The Effect Of Leader Behavior On After-Action Review Outcomes, 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha
The Effect Of Leader Behavior On After-Action Review Outcomes, Kelly Prange
Student Research and Creative Activity Fair
Organizational safety concerns are a critical issue for firefighters. Interventions such as after-action reviews (AARs) may be implemented within firefighter teams to facilitate sensemaking and learning, as well as to foster safety norms. The current study investigated AAR leaders in a Midwest fire department and how their behavior improves individual perceptions of AAR quality, thereby influencing how firefighters perceive team and organizational safety norms. Building upon high-reliability organization theory and theories on the influence of leadership on culture, career firefighters were surveyed to test the mediation model. Results indicated that good AAR leader behaviors promote positive team and organizational safety ...
Volunteer Perceptions Of Upward And Downward Communication Facilitate Organizational Commitment, 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha
Volunteer Perceptions Of Upward And Downward Communication Facilitate Organizational Commitment, Kelly Prange
Student Research and Creative Activity Fair
Retaining productive volunteers is an essential issue nonprofit organizations face, as volunteers help extend the services of their target populations. The current study examined upward and downward communication and training as important volunteer management practices with respect to facilitating volunteer engagement and commitment. Using social exchange theory as a framework, the present study investigated the reasons why organizations should stress giving volunteers training and open communication and soliciting feedback from volunteers. Doing so may initiate a social exchange relationship in which volunteers receive training and communication from organizations and in turn become more engaged and committed to the organization. As ...
Effect Of Price Reduction And Increased Service Frequency On Public Transport Travel, 2017 Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo
Effect Of Price Reduction And Increased Service Frequency On Public Transport Travel, Inge Brechan
Journal of Public Transportation
A random effects meta-analysis of the results from 15 projects involving price reduction and 9 projects involving increased service frequency showed that both price reduction and increased service frequency generated public transport travels. On average, the increased service frequency projects generated more travels by public transport than the price reduction projects. In the increased service frequency projects the proportion of travels generated by the increased frequency was strongly influenced by the size of the frequency increase. In the price reduction projects, we did not find a significant effect of the size of the price reduction on the proportion of travels ...
Cumulative Sexual Victimization And Mental Health Outcomes Among Incarcerated Women, 2017 Bridgewater State University
Cumulative Sexual Victimization And Mental Health Outcomes Among Incarcerated Women, Jennifer Hartsfield, Susan F. Sharp, Sonya Conner
Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence
This research explores the relationship between three different types of self-reported sexual victimization and subsequent mental health problems in a sample of incarcerated women. Previous literature establishes a link between victimization histories and poor mental health outcomes. This study focuses on sexual victimization experienced as a child, as an adolescent and as an adult, both individually and cumulatively, in relation to entering prison with a mental health diagnosis as well as reporting current depressive symptoms while incarcerated. Each type of victimization is significantly related to both prior mental health diagnosis and current depression in prison. Furthermore, there is an additive ...
Cognitive Sociology, 2017 CUNY Graduate Center
Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael
Publications and Research
Cognitive sociology is the study of the conditions under which meaning is constituted through processes of reification. Cognitive sociology traces its origins to writings in the sociology of knowledge, sociology of culture, cognitive and cultural anthropology, and more recently, work done in cultural sociology and cognitive science. Its central questions revolve around locating these processes of reification since the locus of cognition is highly contentious. Researchers consider how individuality is related to notions of society (structures, institutions, systems, etc.) and notions of culture (cultural forms, cultural structures, sub-cultures, etc.). These questions further explore how these answers depend on learning processes ...
Individual Differences In Stress And Coping: Testing A Model Of Decisional Control, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
Individual Differences In Stress And Coping: Testing A Model Of Decisional Control, Bryan D. Grant
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Quantifying the processes of coping is one way to make the concept both descriptive and testable. Decisional Control (DC) is a formal, mathematically-specified, normative model which prescribes that an individual faced with a variety of alternatives in a stressing situation will attempt to minimize objective and perceived threat of an adverse event inherent within their choices. In this study, a game-theoretic probability mixture model created for DC was evaluated using established indexes of model fit to empirical decision and choice data. Sources of empirical departure from the fully normative model predictions, notably individual and group cognitive mapping of choice linked ...
Multiple Imputation Of Missing Data In Structural Equation Models With Mediators And Moderators Using Gradient Boosted Machine Learning, Robert J. Milletich Ii
Psychology Theses & Dissertations
Mediation and moderated mediation models are two commonly used models for indirect effects analysis. In practice, missing data is a pervasive problem in structural equation modeling with psychological data. Multiple imputation (MI) is one method used to estimate model parameters in the presence of missing data, while accounting for uncertainty due to the missing data. Unfortunately, commonly used MI methods are not equipped to handle categorical variables or nonlinear variables such as interactions. In this study, we introduce a general MI framework that uses the Bayesian bootstrap (BB) method to generate posterior inferences for indirect effects and gradient boosted machine ...
