenty questions are demographic questions, such as: age, ethnicity, religion, year, etc. The other questions were a combination of Likert scaled questions and open ended responses. We predicted that females will produce ...
Birds Of A Feather Learn Together: Learning Community Outcomes Assessment Using Propensity Score Matching, 2016 James Madison University
Birds Of A Feather Learn Together: Learning Community Outcomes Assessment Using Propensity Score Matching, Elisabeth M. Pyburn, Heather Dawn Harris
Graduate Showcase of Scholarship and Creative Activities
The goal of the study was to provide an example of propensity score matching techniques within the context of higher education assessment. At our institution, a select number of incoming first-year students participate in major-specific learning communities. Because the decision to join the communities is purely voluntary, one might expect that students who elect to join the program may differ from those who do not. Thus, important covariates related to self-selection into the learning community were identified. Two years of Arts learning community data were analyzed to compare the academic performance and civic-mindedness of learning community students to an arts ...
Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level Re-Examined: Creating A Uniform Method For Calculating Readability On A Certification Exam, 2016 Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level Re-Examined: Creating A Uniform Method For Calculating Readability On A Certification Exam, Emily Neuhoff, Kristiana M. Feeser, Kayla Sutherland, Thomas Hovatter
Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development
Objective: This study attempted to establish a consistent measurement technique of the readability of a state-wide Certified Nursing Assistant’s (CNA) certification exam. Background: Monitoring the readability level of an exam helps ensure all test versions do not exceed the maximum reading level of the exam, and that knowledge of the subject matter, rather than reading ability, is being assessed. Method: A two part approach was used to specify and evaluate readability. First, two methods (Microsoft Word® (MSW) software and published readability formulae) were used to calculate Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch-Kincaid Reading Grade Level (FKRGL) for multiple ...
Team Interaction Dynamics During Collaborative Problem Solving, 2016 University of Central Florida
Team Interaction Dynamics During Collaborative Problem Solving, Travis J. Wiltshire, Stephen M. Fiore Ph.D.
Human Factors and Applied Psychology Student Conference
The need for better understanding collaborative problem solving (CPS) is rising in prominence as many organizations are increasingly addressing complex problems requiring the combination of diverse sets of individual expertise to address novel situations. This research draws from theoretical and empirical work that describes the knowledge coordination arising from team communications during CPS and builds from this by incorporating methods to study interaction dynamics. Interaction between team members in such contexts is inherently dynamic and exhibits nonlinear patterns not accounted for by extant research methods. To redress this gap, the present study draws from methods designed to study social and ...
The Reliability Of Crowdsourcing: Latent Trait Modeling With Mechanical Turk, 2016 Pepperdine University
The Reliability Of Crowdsourcing: Latent Trait Modeling With Mechanical Turk, Matt Baucum, Steven Rouse Dr., Cindy Miller-Perrin, Elizabeth Mancuso Dr.
Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium
Mechanical Turk, an online crowdsourcing platform, has recently received increased attention in the social sciences as studies continue to suggest its viability as a source for reliable experimental data. Given the ease with which large samples can be quickly and inexpensively gathered, it is worth examining whether Mechanical Turk can provide accurate experimental data for methodologies requiring such large samples. One such methodology is Item Response Theory, a psychometric paradigm that defines test items by a mathematical relationship between a respondent’s ability and the probability of item endorsement. To test whether Mechanical Turk can serve as a reliable source ...
The Effects Of Scaling On Trends Of Development: Classical Test Theory And Item Response Theory, 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
The Effects Of Scaling On Trends Of Development: Classical Test Theory And Item Response Theory, Weldon Z. Smith
Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences
The scale metrics used in educational testing are often arbitrary, and this can impact interpretation of scores on measurements. Both classical test theory sum scores and item response theory estimates measure the same underlying dimension, but differences in the two scales may lead one to be more preferential than the other in interpreting data. Mismatch between individual ability and test difficulty can further result in difficulties in correctly interpreting trends of development in longitudinal data. A previous limited simulation by Embretson (2007) demonstrated that classical test theory sum scores result in misinterpretation of linear trends of development, and that item ...
