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Multiracial Individuals And Educational Testing, Karen Alexander 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Multiracial Individuals And Educational Testing, Karen Alexander

The Nebraska Educator: A Student-Led Journal

A literature review focused on quantitative measures and methods regarding multiracial individuals and educational testing revealed that multiracial individuals are uniquely different than monoracial individuals in terms of their racial identity and these unique identities interact with test scores. Until recently, this uniqueness has been ignored by institutions and within the field of educational testing. The uniqueness of multiracial identity should be taken into consideration when using test measures to make decisions for selection and when comparing group outcomes. The review provides a brief picture regarding the history of categorization of multiracial individuals and current research which connects the multiracial ...


Improving The Assessment Of Practical Judgment Ability In Older Adults, Crystal G. Quinn 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Improving The Assessment Of Practical Judgment Ability In Older Adults, Crystal G. Quinn

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Judgment is an important aspect of executive functioning and critical to many aspects of real-world behavior. As the older adult population and incidence of dementia rises, the assessment of judgment during neuropsychological evaluations is important for informing diagnosis, understanding functional and cognitive competence, and designing effective treatment plans. The Test of Practical Judgment (TOP-J) is an objective verbal measure with two versions (i.e., 9 items and 15 items) that is increasingly used by neuropsychologists; however, initial validation research was conducted with a small, highly-educated non-Hispanic White sample. As a result, normative data and content may not be appropriate for ...


Examining Student Well-Being: The Development And Initial Validation Of The Psychological Vulnerability And Hardiness Scale, Kimberly D. Gomes 2021 Kennesaw State University

Examining Student Well-Being: The Development And Initial Validation Of The Psychological Vulnerability And Hardiness Scale, Kimberly D. Gomes

Symposium of Student Scholars

Background: Stress is a significant concern for undergraduate students, with some experiencing clinical levels of distress. Psychological vulnerability and hardiness are constructs that evaluate an individual’s sensitivity to stressors and protective factors related to maladaptive responses to distress. However, no measure has been developed to assess their combined effect.

Method: The present study examined the factor structure and correlates of the Psychological Vulnerability and Hardiness Scale (PVHS) in two samples (i.e., traditional university students and student veterans). Items were created through focus groups with occupational therapists who have experience assessing both constructs in university students. Factor structure and ...


Visual Perception In Hearing Sign Language Users, Jessica M. Lammert 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Visual Perception In Hearing Sign Language Users, Jessica M. Lammert

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Deaf signers exhibit superior visual perception compared to hearing controls in several domains, including the perception of faces and peripheral motion. These visual enhancements are thought to compensate for an absence of auditory input. However, it is also possible that they reflect experience using a visual-manual language, where signers must process complex moving hand signs and facial cues simultaneously. Thus, the current study sought to isolate the effects of sign language experience by examining how visual perception is altered as a function of American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency in hearing individuals. Hearing signers completed an online test of ASL proficiency ...


Investigating The Fit Of The Generalized Graded Unfolding Model (Ggum) When Calibrated To Irt Generated Data From Dominance And Ideal Point Models, Abdulla Alzarouni 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Investigating The Fit Of The Generalized Graded Unfolding Model (Ggum) When Calibrated To Irt Generated Data From Dominance And Ideal Point Models, Abdulla Alzarouni

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

The assessment of model fit in latent trait modelling, better known as item response theory (IRT), is an integral part of model testing if one is to make valid inferences about the estimated parameters and their properties based on the selected IRT model. Though important, the assessment of model fit has been less utilized in IRT research than it should. For example, there have been less research investigating fit for polytomous dominance models such the Graded Response Model (GRM), and to a lesser extent ideal point models such as the Generalized Graded Unfolding Models (GGUM), both in its dichotomous and ...


