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Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms Of Adverse Trauma Outcomes In Emerging Adulthood, Olena Kleshchova 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms Of Adverse Trauma Outcomes In Emerging Adulthood, Olena Kleshchova

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Exposure to traumatic stress and adversity during the formative years of development can have adverse effects on mental health, neuroendocrine stress system function, and the brain, that persist into adulthood. One candidate mechanism that might confer vulnerability to enduring adverse outcomes of early life trauma is disruption of normal brain maturation. As the brain matures, functional interactions among brain regions change until the functional brain architecture (i.e., the functional connectome) reaches a mature state in adulthood. Given that different neural circuits have distinct developmental trajectories and sensitive periods, traumatic stress at a given point in development might have ...


Assessing Sex Differences In The Effects Of Short-Term Rem Sleep On Anxiety- And Depressive-Like Behaviors In Rats, Nadia Meshkati 2020 Seton Hall University

Assessing Sex Differences In The Effects Of Short-Term Rem Sleep On Anxiety- And Depressive-Like Behaviors In Rats, Nadia Meshkati

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Findings from both human and animal studies suggest rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbances following a traumatic event can lead to inability to extinguish the fear association, and eventually influence the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Additionally, research has demonstrated that sleep disruptions, including REM sleep deprivation (RSD), increases anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors and states in animals and people, with evidence of sex differences. Furthermore, it has yet to be determined whether short-term RSD, a more natural animal model of PTSD, can influence affective state of subjects. The present study applied short-term RSD to investigate sex differences in the ...


Adhd, Willpower, And Interest: A Positive Approach, Roger DeWitt 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Adhd, Willpower, And Interest: A Positive Approach, Roger Dewitt

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that typically presents with challenges of attention, impulsivity, self-regulation, memory, and sometimes, physical restlessness. Many practitioners, as well as the general public, often treat ADHD as a “disorder” that needs to be “cured,” and precious few researchers and practitioners look to understand and work with the ADHD nervous system rather than trying to align it to the “norm.” This paper will examine ADHD from a positive focus: that it is a nervous system that works extremely well as long as certain criteria are met. It will examine what ADHD is, where ...


Metacognition And Living Above Zero, Mary Margaret Rogers 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Metacognition And Living Above Zero, Mary Margaret Rogers

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Metacognition is a multi-dimensional phenomenon consisting of knowledge and regulatory skills used to monitor, control, and appraise one’s thoughts and thought processes (Schraw, 1998; Wells, 2009). This essay contends that metacognition is relevant to positive psychology and the non-clinical application of well-being practices as it may be utilized to promote self-efficacy, decrease anxiety, and increase well-being. Fortifying metacognitive processes (i.e. knowledge and regulation of cognition) is conceived to foster a sense of control regarding one’s thoughts and behaviors, thereby increasing one’s self-efficacy. Next, it is argued that metacognition may be used to decrease anxiety as the ...


Neurobiological Mechanisms Of Cognitive Processing Therapy For Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Brain Network Approach, Tessa Vuper 2020 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Neurobiological Mechanisms Of Cognitive Processing Therapy For Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Brain Network Approach, Tessa Vuper

Dissertations

Psychotherapy research is increasingly targeting both psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of therapeutic change. This trend is evident in and applicable to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment research given the high nonresponse rate of individuals with PTSD who undergo cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). A review of the literature investigating neurobiological mechanisms of CBT in PTSD reveals inconsistent results that fail to fully support dual process or learning models of CBT effects in the brain. However, network-based models of psychopathology provide a new framework from which to understand both mental disorder symptoms and therapeutic mechanisms. The current study investigated a) whether brain networks ...


Scope Of Attention Variation As A Function Of Anxiety And Depression, Kathleen O'Donnell 2020 California State University, San Bernardino

Scope Of Attention Variation As A Function Of Anxiety And Depression, Kathleen O'Donnell

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

As a social species, correct emotional perception is so vital, that the human brain has evolved a mechanism to control attentional choices by exerting a narrowed field of perception during danger, called the scope of attention (SoA). The SoA determines what information will be focused on or ignored by blocking the perception of non-relevant items and increasing selective focus on danger; even if danger is merely a sad-face. The emotional items blocked from perception cannot be remembered because they were never perceived. But, attention-control to emotional stimuli also varies with mood, as seen in mood-disorders. A mood-disorder’s effect upon ...


The Effects Of Low Dose Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Administration In A Rodent Model Of Delay Discounting, Robert J. Kohler 2020 Western Michigan University

The Effects Of Low Dose Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Administration In A Rodent Model Of Delay Discounting, Robert J. Kohler

Dissertations

The resurgence of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) as a therapeutic tool requires a revival in research, both basic and clinical, to bridge gaps in knowledge left from a previous generation of work. Currently, no study has been published with the intent of establishing optimal microdose concentrations of LSD in an animal model. In the present study, rats were administered a range of LSD doses to quantify potential augmentations in choice behavior in a rodent model of delay discounting. In the first experiment, rats were administered LSD (20 or 40 μg/kg, i.p.) or saline at the start of terminal ...


