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The Role Of Glutamate Neurotransmission In The Ventral Tegmental Area In The Expression Of Conditioned Approach Learning, Priscila Hachimine-Merli 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of Glutamate Neurotransmission In The Ventral Tegmental Area In The Expression Of Conditioned Approach Learning, Priscila Hachimine-Merli

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Conditioned stimuli (CSs) come to function as CSs by acquiring the capacity to activate the same mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons activated by primary rewards, producing conditioned activation of these neurons and their associated motivational states. This model stipulates that CSs activate mesocorticolimbic DA systems through the activation of glutamate receptors on DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We tested the hypothesis that glutamate receptor stimulation in the VTA is necessary for the expression of conditioned approach. Rats were tested in a conditioned approach protocol that consisted of 7 consecutive conditioning sessions (light presentations and food were paired), one ...


A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Of Motor Fibre Path Integrity And Overt Responsiveness In Disorders Of Consciousness, Clara A. Stafford 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study Of Motor Fibre Path Integrity And Overt Responsiveness In Disorders Of Consciousness, Clara A. Stafford

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study investigated the relationship between motor thalamo-cortico-cerebellar fibre path integrity and overt responsiveness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Additionally, we investigated the potential of imaging these motor tracts at ultra-high fields. Study I and II aimed to map the white matter connections of motor execution fibres in DOC patients. Our results showed significant reductions in motor fibre path integrity across DOC diagnostic categories. Study III and IV aimed to develop a 7T MRI Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) sequence. We optimized this sequence to image motor fibre paths in DOC patients. We concluded that, in healthy controls, probabilistic ...


A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser 2017 Abilene Christian University

A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser

Dialogue & Nexus

The definition of altruism has been studied, explained, and even confused by many scholars in various fields. The term itself has been inappropriately used to describe prosocial behaviors that do not fall within the definition of altruism. An evaluation of Grant Ramsey’s taxonomy of altruism, which includes biological altruism, psychological altruism, and helping altruism, proves that it is not adequate in categorizing organism’s behaviors. A new taxonomy, with the branches of kin selection, reciprocity, and aesthetic altruism, is presented and explained to clarify the definition of altruism and alleviate confusion about how to describe prosocial behaviors. Both naming ...


An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings 2017 University of Maine

An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy often experience cognitive decline following treatment. This phenomenon, often dubbed “chemo brain” or “chemo fog” is usually temporary, but for a subset of survivors, these cognitive impairments can be long-lasting (>10 years) and negatively affect patients’ quality of life, career performance, and social fulfillment. While it is unclear what neurobiological mechanisms underlie chemotherapy related cognitive impairment, the majority of the animal literature has focused on adult neurogenesis. One process important for neurogenesis is the proliferation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. It is evident that many chemotherapy agents can negatively ...


Associations Between The Willingness To Exert Cognitive Effort And Smoking Abstinence, Austin A. Phanouvong 2017 Portland State University

Associations Between The Willingness To Exert Cognitive Effort And Smoking Abstinence, Austin A. Phanouvong

Student Research Symposium

In decision-making tasks, individuals who prefer smaller, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards (delay discounting) are less likely to quit smoking. Indeed, decision-making tasks with delayed reward costs are sensitive to many aspects of substance use disorders. However, other reward costs might also be important. Our study focused on one of these other reward costs, which was cognitive effort (CE). 22 current smokers who were anticipating quitting in the near future were recruited to validate if more CE discounting predicted shorter abstinence times in reinforced smoking lapse period. Each participant had to be over the age of 21, and smoke ...


Functional Analysis And Treatment Of Self-Injurious Feather Plucking In A Black Vulture (Coragyps Atratus), Kristen L. Morris 2017 Rollins College

Functional Analysis And Treatment Of Self-Injurious Feather Plucking In A Black Vulture (Coragyps Atratus), Kristen L. Morris

Thesis Projects

Feather plucking (FP) is a maladaptive behavior observed in captive avian species. This self-injurious behavior results in damage to and removal of feathers and skin tissue, resulting in animal welfare and financial consequences. The etiology and maintenance of FP have been hypothesized through medical and environmental processes, yet a definitive solution has not been found. The current study investigated the environmental variables maintaining the FP of a Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus), as well as evaluated a function-based treatment for this behavior. The behavior was found to be maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of contingent attention. Treatment consisted of ...


Humor In Medicine: A Literature Review Of Humor’S Potential Therapeutic Value In Health Care, Weston Michael Grant 2017 University of Arkansas

Humor In Medicine: A Literature Review Of Humor’S Potential Therapeutic Value In Health Care, Weston Michael Grant

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Using humor and laughter within the health care field has the potential to be relevant to patients during treatment, to the patient-caregiver relationship, to the subjective well-being of health care providers, and to the environments’ (e.g., work settings) impact on group relationships (e.g., colleagues). A review of the literature examines how the psychological and physiological effects of laughter and humor within the human body impact health and well-being, how humor and laughter improve the patient-practitioner relationship, and if humor and laughter can potentially impact physician burnout. Several possible implications for these findings are discussed, such as professional medical ...


Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley

Master's Theses

Non-scientific literature consistently describes dolphins as “curious animals,” but there has been little systematic research on curiosity in dolphins. Curiosity in humans and certain non-human animal species, including birds and non-human primates, has been studied by examining individual differences in exploration and reactions to novel stimuli. Additionally, research has explored how human infants and non-human animals react when an event violates their expectations. The present study explored dolphins’ reactions to spontaneously surprising and expectation-violating stimuli. The reactions of dolphins, 15 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and 6 rough-toothed (Steno bredanensis), at Gulf World Marine Park were analyzed in response to events that ...


Anxiety-Like Behaviors And C-Fos Expression In Adult Zebrafish: Effects Of Housing Conditions, Alcohol And Caffeine, Adam Douglas Collier 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Anxiety-Like Behaviors And C-Fos Expression In Adult Zebrafish: Effects Of Housing Conditions, Alcohol And Caffeine, Adam Douglas Collier

Dissertations

Alcohol abuse is the third largest risk factor for disease world, responsible for an estimated 3.3 million deaths each year. The concomitant ingestion of alcohol and caffeine is hypothesized to increase risk factors associated with alcohol use alone by reducing subjective effects of intoxication. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently garnered attention from researchers as an effective pre-clinical in-vivo animal model in behavioral pharmacology research, largely due to small size, low-cost and ease of drug delivery. A number of studies have reported the effects of alcohol and caffeine on zebrafish behavior at a variety of doses. However, the combined ...


Neurostructural Organization And Neocortical Projecting Neuron Distribution In A Mouse Model Of Timothy Syndrome-Mediated Autism Spectrum Disorder, Aiden L. Ford 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Neurostructural Organization And Neocortical Projecting Neuron Distribution In A Mouse Model Of Timothy Syndrome-Mediated Autism Spectrum Disorder, Aiden L. Ford

Honors Scholar Theses

Aims: This study investigates the nuanced effect of the CACNA1C mutation on neurocognition and neurodevelopment via an extended study of the Timothy Syndrome (TS) mediated Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) mouse model – TS2-neo. It includes: (1) an expanded assessment of the TS2-neo behavioral phenotype, and (2) a comprehensive histological analysis of cortical structural and laminar features.

Methods: 24 age-matched male mice – 12 TS2-neo (B6.Cg-Cacna1ctm2Itl, knock-in G406R mutation), 12 WT (C57BL/6J) – were tested on paradigms examining motor, socio-communicative and cognitive abilities. Neural tissue was processed for either volumetric analysis through Nissl stain (8 TS2-neo, 8 WT) or immunohistochemical ...


A Behavioral Prerequisite For The Genetic Analysis Of Auditory Feature Detection Mechanisms In Female Crickets, Rebecca L. Blisko 2017 University of Rhode Island

A Behavioral Prerequisite For The Genetic Analysis Of Auditory Feature Detection Mechanisms In Female Crickets, Rebecca L. Blisko

Senior Honors Projects

Sexual dimorphism is exhibited across all cricket species and is a central aspect of the mating processes of these insects. Only male crickets possess wing structures and pattern generators in the central nervous system that allow them to produce a mating call that is unique to their species in order to attract conspecific females. Conspecific females possess an auditory feature detection circuit in the central nervous system that is capable of detecting the species-specific frequency and temporal pattern of sound pulses within a male call. In order for dimorphic differences in mating behavior to result in successful continuation of a ...


Do Humans Prefer Faces? Zygomatic Muscle Responses To Neutral Faces Vs. Neutral Objects, Thomas J. Goetze 2017 Saint John Fisher College

Do Humans Prefer Faces? Zygomatic Muscle Responses To Neutral Faces Vs. Neutral Objects, Thomas J. Goetze

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

The present study examined the significance of viewing images of neutral faces versus images of neutral objects on zygomatic muscle activity using facial EMG. Participants (60% women) from a pool of introductory psychology courses had their facial EMG recordings measured in response to images of neutral faces and neutral objects. Participants’ valence rating of each image was also recorded using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in order to rate their emotional response to each image. The primary hypothesis was that participants would have greater activity in the zygomatic muscle region when presented with images of neutral faces as opposed to lessor ...


Social Risks As Costly Trait Signals, Ruth E. Sarafin 2017 University of New Mexico

Social Risks As Costly Trait Signals, Ruth E. Sarafin

Psychology ETDs

Costly signaling theory posits that people will sometimes engage in seemingly irrational behavior to show off attractive qualities about themselves. These behaviors may end in or incur a cost to the actor such that only individuals who are highly fit are able to succeed at the behavior, and therefore behavior success is an honest signal of fitness. Previous research has used costly signaling to explain human physical risk taking behaviors such as rock climbing, but the current study seeks to apply them to social risk taking, such as raising one’s hand in class. Should social risk taking prove to ...


