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Do Rats Consume Ethanol To Regulate A Negative Emotion Induced By A Successive Negative Contrast Procedure?, Andrew Dieterich 2016 Seton Hall University

Do Rats Consume Ethanol To Regulate A Negative Emotion Induced By A Successive Negative Contrast Procedure?, Andrew Dieterich

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

According to the self-medication hypothesis, individuals may consume drugs or alcohol, or engage in other behaviors in order to reduce a negative emotional state (Khantzian, 1985; Gross, 2013; Crum et al., 2013). Rats experiencing a negative state induced by various stressors (Bertholomey et al., 2010), or a decrease or loss in reward value of a sucrose solution (Manzo et al., 2015; Manzo et al., 2014) demonstrate increased consumption of alcohol. I used successive (SNC) and anticipatory negative contrast (ANC) procedures to further examine this hypothesis and the previous findings (Manzo et al., 2015), that rats increase consumption and preference for ...


The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry 2016 Seton Hall University

The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The inability to remember events experienced very early in life is referred to as Infantile Amnesia (IA) and has been observed in both humans and animals. Over the years interest in the phenomenon waned, but has recently increased with the discovery of new neurobiological methods to study brain function (e.g., Callaghan, Li & Richardson, 2014). The neurobiological mechanism behind IA has yet to be determined, but several innovative theories have been developed with these new research methods. The neurogenesis hypothesis theorizes that increased neurogenesis during early development disrupts previously established memories. The hippocampus, an area that mediates both the memory ...


Modulating Neuronal Activity: Copper, Isoproterenol, And Beta-Blockers On The Brain, Veronica Go 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Modulating Neuronal Activity: Copper, Isoproterenol, And Beta-Blockers On The Brain, Veronica Go

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Motion Integration Using Competitive Priors, Shuang WU, Hongjing LU, Lap Fai, Alan LEE, Alan YUILLE 2016 University of California, United States

Motion Integration Using Competitive Priors, Shuang Wu, Hongjing Lu, Lap Fai, Alan Lee, Alan Yuille

Prof. LEE Lap Fai, Alan

Psychophysical experiments show that humans are better at perceiving rotation and expansion than translation [5][9]. These findings are inconsistent with standard models of motion integration which predict best performance for translation. To explain this discrepancy, our theory formulates motion perception at two levels of inference: we first perform model selection between the competing models (e.g. translation, rotation, and expansion) and then estimate the velocity using the selected model. We define novel prior models for smooth rotation and expansion using techniques similar to those in the slow-and-smooth model [23] (e.g. Green functions of differential operators). The theory gives ...


A Comparison Of Global Motion Perception Using A Multiple, Lap Fai, Alan LEE, Hongjing LU 2016 University of California, United States

A Comparison Of Global Motion Perception Using A Multiple, Lap Fai, Alan Lee, Hongjing Lu

Prof. LEE Lap Fai, Alan

The human visual system integrates local motion signals to generate globally coherent motion percepts. However, it is unclear whether the perception of different types of global motion relies on a common motion integration mechanism. Using the multiple-aperture stimulus developed by K. Amano, M. Edwards, D. R. Badcock, and S. Nishida (2009), we compared the motion sensitivity (in terms of coherence threshold) for translational, circular, and radial motion. We found greater motion sensitivity for the two complex (circular and radial) motion types than for translational motion, implying that specific motion integration mechanisms are involved in the computation for different motion types ...


Global Motion Aftereffect Does Not Depend On Awareness Of The Adapting Motion Direction, Lap Fai, Alan LEE, Hongjing LU 2016 Centre national de la recherche scientifique, France, École Normale Supérieure, France, and University of California, United States

Global Motion Aftereffect Does Not Depend On Awareness Of The Adapting Motion Direction, Lap Fai, Alan Lee, Hongjing Lu

Prof. LEE Lap Fai, Alan

It has been shown that humans cannot perceive more than three directions from a multidirectional motion stimulus. However, it remains unknown whether adapting to such imperceptible motion directions could generate motion aftereffects (MAEs). A series of psychophysical experiments were conducted to address this issue. Using a display consisting of randomly oriented Gabors, we replicated previous findings that observers were unable to perceive the global directions embedded in a five-direction motion pattern. However, adapting to this multidirectional pattern induced both static and dynamic MAEs, despite the fact that observers were unaware of any global motion directions during adaptation. Furthermore, by comparing ...


Effect Of Apoe E4 Variant On Progression From Mild Cognitive Impairment To Alzheimer’S Disease, Brad P. Taylor 2016 Hanover College

Effect Of Apoe E4 Variant On Progression From Mild Cognitive Impairment To Alzheimer’S Disease, Brad P. Taylor

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

Alzheimer’s disease is a very prevalent and fatal disorder in older adults, and Mild Cognitive Impairment is often seen as a precursor to Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease is a form of Dementia that is characterized by loss of cognitive abilities while aging. It is ultimately fatal. Mild Cognitive Impairment is more of an intermediate stage between normal mental decline with aging and the more serious decline of dementia. The ApoE E4 gene has been shown to be highly correlated with a greater likelihood of acquiring late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. This study looked to see the effect that ...


