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All Articles in Biological Psychology

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828 full-text articles. Page 1 of 26.

Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley

Master's Theses

Non-scientific literature consistently describes dolphins as “curious animals,” but there has been little systematic research on curiosity in dolphins. Curiosity in humans and certain non-human animal species, including birds and non-human primates, has been studied by examining individual differences in exploration and reactions to novel stimuli. Additionally, research has explored how human infants and non-human animals react when an event violates their expectations. The present study explored dolphins’ reactions to spontaneously surprising and expectation-violating stimuli. The reactions of dolphins, 15 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and 6 rough-toothed (Steno bredanensis), at Gulf World Marine Park were analyzed in response to events that ...


Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Who's Tweeting Whom: The Influence Of Rearing Condition On Social Integration In Zebra Finches, Zachary L. Darwish 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Who's Tweeting Whom: The Influence Of Rearing Condition On Social Integration In Zebra Finches, Zachary L. Darwish

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are a gregarious species of finch. Previous work with zebra finches has demonstrated the long-lasting impacts of ear social environment on social behavior in adulthood. Zebra finch chicks were raised by either both parents (biparental) or their mother only (uniparental) and their behavior in an aviary was recorded using passive integrative transponders. Zebra finch ID numbers were recorded every time they entered a feeding station for 31 days. There was a trend for uniparental birds to engage in more visits to a feeding station per event than biparental birds, however, there was no difference in the ...


Neuroendocrine And Psychological Factors Associated With Burnout, Compassion Fatigue, And Reduced Compassion Satisfaction In Mental Health Professionals, Michelle Huffman 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Neuroendocrine And Psychological Factors Associated With Burnout, Compassion Fatigue, And Reduced Compassion Satisfaction In Mental Health Professionals, Michelle Huffman

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Mental health professionals are at increased risk for burnout, compassion fatigue, and reduced compassion satisfaction. Burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and loss of personal accomplishment. Compassion fatigue is a more progressed disruption relative to burnout marked by insomnia/nightmares, arousal, loss of objectivity, isolation, and intrusive thoughts. Compassion satisfaction buffers against burnout and compassion fatigue. Although links between demographic, psychological, and biological factors have been documented, interactions between these factors have not been explored. Mental health professionals completed psychological inventories measuring depression, anxiety, burnout, compassion fatigue, and compassion satisfaction. Saliva samples were collected during the Trier Social Stress ...


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


Estradiol, Substance P, And The Pi3k-Akt-Mtor Pathway In The Dorsal Horn Of The Spinal Cord During Inflammatory Pain, Zane Ferguson 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Estradiol, Substance P, And The Pi3k-Akt-Mtor Pathway In The Dorsal Horn Of The Spinal Cord During Inflammatory Pain, Zane Ferguson

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Pain is a critical survival mechanism that signals potential or actual damage, but it can become pathological when it persists beyond the injury. Chronic pain is a major health issue that affects 10-20% of the adult population and is found disproportionately in women. There are numerous, interacting mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. This study used female rats to investigate the impact of estrogens on sensory signaling by substance P, a neuropeptide that contributes to the development of chronic pain, and the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, an intracellular mechanism of nervous system plasticity.


Dopamine D1 And D3 Receptor Polypharmacology In Cocaine Reward And Cocaine Seeking, Ewa J. Galaj 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Dopamine D1 And D3 Receptor Polypharmacology In Cocaine Reward And Cocaine Seeking, Ewa J. Galaj

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: In the search for efficacious pharmacotherapies to treat cocaine addiction much attention has been given to agents targeting D1 or D3 receptors because of the involvement of these receptors in cocaine-related behaviors. D1 and D3 receptor partial agonists and antagonists have been shown to reduce cocaine reward, reinstatement of cocaine seeking and conditioned place preference (CPP) in rodents and non-human primates. However, translation of these encouraging results with selective D1 or D3 receptor agents has been limited due to a number of factors including toxicity, poor pharmacokinetic properties and extrapyramidal and sedative side effects.

Purpose: Given the role of ...


The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Poverty Of The Neuroscience Of Poverty: Policy Payoff Or False Promise?, Amy L. Wax

Faculty Scholarship

Research in deprivation neuroscience has grown rapidly over the past 15 years. Studies in this field examine brain structure and function of individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds. Many attempt to link brain characteristics to behavioral and cognitive deficits found more commonly in deprived populations.

The article assesses claims by neuroscientists and policy-oriented commentators that deprivation neuroscience can help generate more effective strategies for addressing poverty and deprivation. It concludes that research in this field has no unique practical payoff for reducing or alleviating poverty and its effects, over and above what is known or can be discovered from behavioral science and ...