An Item Response Theory Analysis Of Emotional Expressivity Measures, 2016 Illinois State University
An Item Response Theory Analysis Of Emotional Expressivity Measures, Melissa K. Matheys
Theses and Dissertations
The understanding of psychometric properties of emotional expressivity measures is often limited to rudimentary statistics. The present study investigated, in depth, the psychometric properties of four measures of emotional expressivity (the Self-Concealment Scale, the Distress Disclosure Index, the Emotional Expressivity Scale, and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire – Suppression subscale). Item response theory (IRT) analyses suggested that recoded versions of the measures’ Likert scales may be beneficial in practice as well as the deletion of some measures’ items. IRT analyses of the four measures of emotional expressivity provide more information than classical test theory statistics about how to implement these measures best.
Multilevel Modeling Issues And The Measurement Of Stress Is Multilevel Data, 2016 Florida International University
Multilevel Modeling Issues And The Measurement Of Stress Is Multilevel Data, Tyler Stout
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Multilevel datasets are commonly used and increasingly popular in research in the organizational and other social sciences. These models are complex and have many elements beyond those found in more traditional linear models. However, research on how multilevel models perform is lacking.
The current paper examined the impact of common factors (average cluster size, cluster size distribution, average number of clusters, strength of the intraclass correlation coefficient, and effect sizes of individual and cluster level variables, and their interaction) in multilevel datasets. Monte Carlo data simulation was used across 6,144 factor-combination conditions. The results of study factors on observed ...
Optimizing Cross-Battery Assessment Procedures For Reading-Based Specific Learning Disorder Diagnosis: A Monte Carlo Study, 2016 Illinois State University
Optimizing Cross-Battery Assessment Procedures For Reading-Based Specific Learning Disorder Diagnosis: A Monte Carlo Study, Zachary Joseph Roman
Theses and Dissertations
Specific Learning Disorder is a disorder in which deficits in academic skills are caused by specific cognitive deficits. Cross-Battery Assessment (Flanagan, Alfonso, & Ortiz, 2013), is a popular method of diagnosing specific learning disorders. A recent study using data simulation methods claimed that cross-battery assessment was insufficiently accurate for clinical use (Stuebing, Fletcher, Branum-Martin, & Francis, 2012). However, the study used the general population base rate for specific learning disorders, resulting in misleadingly low accuracy estimates. The current study attempted to accurately simulate the cross-battery assessment method with a referred population prevalence to provide a fair analysis of cross-battery assessment’s diagnostic ...
The Psychometric Evaluation And Validation Of A Measure Assessing Pharmacological And Social Alcohol Expectancies In Adolescents, 2016 University of South Florida
The Psychometric Evaluation And Validation Of A Measure Assessing Pharmacological And Social Alcohol Expectancies In Adolescents, Megan Victoria Mcmurray
Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Extending prior alcohol expectancy measurement research, this researcher (McMurray, 2013) recently developed the Pharmacological and Social Alcohol Expectancy Scale (PSAES). The PSAES is the only alcohol expectancy measure to date that provides adequate coverage of both social expectancies and the anticipated positive pharmacological effects resulting from alcohol consumption, and was developed and validated in a sample of young adults (aged 18-23). Research has shown that adolescents at high risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) hold higher expectations of reward from alcohol, suggesting that expectancy patterns may help distinguish at-risk youth. Building upon the previous PSAES validation study, the primary purpose ...
The Nature And Structure Of Temperament In Early And Middle Childhood: A Multi-Method Approach, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
The Nature And Structure Of Temperament In Early And Middle Childhood: A Multi-Method Approach, Yuliya Kotelnikova
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Structural work on the nature of child temperament has lagged far behind parallel research with adults. Further, the structure of extant parent-report questionnaires has been examined only at the higher-order level, using small samples of children. This dissertation addresses this important gap in three studies, examining the lower- and higher-order structure of two widely used parent-reports of child temperament (Studies 1 and 2) and an observational battery of temperament (Study 3). The first study examined the lower- and higher-order structure of the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ; Rothbart, Ahadi, Hershey, & Fisher, 2001) in a large community sample of children at ages 3 (N=944) and 5/6 (N=853). The second study extended this work by examining the structure of the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; Simonds & Rothbart, 2004) in a large (N = 654) sample of ...
Parametrically Constrained Lightness Model Incorporating Edge Classification And Increment-Decrement Neural Response Asymmetries, Michael E. Rudd
Lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments has the form of a parabolic (2nd-order polynomial) function when matches are plotted against annulus luminance on log-log axes. Rudd (2010) has proposed a computational cortical model to account for this fact and has subsequently (Rudd, 2013, 2014, 2015) extended the model to explain data from other lightness paradigms, including staircase-Gelb and luminance gradient illusions (Galmonte, Soranzo, Rudd, & Agostini, 2015). Here, I re-analyze parametric lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments by Rudd and Zemach (2007) and Rudd (2010) for the purpose of further testing the model and to try to constrain the model parameters. Specifically, I test the model assumptions that: 1) lightness is computed by a process that spatially sums steps in log luminance across space, giving 1/3 the weight to incremental steps in log luminance that it gives to decremental steps in log luminance (defined in terms of luminance steps from the background to the target); 2) only luminance steps that are interpreted by the observer as steps in surface reflectance (as opposed to steps in illumination) contribute to the lightness computation. The quantitative analysis confirms these assumptions in the ...
