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Neural Mechanisms Of Action Switching Moderate The Relationship Between Effortful Control And Aggression, Eric L. Rawls, Connie Lamm 2016 University of New Orleans

Neural Mechanisms Of Action Switching Moderate The Relationship Between Effortful Control And Aggression, Eric L. Rawls, Connie Lamm

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Aggression and violence are social behaviors that exact a significant toll on human societies. Individuals with aggressive tendencies display deficits in effortful control, particularly in affectively charged situations. However, not all individuals with poor effortful control are aggressive. This study uses event-related potentials (ERPs) to decompose the chronology of cognitive functions underlying the link between effortful control and aggression. Specifically, this study investigates which ERPs moderate the effortful control - aggression association. We examined three successive ERP components (P2, N2 and P3) for stimuli that required effortful control. Results indicated that N2 activation, but not P2 or P3 activation, moderated the ...


Nicotine And Methylphenidate Chornic Exposure On Adult Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist (Cp 55,940) Place Conditioning In Male Rats, Christopher P. Plant 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

Nicotine And Methylphenidate Chornic Exposure On Adult Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist (Cp 55,940) Place Conditioning In Male Rats, Christopher P. Plant

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

A problematic connection has been reported between those who use nicotine related products alone or in combination with ADHD medications, like methylphenidate (MPH), in late childhood or early adolescence and the increased likelihood of later marijuana abuse in adulthood. Pre-clinical studies have found that the use of nicotine during the early adolescence period produces enduring changes to the endocannabinoid system in the brain. Since CB agonists, like marijuana, exert their effect through the eCB system, it is possible that early nicotine use may alter the rewarding nature of CB agonists in adulthood. In addition, MPH has also been shown to ...


Examination Of Methamphetamine Reinstatement In Female And Male Rats: A Pre-Clinical Model Of Relapse, Steven T. Pittenger 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Examination Of Methamphetamine Reinstatement In Female And Male Rats: A Pre-Clinical Model Of Relapse, Steven T. Pittenger

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

Methamphetamine (meth) dependence is often characterized by persistent and chronic relapse (i.e., return to drug use). There is growing pre-clinical and human evidence suggesting females are at greater risk to relapse. The set of studies presented in this dissertation extended this limited evidence by identifying sex-dependent neural substrates correlated with meth-triggered reinstatement (Experiment 1) and by examining sex-differences in reinstatement triggered by drugs of abuse that are commonly co-abused with meth (Experiment 2). Female and male rats were trained to self-administer meth, received subsequent extinction sessions, and then tested for reinstatement. In Experiment 1, rats were perfused following reinstatement ...


Importance Of The D2 Receptor For One- And Multi-Trial Psychostimulant-Induced Behavioral Sensitization In Preweanling Rats, Martha A. Mohd-Yusof 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

Importance Of The D2 Receptor For One- And Multi-Trial Psychostimulant-Induced Behavioral Sensitization In Preweanling Rats, Martha A. Mohd-Yusof

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The neural mechanisms mediating one-trial and multi-trial behavioral sensitization during early ontogeny are poorly understood. The purpose of this thesis was to assess the importance of D2-like receptors for the induction of cocaine- and methamphetamine-induced one-trial and multi-trial behavioral sensitization during the middle and late preweanling period. In a series of four experiments, rats were injected with saline or the selective dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist raclopride 15 min prior to treatment with the indirect dopamine agonists cocaine or methamphetamine. Acute control groups received two injections of saline. The pretreatment regimens occurred on either PND 16 or PND 20 (one-trial behavioral ...


