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Social Justice Approaches To Cognitive, Emotional, And Language Development During Childhood And Adolescence, Angélique M. Blackburn 2021 Texas A&M International University

Social Justice Approaches To Cognitive, Emotional, And Language Development During Childhood And Adolescence, Angélique M. Blackburn

Journal of Multicultural Affairs

With contemporary events that have spotlighted social injustices, including the Black Lives Matter movement in the United States and the COVID-19 pandemic, any discussion of child development should take into account the diverse experiences of children facing injustice. In this article, I focus on social justice as it pertains to child development and how this topic has been addressed in literature targeted at students of child development theory. I focus on the contribution of two recent books (Anthis, 2020; De Houwer, 2021) within the greater context of reviewing literature regarding social inequities in cognitive, emotional, and language development. Anthis (2020 ...


The Relationship Between Infant-Family Routines, Number Of Caregivers And Infant Basal Cortisol, Vanessa Newell, Hannah B. White 2021 UMSL

The Relationship Between Infant-Family Routines, Number Of Caregivers And Infant Basal Cortisol, Vanessa Newell, Hannah B. White

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Background: Family routines have been found to be related to child adjustment, marital satisfaction, and parenting competence (Fiese, 2002). Persistent stress, and the resulting frequent activation of the body’s stress responses, can result in excessive wear-and-tear on the body and brain known as allostatic load (McEwen, 2000). In infants, basal cortisol levels act as an instrument to measure allostatic load (White, 2020). To our knowledge, no existing work on the impact of routines on infant development has examined the role of family structure. In traditional and minority cultures it is common for caregiving responsibilities to be divided among multiple ...


A Randomized Controlled Trial Of Psychological Outcomes Of Mobile Guided Resonant Frequency Breathing In Young Adults With Elevated Stress During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Al Amira Safa Shehab 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Randomized Controlled Trial Of Psychological Outcomes Of Mobile Guided Resonant Frequency Breathing In Young Adults With Elevated Stress During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Al Amira Safa Shehab

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Deep breathing practices have shown promise in reducing stress, anxiety, and depression in different populations, including young adults. Specifically, resonant frequency breathing can exert an impact on stress response systems through the vagus nerve and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This may induce reductions in stress and improvement in emotion regulation. Young adults, including college students, tend to be at a higher risk for psychological distress, as they face several psychosocial challenges. The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed new and unique stressors that resulted in higher levels of stress and emotional symptoms and it has been shown that this may have placed ...


Oxytocin Does Not Mediate Lithium Chloride (Licl)-Induced Non-Social Environmentally Conditioned Disgust Behaviour (Anticipatory Nausea) In Male Rats, Vangel Matic 2021 Western University

Oxytocin Does Not Mediate Lithium Chloride (Licl)-Induced Non-Social Environmentally Conditioned Disgust Behaviour (Anticipatory Nausea) In Male Rats, Vangel Matic

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Introduction. Anticipatory Nausea (AN) is a form of classical conditioning in which the effects of a nausea-inducing substance, such as lithium chloride (LiCl), become associated with a social or environmental context. In rats, AN can be measured by the frequency of conditioned gaping behaviour, displayed when rats are re-exposed to a context previously associated with LiCl. Oxytocin (OT) may be involved in the mediation of socially conditioned disgust, though its role in mediating non-social environmentally conditioned disgust is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of OT in mediating environmentally conditioned disgust. It was hypothesized ...


Serotonin 1b/1a Receptor Modulation On Behavioral Flexibility In C57bl/6j Mice, Brandon L. Oliver 2021 CSUSAN BERNARDINO

Serotonin 1b/1a Receptor Modulation On Behavioral Flexibility In C57bl/6j Mice, Brandon L. Oliver

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Pharmacological activation of the 5-HT1B and 1A receptors has been implicated in OCD-like behaviors in rodents such as increased perseverative circling, checking behaviors, and locomotor stereotypy. However, little is understood about the effects of 5-HT1B and 1A receptor activation on behavioral inflexibility, a common symptom associated with OCD. The present study utilized the 5-HT1B/1A receptor agonist RU24969 at 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg to test three hypotheses. The first hypothesis predicted RU24969 would lead to a dose-dependent impairment on behavioral flexibility in C57BL/6J mice. It was also predicted that male C57BL/6J mice would ...


