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All Articles in Quantitative Psychology

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Measuring Symmetry In Real-World Scenes Using Derivatives Of The Medial Axis Radius Function, Morteza Rezanejad, John D. Wilder, Kaleem Siddiqi, Sven Dickinson, Allan Jepson, Dirk B. Walther 2018 McGill University

Measuring Symmetry In Real-World Scenes Using Derivatives Of The Medial Axis Radius Function, Morteza Rezanejad, John D. Wilder, Kaleem Siddiqi, Sven Dickinson, Allan Jepson, Dirk B. Walther

MODVIS Workshop

Symmetry has been shown to be an important principle that guides the grouping of scene information. Previously, we have described a method for measuring the local, ribbon symmetry content of line-drawings of real-world scenes (Rezanejad, et al., MODVIS 2017), and we demonstrated that this information has important behavioral consequences (Wilder, et al., MODIVS 2017). Here, we describe a continuous, local version of the symmetry measure, that allows for both ribbon and taper symmetry to be captured. Our original method looked at the difference in the radius between successive maximal discs along a symmetric axis. The number of radii differences in ...


Global Estimation Of Signed 3d Surface Tilt From Natural Images, Seha Kim, Johannes Burge 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Global Estimation Of Signed 3d Surface Tilt From Natural Images, Seha Kim, Johannes Burge

MODVIS Workshop

The ability of human visual systems to estimate 3D surface orientation from 2D retinal images is critical. But the computation to calculate 3D orientation in real-world scenes is not fully understood. A Bayes optimal model grounded in natural statistics has explained 3D surface tilt estimation of human observers in natural scenes (Kim and Burge, 2018). However, the model is limited because it estimates only unsigned tilt (tilt modulo 180deg). We extend the model to predict signed tilt estimates and compared with human signed estimates. The model takes image pixels as input and produces optimal estimates of tilt as output, using ...


Discovery Of Activities Via Statistical Clustering Of Fixation Patterns, Jeffrey B. Mulligan 2018 NASA Ames Research Center

Discovery Of Activities Via Statistical Clustering Of Fixation Patterns, Jeffrey B. Mulligan

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Model Misspecification And Assumption Violations With The Linear Mixed Model: A Meta-Analysis, Brandon LeBeau, Yoon Ah Song, Wei Cheng Liu 2018 University of Iowa

Model Misspecification And Assumption Violations With The Linear Mixed Model: A Meta-Analysis, Brandon Lebeau, Yoon Ah Song, Wei Cheng Liu

Department of Psychological and Quantitative Foundations Publications

This meta analysis attempts to synthesize the Monte Carlo literature for the linear mixed model under a longitudinal framework. The empirical type I error rate will serve as the effect size and Monte Carlo simulation conditions will be coded to serve as moderator variables. The type I error rate for the fixed and random effects will be explored as the primary dependent variable. Effect sizes were coded from 13 studies, resulting in a total of 4,002 and 621 effect sizes for fixed and random effects. Meta-regression and proportional odds models were used to explore variation in the empirical type ...


Systems Of Quantity Judgment In Various Species: A Meta-Analysis, Tiffany A. Woodard Baker 2018 University of Southern Mississippi

Systems Of Quantity Judgment In Various Species: A Meta-Analysis, Tiffany A. Woodard Baker

Dissertations

An abundance of behavioral and neuroimaging literature supports the presence of two cognitive systems for quantity judgments (Agrillo & Bisazza, 2014). In particular, small quantities are thought to be guided by the object-file system, a precise system that uses mental files to map onto real world objects, and large quantities by the approximate number system, an imprecise, estimation system (Dehaene, 1997). Evidence supporting both systems exists in a variety of species including nonhuman primates (Boysen & Hallberg, 2000), birds (Garland, Low, & Burns, 2012), amphibians (Uller, Jaeger, Guidry, & Martin, 2003), and fish (Agrillo, Dadda, Serena, Bisazza, 2009), but support may depend on species ...