Do Rats Consume Ethanol To Regulate A Negative Emotion Induced By A Successive Negative Contrast Procedure?, Andrew Dieterich 2016 Seton Hall University

Do Rats Consume Ethanol To Regulate A Negative Emotion Induced By A Successive Negative Contrast Procedure?, Andrew Dieterich

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

According to the self-medication hypothesis, individuals may consume drugs or alcohol, or engage in other behaviors in order to reduce a negative emotional state (Khantzian, 1985; Gross, 2013; Crum et al., 2013). Rats experiencing a negative state induced by various stressors (Bertholomey et al., 2010), or a decrease or loss in reward value of a sucrose solution (Manzo et al., 2015; Manzo et al., 2014) demonstrate increased consumption of alcohol. I used successive (SNC) and anticipatory negative contrast (ANC) procedures to further examine this hypothesis and the previous findings (Manzo et al., 2015), that rats increase consumption and preference for ...


The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry 2016 Seton Hall University

The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The inability to remember events experienced very early in life is referred to as Infantile Amnesia (IA) and has been observed in both humans and animals. Over the years interest in the phenomenon waned, but has recently increased with the discovery of new neurobiological methods to study brain function (e.g., Callaghan, Li & Richardson, 2014). The neurobiological mechanism behind IA has yet to be determined, but several innovative theories have been developed with these new research methods. The neurogenesis hypothesis theorizes that increased neurogenesis during early development disrupts previously established memories. The hippocampus, an area that mediates both the memory ...


An Analysis Of Canine Processing Of Stimulus Compounds Varying In Light And Sound Intensity, Katherine O. Compitus 2016 CUNY Hunter College

An Analysis Of Canine Processing Of Stimulus Compounds Varying In Light And Sound Intensity, Katherine O. Compitus

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

A dog was trained to respond deferentially to two light-sound compounds. The dog was then tested with combinations of additional light and sound intensities. The dog appeared to use the information provided by both stimulus dimensions. This research is relevant to the understanding of information processing, specifically categorization and generalization.


Effects Of Optogenetic Activation And Pharmacological Modulation Of Dopamine Neurons, Remington J. Rice 2016 Northern Michigan University

Effects Of Optogenetic Activation And Pharmacological Modulation Of Dopamine Neurons, Remington J. Rice

All NMU Master's Theses

This study explored the use of optogenetic tools to better understand treatments used for schizophrenia. The “positive” symptoms (e.g., hallucinations, paranoia, etc.) of schizophrenia may come from overexpression of dopamine in mesolimbic dopamine neurons. Positive symptoms can be produced in healthy volunteers treated with amphetamine, a psychostimulant drug and dopamine releaser. Conversely, antipsychotic drugs may reduce positive symptoms by blocking dopamine receptors. This study used optogenetics to explore how drugs that alter neurotransmission, might alter behaviors occurring from activation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Light-induced activation of DA neurons in the VTA in ...


Daily Bidirectional Relationships Between Sleep And Mental Health Symptoms In Youth With Emotional And Behavioral Problems, Tori R. Van Dyk, Ronald W. Thompson, Timothy D. Nelson 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Daily Bidirectional Relationships Between Sleep And Mental Health Symptoms In Youth With Emotional And Behavioral Problems, Tori R. Van Dyk, Ronald W. Thompson, Timothy D. Nelson

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Objective The present study examined the daily, bidirectional relationships between sleep and mental health symptoms in youth presenting to mental health treatment. Methods Youth aged 6 to 11 (36% female, 44% European American) presenting to outpatient behavioral health treatment (N = 25) were recruited to participate in the study. Children and parents completed daily questionnaires regarding the child’s sleep, mood, and behavior for a 14-day period, while youth wore an actigraph watch to objectively measure sleep. Results Examining between- and within-person variance using multilevel models, results indicate that youth had poor sleep duration and quality and that sleep and mental ...


Gap Junction Communication In Memory Retrieval And Extinction Of Cocaine Seeking, Michael Fitzgerald 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Gap Junction Communication In Memory Retrieval And Extinction Of Cocaine Seeking, Michael Fitzgerald

Theses and Dissertations

Blocking drug-associated memory retrieval or enhancing extinction of drug-seeking behavior are two strategies that could limit relapse in drug addicts. The loci of retrieval and extinction memory processes include the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex and the infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex, respectively. The neurochemical and synaptic mechanisms underlying drug-related behavior have received considerable attention, but extrasynaptic mechanisms are relatively unexplored. One form of cellular communication, gap junction communication, may play a role in drug-related learning and memory. Gap junction communication between neurons and astrocytes provide a cytoplasmic continuity between connected cells and both neuronal and astrocytic gap junction communication have been ...


