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All Articles in Biological Psychology

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Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley

Master's Theses

Non-scientific literature consistently describes dolphins as “curious animals,” but there has been little systematic research on curiosity in dolphins. Curiosity in humans and certain non-human animal species, including birds and non-human primates, has been studied by examining individual differences in exploration and reactions to novel stimuli. Additionally, research has explored how human infants and non-human animals react when an event violates their expectations. The present study explored dolphins’ reactions to spontaneously surprising and expectation-violating stimuli. The reactions of dolphins, 15 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and 6 rough-toothed (Steno bredanensis), at Gulf World Marine Park were analyzed in response to events that ...


Anxiety-Like Behaviors And C-Fos Expression In Adult Zebrafish: Effects Of Housing Conditions, Alcohol And Caffeine, Adam Douglas Collier 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Anxiety-Like Behaviors And C-Fos Expression In Adult Zebrafish: Effects Of Housing Conditions, Alcohol And Caffeine, Adam Douglas Collier

Dissertations

Alcohol abuse is the third largest risk factor for disease world, responsible for an estimated 3.3 million deaths each year. The concomitant ingestion of alcohol and caffeine is hypothesized to increase risk factors associated with alcohol use alone by reducing subjective effects of intoxication. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently garnered attention from researchers as an effective pre-clinical in-vivo animal model in behavioral pharmacology research, largely due to small size, low-cost and ease of drug delivery. A number of studies have reported the effects of alcohol and caffeine on zebrafish behavior at a variety of doses. However, the combined ...


Humor In Medicine: A Literature Review Of Humor’S Potential Therapeutic Value In Health Care, Weston Michael Grant 2017 University of Arkansas

Humor In Medicine: A Literature Review Of Humor’S Potential Therapeutic Value In Health Care, Weston Michael Grant

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Using humor and laughter within the health care field has the potential to be relevant to patients during treatment, to the patient-caregiver relationship, to the subjective well-being of health care providers, and to the environments’ (e.g., work settings) impact on group relationships (e.g., colleagues). A review of the literature examines how the psychological and physiological effects of laughter and humor within the human body impact health and well-being, how humor and laughter improve the patient-practitioner relationship, and if humor and laughter can potentially impact physician burnout. Several possible implications for these findings are discussed, such as professional medical ...


Do Humans Prefer Faces? Zygomatic Muscle Responses To Neutral Faces Vs. Neutral Objects, Thomas J. Goetze 2017 Saint John Fisher College

Do Humans Prefer Faces? Zygomatic Muscle Responses To Neutral Faces Vs. Neutral Objects, Thomas J. Goetze

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

The present study examined the significance of viewing images of neutral faces versus images of neutral objects on zygomatic muscle activity using facial EMG. Participants (60% women) from a pool of introductory psychology courses had their facial EMG recordings measured in response to images of neutral faces and neutral objects. Participants’ valence rating of each image was also recorded using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in order to rate their emotional response to each image. The primary hypothesis was that participants would have greater activity in the zygomatic muscle region when presented with images of neutral faces as opposed to lessor ...


Maternal Stress And Stress Symptomatology In Children, Emily Klipa 2017 Otterbein University

Maternal Stress And Stress Symptomatology In Children, Emily Klipa

Distinction Papers

With stress being referred to as the “health epidemic of the 21st century” by the World Health Organization, questions arise about not only how this epidemic affects adults, but also how stress may affect today’s children. Research indicates that stress impacting parents trickle down to children, and the effects can be palpable. In this study the author examined maternal stress as well as stress related symptoms and illnesses in their children. Participants are mothers of children age’s five to ten. The protocol included completion of a four part online survey addressing demographic information, perceived stress, and recent ...


Image Memory For Hyperpalatable Foods In University Aged Females, Leila M. Mackay 2017 Brescia University

Image Memory For Hyperpalatable Foods In University Aged Females, Leila M. Mackay

Brescia Psychology Undergraduate Honours Theses

Hyperpalatable foods are high in sugar and/or fat and highly processed. These foods increase dopamine in the brain similar to other rewards, such as drugs of abuse, producing pleasure and an enhanced drive to consume them. Undergraduate students (n = 44) completed an explicit memory task where they were asked if they recalled various types of food (high sugar, high fat, sugar+fat, fruits, vegetables and breads) and non-food images. Questionnaires evaluating eating patterns were also completed. It was hypothesized that hyperpalatable foods would be recalled better and faster than less-palatable foods or non-food images. The study found that hyperpalatable ...