The Effect Of Two Modes Of Aerobic Assessment On Fifth Grade Students' Self Efficacy, Debra Roth 2017 Walden University

The Effect Of Two Modes Of Aerobic Assessment On Fifth Grade Students' Self Efficacy, Debra Roth

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Declining youth physical activity levels and lack of aerobic fitness have been well documented with a corresponding rise in obesity levels and health issues. Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, healthy physical activity levels and aerobic fitness are strongly connected to positive physical activity self-efficacy beliefs. This study examined whether student physical activity self-efficacy, motivation, and effort were different for the FitnessGram® (FG) 1-Mile Run when compared to the 15-minute Aerobic Assessment Based on Improvement (AABI). A concurrent mixed method quasi-experimental approach measured 5th grade students' physical activity self-efficacy beliefs through a pretest and posttest survey while aerobic assessment ...


Sensory-Specific Satiety Is Intact In Rats Made Obese On A High-Fat, High-Sugar Choice Diet., Kevin P. Myers 2017 Bucknell University

Sensory-Specific Satiety Is Intact In Rats Made Obese On A High-Fat, High-Sugar Choice Diet., Kevin P. Myers

Faculty Journal Articles

Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is the temporary decreased pleasantness of a recently eaten food, which inhibits further eating. Evidence is currently mixed whether SSS is weaker in obese people, and whether such difference precedes or follows from the obese state. Animal models allow testing whether diet-induced obesity causes SSS impairment. Female rats (n = 24) were randomly assigned to an obesogenic high-fat, high-sugar choice diet or chow-only control. Tests of SSS involved pre-feeding a single palatable, distinctively-flavored food (cheese- or cocoa-flavored) prior to free choice between both foods. Rats were tested for short-term SSS (2 h pre-feeding immediately followed by 2 h ...


The Importance Of Serotonergic And Adrenergic Receptors For The Induction And Expression Of One-Trial Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization, Krista N. Rudberg 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

The Importance Of Serotonergic And Adrenergic Receptors For The Induction And Expression Of One-Trial Cocaine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization, Krista N. Rudberg

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Addiction is a complex process in which behavioral sensitization may be an important component. While the behavioral effects of sensitization are well established, the intricate neurobiology of the phenomenon is still largely unknown. Dopamine systems mediate the induction of behavioral sensitization in adult rats, but there is a large amount of evidence showing that other neurotransmitter systems also modulate the induction process. For example, the α1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptor systems are known to modulate the sensitized responding of adult rats, but the roles that these receptor systems play in the induction and expression of behavioral sensitization during the preweanling ...


Habitat Use By Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops Truncatus, In Roanoke Sound, North Carolina, Shauna Marisa McBride 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Habitat Use By Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops Truncatus, In Roanoke Sound, North Carolina, Shauna Marisa Mcbride

Dissertations

Information on the habitat use of a species is important to develop conservation efforts and management strategies for that species. Roanoke Sound, North Carolina is primarily a seasonal habitat for bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, from late spring to early fall, but little information is known about how dolphins use this area. Transect survey data and opportunistic survey data collected by the Outer Banks Center for Dolphin Research from 2009 to 2015 were used to analyze dolphin habitat use. The objectives of this project were to: 1) identify areas that were important to dolphins, 2) determine which behaviors were observed in ...


Marijuana Use Is Associated With Behavioral Approach And Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents And Emerging Adults, Natasha E. Wright, Danny Scerpella, Krista M. Lisdahl 2016 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Marijuana Use Is Associated With Behavioral Approach And Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents And Emerging Adults, Natasha E. Wright, Danny Scerpella, Krista M. Lisdahl

Psychology Faculty Articles

Background

Repeated CB1 binding due to THC results in downregulation of the endocannabinoid system in cortex and limbic regions, perhaps disrupting frontolimbic functioning. This is particularly a concern in young adults who are still undergoing neurodevelopment in frontal and limbic regions. Such disruptions may be linked to increased depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive dysfunction, and decreased behavioral approach.

Objectives

Here we examine the influence of young adult marijuana use on anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral approach, and executive dysfunction. The influence of alcohol and gender were also assessed.

Methods

84 participants (42 MJ, 42 controls) aged 18–25 were balanced ...


Using Auditory Feedback To Improve Striking For Mixed Martial Artists, Frank Krukauskas Krukauskas 2016 University of South Florida

Using Auditory Feedback To Improve Striking For Mixed Martial Artists, Frank Krukauskas Krukauskas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to evaluate, auditory feedback as a training procedure to increase the effectiveness of throwing a "right cross.” Auditory feedback was evaluated in multiple baselines across behaviors design with 4 mixed martial arts students, two males and two females, 25-54 years old. The percentage of correct steps of the right crosses.” was stable .during baseline for all participants improved substantially following the introduction of the auditory feedback, and maintained at 90 percent or more for all participants during follow-up.


