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Consciousness, Evaluation, And The Self-Organizing Brain, 2022 California Institute of Integral Studies

Consciousness, Evaluation, And The Self-Organizing Brain

Journal of Conscious Evolution

While evolution is guided by natural selection, it is internally driven by self-organizing processes. The brain encompasses these complementary forces and dynamics of evolution in both its structure and dynamics by embodying a historical record of the factors that have shaped it throughout its evolutionary past, as well as by being shaped by selective parameters in real time. Self-organization is evident in not only the brain’s structure and form, but also in the processes that support consciousness. From the convergence of complex structure and the novelty-generating dynamics of chaos that both characterize the brain arises the experience of explicit ...


Associations Between Cannabis, Psychosis, And Schizophrenia In Adolescents, Lauren Moment 2022 University of Colorado - Denver

Associations Between Cannabis, Psychosis, And Schizophrenia In Adolescents, Lauren Moment

Academic Leadership Journal in Student Research

The effects of cannabis use on the brain, mind, and body have been studied for decades. The developing brain, particularly the adolescent and young adult brain, undergoes critical development that makes it especially susceptible to the effects of cannabis use. Among the adverse effects of cannabis use in adolescence and young adulthood, psychosis and psychotic disorders (e.g., schizophrenia) have been examined. The association of cannabis use with schizophrenia was first elucidated in a Swedish study of army conscripts. Specifically, conscripts reported their cannabis use exposure and were followed longitudinally to assess the emergence of schizophrenia. The authors found that ...


Dietary Approaches To The Treatment Of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Dhira Patel 2022 Loma Linda University

Dietary Approaches To The Treatment Of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Dhira Patel

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

This chapter reviews the literature surrounding autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their relation to gastrointestinal (GI), behavioral, neurological, and immunological functioning. Individuals with ASDs often have poor GI health, including bowel motility issues, autoimmune and/or other adverse responses to certain foods, and lack of necessary nutrient absorption. These issues may be caused or exacerbated by restrictive behavioral patterns (e.g., preference for sweet and salty foods and/or refusal of healthy foods). Those individuals with GI issues tend to demonstrate more behavioral deficits (e.g., irritability, agitation, hyperactivity) and also tend to have an imbalance in overall gut microbiome ...


Competitive And Facilitative Interactions Between Pavlovian Cues In Human Associative Learning: A Behavioral And Neural Analysis, Fahd Alhazmi 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Competitive And Facilitative Interactions Between Pavlovian Cues In Human Associative Learning: A Behavioral And Neural Analysis, Fahd Alhazmi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Learning to anticipate significant events accurately is a crucial element of survival for all species. The process by which animals acquire this knowledge has been a central question of psychological research. A fundamental assumption of many learning theories is that the predictive value assigned to cues is not simply determined by their probability of reinforcement but rather by their ability to compete with other cues present during learning. The assumption of cue competition has significantly contributed to the development of behavioral and neuroscience research for decades, as it has opened the door to new empirical and theoretical advances on the ...


The Effects Of False Heartbeat Feedback On Moral Judgment, Scott Koenig 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Effects Of False Heartbeat Feedback On Moral Judgment, Scott Koenig

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Research on human morality is at a crossroads, with one side claiming that moral judgment is the result of rational inference and the other side claiming that it is the result of emotion-laden intuition. This study investigated whether emotion drives moral judgment by manipulating a core component of the experience of emotion: physiological arousal. The sample consisted of 77 undergraduate students at Brooklyn College (57% women, 43% men; mean age = 20.1). One group of participants was led to believe their heart was beating quickly, and another group slowly, while they read and evaluated a series of text vignettes depicting ...


