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Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Observational Assessment Of Empathy In Parent-Child Verbal Exchanges And Their Influence On Child Behavior, Patty Carambot

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Empathy, the ability to both experientially share in and understand others’ thoughts, behaviors, and feelings, is vital for human adaptation. Deficits in empathy development have implications across the lifespan for the development of prosocial behavior, social functioning, mental health disorders, and risk for antisocial behavior (e.g., Guajardo, Snyder, & Petersen, 2009; Moreno, Klute & Robinson, 2008). In light of these societal and individual burdens, it is imperative to foster and strengthen the development of this ability early in life to prevent or ameliorate such negative outcomes. This type of prevention can take a variety of forms, but parent and child verbal exchanges and modeling are often the most direct methods after two years of age (e.g., Moreno et al., 2008). The aim of this research was to inform the development of a system to naturalistically assess empathy development via home-based observation of mothers and their children’s verbal exchanges.

The proposed system, iEAR-Empathy in Parent-Child Interactions (iEAR-EPIC), is a verbal coding system to code for verbal behaviors empirically demonstrated to foster empathy development, as well as behaviors found to indicate empathy development. The development of the iEPIC was theoretically informed by Preston and de Waal’s (2002) Perception Action Mechanism (PAM) model of empathy, a neurocognitive-emotional model of empathy. This model demonstrates empathy as a maturing system in which emotional and cognitive understanding develop in tandem through brain-environment interactions. However, the iEPIC also accounts for the interplay between parents and neurocognitive emotional processes, and thus captures the parallel, increasingly interactive, development of cognitive and emotional abilities from infancy onward in the context of a parent-child dyad.

To develop and test the iEPIC, an ethnically diverse subsample of 84 mothers and their 2 to 6-year-old children were recruited from a large, northeastern, urban, public university. After consenting, mother-child dyads were recorded for a 4-hour period during the dyad’s evening routine (5-9p.m.), using a two-minutes on, 10 seconds off protocol, resulting in 28 2-minute clips (56 minutes total) per dyad. Recordings were transcribed and reviewed, and then 4 pairs of coders were trained in the iEPIC coding system, and then coded the dyad recordings for behaviors comprising the proposed iEPIC assessment system.

The iEPIC observational assessment system consists of 5 codes for each parent and child: Reflection (R), Exploring Emotion and State (EES), Emotion and State Description (ESD), and Empathic Understanding and Concern (EUC), as well as Neutral verbalizations (N; non-study-related verbalizations). The EES, ESD, and EUC each have levels of complexity, with higher levels expected to occur more frequently in older children (e.g., 4 years and older).

There were several purposes of the current study: 1) assess inter-rater reliability for the iEPIC coding system 2) determine if ...


Ptsd From Childhood Trauma As A Precursor To Attachment Issues, Christy Owen 2016 Counseling

Ptsd From Childhood Trauma As A Precursor To Attachment Issues, Christy Owen

Fidei et Veritatis: The Liberty University Journal of Graduate Research

The past 20 years have been turbulent regarding Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD), with conflicting research about its causes, effects, treatment, and prognosis. The current diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5 fails to adequately address this disorder. A number of deviant and maladaptive behaviors common amongst children with RAD are not even mentioned in the diagnostic criteria. As such, the diagnostic definition is almost unidentifiable or incompatible with real-life conduct manifestations of the disorder. Rather, this author contends that RAD is foundationally a unique and extreme form of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) from Early Childhood Trauma. The child endured unspeakable neglect and ...


The Bilingual Brain, Victoria A. James 2016 Gardner-Webb University

The Bilingual Brain, Victoria A. James

Journal of Counseling and Psychology

This literature review explores the neurocognitive effects of the bilingual brain. Many areas of bilingualism are examined such as age of acquisition, which is when the second language is attained, and memory. The three types of bilingual memory are implicit memory, which is procedural memory, explicit memory, which is declarative memory, and episodic memory, which is autobiographical memory. In relation to the bilingual brain, cognition, control, and /lateralization are also reviewed. Finally, second language (L2) learning strategies are considered. The objective of this study is to obtain an understanding on how two or more languages are acquired and processed in ...