Summer Camp As A Force For 21st Century Learning: Exploring Divergent Thinking And Activity Selection In A Residential Camp Setting, Myles Lynch, Jonathan A. Plucker, C Boyd Hegarty, Nate Trauntvein 2018 Johns Hopkins University

Summer Camp As A Force For 21st Century Learning: Exploring Divergent Thinking And Activity Selection In A Residential Camp Setting, Myles Lynch, Jonathan A. Plucker, C Boyd Hegarty, Nate Trauntvein

Education Scholarship

This study investigated change in divergent thinking (DT), an indicator of creative potential, at two gender-specific residential summer camps. Additionally, this study examined whether the change in DT varied by gender and by the type of activities campers self-select. Quantitative methods, using a quasi-experimental design was used in order to understand differences in camper scores. A total of 189 youth, 100 girls, 89 boys, between the ages of 9 and 14 years participated in the current study. Participants were administered a modified version of Guilford's (1967) alternate uses task, a measure of DT, in which respondents were asked questions ...


The Influence Of A Proposed Margin Criterion On The Accuracy Of Parallel Analysis In Conditions Engendering Underextraction, Justin M. Jones 2018 Western Kentucky University

The Influence Of A Proposed Margin Criterion On The Accuracy Of Parallel Analysis In Conditions Engendering Underextraction, Justin M. Jones

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

One of the most important decisions to make when performing an exploratory factor or principal component analysis regards the number of factors to retain. Parallel analysis is considered to be the best course of action in these circumstances as it consistently outperforms other factor extraction methods (Zwick & Velicer, 1986). Even so, parallel analysis could benefit from further research and refinement to improve its accuracy. Characteristics such as factor loadings, correlations between factors, and number of variables per factor all have been shown to adversely impact the effectiveness of parallel analysis as a means of identifying the number of factors (Pearson ...


Risk Factors For Domestic Homicide: Immigrant & Canadian-Born Populations, Sakthi Kalaichandran 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Risk Factors For Domestic Homicide: Immigrant & Canadian-Born Populations, Sakthi Kalaichandran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Domestic violence is a critical human rights issue that can escalate to cases of domestic homicide. Globally, approximately 30% of women in relationships have reported experiencing violence at the hands of an intimate partner. In Canada this pattern is echoed, as over 25% of police-reported violent offences were from victims of domestic abuse. Recent research has revealed that immigrant & refugee victims experience unique risk factors that may render them more vulnerable to this form of violence. Yet, despite this burgeoning research area, and Canada’s diverse population of 6 million immigrants, there is a dearth of research pertaining to domestic ...


Attachment Styles And The Michelangelo Phenomenon: Role Of Individual Differences In Interpersonal Growth Striving, Laura Marika Patrick 2018 University of Kentucky

Attachment Styles And The Michelangelo Phenomenon: Role Of Individual Differences In Interpersonal Growth Striving, Laura Marika Patrick

Theses and Dissertations--Family Sciences

Michelangelo Phenomenon provides an interpersonal model of goal pursuits and suggests that close partners sculpt one another and help them move toward their ideal selves. Attachment theory also provides a parallel explanation of how close others can help one another move toward their goals. The purpose of the current research was to look at the influence of attachment on the Michelangelo Phenomenon and test whether it best fit as a predictor, mediator, or moderator. The hypotheses were tested across three studies (two longitudinal and one cross-sectional) using a maximum likelihood estimation path analysis following APIM assumptions. The results provided strong ...


Facilitating Collaboration Among School And Community Providers In Children's Mental Health, Holly J. Curran 2018 Walden University

Facilitating Collaboration Among School And Community Providers In Children's Mental Health, Holly J. Curran

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Interprofessional collaboration among school-based and community-based mental health providers in children's mental has been studied in relation to specific providers and as part of program evaluation; however, limited information exists as to how to overcome barriers to collaborative relationships. This study describes the experiences of school and community mental health service providers and those who supervise them. Using phenomenological methodology, three focus-group interview transcripts were analyzed by identifying recurrent themes relevant to the experience of collaboration from school and community providers' perspectives. Although participants viewed aspects of collaboration positively, barriers frequently interfered with collaborative relationships. Support for collaboration from ...