A Quadratic Analysis Of Trait Anxiety And Heart Rate Variability, Katlyn Schroder 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Quadratic Analysis Of Trait Anxiety And Heart Rate Variability, Katlyn Schroder

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Trait anxiety refers to an individual’s sensitivity to perceived threat. Though it is not itself diagnosable according to the DSM-5, trait anxiety scales are often administered in a clinical context and serve as an indicator for anxiety disorders. High levels of trait anxiety can result in prolonged periods of intense worry and dysfunction, even in those who are not diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Previous studies have attempted to understand the relationship between trait anxiety and reactivity of the autonomic nervous system, especially in relation to vagal tone, but have found inconsistent results. One possible explanation for this inconsistency ...


The Biological, Psychological, Cognitive, And Social Perspectives On Aging: The Design Of A Healthy Aging Program For Older Adults, Melissa Santiago 2020 National Louis University

The Biological, Psychological, Cognitive, And Social Perspectives On Aging: The Design Of A Healthy Aging Program For Older Adults, Melissa Santiago

Dissertations

Aging is an inevitable process, accompanied by changes in physiological, cognitive, psychological, and social facets. Researchers have investigated the physiological, cognitive, psychological, and social risk factors associated with aging and have encouraged the use of physical activity, cognitive training, and dietary interventions to alleviate risk factors. However, holistic programs dedicated to promoting successful aging among older adults are uncommon. This review sought to promote successful aging by identifying physiological, cognitive, psychological, and social risk factors that affect older adults and develop a comprehensive program to holistically mitigate these risk factors. Risk factors associated with unsuccessful aging include the development of ...


The Effects Of Activity-Based Anorexia On The Rewarding Properties Of Methamphetamine And Wheel Running, Rachael M. Langa 2020 CUNY Hunter College

The Effects Of Activity-Based Anorexia On The Rewarding Properties Of Methamphetamine And Wheel Running, Rachael M. Langa

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

An activity-based anorexia (ABA) paradigm in adolescent female mice was used to explore whether anorexia affects circuits underlying reward. The ABA paradigm significantly enhanced methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), but not wheel-induced CPP. These results indicate that the ABA paradigm enhances the rewarding properties of methamphetamine, but not wheel running.


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy For Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, And Associated Sleep Disturbances, Aubretia D. Snyder 2020 Brigham Young University

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy For Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, And Associated Sleep Disturbances, Aubretia D. Snyder

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

With an increasing number of veterans returning from combat with significant head injuries, research interests have begun to turn to the neuropsychological relationship between traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder. Research has found that these dysfunctions often occur together and that both disorders may cause an exacerbation of symptoms in one another. This relationship may be negatively affected further by the presence of sleep disturbances. The complexity of this relationship requires extra consideration in regards to treatment, and cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in treating this comorbid condition. This paper discusses the functional relationship of posttraumatic stress disorder ...


The Spectral Nature Of Anxiety Disorders: Examining Similarities In Clinical And Subclinical Populations, Alexandra M. Muir 2020 Brigham Young University

The Spectral Nature Of Anxiety Disorders: Examining Similarities In Clinical And Subclinical Populations, Alexandra M. Muir

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is one of the leading mental illnesses in the United States today (Alvarez et al., 2012). However, a large number of individuals have their lives disrupted by the symptoms of anxiety, but their symptoms are not severe enough to be diagnosed with GAD. These individuals, much like individuals with GAD, have high trait anxiety, differential brain structure and function, and hypervigilant performance monitoring. Further understanding the neural correlates related to subclinical generalized anxiety disorder and how the neural mechanisms involved relate to daily functioning is of utmost importance. Since there are individuals suffering from subclinical anxiety ...


Differential Patterns Of Theta Activation Underlying Various Cognitive Control Strategies, Jarrod Eisma 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Differential Patterns Of Theta Activation Underlying Various Cognitive Control Strategies, Jarrod Eisma

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this study, EEG was recorded from 157 participants at the University of Arkansas as they performed three computer tasks that tested inhibitory control (Go/Nogo Task), proactive and reactive control (AX-Continuous Performance Task), and resolving response conflict (Global/Local Task- modified Flanker Task). Time-frequency analysis (ERSP) was the primary focus of this study, in order to take advantage of the temporal and frequential characteristics of EEG recordings. The ERSPs and following statistical analysis showed significantly higher midfrontal theta band (4-8 Hz) power values for target trials (those that required more cognitive control) than control trials, which indicated that the ...


The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers 2020 University of San Diego

The Role Of Dopamine In Decision Making Processes In Drosophila Melanogaster, Michelle C. Bowers

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the neural processes that mediate decision making is a relatively new field of investigation in the scientific community. With the ultimate goal of understanding how humans decide between one path and another, simpler models such as Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, are often utilized as a way of determining the neural circuits involved in these decision-making processes. One of the most important decisions flies make is the decision of where to lay their eggs (oviposit). Choosing the proper substrate upon which to lay eggs is a crucial decision that can ultimately impact their fecundity. This paper investigates the ...