Preclinical Behavioral Assessment Of Chronic, Intermittent Low-Dose Psilocybin In Rodent Models Of Depression And Anxiety, Harmony I. Risca 2021 Western Michigan University

Preclinical Behavioral Assessment Of Chronic, Intermittent Low-Dose Psilocybin In Rodent Models Of Depression And Anxiety, Harmony I. Risca

Dissertations

Recent studies have demonstrated the clinical efficacy of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy for treatment-resistant depression and anxiety. Amidst the overall success of recent clinical trials using a single high dose of psilocybin, anecdotal reports indicate anxiolytic and antidepressant effects following a repeated low dose regimen. As therapeutic outcomes are often tightly intertwined with the individual’s subjective experience, animal models are used as objective measures to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the putative antidepressant/anxiolytic effects of psychedelics. Three rodent models predictive of anxiolytic or antidepressant effects were used to evaluate effects of chronic intermittent low dose (CILD) psilocybin treatment; the ...


Exploration Of Patient Variables And Characteristics Best Suited For Medical Marijuana Treatment For Anxiety And Depressive Disorders, Corey Gazoo 2021 National Louis University

Exploration Of Patient Variables And Characteristics Best Suited For Medical Marijuana Treatment For Anxiety And Depressive Disorders, Corey Gazoo

Dissertations

Individuals with posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depressive disorders are currently being prescribed medical marijuana as a treatment in many states across the United States. However, marijuana is still considered a schedule one narcotic by the Drug Enforcement Administration and federal government, which provides several barriers and challenges to conduct research such as approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and following guidelines from the National Institute on Drug Abuse issued by the DEA. Additionally, individuals prescribed medical marijuana for mental health disorders are not always thoroughly instructed on the type of medical marijuana, the dosage, and how frequently ...


Medication Versus Brain-Based Treatment: Evaluation Treatment Preferences Of Parents Of Children With Adhd, Rebecca Recio-Swift 2021 Stephen F. Austin State University

Medication Versus Brain-Based Treatment: Evaluation Treatment Preferences Of Parents Of Children With Adhd, Rebecca Recio-Swift

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders across the world. Currently, treatment for ADHD mostly consists of either medication or behavioral therapy or a combination of both. However, research has shown that medication used as therapy for the treatment of ADHD has side effects which parents deem undesirable for their children. Therefore, recent research has focused on patient and parent preferences. Studies have found that behavioral or other treatment options may often be chosen over medications. These same studies have documented the characteristics of parents that prefer certain treatments for their children. The purpose of ...


The Role Of Athletic Identity In General Mental Health And Alcohol-Related Help-Seeking Intentions Of College Students, Michael Grant Young 2021 Old Dominion University

The Role Of Athletic Identity In General Mental Health And Alcohol-Related Help-Seeking Intentions Of College Students, Michael Grant Young

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Young adults are vulnerable to a range of mental health concerns and tend to drink in high quantities and tend to not seek help for these concerns. Specifically, college students involved in athletics tend to have low help-seeking rates—though help-seeking research for this population is relatively limited. Athletic identity (i.e., identification with the athlete role) is a relevant construct for examining this population, however little is known about its association with help-seeking beliefs and ideas. This study examines: (1) the association between athletic identity and help-seeking intentions for both mental health and alcohol use concerns, (2) the association ...


Cerebellum-Seeded Functional Connectivity Changes In Trait-Anxious Individuals Undergoing Attention Bias Modification Training, Katherine Elwell 2021 Northern Michigan University

Cerebellum-Seeded Functional Connectivity Changes In Trait-Anxious Individuals Undergoing Attention Bias Modification Training, Katherine Elwell

All NMU Master's Theses

Anxiety and anxiety related disorders are increasing at a drastic rate in the past decade, with the NIMH reporting that 31.1% of U.S. adults will experience an anxiety disorder at some point in their lives. Anxiety is commonly characterized by increased attention bias to threat. Attention Bias Modification (ABM) is a new treatment used to reduce individual’s attention bias towards threat. The extent to which ABM leads to underlying neural changes is still unknown. The cerebellum is a neglected brain structure, with new research provides evidence that cerebellum’s functional connectivity and shared networks with threat processing ...