Exploring Neural Entrainment And Beat Perception Through Movement, Sarah M. Schwanz 2017 Brescia University College

Exploring Neural Entrainment And Beat Perception Through Movement, Sarah M. Schwanz

Brescia Psychology Undergraduate Honours Theses

The way humans move to music has a large impact on how music is synchronized to, interpreted, and enjoyed. It is understood that movements to music aid in beat perception, and neural oscillations have the ability to entrain to musical rhythms. This study attempted to link these two well-established phenomena by exploring the use of movement to simple and complex musical rhythms to enhance neural entrainment. Ten undergraduate students engaged in 60 simple and complex musical rhythms, either tapping along to the beat or listening without movement, while undergoing EEG recording. Although the differences in brain response amplitude were not ...


Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Who's Tweeting Whom: The Influence Of Rearing Condition On Social Integration In Zebra Finches, Zachary L. Darwish 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Who's Tweeting Whom: The Influence Of Rearing Condition On Social Integration In Zebra Finches, Zachary L. Darwish

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are a gregarious species of finch. Previous work with zebra finches has demonstrated the long-lasting impacts of ear social environment on social behavior in adulthood. Zebra finch chicks were raised by either both parents (biparental) or their mother only (uniparental) and their behavior in an aviary was recorded using passive integrative transponders. Zebra finch ID numbers were recorded every time they entered a feeding station for 31 days. There was a trend for uniparental birds to engage in more visits to a feeding station per event than biparental birds, however, there was no difference in the ...


Neuroendocrine And Psychological Factors Associated With Burnout, Compassion Fatigue, And Reduced Compassion Satisfaction In Mental Health Professionals, Michelle Huffman 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Neuroendocrine And Psychological Factors Associated With Burnout, Compassion Fatigue, And Reduced Compassion Satisfaction In Mental Health Professionals, Michelle Huffman

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Mental health professionals are at increased risk for burnout, compassion fatigue, and reduced compassion satisfaction. Burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and loss of personal accomplishment. Compassion fatigue is a more progressed disruption relative to burnout marked by insomnia/nightmares, arousal, loss of objectivity, isolation, and intrusive thoughts. Compassion satisfaction buffers against burnout and compassion fatigue. Although links between demographic, psychological, and biological factors have been documented, interactions between these factors have not been explored. Mental health professionals completed psychological inventories measuring depression, anxiety, burnout, compassion fatigue, and compassion satisfaction. Saliva samples were collected during the Trier Social Stress ...


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


Dopamine D1 And D3 Receptor Polypharmacology In Cocaine Reward And Cocaine Seeking, Ewa J. Galaj 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Dopamine D1 And D3 Receptor Polypharmacology In Cocaine Reward And Cocaine Seeking, Ewa J. Galaj

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: In the search for efficacious pharmacotherapies to treat cocaine addiction much attention has been given to agents targeting D1 or D3 receptors because of the involvement of these receptors in cocaine-related behaviors. D1 and D3 receptor partial agonists and antagonists have been shown to reduce cocaine reward, reinstatement of cocaine seeking and conditioned place preference (CPP) in rodents and non-human primates. However, translation of these encouraging results with selective D1 or D3 receptor agents has been limited due to a number of factors including toxicity, poor pharmacokinetic properties and extrapyramidal and sedative side effects.

Purpose: Given the role of ...


Estradiol, Substance P, And The Pi3k-Akt-Mtor Pathway In The Dorsal Horn Of The Spinal Cord During Inflammatory Pain, Zane Ferguson 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Estradiol, Substance P, And The Pi3k-Akt-Mtor Pathway In The Dorsal Horn Of The Spinal Cord During Inflammatory Pain, Zane Ferguson

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Pain is a critical survival mechanism that signals potential or actual damage, but it can become pathological when it persists beyond the injury. Chronic pain is a major health issue that affects 10-20% of the adult population and is found disproportionately in women. There are numerous, interacting mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. This study used female rats to investigate the impact of estrogens on sensory signaling by substance P, a neuropeptide that contributes to the development of chronic pain, and the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, an intracellular mechanism of nervous system plasticity.


The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax

Faculty Scholarship

Research in deprivation neuroscience has grown rapidly over the past 15 years. Studies in this field examine brain structure and function of individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds. Many attempt to link brain characteristics to behavioral and cognitive deficits found more commonly in deprived populations.

The article assesses claims by neuroscientists and policy-oriented commentators that deprivation neuroscience can help generate more effective strategies for addressing poverty and deprivation. It concludes that research in this field has no unique practical payoff for reducing or alleviating poverty and its effects, over and above what is known or can be discovered from behavioral science and ...