The Impacts Of Religious Discrimination Towards Anxiety In Diverse Populations, Sharlaine Marie Ortiz-Diaz 2018 Walden University

The Impacts Of Religious Discrimination Towards Anxiety In Diverse Populations, Sharlaine Marie Ortiz-Diaz

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Previous research has indicated that outcomes of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation could stem from religious discrimination (RLGD). However, there remains an important gap in the current literature regarding RLGD impacts with non-Muslim populations. Further, the moderating effects of sex, race, and national origin (moderating variables [MVs]) have yielded mixed findings concerning anxiety (dependent variable). The intergroup anxiety theory and the integrated threat theory elaborate on perceived threats and potential anxiety of intergroup dynamics. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the role of religious preferences (independent variable), the MVs, and the RLGD-anxiety relationship. The sample consisted of ...


Quantitative Forecasting Of Risk For Ptsd Using Ecological Factors: A Deep Learning Application, Nuriel S. Mor, Kathryn L. Dardeck 2018 Talpiot College of Education, Holon, Israel; Darca School, Bat Yam, Israel; and Bnei Akiva School, Holon, Israel

Quantitative Forecasting Of Risk For Ptsd Using Ecological Factors: A Deep Learning Application, Nuriel S. Mor, Kathryn L. Dardeck

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

Forecasting the risk for mental disorders from early ecological information holds benefits for the individual and society. Computational models used in psychological research, however, are barriers to making such predictions at the individual level. Preexposure identification of future soldiers at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other individuals, such as humanitarian aid workers and journalists intending to be potentially exposed to traumatic events, is important for guiding decisions about exposure. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a machine learning approach to identify individuals at risk for PTSD using readily collected ecological risk factors, which makes scanning ...


Influence Of Psychological Capital And Thinking Perspectives On Construction Safety Climate And Performance, Anne-Perrine Pascale Cades 2018 Walden University

Influence Of Psychological Capital And Thinking Perspectives On Construction Safety Climate And Performance, Anne-Perrine Pascale Cades

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Understanding safety factors in construction is critical to reducing accident frequency and severity. Grounded in the safety performance model, this study was conducted to examine the impact of psychological capital (PsyCap), which consists of the shared variance of hope, efficacy, resilience and optimism, and Past, Present, and Future thinking perspectives, on safety climate and performance. A nonexperimental quantitative design was used to determine whether PsyCap and thinking perspectives of construction project employees predicted safety performance and/or moderated the relationship between safety climate and performance across construction sites in different countries. 411 construction employees were recruited via a multistage and ...


Parental Characteristics And Parent-Child Relationship Quality In Families With Disabled Children, Tammy Young 2018 Walden University

Parental Characteristics And Parent-Child Relationship Quality In Families With Disabled Children, Tammy Young

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Parenting can be very challenging, especially when raising a disabled child. Children with disabilities require more supports and are more likely to be abused. The parent-child relationship is an important factor in ensuring child welfare. Little research has focused on identifying the impact of parenting characteristics on raising a child with a disability. The purpose of this study was to examine whether parenting style, parenting competence, and parenting stress were predictors of parent-child relationship quality in parents of children with disabilities ages 3 to 12 years. This study was quantitative and used multiple linear regression to identify predictor variables of ...


Identification Of Mental States And Interpersonal Functioning In Borderline Personality Disorder, Kathy R. Berenson, Cara L. Dochat, Christiana G. Martin, Xiao Yang, Eshkol Rafaeli, Geraldine Downey 2018 Gettysburg College

Identification Of Mental States And Interpersonal Functioning In Borderline Personality Disorder, Kathy R. Berenson, Cara L. Dochat, Christiana G. Martin, Xiao Yang, Eshkol Rafaeli, Geraldine Downey

Psychology Faculty Publications

Atypical identification of mental states in the self and others has been proposed to underlie interpersonal difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet no previous empirical research has directly examined associations between these constructs. We examine 3 mental state identification measures and their associations with experience-sampling measures of interpersonal functioning in participants with BPD relative to a healthy comparison (HC) group. We also included a clinical comparison group diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder (APD) to test the specificity of this constellation of difficulties to BPD. When categorizing blended emotional expressions, the BPD group identified anger at a lower threshold than ...