Neuroanatomy In Mild Cognitive Impairment: Relationship To Functional Skills, Treatment Expectancy, And Comorbid Depression, Sara Rushia 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Neuroanatomy In Mild Cognitive Impairment: Relationship To Functional Skills, Treatment Expectancy, And Comorbid Depression, Sara Rushia

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a neurocognitive disorder defined by cognitive decline in older adults. Although MCI has been studied for decades, there remain important areas to be explored in order to adequately characterize aspects of this disorder that provide information valuable for possible interventions and disease progression to dementia, including a better understanding of the neuroanatomical variables relevant to this disorder. Such neuroanatomical variables include cortical thickness, hippocampal volume, and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). This dissertation consists of three separate studies aimed at addressing gaps in the literature on MCI in relation to brain morphometrics and under-studied characteristics involved ...


Using Motor Imagery As An Alternative To Exercise For Improvement Of Mental Health: A Qualitative Investigation, Madelyn Colbert 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Using Motor Imagery As An Alternative To Exercise For Improvement Of Mental Health: A Qualitative Investigation, Madelyn Colbert

Spectra Undergraduate Research Journal

Exercise is a commonly used non-pharmacological treatment to improve the mental and physical health of patients with varying conditions. However, not all patients have the means to participate in exercise and/or physical exertion. Motor imagery training (MIT) is visualizing a task without motor output. Evidence has demonstrated MIT to enhance physical function with and without adjacent physical practice. A qualitative research study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of utilizing MIT as a depression and anxiety reducing alternative to exercise. Seven participants meeting the selection criteria were randomized into (a) the exercise group, or (b) the MIT group. The ...


Sex Differences In The Anatomy Of Mam E17 Treated Rats: A Developmental Model Of Schizophrenia, Cassandra Hartsgrove 2022 Bridgewater State University

Sex Differences In The Anatomy Of Mam E17 Treated Rats: A Developmental Model Of Schizophrenia, Cassandra Hartsgrove

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Enlarged ventricles and reduced cortical volume are neuroanatomical abnormalities correlated with schizophrenia and typically more severe in males. The MAM model of schizophrenia is a developmental disruption model that involves exposing animals to a teratogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM), to reflect the neuroanatomical traits of schizophrenia. Rodents exposed to MAM on embryonic day 17 (E17) experience a reduction of cortical volume and increased ventricular volume. Measuring brain weight and ventricular volume can be used to inversely measure the severity of cortical reduction. The circling method was used to measure the lateral ventricles of a sample of 27 rodents; 8 MAM-females, 7 ...


The Effects Of The Aromatase Inhibitor, Letrozole, On Lithium Chloride (Licl)-Induced Conditioned Disgust Behaviour (Anticipatory Nausea) In Male Rats, Vangel Matic 2022 Western University

The Effects Of The Aromatase Inhibitor, Letrozole, On Lithium Chloride (Licl)-Induced Conditioned Disgust Behaviour (Anticipatory Nausea) In Male Rats, Vangel Matic

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Anticipatory Nausea (AN) is a form of classical conditioning in which the effects of a nausea-inducing toxin become associated with a specific environmental context. AN is often experienced by individuals receiving chemotherapy treatment, whereby the emetic effects of the chemotherapy agents become associated with the treatment context (i.e. hospital, clinic), such that exposure to the context alone can cause an individual to experience nausea and potentially withdraw from treatment. Chemotherapy-associated AN is suggested to have a higher incidence in females compared to males.

AN can be represented in a rodent model (conditioned disgust) through the occurrence of conditioned gaping ...


Cortisol Administration Normalizes Aberrant Functional Connectivity In Women With Depression, Adam C. Runyan 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Cortisol Administration Normalizes Aberrant Functional Connectivity In Women With Depression, Adam C. Runyan

Dissertations

Previous resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) research has identified aberrant connectivity in several large brain networks in depression, including the default mode (DMN), frontoparietal (FPN), and salience networks (SN). Connectivity of these networks is also related to depressive symptom severity and is affected by cortisol levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effects of acute cortisol administration on rsFC of DMN, FPN, and SN in individuals varying in depression history and severity. We collected resting-state fMRI scans for 74 women with and without a history of depressive disorder after administration of cortisol and placebo using a ...