Maternal Stress And Stress Symptomatology In Children, Emily Klipa 2017 Otterbein University

Maternal Stress And Stress Symptomatology In Children, Emily Klipa

Distinction Papers

With stress being referred to as the “health epidemic of the 21st century” by the World Health Organization, questions arise about not only how this epidemic affects adults, but also how stress may affect today’s children. Research indicates that stress impacting parents trickle down to children, and the effects can be palpable. In this study the author examined maternal stress as well as stress related symptoms and illnesses in their children. Participants are mothers of children age’s five to ten. The protocol included completion of a four part online survey addressing demographic information, perceived stress, and recent ...


Image Memory For Hyperpalatable Foods In University Aged Females, Leila M. Mackay 2017 Brescia University

Image Memory For Hyperpalatable Foods In University Aged Females, Leila M. Mackay

Brescia Psychology Undergraduate Honours Theses

Hyperpalatable foods are high in sugar and/or fat and highly processed. These foods increase dopamine in the brain similar to other rewards, such as drugs of abuse, producing pleasure and an enhanced drive to consume them. Undergraduate students (n = 44) completed an explicit memory task where they were asked if they recalled various types of food (high sugar, high fat, sugar+fat, fruits, vegetables and breads) and non-food images. Questionnaires evaluating eating patterns were also completed. It was hypothesized that hyperpalatable foods would be recalled better and faster than less-palatable foods or non-food images. The study found that hyperpalatable ...


Exploring Neural Entrainment And Beat Perception Through Movement, Sarah M. Schwanz 2017 Brescia University College

Exploring Neural Entrainment And Beat Perception Through Movement, Sarah M. Schwanz

Brescia Psychology Undergraduate Honours Theses

The way humans move to music has a large impact on how music is synchronized to, interpreted, and enjoyed. It is understood that movements to music aid in beat perception, and neural oscillations have the ability to entrain to musical rhythms. This study attempted to link these two well-established phenomena by exploring the use of movement to simple and complex musical rhythms to enhance neural entrainment. Ten undergraduate students engaged in 60 simple and complex musical rhythms, either tapping along to the beat or listening without movement, while undergoing EEG recording. Although the differences in brain response amplitude were not ...


Neural Correlates Of Multisensory Integration And The Role Of Musical Experience, Victoria A. Bostler 2017 College of William and Mary

Neural Correlates Of Multisensory Integration And The Role Of Musical Experience, Victoria A. Bostler

Undergraduate Honors Theses

A large body of experimental research demonstrates that environments and behavioral experiences can affect cognitive performance. There has been increasing interest in the influence of musical experience on normal neuronal functioning over the past decade. However, much of this research has failed to target specific neural activity as indicators of cognitive function. One such measure of neural activity is the mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential (ERP) that occurs in response to the presentation of a deviant stimulus in a sequence of repeated stimuli. The primary aim of the current study was to explore the influence of musical experience on ...


Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Who's Tweeting Whom: The Influence Of Rearing Condition On Social Integration In Zebra Finches, Zachary L. Darwish 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Who's Tweeting Whom: The Influence Of Rearing Condition On Social Integration In Zebra Finches, Zachary L. Darwish

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are a gregarious species of finch. Previous work with zebra finches has demonstrated the long-lasting impacts of ear social environment on social behavior in adulthood. Zebra finch chicks were raised by either both parents (biparental) or their mother only (uniparental) and their behavior in an aviary was recorded using passive integrative transponders. Zebra finch ID numbers were recorded every time they entered a feeding station for 31 days. There was a trend for uniparental birds to engage in more visits to a feeding station per event than biparental birds, however, there was no difference in the ...


Neuroendocrine And Psychological Factors Associated With Burnout, Compassion Fatigue, And Reduced Compassion Satisfaction In Mental Health Professionals, Michelle Huffman 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Neuroendocrine And Psychological Factors Associated With Burnout, Compassion Fatigue, And Reduced Compassion Satisfaction In Mental Health Professionals, Michelle Huffman

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Mental health professionals are at increased risk for burnout, compassion fatigue, and reduced compassion satisfaction. Burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and loss of personal accomplishment. Compassion fatigue is a more progressed disruption relative to burnout marked by insomnia/nightmares, arousal, loss of objectivity, isolation, and intrusive thoughts. Compassion satisfaction buffers against burnout and compassion fatigue. Although links between demographic, psychological, and biological factors have been documented, interactions between these factors have not been explored. Mental health professionals completed psychological inventories measuring depression, anxiety, burnout, compassion fatigue, and compassion satisfaction. Saliva samples were collected during the Trier Social Stress ...


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