Neural Mechanisms Of Action Switching Moderate The Relationship Between Effortful Control And Aggression, Eric L. Rawls, Connie Lamm 2016 University of New Orleans

Neural Mechanisms Of Action Switching Moderate The Relationship Between Effortful Control And Aggression, Eric L. Rawls, Connie Lamm

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Aggression and violence are social behaviors that exact a significant toll on human societies. Individuals with aggressive tendencies display deficits in effortful control, particularly in affectively charged situations. However, not all individuals with poor effortful control are aggressive. This study uses event-related potentials (ERPs) to decompose the chronology of cognitive functions underlying the link between effortful control and aggression. Specifically, this study investigates which ERPs moderate the effortful control - aggression association. We examined three successive ERP components (P2, N2 and P3) for stimuli that required effortful control. Results indicated that N2 activation, but not P2 or P3 activation, moderated the ...


Investigating The Role Of Testosterone Signaling At Androgen Receptors In Resiliency To Social Stress, Catherine Tucker Clinard 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Investigating The Role Of Testosterone Signaling At Androgen Receptors In Resiliency To Social Stress, Catherine Tucker Clinard

Doctoral Dissertations

Social experience can alter how individuals cope with stressful events and contribute to individual differences in stress vulnerability. We have previously tested dominant and subordinate male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in a conditioned defeat model and found that dominant individuals show reduced defeat-induced changes in behavior compared to subordinates. Dominant hamsters also show increased neural activation following social defeat stress in brain regions that regulate social behavior and coping with stress, including the medial amygdala (MeA). Because winning aggressive encounters generates a surge in plasma testosterone and androgen receptors are abundant in the MeA, we tested whether testosterone signaling at ...


Therapy Dogs In The College Classroom: The Effect Of Dogs On Stress, Anxiety, And Spanish L2 Phonological Learning And Performance, Elaine Maralee Henry 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Therapy Dogs In The College Classroom: The Effect Of Dogs On Stress, Anxiety, And Spanish L2 Phonological Learning And Performance, Elaine Maralee Henry

Doctoral Dissertations

Anxiety and stress invoked by the second language classroom setting has the ability to cause numerous detrimental physiological changes which impair the learning process. A more natural, “immersion” type atmosphere is often desired when teaching a second language; however, this is not typically possible with college classes. Therefore, the addition of therapy dogs to college second language classes may be a beneficial solution since therapy dogs are frequently cited as having the ability to lower stress and anxiety in many different settings. Stroking and interacting with a dog may reduce many markers of stress, including blood pressure, heart rate, and ...


Perseverance: Psychospiritual And Genetic Perspectives, Tony N. Jelsma, Arielle Johnston, Bruce Vermeer 2016 Dordt College

Perseverance: Psychospiritual And Genetic Perspectives, Tony N. Jelsma, Arielle Johnston, Bruce Vermeer

Faculty Work: Comprehensive List

Perseverance constitutes a quality that motivates humankind to press onward usually in the face of significant adversity and resistance. Perseverance is also important in the Christian life. The apostle Paul, using athletic training metaphors, frequently urges his readers to persevere in the faith, even describing his own life as a fight and a race (2 Tim.4:7). Yet, certain groups of people seem to possess a greater measure of perseverance than others have. We are therefore led to ask, “Can our ability to persevere be, in God’s providence, at least partly genetically influenced?”


Nicotine And Methylphenidate Chornic Exposure On Adult Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist (Cp 55,940) Place Conditioning In Male Rats, Christopher P. Plant 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

Nicotine And Methylphenidate Chornic Exposure On Adult Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist (Cp 55,940) Place Conditioning In Male Rats, Christopher P. Plant

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

A problematic connection has been reported between those who use nicotine related products alone or in combination with ADHD medications, like methylphenidate (MPH), in late childhood or early adolescence and the increased likelihood of later marijuana abuse in adulthood. Pre-clinical studies have found that the use of nicotine during the early adolescence period produces enduring changes to the endocannabinoid system in the brain. Since CB agonists, like marijuana, exert their effect through the eCB system, it is possible that early nicotine use may alter the rewarding nature of CB agonists in adulthood. In addition, MPH has also been shown to ...


Examination Of Methamphetamine Reinstatement In Female And Male Rats: A Pre-Clinical Model Of Relapse, Steven T. Pittenger 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Examination Of Methamphetamine Reinstatement In Female And Male Rats: A Pre-Clinical Model Of Relapse, Steven T. Pittenger

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

Methamphetamine (meth) dependence is often characterized by persistent and chronic relapse (i.e., return to drug use). There is growing pre-clinical and human evidence suggesting females are at greater risk to relapse. The set of studies presented in this dissertation extended this limited evidence by identifying sex-dependent neural substrates correlated with meth-triggered reinstatement (Experiment 1) and by examining sex-differences in reinstatement triggered by drugs of abuse that are commonly co-abused with meth (Experiment 2). Female and male rats were trained to self-administer meth, received subsequent extinction sessions, and then tested for reinstatement. In Experiment 1, rats were perfused following reinstatement ...