The Effects Of Antipsychotic Treatment Upon Nicotine Associative Reward In A Neonatal Quinpirole Model Of Schizophrenia, Adam Ray Denton 2016 East Tennessee State Universtiy

The Effects Of Antipsychotic Treatment Upon Nicotine Associative Reward In A Neonatal Quinpirole Model Of Schizophrenia, Adam Ray Denton

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Research has revealed that schizophrenics are significantly more likely to smoke cigarettes than the general population, and consume nicotine products at a much more prevalent rate. Further exacerbating this issue, it has been previously demonstrated in clinical populations that the type of antipsychotic treatment administered (typical versus atypical) may result in either an increase or a decrease of already heightened smoking behavior within the schizophrenic population. With these clinical issues in mind, the present study sought to examine the effects of antipsychotic treatment upon the associative reward of nicotine within the neonatal quinpirole model of schizophrenia. We found that treatment ...


Obesity In Society: The Importance Of Perception, Michael Darnell Oliver II 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Obesity In Society: The Importance Of Perception, Michael Darnell Oliver Ii

Masters Theses

In the current study, I examined the role of positive and negative media images of obese individuals on attitudes and physiological responding in relation to an actual discrimination incident. Various surveys were administered and Body Mass Index (BMI), salivary Alpha Amylase (sAA), and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) or Skin Conductance (SC) were measured. Participants read a vignette in which an obese individual was discriminated against and further questions were administered to assess attributional blame. My primary hypothesis in this study was that there would be a decrease in stigma due to positive priming, specifically stigma directed at the obese population ...


Modulating Neuronal Activity: Copper, Isoproterenol, And Beta-Blockers On The Brain, Veronica Go 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Modulating Neuronal Activity: Copper, Isoproterenol, And Beta-Blockers On The Brain, Veronica Go

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Motion Integration Using Competitive Priors, Shuang WU, Hongjing LU, Lap Fai, Alan LEE, Alan YUILLE 2016 University of California, United States

Motion Integration Using Competitive Priors, Shuang Wu, Hongjing Lu, Lap Fai, Alan Lee, Alan Yuille

Prof. LEE Lap Fai, Alan

Psychophysical experiments show that humans are better at perceiving rotation and expansion than translation [5][9]. These findings are inconsistent with standard models of motion integration which predict best performance for translation. To explain this discrepancy, our theory formulates motion perception at two levels of inference: we first perform model selection between the competing models (e.g. translation, rotation, and expansion) and then estimate the velocity using the selected model. We define novel prior models for smooth rotation and expansion using techniques similar to those in the slow-and-smooth model [23] (e.g. Green functions of differential operators). The theory gives ...


A Comparison Of Global Motion Perception Using A Multiple, Lap Fai, Alan LEE, Hongjing LU 2016 University of California, United States

A Comparison Of Global Motion Perception Using A Multiple, Lap Fai, Alan Lee, Hongjing Lu

Prof. LEE Lap Fai, Alan

The human visual system integrates local motion signals to generate globally coherent motion percepts. However, it is unclear whether the perception of different types of global motion relies on a common motion integration mechanism. Using the multiple-aperture stimulus developed by K. Amano, M. Edwards, D. R. Badcock, and S. Nishida (2009), we compared the motion sensitivity (in terms of coherence threshold) for translational, circular, and radial motion. We found greater motion sensitivity for the two complex (circular and radial) motion types than for translational motion, implying that specific motion integration mechanisms are involved in the computation for different motion types ...