The Construct And Predictive Validity Of Psychosocial Correlates Of Television Viewing, 2016 University of North Texas Health Science Center
The Construct And Predictive Validity Of Psychosocial Correlates Of Television Viewing, Raheem Paxton, Pascal Jean-Pierre, Saehwan Park, Yong Gao Dr., Stephen Herrmann, G J. Norman
Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice
Background: Many studies have examined the consequences of prolonged television viewing, but few studies have examined the psychological states that contribute to this behavior. In this study, we evaluated the construct and predictive validity of psychosocial correlates of television viewing in a population of African American (AA) breast cancer survivors (BCS).
Methods: AA BCS (N = 342, Mean age = 54 years) completed measures of decisional balance, self-efficacy, family support, and time spent watching television online. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was used to examine the construct and predictive validity as well as the differential item functioning of the instruments among population ...
Applying Solution Behavior Thresholds To A Noncognitive Measure To Identify Rapid Responders: An Empirical Investigation, 2016 James Madison University
Applying Solution Behavior Thresholds To A Noncognitive Measure To Identify Rapid Responders: An Empirical Investigation, Mary M. Johnston
Noncognitive measures are increasingly being used for accountability purposes in higher education (e.g., O. L. Liu, Frankel, & Roohr, 2014). Because these measures are often collected under low-stakes conditions, there is a concern students do not put forth their best effort when responding, which is problematic given previous research has found noneffortful responding can negatively impact the validity of results (e.g., Barry & Finney, 2009; Meade & Craig, 2012; Swerdzewski, Harmes, & Finney, 2011). Subsequently, there is a need to identify students displaying low effort on low-stakes noncognitive measures. One method, which is based on response time and can discreetly assess student effort at the item level, is the solution behavior (SB) index (Kong, Wise, & Bhola, 2007). A challenging task in using the SB index is the identification of an appropriate time threshold that can meaningfully distinguish responses made with effort (i.e., solution behavior responses) from responses made without effort ...
The Effect Of Anchoring Vignettes On Factor Structures: Student Effort As An Example, 2016 James Madison University
The Effect Of Anchoring Vignettes On Factor Structures: Student Effort As An Example, Carolyn A. Miesen
Anchoring vignettes are used as a methodological technique for removing differential interpretation of response categories (DIRC) from scores on subjective self-report measures (King, Murray, Slomon, & Tandon, 2004). This technique requires participants to read one or more short scenarios, or vignettes, designed to represent various levels of a construct. Vignette ratings are used as an indication of DIRC, which is a source of differential item functioning (DIF). Prior research primarily used indirect methods for evaluating vignette quality. In response, the present set of studies proposes using invariance testing as a more direct evaluation of how the use of anchoring vignettes impacts ...
Self-Expansion And Romantic Partner Request For Friendship Termination, 2016 Scripps College
Self-Expansion And Romantic Partner Request For Friendship Termination, Emily C. Wages
Scripps Senior Theses
According to self-expansion theory, there is an innate drive to gain new resources, identities, and perspectives, which causes people to seek and maintain interpersonal relationships. However, an individual’s relationship partners may come into conflict with each other. In the current research, 656 adults in established monogamous romantic relationships completed an online questionnaire about romantic partners asking them to give up a friendship. The researcher explored the prevalence of this friendship interference phenomenon and its relationship to sources of self-expansion. The amount of self-expansion provided by a friendship was manipulated through vignettes. Additional measures assessed the relationship between amount of ...
The Cyber Aggression In Relationships Scale: A New Multidimensional Measure Of Technology-Based Intimate Partner Aggression, 2016 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
The Cyber Aggression In Relationships Scale: A New Multidimensional Measure Of Technology-Based Intimate Partner Aggression, Laura E. Watkins, Rosalita C. Maldonado, David Dilillo
Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology
The purpose of this study was to develop and provide initial validation for a measure of adult cyber intimate partner aggression (IPA): the Cyber Aggression in Relationships Scale (CARS). Drawing on recent conceptual models of cyber IPA, items from previous research exploring general cyber aggression and cyber IPA were modified and new items were generated for inclusion in the CARS. Two samples of adults 18 years or older were recruited online. We used item factor analysis to test the factor structure, model fit, and invariance of the measure structure across women and men. Results confirmed that three-factor models for both ...