The Effect Of A Mindfulness-Based Intervention On Attention And Cognitive Control As A Function Of Smartphone Notifications., Joshua D. Upshaw 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effect Of A Mindfulness-Based Intervention On Attention And Cognitive Control As A Function Of Smartphone Notifications., Joshua D. Upshaw

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Barriers to accessing mobile technology, particularly smartphones, have decreased substantially since the iPhone’s release in 2007, resulting in increased ownership and usage across all ages, genders, and races. Despite their ubiquity in our society, relatively little empirical work has investigated the influence of smartphones on our higher order executive functioning. Prior work has linked smartphone use with impaired cognitive control during cognitively demanding tasks, especially in heavier smartphone users. The goals of the current study were twofold. First, the study aimed to examine the effects of smartphone notifications on cognitive control and attention. And second, to determine the effects ...


Long-Term Gene–Culture Coevolution And The Human Evolutionary Transition, Timothy M. Waring, Zachary T. Wood 2021 University of Maine

Long-Term Gene–Culture Coevolution And The Human Evolutionary Transition, Timothy M. Waring, Zachary T. Wood

School of Economics Faculty Scholarship

It has been suggested that the human species may be undergoing an evolutionary transition in individuality (ETI). But there is disagreement about how to apply the ETI framework to our species, and whether culture is implicated as either cause or consequence. Long-term gene–culture coevolution (GCC) is also poorly understood. Some have argued that culture steers human evolution, while others proposed that genes hold culture on a leash. We review the literature and evidence on long-term GCC in humans and find a set of common themes. First, culture appears to hold greater adaptive potential than genetic inheritance and is probably ...


Learning To Feel Safe: A Translational Study Of The Influence Of Safety Learning On Anxiety-Related Overgeneralized Fear, Hyein Cho 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Learning To Feel Safe: A Translational Study Of The Influence Of Safety Learning On Anxiety-Related Overgeneralized Fear, Hyein Cho

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health diagnoses, affecting about a third of the population in their lifetime. However, approximately a third of individuals with anxiety do not respond to current treatment approaches, highlighting the need to identify additional potential therapeutic mechanisms. Safety learning is one such mechanism, but methodological challenges and a dearth of research have prevented the field from advancing the understanding of the role of safety learning in the etiology and remediation of anxiety disorders. Animal research, using single-cued safety learning paradigms, has yielded promising early findings, demonstrating that safety learning directly reduces anxiety-related behaviors ...


Characterizing The Brain Dynamics And Eye Movement Behavior Of Memory-Guided Saccades: A Preliminary Investigation Of Distractor Influence On Memory-Guided Saccades, Angelo V. Colmenero 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Characterizing The Brain Dynamics And Eye Movement Behavior Of Memory-Guided Saccades: A Preliminary Investigation Of Distractor Influence On Memory-Guided Saccades, Angelo V. Colmenero

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Research has helped to shed light on the functional organization and neural mechanisms of distractors on memory-guided saccades. In our current study we have utilized eye tracking and EEG technology to simultaneously record the changes in saccadic eye movement (SEM) behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with performance on a memory-guided saccade task with distractor conditions. Thirteen healthy control participants (n = 13; 6 female) were tasked to complete 864 memory-guided saccade trials with both visible (white) and invisible (black) distractors presented on a black background before saccade initiation. Compared with the control (black) distractor condition, distractor presentation produced a significant ...


Influence Of Drd4 Receptor Gene Polymorphism On Aspirational Quality And Approach Motivation, Harry Henry-Ojo 2021 Arkansas Tech University

Influence Of Drd4 Receptor Gene Polymorphism On Aspirational Quality And Approach Motivation, Harry Henry-Ojo

ATU Theses and Dissertations

The present study investigates the presence of a molecular genetic basis of the quality of aspiration and motivation for behavior described by Ryan and Deci’s self-determination theory and Gray’s biopsychological theory of personality respectively. In this study, investigation was carried out to determine the impact of DRD4 receptor gene polymorphism on intrinsic and extrinsic aspiration as well as approach motivation using the Aspiration Index scales and Behavioral Inhibition and Activation (BIS/BAS) scales as our psychometric instrument of evaluation. In a pilot study consisting of 9 healthy subjects, the 7R allele of DRD4 receptor gene was associated with ...