Conditional Standard Error Of Measurement: Classical Test Theory, Generalizability Theory And Many-Facet Rasch Measurement With Applications To Writing Assessment, Alan Huebner, Gustaf B. Skar 2021 University of Notre Dame

Conditional Standard Error Of Measurement: Classical Test Theory, Generalizability Theory And Many-Facet Rasch Measurement With Applications To Writing Assessment, Alan Huebner, Gustaf B. Skar

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

Writing assessments often consist of students responding to multiple prompts, which are judged by more than one rater. To establish the reliability of these assessments, there exist different methods to disentangle variation due to prompts and raters, including classical test theory, Many Facet Rasch Measurement (MFRM), and Generalizability Theory (G-Theory). Each of these methods defines a standard error of measurement (SEM), which is a quantity that summarizes the overall variability of student scores. However, less attention has been given to conditional SEMs (CSEM), which expresses the variability for scores of individual students. This tutorial summarizes how to obtain CSEMs for ...


Exploring The Perceived Barriers And Benefits Of Physical Activity Among Wounded, Injured, And/Or Sick Military Veterans, Robert Walker, Caroline Limbert, Paul M. Smith 2021 Cardiff Metropolitan University

Exploring The Perceived Barriers And Benefits Of Physical Activity Among Wounded, Injured, And/Or Sick Military Veterans, Robert Walker, Caroline Limbert, Paul M. Smith

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

Wounded, injured, and/or sick (WIS) military veterans face significant physical and psychosocial challenges following discharge from service. Physical activity can have many positive effects on the holistic wellbeing of such individuals. However, little knowledge exists regarding the perceived barriers and benefits of physical activity within this population, creating challenges surrounding physical activity promotion. Therefore, this study was designed to identify key barriers and benefits among this population, so that informed approaches to encourage participation in physical activity can be developed. A questionnaire related to the perceived barriers and benefits of physical activity was completed by 105 WIS British military ...


Perceptions Of Covid-19 Among Religious Leaders, Anna Anderson 2021 Kennesaw State University

Perceptions Of Covid-19 Among Religious Leaders, Anna Anderson

Symposium of Student Scholars

The research shows how religious leaders have been affected and have attempted to adapt to COVID-19. The research was compiled of responses from religious leaders and affiliates to get a better understanding of their opinions. The data we are collecting is being analyzed so that we, the researchers, can determine if religious leaders are using their title to lead the community that follows them on the safest path or not, as well as if they are spreading an accurate message to their community about the COVID-19 Pandemic. The purpose of being able to identify how religious leaders are responding to ...


Reporting Of Eating Disorder Deaths, Katherine Mobley, Amy Hord 2021 Kennesaw State University

Reporting Of Eating Disorder Deaths, Katherine Mobley, Amy Hord

Symposium of Student Scholars

Those affected by eating disorders experience disturbances in eating behaviors which are often related to underlying psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, or obsessive-compulsive disorder (Parekh, 2017, Drieberg et al., 1998 p.53). The duplicitous nature of the disorder makes it difficult to diagnose, and the tole it takes on an individual’s physical health makes its mortality rate the second highest among psychiatric disorders (Guinhut et al., 2021 p.130). Even if the correct education and resources are accessible to certain individuals, negative stigmatization about the disorder can make sufferers unlikely to seek help (Becker et al., 2010). Findings ...


Rasch Measurement V. Item Response Theory: Knowing When To Cross The Line, Steven E. Stemler, Adam Naples 2021 Wesleyan University

Rasch Measurement V. Item Response Theory: Knowing When To Cross The Line, Steven E. Stemler, Adam Naples

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

When students receive the same score on a test, does that mean they know the same amount about the topic? The answer to this question is more complex than it may first appear. This paper compares classical and modern test theories in terms of how they estimate student ability. Crucial distinctions between the aims of Rasch Measurement and IRT are highlighted. By modeling a second parameter (item discrimination) and allowing item characteristic curves to cross, as IRT models do, more information is incorporated into the estimate of person ability, but the measurement scale is no longer guaranteed to have the ...