The Effects Of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation On Alcohol Consumption And Delta Fos B Accumulation, Kristian Ponder 2016 James Madison University

The Effects Of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation On Alcohol Consumption And Delta Fos B Accumulation, Kristian Ponder

Graduate Showcase of Scholarship and Creative Activities

The present study explores the relation between sleep restriction and alcohol use and the neural substrates that result from chronic behaviors, such as transcription factors. Transcription factor activity is suggested as a possible outcome of chronic behaviors, such as addiction. Sleep is discussed as possible mediating factor in the relationship between specific transcription factors and alcohol. Analysis will focus on brain areas related to both sleep and reward.


Nature As A Buffer: The Physiological Effects Of Exposure To Nature On Stress, Tyler J. Stading, Jeffrey R. Stevens 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Nature As A Buffer: The Physiological Effects Of Exposure To Nature On Stress, Tyler J. Stading, Jeffrey R. Stevens

UCARE Research Products

Exposure to images of nature following a stressful event can reduce physiological measures associated with stress. The objectives of this study was to determine whether exposure to nature before the stressor can buffer the stress response. We varied whether nature or urban images were viewed before or after a stressor and measured galvanic skin response in our participants. We describe how order of presenting the stressor influences nature’s calming effect on physiology.


Effects Of Acute Stress And Ethanol Consumption On Il-1Β In Female Long Evans Rats: A Pilot Study, Kristin R. Creel 2016 University of Dayton

Effects Of Acute Stress And Ethanol Consumption On Il-1Β In Female Long Evans Rats: A Pilot Study, Kristin R. Creel

Honors Theses

Background: Acute stress elicits many physiological, behavioral, and neurological responses, and many studies have aimed to better our understanding of these responses and their effects. However, a majority of preclinical studies have used male test subjects, despite growing evidence that males and females have different responses to acute and chronic stressors. This study thus aims to evaluate the ability of three different acute stressors to cause a physiological stress response in adult and adolescent female subjects.

Methods: In this preliminary investigation, Female Long Evans rats (N=12) underwent three acute stressors over the course of three consecutive days. In order ...


“My Logic Is Undeniable”: Replicating The Brain For Ideal Artificial Intelligence, Samuel C. Adams 2016 Liberty University

“My Logic Is Undeniable”: Replicating The Brain For Ideal Artificial Intelligence, Samuel C. Adams

Senior Honors Theses

Alan Turing asked if machines can think, but intelligence is more than logic and reason. I ask if a machine can feel pain or joy, have visions and dreams, or paint a masterpiece. The human brain sets the bar high, and despite our progress, artificial intelligence has a long way to go. Studying neurology from a software engineer’s perspective reveals numerous uncanny similarities between the functionality of the brain and that of a computer. If the brain is a biological computer, then it is the embodiment of artificial intelligence beyond anything we have yet achieved, and its architecture is ...


Stress And Suicidal Behavior: A Cognitive, Behavioral, And Biological Integrative Approach, Jorge Valderrama 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Stress And Suicidal Behavior: A Cognitive, Behavioral, And Biological Integrative Approach, Jorge Valderrama

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in young adults in the United States. Previous research has established distal and proximal life stress as a strong risk factor for suicidal behavior. However, how stress impacts suicidal behavior via interactive cognitive and biological mechanisms has not been thoroughly examined. The present research sought to better understand the relationship between stress and suicidal behavior via altered neurobiological functioning, maladaptive cognitions, and deficits in executive functioning. The first study found a relationship between the brooding subtype of rumination and trait impulsivity in the forms of negative urgency, lack of premeditation, and ...


Political Neuroscience, Ingrid J. Haas 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Political Neuroscience, Ingrid J. Haas

Faculty Publications: Political Science

The field of political science has traditionally had close ties to disciplines like economics, history, and sociology. While political science has always been somewhat interdisciplinary in nature, in recent years this interdisciplinary approach has expanded to include biology, psychology, and neuroscience. This interest in the human sciences has led to the development of new subfields within political science, including biopolitics, political psychology, and political neuroscience (also called neuropolitics). What these new subfields have in common is an interest in individual human behavior and decision-making as an approach to understanding political behavior. While political science has traditionally focused on understanding politics ...


Does The Pain Of Rejection Promote The Pleasure Of Revenge? A Neural Investigation Of Cingulo-Striatal Contributions To Violence, David Chester 2016 University of Kentucky

Does The Pain Of Rejection Promote The Pleasure Of Revenge? A Neural Investigation Of Cingulo-Striatal Contributions To Violence, David Chester

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Aggression is a dynamic and costly feature of human behavior. One reliable cause of aggression is social rejection, though the underlying mechanisms of this effect remain to be fully understood. Previous research has identified two psychological processes that are independently linked to aggressive retaliation: pain and pleasure. Given recent findings that pain magnifies the experience of pleasure, I predicted that the pain of rejection would promote the pleasure of aggression and thus, aggression itself. I also expected that this indirect effect of aggressive pleasure would only be observed among individuals with weaker self-regulatory abilities that are necessary to cope with ...