Sensory-Specific Satiety Is Intact In Rats Made Obese On A High-Fat, High-Sugar Choice Diet., Kevin P. Myers 2017 Bucknell University

Sensory-Specific Satiety Is Intact In Rats Made Obese On A High-Fat, High-Sugar Choice Diet., Kevin P. Myers

Faculty Journal Articles

Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is the temporary decreased pleasantness of a recently eaten food, which inhibits further eating. Evidence is currently mixed whether SSS is weaker in obese people, and whether such difference precedes or follows from the obese state. Animal models allow testing whether diet-induced obesity causes SSS impairment. Female rats (n = 24) were randomly assigned to an obesogenic high-fat, high-sugar choice diet or chow-only control. Tests of SSS involved pre-feeding a single palatable, distinctively-flavored food (cheese- or cocoa-flavored) prior to free choice between both foods. Rats were tested for short-term SSS (2 h pre-feeding immediately followed by 2 h ...


The Effect Of Two Modes Of Aerobic Assessment On Fifth Grade Students' Self Efficacy, Debra Roth 2017 Walden University

The Effect Of Two Modes Of Aerobic Assessment On Fifth Grade Students' Self Efficacy, Debra Roth

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Declining youth physical activity levels and lack of aerobic fitness have been well documented with a corresponding rise in obesity levels and health issues. Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, healthy physical activity levels and aerobic fitness are strongly connected to positive physical activity self-efficacy beliefs. This study examined whether student physical activity self-efficacy, motivation, and effort were different for the FitnessGram® (FG) 1-Mile Run when compared to the 15-minute Aerobic Assessment Based on Improvement (AABI). A concurrent mixed method quasi-experimental approach measured 5th grade students' physical activity self-efficacy beliefs through a pretest and posttest survey while aerobic assessment ...


The Importance Of Serotonergic And Adrenergic Receptors For The Induction And Expression Of One-Trial Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization, Krista N. Rudberg 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

The Importance Of Serotonergic And Adrenergic Receptors For The Induction And Expression Of One-Trial Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization, Krista N. Rudberg

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Addiction is a complex process in which behavioral sensitization may be an important component. While the behavioral effects of sensitization are well established, the intricate neurobiology of the phenomenon is still largely unknown. Dopamine systems mediate the induction of behavioral sensitization in adult rats, but there is a large amount of evidence showing that other neurotransmitter systems also modulate the induction process. For example, the α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptor systems are known to modulate the sensitized responding of adult rats, but the roles that these receptor systems play in the induction and expression of behavioral sensitization during the preweanling ...


Habitat Use By Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops Truncatus, In Roanoke Sound, North Carolina, Shauna Marisa McBride 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Habitat Use By Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops Truncatus, In Roanoke Sound, North Carolina, Shauna Marisa Mcbride

Dissertations

Information on the habitat use of a species is important to develop conservation efforts and management strategies for that species. Roanoke Sound, North Carolina is primarily a seasonal habitat for bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, from late spring to early fall, but little information is known about how dolphins use this area. Transect survey data and opportunistic survey data collected by the Outer Banks Center for Dolphin Research from 2009 to 2015 were used to analyze dolphin habitat use. The objectives of this project were to: 1) identify areas that were important to dolphins, 2) determine which behaviors were observed in ...


Marijuana Use Is Associated With Behavioral Approach And Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents And Emerging Adults, Natasha E. Wright, Danny Scerpella, Krista M. Lisdahl 2016 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Marijuana Use Is Associated With Behavioral Approach And Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents And Emerging Adults, Natasha E. Wright, Danny Scerpella, Krista M. Lisdahl

Psychology Faculty Articles

Background

Repeated CB1 binding due to THC results in downregulation of the endocannabinoid system in cortex and limbic regions, perhaps disrupting frontolimbic functioning. This is particularly a concern in young adults who are still undergoing neurodevelopment in frontal and limbic regions. Such disruptions may be linked to increased depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive dysfunction, and decreased behavioral approach.

Objectives

Here we examine the influence of young adult marijuana use on anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral approach, and executive dysfunction. The influence of alcohol and gender were also assessed.

Methods

84 participants (42 MJ, 42 controls) aged 18–25 were balanced ...


Using Auditory Feedback To Improve Striking For Mixed Martial Artists, Frank Krukauskas Krukauskas 2016 University of South Florida

Using Auditory Feedback To Improve Striking For Mixed Martial Artists, Frank Krukauskas Krukauskas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to evaluate, auditory feedback as a training procedure to increase the effectiveness of throwing a "right cross.” Auditory feedback was evaluated in multiple baselines across behaviors design with 4 mixed martial arts students, two males and two females, 25-54 years old. The percentage of correct steps of the right crosses.” was stable .during baseline for all participants improved substantially following the introduction of the auditory feedback, and maintained at 90 percent or more for all participants during follow-up.


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