Getting Caught-Up In The Process: Does It Really Matter?, Nikole Gregg 2021 James Madison University

Getting Caught-Up In The Process: Does It Really Matter?, Nikole Gregg

Dissertations, 2020-current

Likert items are the most commonly used item-type for measuring attitudes and beliefs. However, responses from Likert items are often plagued with construct-irrelevant variance due to response style behavior. In other words, variability from Likert-item scores can be parsed into: 1) variance pertinent to the construct or trait of interest, and 2) variance irrelevant to the construct or trait of interest. Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) is an increasingly common modeling approach to parse out information regarding the response style traits and the trait of interest. These MIRT approaches are categorized into threshold-based approaches and response process approaches. An increasingly ...


Identifying Rater Effects For Writing And Critical Thinking: Applying The Many-Facets Rasch Model To The Value Institute, Yelisey Shapovalov 2021 James Madison University

Identifying Rater Effects For Writing And Critical Thinking: Applying The Many-Facets Rasch Model To The Value Institute, Yelisey Shapovalov

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Performance assessments require examinees to carry out a process or produce a product and can be designed to have high fidelity to real-world application of higher-order skills. As such, performance assessments are highly valued in higher education settings. However, performance assessment is vulnerable to psychometric challenges that threaten the validity of scores due to the subjective nature of the scoring process. Specifically, raters must exercise judgement to provide scores to examinee work, which may be impacted by rater effects, or systematic differences in how raters evaluate performance assessment artifacts. Research has indicated that performance assessment may never be fully free ...


Understanding Motivations To Attend Various Sized Churches: A Study Using Family Communication Patterns, Expectancy Violations, And Anxiety To Predict Church Attendance, Molly Bradshaw 2021 James Madison University

Understanding Motivations To Attend Various Sized Churches: A Study Using Family Communication Patterns, Expectancy Violations, And Anxiety To Predict Church Attendance, Molly Bradshaw

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Two separate studies were conducted to examine whether communication variables impact religious views and church attendance. For the first study, 228 students from a large Southeastern university completed a web survey. The second study was a web survey of 204 adults that was conducted via Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTURK). Both surveys were sent out to determine one’s motivations to attend a small, medium, or large church using family communication, anxiety, expectations, and religion variables as predictors. Family communication, anxiety, and expectancy variables were positively correlated to many aspects of religious views. Hierarchical regression models utilizing demographics, family communication, anxiety ...


Traditional Sexual Script And Double Standard Adherence: Predictors Of Heterosexually Identified Women’S And Men’S Previous Engagement In Consensual Non-Monogamy, Nina Dours, Amy Moors, Amanda N. Gesselman, Justin R. Garcia 2021 Chapman University

Traditional Sexual Script And Double Standard Adherence: Predictors Of Heterosexually Identified Women’S And Men’S Previous Engagement In Consensual Non-Monogamy, Nina Dours, Amy Moors, Amanda N. Gesselman, Justin R. Garcia

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

With respect to consensually non-monogamous (CNM) relationships (e.g., open relationships, polyamory), a consistent gender difference emerges: heterosexual men report greater desire and engagement in CNM than heterosexual women (Haupert et al., 2017; Moors et al., 2015). This gender difference raises the question: Why do women and men differ in their CNM behaviors? In the present study, we suggest that this may be due to women’s stronger adherence to the traditional sexual script, which is rooted in gendered dating norms, punishes women who engage in non-committed sexual behaviors, and glorifies monogamy (Fritz & Kitzinger, 2001). We examined how heterosexual men’s and women’s adherence to the traditional sexual script affects their previous engagement in CNM using data from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (n = 3,438). Participants completed three measures relevant to this study: 1) endorsement of the sexual script (attitudes towards sex and love; (S. S. Hendrick & Hendrick, 2002), 2) level of permissiveness towards casual sex; (C. Hendrick, Hendrick, & Reich ...


The Impact Of Locus Of Control, Norms, And Social Desirability On Substance Risk Perception, Rachel A. Turner 2021 Brescia University College

The Impact Of Locus Of Control, Norms, And Social Desirability On Substance Risk Perception, Rachel A. Turner

Brescia Psychology Undergraduate Honours Theses

Drug use among college students is common and can be associated with adverse effects. This study sought to identify how drug-related beliefs about risk and descriptive and injunctive social norms vary for a variety of legal, prescription, and illicit drugs. The relationship between these attitudes, locus of control and social desirability was also assessed. A sample of 58 female undergraduate students from a university in Ontario, Canada completed a web-based survey. Findings indicated no association between locus of control and any other measures apart from social desirability and descriptive marijuana norms, which were also associated. Although marijuana was perceived as ...