Uncovering 'Hidden' Signals: Previously Presumed Visual Signals Likely Generate Air Particle Movement, Pallabi Kundu, Noori Choi, Aaron S. Rundus, Roger D. Santer 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Uncovering 'Hidden' Signals: Previously Presumed Visual Signals Likely Generate Air Particle Movement, Pallabi Kundu, Noori Choi, Aaron S. Rundus, Roger D. Santer

Psychology Faculty Publications

Wolf spiders within the genus Schizocosa have become a model system for exploring the form and function of multimodal communication. In terms of male signaling, much past research has focused on the role and importance of dynamic and static visual and substrate-borne vibratory communication. Studies on S. retrorsa, however, have found that female-male pairs were able to successfully mate in the absence of both visual and vibratory stimuli, suggesting a reduced or non-existent role of these signaling modalities in this species. Given these prior findings, it has been suggested that S. retrorsa males may utilize an additional signaling modality during ...


Testing An Overtraining Protocol For Fear Learning In Humans, Gordon M. Haskell 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Testing An Overtraining Protocol For Fear Learning In Humans, Gordon M. Haskell

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Successful regulation of fear memories is a fundamental tenet to the exposure-based therapies often employed by mental health professionals for individuals with PTSD, phobias, and other anxiety disorders. Consequently, the efficacy of these treatment methodologies is largely dependent on the strength of the fear memory, as stronger memories are often characterized by an increased resistance to extinction and heightened fear recovery. However, there is little consensus within the scientific community regarding how to effectively maximize fear memory strength in human studies, and the literature exploring the impact of variability in acquisition parameters on memory strength is sparse. Here, we tested ...


Cross-Modal Perception Of Identity By Sound And Taste In Bottlenose Dolphins, Jason N. Bruck, Sam F. Walmsley, Vincent M. Janik 2022 Stephen F Austin State University

Cross-Modal Perception Of Identity By Sound And Taste In Bottlenose Dolphins, Jason N. Bruck, Sam F. Walmsley, Vincent M. Janik

Faculty Publications

While studies have demonstrated concept formation in animals, only humans are known to label concepts to use them in mental simulations or predictions. To investigate whether other animals use labels comparably, we studied cross-modal, individual recognition in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that use signature whistles as labels for conspecifics in their own communication. First, we tested whether dolphins could use gustatory stimuli and found that they could distinguish between water and urine samples, as well as between urine from familiar and unfamiliar individuals. Then, we paired playbacks of signature whistles of known animals with urine samples from either the same ...


Differential Neural Correlates Underlying Different Cognitive Control Strategies And Their Relationship With The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Carroll Bentley 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Differential Neural Correlates Underlying Different Cognitive Control Strategies And Their Relationship With The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Carroll Bentley

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Impulsivity is defined as a rapid unplanned action to a stimulus, where the person does not consider the consequences of their actions (Moeller et al., 2001). Various measurement techniques exist in the study of impulsivity and include self-report, behavioral and physiological measures. This breadth of measurement techniques affords researchers the opportunity to understand what is likely a multifaceted nature of this construct. Previous literature shows mixed results between the relationship of the three measures. The present study seeks to add clarity between the three different modalities of measuring impulsivity. To address this relationship, an undergraduate sample (n = 171) completed three ...


Utilization Of The Fundamental Attribution Error With Increased Immune System Inflammation, John Odom 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Utilization Of The Fundamental Attribution Error With Increased Immune System Inflammation, John Odom

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Immune system inflammation is associated with sickness behavior, depressive mood, and alteration of decision-making processes. Because of these cognitive effects, inflammation may also lead to increased use of heuristics, for example the Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE). In the current research, inflammation was experimentally increased using the influenza vaccine, with participants receiving either the vaccine or a placebo injection and completing a measure that tests for the FAE. There were no significant differences between the two conditions regarding the number of personal, situational, or overall attributions made by the participants in the measure that would indicate use of the FAE. However ...