Predicting Student Learning: The Roles Of Rapport, Immediacy, Learning Alliance, And Citizenship Behavior, Susan A. Talley 2018 Georgia Southern University

Predicting Student Learning: The Roles Of Rapport, Immediacy, Learning Alliance, And Citizenship Behavior, Susan A. Talley

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

Rapport, immediacy, learning alliance, classroom citizenship behavior, and observed classroom citizenship behavior were examined for their prediction of both affective and cognitive learning. The measure of observed classroom citizenship behavior was created for the purposes of the current study. Observed classroom citizenship behavior positively correlated with classroom citizenship behavior. Specifically, the involvement, affiliation, and courtesy subscales correlated with overall classroom citizenship behavior and their respective subscales but not with other citizenship behavior subscales. This suggests that only certain types of citizenship behaviors relate to the engagement or observation of those behaviors. Observed citizenship behavior was also found to be correlated ...


A Single-Subject Evaluation Of Facilitated Communication In The Completion Of School-Assigned Homework, Nancy A. Meissner 2018 Antioch University Seattle

A Single-Subject Evaluation Of Facilitated Communication In The Completion Of School-Assigned Homework, Nancy A. Meissner

Dissertations & Theses

Few projects have combined quantitative and qualitative approaches in the analysis of facilitated communication as did this study of a 17-year-old nonverbal autistic male responding to homework questions using facilitated communication. Findings were consistent with prior studies: Tim was minimally able to produce correct responses independent of facilitator influence under controlled conditions; whereas, at least some typed messages in the spontaneous narratives appear to be his authentic communications independent of facilitator control.

An overview of the history of facilitated communication, its related research, and the heated debates around its validity are presented. Disparate findings between controlled and non-controlled circumstances are ...


A Qualitative Look At How Sibling Bereavement From Unnatural Causes Of Death Affects Surviving Siblings, Michael David Gilvin 2018 Walden University

A Qualitative Look At How Sibling Bereavement From Unnatural Causes Of Death Affects Surviving Siblings, Michael David Gilvin

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The purpose of the study is to fill the gap in the literature regarding sibling bereavement. This study explored how sibling bereavement from unnatural causes of death affects surviving siblings. Bereavement affects millions of Americans every year. Most grieve naturally, but some experience complicated grief or depression. Many studies address parental and spousal bereavement, but few focus on sibling bereavement. This study fills that gap in the literature so that mental health care professionals and the general public understand what bereaved siblings experience after the death of a sibling. The study was a phenomenological study using social constructivism as a ...


Prospective Associations Of Homocysteine, Executive Function, And Depressive Symptoms, Peter J. Dearborn 2017 University of Maine

Prospective Associations Of Homocysteine, Executive Function, And Depressive Symptoms, Peter J. Dearborn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Associations of cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive performance, and depressive symptoms have been well established. However, the directionality of these associations as well as the specificity of these associations with respect to executive function are less clear. Additionally few studies have determined whether genetic risk factors, such as apolipoprotein-E4 (APOE-E4) genotype, and age moderate the associations of cardiovascular risk factors such as homocysteine with changes in depressive symptoms and how these associations may be mediated by cognitive performance. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the bidirectional associations of a full range of cognitive domains and symptoms of depression ...


Does Cognitive Impairment Impact Adherence? A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of The Association Between Cognitive Impairment And Medication Non-Adherence In Stroke., Daniela Rohde, Niamh A. Merriman, Frank Doyle, Kathleen Bennett, David Williams, Anne Hickey 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Does Cognitive Impairment Impact Adherence? A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of The Association Between Cognitive Impairment And Medication Non-Adherence In Stroke., Daniela Rohde, Niamh A. Merriman, Frank Doyle, Kathleen Bennett, David Williams, Anne Hickey

Psychology Articles

BACKGROUND: While medication adherence is essential for the secondary prevention of stroke, it is often sub-optimal, and can be compromised by cognitive impairment. This study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the association between cognitive impairment and medication non-adherence in stroke.

METHODS: A systematic literature search of longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of adults with any stroke type, which reported on the association between any measure of non-adherence and cognitive impairment, was carried out according to PRISMA guidelines. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were the primary measure of effect. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Bias Methods Group ...


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