Importance Of The D2 Receptor For One- And Multi-Trial Psychostimulant-Induced Behavioral Sensitization In Preweanling Rats, Martha A. Mohd-Yusof 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

Importance Of The D2 Receptor For One- And Multi-Trial Psychostimulant-Induced Behavioral Sensitization In Preweanling Rats, Martha A. Mohd-Yusof

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The neural mechanisms mediating one-trial and multi-trial behavioral sensitization during early ontogeny are poorly understood. The purpose of this thesis was to assess the importance of D2-like receptors for the induction of cocaine- and methamphetamine-induced one-trial and multi-trial behavioral sensitization during the middle and late preweanling period. In a series of four experiments, rats were injected with saline or the selective dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist raclopride 15 min prior to treatment with the indirect dopamine agonists cocaine or methamphetamine. Acute control groups received two injections of saline. The pretreatment regimens occurred on either PND 16 or PND 20 (one-trial behavioral ...


Do Rats Consume Ethanol To Regulate A Negative Emotion Induced By A Successive Negative Contrast Procedure?, Andrew Dieterich 2016 Seton Hall University

Do Rats Consume Ethanol To Regulate A Negative Emotion Induced By A Successive Negative Contrast Procedure?, Andrew Dieterich

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

According to the self-medication hypothesis, individuals may consume drugs or alcohol, or engage in other behaviors in order to reduce a negative emotional state (Khantzian, 1985; Gross, 2013; Crum et al., 2013). Rats experiencing a negative state induced by various stressors (Bertholomey et al., 2010), or a decrease or loss in reward value of a sucrose solution (Manzo et al., 2015; Manzo et al., 2014) demonstrate increased consumption of alcohol. I used successive (SNC) and anticipatory negative contrast (ANC) procedures to further examine this hypothesis and the previous findings (Manzo et al., 2015), that rats increase consumption and preference for ...


The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry 2016 Seton Hall University

The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The inability to remember events experienced very early in life is referred to as Infantile Amnesia (IA) and has been observed in both humans and animals. Over the years interest in the phenomenon waned, but has recently increased with the discovery of new neurobiological methods to study brain function (e.g., Callaghan, Li & Richardson, 2014). The neurobiological mechanism behind IA has yet to be determined, but several innovative theories have been developed with these new research methods. The neurogenesis hypothesis theorizes that increased neurogenesis during early development disrupts previously established memories. The hippocampus, an area that mediates both the memory ...


An Analysis Of Canine Processing Of Stimulus Compounds Varying In Light And Sound Intensity, Katherine O. Compitus 2016 CUNY Hunter College

An Analysis Of Canine Processing Of Stimulus Compounds Varying In Light And Sound Intensity, Katherine O. Compitus

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

A dog was trained to respond deferentially to two light-sound compounds. The dog was then tested with combinations of additional light and sound intensities. The dog appeared to use the information provided by both stimulus dimensions. This research is relevant to the understanding of information processing, specifically categorization and generalization.


Gap Junction Communication In Memory Retrieval And Extinction Of Cocaine Seeking, Michael Fitzgerald 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Gap Junction Communication In Memory Retrieval And Extinction Of Cocaine Seeking, Michael Fitzgerald

Theses and Dissertations

Blocking drug-associated memory retrieval or enhancing extinction of drug-seeking behavior are two strategies that could limit relapse in drug addicts. The loci of retrieval and extinction memory processes include the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex and the infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex, respectively. The neurochemical and synaptic mechanisms underlying drug-related behavior have received considerable attention, but extrasynaptic mechanisms are relatively unexplored. One form of cellular communication, gap junction communication, may play a role in drug-related learning and memory. Gap junction communication between neurons and astrocytes provide a cytoplasmic continuity between connected cells and both neuronal and astrocytic gap junction communication have been ...