Barriers To Care, Depressive Symptoms, And Moderating Factors Among Patients With Esrd, Amarachukwu O. Nwangwu 2022 University of Richmond

Barriers To Care, Depressive Symptoms, And Moderating Factors Among Patients With Esrd, Amarachukwu O. Nwangwu

Honors Theses

End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is the fifth and final stage of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and has been reported to have the highest prevalence rate in the United States, with about 2,242 cases per million in the total population in 2017 (Johansen et al., 2021). Current studies document a high prevalence of depression among patients with ESRD which may lead to increased mortality (Shirazian et al., 2017). Additionally, barriers in access to care, which may be understood as the barriers that prevent individuals from seeking mental health services, has been linked to increased levels of undertreatment (Clement et al ...


Opioid-Induced Respiratory Depression In C57bl/6j Mice: The Role Of Prefrontal Cortex Cholinergic Transmission In The Wakefulness Stimulus For Breathing, Wilton Sun 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Opioid-Induced Respiratory Depression In C57bl/6j Mice: The Role Of Prefrontal Cortex Cholinergic Transmission In The Wakefulness Stimulus For Breathing, Wilton Sun

Select or Award-Winning Individual Scholarship

Opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) is the primary cause of death from opioid overdose. Opioids depress breathing by diminishing the wakefulness stimulus for breathing in humans and mice. Cholinergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) promotes cortical EEG activation, increases wakefulness, and stimulates breathing. However, no previous studies have tested whether increasing cholinergic transmission in the PFC can mitigate respiratory depression caused by systemically administered fentanyl in mice. The series of studies comprising this honors thesis is split into two phases. The first phase included a concentration response study evaluating the effects of fentanyl on breathing in C57BL/6J mice breathing ...


What Does “Avoidance Mode” Feel Like? The Association Between Avoidance Awareness And Negative Affect In The Moment, Mamie Ziegler 2022 University of Richmond

What Does “Avoidance Mode” Feel Like? The Association Between Avoidance Awareness And Negative Affect In The Moment, Mamie Ziegler

Honors Theses

For students in an academic setting, task avoidance is a common behavioral strategy used to cope with the unpleasant emotions associated with schoolwork and completing assignments. However, when this form of behavioral avoidance becomes a pattern, it has the potential to lead to negative long-term consequences–such as worse academic outcomes and increased stress. To counteract maladaptive behaviors such as task avoidance, a certain level of self-awareness of such behaviors may be necessary–even if this awareness leads to more negative emotions at first. To analyze the relationship between student task avoidance and emotions, the following study utilizes ecological momentary ...


Does Chronic Risperidone Administration Affect Food Reinforcement In Adulthood In Mice?, Francis Torres, Paul Soto 2022 Louisiana State Univ, Dept Psychol, 236 Audubon Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA

Does Chronic Risperidone Administration Affect Food Reinforcement In Adulthood In Mice?, Francis Torres, Paul Soto

LSU Master's Theses

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) increase weight gain and food consumption in humans and non-human animals. It has been speculated that SGAs increase the reinforcing effects of food, which increases food consumption and drives weight gain. The current study evaluated the effects of risperidone on sucrose reinforcement in male and female C57BL/6J mice using economic demand assessments. Demand for sucrose was measured by varying the fixed ratio (FR) value required to produce sucrose delivery across experimental sessions using five FR values: 1, 5, 15, 30, and 45. The effects of acute risperidone administration on demand for sucrose were first assessed by ...


Classical Conditioning Of Cognitive States, Arthur Burns 2022 Ursinus College

Classical Conditioning Of Cognitive States, Arthur Burns

Neuroscience Honors Papers

Classical conditioning has been a fundamental concept and practice throughout the history of psychology. While classical conditioning traditionally seeks to elicit target behaviors in correlation to specific stimuli, we sought to do the same with cognitive states in place of behaviors. Specifically, we wanted to determine the effectiveness of conditioning states of cognitive arousal in human participants in conjunction with cues presented in a designed learning task. We designed a cognitive task specifically for this research, referred to as “the Tone Pitching Task”, which utilized a combination of working memory and mental processing in order to elicit cognitive arousal and ...


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