The Effect Of Inversion And Motor Expertise On Body Compatibility, Harrison M. Goodall III 2016 Pomona College

The Effect Of Inversion And Motor Expertise On Body Compatibility, Harrison M. Goodall Iii

Pomona Senior Theses

Previous studies have established that when a subject’s attention is directed to a specific body part, the subject is able to move that body part faster than a body part their attention was not drawn to. This is known as the body compatibility effect, and it has been shown that this effect only occurs when viewing upright images of the human body. In this study, we presented control subjects and expert acrobats with inverted and upright stimuli. We hypothesized that the amount of time the acrobats spent inverted would result in the acrobats exhibiting body compatibility effects for both ...


Age-Related Changes In Hippocampal Arc Expression Following Minimal Behavioural Induction, Irina V. Odintsova 2016 Wilfrid Laurier University

Age-Related Changes In Hippocampal Arc Expression Following Minimal Behavioural Induction, Irina V. Odintsova

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Normal ageing is associated with significant changes in cognitive function, including the decline of some forms of memory. The hippocampal formation is critical to learning and memory function, and plasticity in this region declines with age. Additionally, age-related differences in plasticity are greatest at lower levels of stimulation, thus peri-threshold plasticity may be of the greatest relevance for age-related changes in cognition. Moreover, the hippocampus is prone to changes in the expression of gene products that mediate plasticity with age. The current thesis attempts to link these observations by measuring hippocampal expression of Arc, an immediate-early gene that is critical ...


Slam Poetry: An Online Intervention For Treating Depression, Spencer J. Ruchti, Mercedes Becker, Cara McKee, Austin Herron, Alex Swalling 2016 University of Montana

Slam Poetry: An Online Intervention For Treating Depression, Spencer J. Ruchti, Mercedes Becker, Cara Mckee, Austin Herron, Alex Swalling

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Given that depression is the “leading cause of disability worldwide,” and that less than 50% of people suffering from depression receive treatment, this study aims to provide support for a globally accessible depression treatment (WHO, 2012). The study conducted implemented an internet-based treatment for depression in which users were provided an opportunity to watch slam poetry videos related to mental health issues and write free responses regarding the content of the videos and their subjective experience of depression. Numerous studies provide support for the effectiveness of expressive writing, online mental health interventions, and slam poetry in particular for reducing symptoms ...


Acute And Chronic Effects Of Inhalants In Intracranial Self-Stimulation, Matthew Tracy 2016 Student

Acute And Chronic Effects Of Inhalants In Intracranial Self-Stimulation, Matthew Tracy

Theses and Dissertations

Inhalants are a loosely defined diverse group of volatile substances which people abuse. Despite widespread misuse of inhalants, there are limited preclinical methods available to study the reinforcement-like properties of inhalants. One procedure which has demonstrated substantial promise as a tool to investigate inhalant pharmacology is the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure. ICSS utilizes pulses of electrical stimulation to the mesolimbic reward pathway to serve as a temporally defined and controlled operant reinforcer with a highly adjustable efficacy. The first aim of the project was to characterize the effects of commonly abused inhalants: including toluene, trichloroethane, nitrous oxide, isoflurane and R134a ...


Behavioral Phenotyping Of Vmat1 Knockout Mice: Relevance To Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Kevin A. Webster Ph.D. 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Behavioral Phenotyping Of Vmat1 Knockout Mice: Relevance To Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Kevin A. Webster Ph.D.

Theses and Dissertations

Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental disorder that causes a large economic burden and is prevalent across all cultures and countries around the world. Although both environmental factors and genetics are known to play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia, the exact role of genetics and its interaction with environmental factors in an individual’s predisposition to develop schizophrenia is poorly understood. Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms that include positive symptoms (e.g. delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking and speech), negative symptoms (e.g. avolition, anhedonia, depressive-like behavior), and cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. executive functioning deficits in learning and memory ...


Cognitive And Behavioral Mechanisms Underlying Alcohol-Induced Risky Driving, Jennifer R. Laude 2016 University of Kentucky

Cognitive And Behavioral Mechanisms Underlying Alcohol-Induced Risky Driving, Jennifer R. Laude

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Alcohol intoxication represents one situation an individual might increase their amount of risk taking when driving. This dissertation is comprised of three studies that investigate the mechanisms by which alcohol increases driver risk-taking. Study 1 examined the effect of alcohol on driver risk-taking using a proxemics approach. The study also tested whether alcohol-induced increases in risky driving co-occurred with pronounced impairment in the driver’s skill. The study also examined whether the most disinhibited drivers were also the riskiest. Indeed, alcohol increased driver risk-taking and impaired driving skill. The study also revealed risky driving can be dissociable from impairing effects ...


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