Daily Bidirectional Relationships Between Sleep And Mental Health Symptoms In Youth With Emotional And Behavioral Problems, Tori R. Van Dyk, Ronald W. Thompson, Timothy D. Nelson 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Daily Bidirectional Relationships Between Sleep And Mental Health Symptoms In Youth With Emotional And Behavioral Problems, Tori R. Van Dyk, Ronald W. Thompson, Timothy D. Nelson

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Objective The present study examined the daily, bidirectional relationships between sleep and mental health symptoms in youth presenting to mental health treatment. Methods Youth aged 6 to 11 (36% female, 44% European American) presenting to outpatient behavioral health treatment (N = 25) were recruited to participate in the study. Children and parents completed daily questionnaires regarding the child’s sleep, mood, and behavior for a 14-day period, while youth wore an actigraph watch to objectively measure sleep. Results Examining between- and within-person variance using multilevel models, results indicate that youth had poor sleep duration and quality and that sleep and mental ...


Effects Of Optogenetic Activation And Pharmacological Modulation Of Dopamine Neurons, Remington J. Rice 2016 Northern Michigan University

Effects Of Optogenetic Activation And Pharmacological Modulation Of Dopamine Neurons, Remington J. Rice

All NMU Master's Theses

This study explored the use of optogenetic tools to better understand treatments used for schizophrenia. The “positive” symptoms (e.g., hallucinations, paranoia, etc.) of schizophrenia may come from overexpression of dopamine in mesolimbic dopamine neurons. Positive symptoms can be produced in healthy volunteers treated with amphetamine, a psychostimulant drug and dopamine releaser. Conversely, antipsychotic drugs may reduce positive symptoms by blocking dopamine receptors. This study used optogenetics to explore how drugs that alter neurotransmission, might alter behaviors occurring from activation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Light-induced activation of DA neurons in the VTA in ...


Modulating Neuronal Activity: Copper, Isoproterenol, And Beta-Blockers On The Brain, Veronica Go 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Modulating Neuronal Activity: Copper, Isoproterenol, And Beta-Blockers On The Brain, Veronica Go

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Antipsychotic Treatment Upon Nicotine Associative Reward In A Neonatal Quinpirole Model Of Schizophrenia, Adam Ray Denton 2016 East Tennessee State Universtiy

The Effects Of Antipsychotic Treatment Upon Nicotine Associative Reward In A Neonatal Quinpirole Model Of Schizophrenia, Adam Ray Denton

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Research has revealed that schizophrenics are significantly more likely to smoke cigarettes than the general population, and consume nicotine products at a much more prevalent rate. Further exacerbating this issue, it has been previously demonstrated in clinical populations that the type of antipsychotic treatment administered (typical versus atypical) may result in either an increase or a decrease of already heightened smoking behavior within the schizophrenic population. With these clinical issues in mind, the present study sought to examine the effects of antipsychotic treatment upon the associative reward of nicotine within the neonatal quinpirole model of schizophrenia. We found that treatment ...


Obesity In Society: The Importance Of Perception, Michael Darnell Oliver II 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Obesity In Society: The Importance Of Perception, Michael Darnell Oliver Ii

Masters Theses

In the current study, I examined the role of positive and negative media images of obese individuals on attitudes and physiological responding in relation to an actual discrimination incident. Various surveys were administered and Body Mass Index (BMI), salivary Alpha Amylase (sAA), and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) or Skin Conductance (SC) were measured. Participants read a vignette in which an obese individual was discriminated against and further questions were administered to assess attributional blame. My primary hypothesis in this study was that there would be a decrease in stigma due to positive priming, specifically stigma directed at the obese population ...


The Contribution Of A Polygenic Risk Score To Individual Differences In Aggressive Behavior: The Moderating And Mediating Roles Of Stressful Events, Christa C. Christ 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Contribution Of A Polygenic Risk Score To Individual Differences In Aggressive Behavior: The Moderating And Mediating Roles Of Stressful Events, Christa C. Christ

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

Although aggression can be beneficial in certain situations (e.g. playing sports, self-defense), excessive and inappropriate aggression can lead to adverse physical and psychological health outcomes in both perpetrators and victims. Genetic susceptibility to negative environments can increase the likelihood of aggressive behavior in the context of situational risk factors. Low efficiency of serotonin neurotransmission and exposure to stress appear to play a prominent role in the etiology of aggressive behavior. A set of three studies assessed the contribution of polygenic risk (TPH2 rs4570625, SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR+rs25531, HTR1B rs13212041, MAOA uVNTR) to aggressive behavior, including alcohol-related aggression, in university students ...


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