Global Motion Aftereffect Does Not Depend On Awareness Of The Adapting Motion Direction, Lap Fai, Alan LEE, Hongjing LU 2016 Centre national de la recherche scientifique, France, École Normale Supérieure, France, and University of California, United States

Global Motion Aftereffect Does Not Depend On Awareness Of The Adapting Motion Direction, Lap Fai, Alan Lee, Hongjing Lu

Prof. LEE Lap Fai, Alan

It has been shown that humans cannot perceive more than three directions from a multidirectional motion stimulus. However, it remains unknown whether adapting to such imperceptible motion directions could generate motion aftereffects (MAEs). A series of psychophysical experiments were conducted to address this issue. Using a display consisting of randomly oriented Gabors, we replicated previous findings that observers were unable to perceive the global directions embedded in a five-direction motion pattern. However, adapting to this multidirectional pattern induced both static and dynamic MAEs, despite the fact that observers were unaware of any global motion directions during adaptation. Furthermore, by comparing ...


The Contribution Of A Polygenic Risk Score To Individual Differences In Aggressive Behavior: The Moderating And Mediating Roles Of Stressful Events, Christa C. Christ 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Contribution Of A Polygenic Risk Score To Individual Differences In Aggressive Behavior: The Moderating And Mediating Roles Of Stressful Events, Christa C. Christ

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

Although aggression can be beneficial in certain situations (e.g. playing sports, self-defense), excessive and inappropriate aggression can lead to adverse physical and psychological health outcomes in both perpetrators and victims. Genetic susceptibility to negative environments can increase the likelihood of aggressive behavior in the context of situational risk factors. Low efficiency of serotonin neurotransmission and exposure to stress appear to play a prominent role in the etiology of aggressive behavior. A set of three studies assessed the contribution of polygenic risk (TPH2 rs4570625, SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR+rs25531, HTR1B rs13212041, MAOA uVNTR) to aggressive behavior, including alcohol-related aggression, in university students ...


Effect Of Apoe E4 Variant On Progression From Mild Cognitive Impairment To Alzheimer’S Disease, Brad P. Taylor 2016 Hanover College

Effect Of Apoe E4 Variant On Progression From Mild Cognitive Impairment To Alzheimer’S Disease, Brad P. Taylor

Butler Journal of Undergraduate Research

Alzheimer’s disease is a very prevalent and fatal disorder in older adults, and Mild Cognitive Impairment is often seen as a precursor to Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease is a form of Dementia that is characterized by loss of cognitive abilities while aging. It is ultimately fatal. Mild Cognitive Impairment is more of an intermediate stage between normal mental decline with aging and the more serious decline of dementia. The ApoE E4 gene has been shown to be highly correlated with a greater likelihood of acquiring late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. This study looked to see the effect that ...


The Effects Of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation On Alcohol Consumption And Delta Fos B Accumulation, Kristian Ponder 2016 James Madison University

The Effects Of Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation On Alcohol Consumption And Delta Fos B Accumulation, Kristian Ponder

Graduate Showcase of Scholarship and Creative Activities

The present study explores the relation between sleep restriction and alcohol use and the neural substrates that result from chronic behaviors, such as transcription factors. Transcription factor activity is suggested as a possible outcome of chronic behaviors, such as addiction. Sleep is discussed as possible mediating factor in the relationship between specific transcription factors and alcohol. Analysis will focus on brain areas related to both sleep and reward.


Effects Of Acute Stress And Ethanol Consumption On Il-1Β In Female Long Evans Rats: A Pilot Study, Kristin R. Creel 2016 University of Dayton

Effects Of Acute Stress And Ethanol Consumption On Il-1Β In Female Long Evans Rats: A Pilot Study, Kristin R. Creel

Honors Theses

Background: Acute stress elicits many physiological, behavioral, and neurological responses, and many studies have aimed to better our understanding of these responses and their effects. However, a majority of preclinical studies have used male test subjects, despite growing evidence that males and females have different responses to acute and chronic stressors. This study thus aims to evaluate the ability of three different acute stressors to cause a physiological stress response in adult and adolescent female subjects.

Methods: In this preliminary investigation, Female Long Evans rats (N=12) underwent three acute stressors over the course of three consecutive days. In order ...


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