Empathy And Fairness In Nonhuman Primates: Evolutionary Bases Of Human Morality, Colt Halter 2021 Brigham Young University

Empathy And Fairness In Nonhuman Primates: Evolutionary Bases Of Human Morality, Colt Halter

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Darwin offered an evolutionary perspective on the origins of human morality, suggesting that humans share a biological foundation with nonhuman primates. This paper reviews the current literature on moral and prosocial behaviors of nonhuman primates, specifically examining whether nonhuman primates exhibit behaviors that are typical of empathy and fairness. The literature documents that nonhuman primates exhibit empathetic behaviors regarding emotional contagion and sympathetic concern. There is also evidence that nonhuman primates have a sense of fairness, seen in their reciprocal behaviors and aversion to inequity. Taken together, this suggests that there are evolutionary roots of morality, lending empirical support to ...


The Biopsychosocial Model And Clinical Decision Science In The Age Of Black Lives Matter: A Clinical Reflection, Abdul-Rahman M. Suleiman, Samer Ilayan 2021 Wayne State University School of Medicine

The Biopsychosocial Model And Clinical Decision Science In The Age Of Black Lives Matter: A Clinical Reflection, Abdul-Rahman M. Suleiman, Samer Ilayan

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

The author reflects on the biopsychosocial considerations of elevated blood pressure in teenage African American youth during the era of Black Lives Matter (BLM). Parallels are drawn between Dr. Engel’s biopsychosocial model and clinical decision science.


Exploring Tactile Art-Making With Deafblind Students And Their Families: An Opportunity For Creative Play, Alice Rodgers 2021 Lesley University

Exploring Tactile Art-Making With Deafblind Students And Their Families: An Opportunity For Creative Play, Alice Rodgers

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The impact of a deafblind diagnosis on an individual’s mental health and the well-being of the family involved can be profound. However, current research and available literature for the mental health treatment and therapy practices of deafblind persons and their families is limited (Kyzar et al., 2016; “WFDB Global Report 2018,” n.d.). This thesis used the Leeds Family Psychology and Therapy Service principles (Leeds FPTS) and the Expressive Therapies Continuum with established deafblind teaching strategies to facilitate an original arts-based community project entitled: “Things We Like.” This project provided an opportunity for deafblind students (ages three to 22 ...


Reiki For Recovery: Incorporating Japanese Health Practices To Increase Contemporary Resiliency In American Health, Leif Peterson 2021 The University of San Francisco

Reiki For Recovery: Incorporating Japanese Health Practices To Increase Contemporary Resiliency In American Health, Leif Peterson

Master's Projects and Capstones

The Japanese health practice of Reiki attempts to maximize the latent ability of the human system to heal itself. The Reiki system, established over a century ago, combines multiple Asian health traditions, experimenting with practices that maximize the natural processes of the body to perform its own repairs. Reiki encourages healthy behaviors that balance the mind and body, return the human system to a lowered stress level, and allow for an optimal recovery state for the patient. This paper illustrates how this Japanese health-affirming method can be integrated and utilized within existing health and medical practices. An area that is ...


Big Five Personality Traits And Political Orientation: An Inquiry Into Political Beliefs, Ian E. Phillips 2021 Cleveland State University

Big Five Personality Traits And Political Orientation: An Inquiry Into Political Beliefs, Ian E. Phillips

The Downtown Review

Personality research centered on the Big Five personality traits has heavily impacted our understanding in regards to what forces orient a person on a political spectrum. Examining how personality differences interact with political orientation, this research seeks to provide information on what makes someone either more or less likely to be liberal or conservative based on their temperament. In this paper, previous personality research is synthesized into one discussion, centered on what the effects of each trait are and how they impact political orientation, the heritability of personality, and what implications there are for such research in the realm of ...


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