Connecting Psychopathology Meta-Structure And Mechanisms, Charles A. Sanislow 2016 Wesleyan University

Connecting Psychopathology Meta-Structure And Mechanisms, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Collaboration Guidelines To Transform Culture, Benjamin Heslop, Kylie Bailey, Jonathan Paul, Antony Drew, Roger Smith 2016 University of Newcastle

Collaboration Guidelines To Transform Culture, Benjamin Heslop, Kylie Bailey, Jonathan Paul, Antony Drew, Roger Smith

Interdisciplinary Journal of Partnership Studies

Positive-sum behaviour arises when people expect a benefit from cooperation. This article argues that positive-sum behaviours give rise to a fairer, more civilized society; however, adoption of these behaviours is impeded by their complexity. For example, others’ actions may seem unpredictable, while individual benefit may seem intangible. Consequently, adoption of positive-sum behaviours could be encouraged by explicit instructions. This article proposes guidelines and outcomes for healthy collaboration, which is a positive-sum behaviour.


Effects Of Auditory Vection Speed And Directional Congruence On Perceptions Of Visual Vection, Isabella Alexis Gagliano 2016 Old Dominion University

Effects Of Auditory Vection Speed And Directional Congruence On Perceptions Of Visual Vection, Isabella Alexis Gagliano

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Spatial disorientation is a major contributor to aircraft mishaps. One potential contributing factor is vection, an illusion of self-motion. Although vection is commonly thought of as a visual illusion, it can also be produced through audition. The purpose of the current experiment was to explore interactions between conflicting visual and auditory vection cues, specifically with regard to the speed and direction of rotation. The ultimate goal was to explore the extent to which aural vection could diminish or enhance the perception of visual vection. The study used a 3 × 2 within-groups factorial design. Participants were exposed to three levels of ...


The Effect Of Increased Sleep On The Circadian Rhythm Of Salivary Cortisol Concentrations, Mariah Jacqueline Scott 2016 Seton Hall University

The Effect Of Increased Sleep On The Circadian Rhythm Of Salivary Cortisol Concentrations, Mariah Jacqueline Scott

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Cortisol is a salivary marker for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) component of the stress response. The activity of the HPA demonstrates a circadian rhythm. It is well known that sleep deprivation increases cortisol concentrations. In this study, we looked at the effect of an increase of one-hour sleep for one month on the circadian rhythm of the HPA.

Eight college subjects (n=8) collected saliva during their normal sleep wake cycle every 4 hours for 24 hours. Saliva collections were repeated after a month of increase of sleep by 1-hour. The subjects also completed demographic forms that asked for age ...


Updating The Research Domain Criteria, Charles A. Sanislow 2016 Wesleyan University

Updating The Research Domain Criteria, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Empathy, the ability to both experientially share in and understand others’ thoughts, behaviors, and feelings, is vital for human adaptation. Deficits in empathy development have implications across the lifespan for the development of prosocial behavior, social functioning, mental health disorders, and risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Guajardo, Snyder, & Petersen, 2009; Moreno, Klute & Robinson, 2008). In light of these societal and individual burdens, it is imperative to foster and strengthen the development of this ability early in life to prevent or ameliorate such negative outcomes. This type of prevention can take a variety of forms, but parent and child verbal exchanges and modeling are often the most direct methods after two years of age (e.g., Moreno et al., 2008). The aim of this research was to inform the development of a system to naturalistically assess empathy development via home-based observation of mothers and their children’s verbal exchanges.

The proposed system, iEAR-Empathy in Parent-Child Interactions (iEAR-EPIC), is a verbal coding system to code for verbal behaviors empirically demonstrated to foster empathy development, as well as behaviors found to indicate empathy development. The development of the iEPIC was theoretically informed by Preston and de Waal’s (2002) Perception Action Mechanism (PAM) model of empathy, a neurocognitive-emotional model of empathy. This model demonstrates empathy as a maturing system in which emotional and cognitive understanding develop in tandem through brain-environment interactions. However, the iEPIC also accounts for the interplay between parents and neurocognitive emotional processes, and thus captures the parallel, increasingly interactive, development of cognitive and emotional abilities from infancy onward in the context of a parent-child dyad.

To develop and test the iEPIC, an ethnically diverse subsample of 84 mothers and their 2 to 6-year-old children were recruited from a large, northeastern, urban, public university. After consenting, mother-child dyads were recorded for a 4-hour period during the dyad’s evening routine (5-9p.m.), using a two-minutes on, 10 seconds off protocol, resulting in 28 2-minute clips (56 minutes total) per dyad. Recordings were transcribed and reviewed, and then 4 pairs of coders were trained in the iEPIC coding system, and then coded the dyad recordings for behaviors comprising the proposed iEPIC assessment system.

The iEPIC observational assessment system consists of 5 codes for each parent and child: Reflection (R), Exploring Emotion and State (EES), Emotion and State Description (ESD), and Empathic Understanding and Concern (EUC), as well as Neutral verbalizations (N; non-study-related verbalizations). The EES, ESD, and EUC each have levels of complexity, with higher levels expected to occur more frequently in older children (e.g., 4 years and older).

There were several purposes of the current study: 1) assess inter-rater reliability for the iEPIC coding system 2) determine if ...


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