Ascertaining The Relationship Between Traditional Masculinity Ideology And Personal Growth Initiative In College Students, Christopher J. Ha 2021 The University of Akron, Department of Psychology

Ascertaining The Relationship Between Traditional Masculinity Ideology And Personal Growth Initiative In College Students, Christopher J. Ha

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The emerging psychological field of men and masculinities is credited with the development and validation of an array of instruments to assess masculinity-related constructs, with many emanating from the gender role strain paradigm (GRSP; Levant & Powell, 2017; Levant & Richmond, 2007, 2016; Pleck, 1981, 1995). However, there is little research that employs a positive psychology framework while considering the potential positive aspects of masculinity. The majority of literature utilizing these measures focus on the pathological effects of masculinity. The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between traditional masculinity ideology (TMI) and personal growth initiative (PGI) in a sample of college students, utilizing two ...


School Personnel’S Perceptions Toward Transfer Versus Nontransfer Students In A Borderland School, Maria Isabel Quiñones Velez 2021 Walden University

School Personnel’S Perceptions Toward Transfer Versus Nontransfer Students In A Borderland School, Maria Isabel Quiñones Velez

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

School personnel serving highly transient student populations in borderland schools in the southwestern United States may have different perceptions toward transfer students and nontransfer students. Few quantitative studies have measured the perceptions that arise as school personnel confront the unique challenges of providing services to transfer students. Research-based evidence of the perceptions of school personnel in a southwestern border town is needed. The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify the presence, or not, of different perceptions of school personnel toward students who transfer from other school systems due to specific circumstances versus the perceptions toward nontransfer students who ...


A Tale Of Two Tweets: What Factors Predict Forgiveness Of Past Transgressions On Social Media?, Andrew Dawson 2021 Wilfrid Laurier University

A Tale Of Two Tweets: What Factors Predict Forgiveness Of Past Transgressions On Social Media?, Andrew Dawson

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

As more and more of our lives take place online, we are developing a very public and permanent record of our past views and actions. It is increasingly common for public figures to have their current image tarnished by their mistakes and transgressions in what is often the distant past. Although factors such as the passage of time and age of the actor are typically given consideration in moral judgement, they may be swept away by identity and politics when the transgressions are viewed along partisan lines. Three experiments (N = 2,018) found that judgements of a public figure who ...


Coping Strategies And Relationship Satisfaction Among Dual-Military Married Army Couples, Leila Powell-DiSola 2021 Walden University

Coping Strategies And Relationship Satisfaction Among Dual-Military Married Army Couples, Leila Powell-Disola

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Since 2001, millions of U.S. military personnel have deployed overseas. Military deployment can be a tremendous stressor on military families and negatively impact the marital relationship. Few previous studies and interventions have considered the effects deployment can have on dual-military married couples. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine what coping strategies dual-military couples used during deployment and whether use of these strategies affected their relationship satisfaction (RS). The theoretical framework for this study consisted of the social exchange theory and the exchange-based dual-military marriage model. A sample of 103 dual-military Army spouses, male or female, was ...


Intimate Partner Violence: Effects Of Emotional Abuse In Women, Judith Marie Watiti 2021 Walden University

Intimate Partner Violence: Effects Of Emotional Abuse In Women, Judith Marie Watiti

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

AbstractEstimates by the U.S. Bureau of Statistics point to over 30% of women being victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) yearly. Severity and frequency of violence in childhood have been shown in several studies to predict adult interpersonal violence. Research has shown that emotional abuse predicts other forms of abuse, thus identifying it as a potential causal link to IPV. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine whether emotional abuse mediates the relationship between history of childhood abuse and IPV. Social learning theory served as the theoretical framework for the study, in which 182 adult female participants ...


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