An Image-Based Model For Early Visual Processing, 2016 University of Tübingen
An Image-Based Model For Early Visual Processing, Heiko H. Schütt, Felix A. Wichmann
No abstract provided.
A Learning Model For L/M Specificity In Ganglion Cells, 2016 NASA Ames Research Center
A Learning Model For L/M Specificity In Ganglion Cells, Albert Ahumada
An unsupervised learning model for developing L/M specific wiring at the ganglion cell level would support the research indicating L/M specific wiring at the ganglion cell level (Reid and Shapley, 2002). Removing the contributions to the surround from cells of the same cone type improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the chromatic signals. The unsupervised learning model used is Hebbian associative learning, which strengthens the surround input connections according to the correlation of the output with the input. Since the surround units of the same cone type as the center are redundant with the center, their weights end up ...
Assessment Of Neurotensin Receptor Agonist Effects On Fear-Potentiated Startle, 2016 Northern Michigan University
Assessment Of Neurotensin Receptor Agonist Effects On Fear-Potentiated Startle, Mark Aaron Vanden Avond
All NMU Master's Theses
Systemic administration of the NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 has exhibited anxiolytic effects in male rats. The present study sought to further evaluate the potential anxiolytic effects of PD149163 by assessing this compound in both male and female C57BL/J6 mice using the fear-potentiated startle (FPS) paradigm. Startle chambers were equipped with a shock-grid floor, fluorescent light, and an acoustic startle speaker. Conditioning took place between the light and floor shock, and test sessions measured startle to a 90 dB noise burst while the light was on (FPS) or off. Startle magnitude did not differ between the male and female ...
Examining Internalizing Symptoms In Child And Youth Victims Of Emotional Abuse And Bullying: The Mediating Effects Of Individual And Family Strength Factors In Clinical Samples, 2016 The University of Western Ontario
Examining Internalizing Symptoms In Child And Youth Victims Of Emotional Abuse And Bullying: The Mediating Effects Of Individual And Family Strength Factors In Clinical Samples, Amani M. Elrofaie
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Child and youth experiences of emotional abuse and bullying are harmful interactions by caregivers and peers, which produce adverse mental health and social outcomes (Glaser, 2011). This study examined the relationships between trauma exposure and internalizing outcomes through individual and parenting level strength factors. The study comprised 1,297 child and youth participants, aged 4 to 18, from inpatient and outpatient mental health facilities across Ontario, who were administered the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health assessment (ChYMH; Stewart, Hirdes et al., 2015) with their parents/caregivers. Generalized linear modelling (Nelder & Wedderburn, 1972) was used to determine the relationships between ...
The Effects Of Styles Of Dress On First Impressions, 2016 Cedarville University
The Effects Of Styles Of Dress On First Impressions, Ashley Dibert, Ashley Laird, Di Wu
The Research and Scholarship Symposium
Many factors influence our first impression. Previous research found that clothes may affect people’s perceptions and attitudes toward others. Even subtle changes in the style of dress would affect others’ perceptions on multiple characters such as success, trustworthiness and reliability (Howlett, Pine, & Orakcioglu, 2013). It has also been found that the amount of similarities between raters and the individuals rated were positively correlated with the rating scores of favorable characteristics (Michinov & Michinov, 2011).The current research aimed to investigate how a person’s own style of dress would influence their perception on attraction based on those individuals’ style of ...
Virginity And Guilt Differences Between Men And Women, 2016 Hanover College
Virginity And Guilt Differences Between Men And Women, Caitlin M. Lipman, Alexis J. Moore
Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research
In this research, the authors measured the levels of sexual guilt between two groups of people on multiple levels, virgins and nonvirgins, by gender. The differences between men and women when it comes to virginity will also be studied. Based on the sample size of college students, N = 364. College students (N=364) completed a 34-item online survey of questions that measure guilt levels. Ten out of the twenty questions are demographic questions, such as: age, ethnicity, religion, year, etc. The other questions were a combination of Likert scaled questions and open ended responses. We predicted that females will produce ...
Birds Of A Feather Learn Together: Learning Community Outcomes Assessment Using Propensity Score Matching, 2016 James Madison University
Birds Of A Feather Learn Together: Learning Community Outcomes Assessment Using Propensity Score Matching, Elisabeth M. Pyburn, Heather Dawn Harris
Graduate Showcase of Scholarship and Creative Activities
The goal of the study was to provide an example of propensity score matching techniques within the context of higher education assessment. At our institution, a select number of incoming first-year students participate in major-specific learning communities. Because the decision to join the communities is purely voluntary, one might expect that students who elect to join the program may differ from those who do not. Thus, important covariates related to self-selection into the learning community were identified. Two years of Arts learning community data were analyzed to compare the academic performance and civic-mindedness of learning community students to an arts ...