Synesthesia And Its Cognitive Correlates, Bailey Hall 2020 William & Mary

Synesthesia And Its Cognitive Correlates, Bailey Hall

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Synesthesia is a neurological condition involving the pairing of senses. For synesthetes, a stimulus invokes a sensory perception; for instance, the letter “B” may be pink or the name “Susan” may taste like apples. Scientists hypothesize that this condition is caused by neurological differences; synesthetes may have more cross-activation between brain areas, either neuroanatomically, through cross-wiring, or perceptually, through disinhibited feedback from higher to lower multimodal areas, or vice versa. These differences have implications for synesthetic learning, memory, attention and inhibition. In the present experiment Multimodal Perception, participants completed a survey investigating their synesthetic experiences, in addition to five tasks ...


Interactive Effect Of Maternal Activation And Disc-1 Knockout On Pup Preference Of Postpartum Rats, Barbara Bueno 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Interactive Effect Of Maternal Activation And Disc-1 Knockout On Pup Preference Of Postpartum Rats, Barbara Bueno

UCARE Research Products

The main purpose of the study was to find a three-way interaction between genotype, treatment and interacted subjects. Interestingly, and not expected, the KO*MIA rats spent more time with the pups compared to time spent with the male rat. This unexpected results from this study are evidence that there is a complex spectrum of behavioral symptoms due to genetics, environment and their interactive effect (Schwartzer et aI., 2013). For that reason, the interaction between genetics (DISCI) and environment (MIA) might be more complex than what is believed.


Beta-Endorphin Expression And Sex Affect The Ability Of Alcohol To Alter Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactivity In The Reward Pathway In Mice, Hannah Kelly-Quigley 2020 Susquehanna University

Beta-Endorphin Expression And Sex Affect The Ability Of Alcohol To Alter Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactivity In The Reward Pathway In Mice, Hannah Kelly-Quigley

Senior Scholars Day

Alcohol has sexually dimorphic effects on the brain, and the endogenous opioid, beta-endorphin (BE), mediates many effects of alcohol. In the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, alcohol stimulates neurons to enhance dopaminergic signaling, but the exact mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. Alcohol could impact dopaminergic signaling in the reward pathway by affecting the production and localization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that acute alcohol intoxication would increase c-fos expression and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in a sex- and BE-dependent manner. In this ...


Sedative And Neurotoxic Properties Of Brexanolone Compared To Midazolam In The Developing Rodent Brain, Jacob Huffman 2020 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Sedative And Neurotoxic Properties Of Brexanolone Compared To Midazolam In The Developing Rodent Brain, Jacob Huffman

Dissertations

The developing brain is susceptible to extensive neurotoxicity following exposure to sedative/anesthetic drugs (SADs). Every year hundreds of thousands of children around the world are exposed to SADs with no viable non-neurotoxic agents approved for clinical use. Allopregnanolone (AlloP) has well-established sedative effects in adults and neonates. AlloP and many SADs produce sedation/anesthesia through allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors, which is one of two principal mechanisms behind SAD-induced neurotoxicity. Evidence suggests AlloP has the unique capacity to regulate key apoptotic factors in adults and is widely involved with critical stages of neurodevelopment, indicating this neurosteroid might serve ...


161— The Effects Of Environment On The Development Of Cocaine-Seeking, Gavin Vaughan, Akane Ichiki, Shreyya Malik, Allison R. Bechard 2020 SUNY Geneseo

161— The Effects Of Environment On The Development Of Cocaine-Seeking, Gavin Vaughan, Akane Ichiki, Shreyya Malik, Allison R. Bechard

GREAT Day

Cocaine addiction is a major individual and societal issue. This study aimed to investigate the environmental and social factors that influence the development of cocaine addiction. Mice were reared in either standard housing or enriched housing. Cocaine preference was measured using the Conditioned Place Preference paradigm, in which subjects are conditioned to associate an injection of cocaine (20mg/kg. I.P.) with a particular side of a 3 chambered arena. Subjects reared in enriched environments displayed increased preference for cocaine in cue primed tests. All subjects displayed cocaine preference in cocaine primed tests. This may be attributed to the enhanced ...


416— The Effects Of Early Life Trauma On Anxiety And Alcohol Use Is Modified By Environment, Katie Kompanijec, Keara Mullin, Gavin Vaughan, Melissa Herman, Allison Bechard 2020 SUNY Geneseo

416— The Effects Of Early Life Trauma On Anxiety And Alcohol Use Is Modified By Environment, Katie Kompanijec, Keara Mullin, Gavin Vaughan, Melissa Herman, Allison Bechard

GREAT Day

Early life trauma is a risk factor for later anxiety and alcohol use disorders. However, the role of the post-trauma environment on the development of such disorders is not well understood. In the present study we investigated experience-dependent changes in anxiety and alcohol use after exposure to early trauma. Young mice (day 23) were exposed to a predator odor (synthetic fox pheromone, TMT) and then reared in either standard (SE) or enriched environments (EE). Adolescent anxiety and conditioned fear were reduced in EE-males, but not EE-females. Adult mice were then tested for their preference to drink alcohol. Alcohol intake escalated ...


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