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Cognition and Perception Commons

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Intuitive Proportion Judgment In Number-Line Estimation: Converging Evidence From Multiple Tasks, Emily Slusser, Hilary Barth 2017 San Jose State University

Intuitive Proportion Judgment In Number-Line Estimation: Converging Evidence From Multiple Tasks, Emily Slusser, Hilary Barth

Emily Slusser

How children’s understanding of numerical magnitudes changes over the course of development remains a key question in the study of numerical cognition. In an ongoing debate about the source of developmental change, some argue that children maintain and access different mental representations of number, with evidence coming largely from common number-line estimation tasks. In contrast, others argue that a theoretical framework based on psychophysical models of proportion estimation accounts for typical performance on these tasks. The current study explored children’s (n = 71) and adults’ (n = 27) performance on two number-line tasks: the “number to position” (or NP) task ...


Syntax And Semantics Of Perceptual Representation, James K. Quilty-Dunn 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Syntax And Semantics Of Perceptual Representation, James K. Quilty-Dunn

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a defense of perceptual pluralism, the thesis that perceptual systems deliver multiple types of representations including those used in thought. In particular, it argues that perceptual systems output iconic (i.e., image-like, analog) representations as well as discursive (i.e., language-like, digital) states. A central thesis is that perceptual representations of objects are propositional and composed of concepts. It also develops a compositional syntax of iconic representation called the coordination model, according to which icons are sets of primitive parts, each of which determines values along multiple analog feature dimensions simultaneously. The dissertation supports the conclusion that ...


Examining The Differences In Beat Perception And Production Between Musicians And Dancers, Tram Nguyen 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Examining The Differences In Beat Perception And Production Between Musicians And Dancers, Tram Nguyen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The ability to perceive and produce a beat is believed to be universal in humans, but there are factors that may give rise to individual differences. The research presented in this dissertation examined four factors that may influence beat processing and sensorimotor synchronization performance: 1) expertise: in music and dance, 2) training style: percussive and nonpercussive, 3) stimulus modality: auditory and visual, and 4) movement type: effector-specific or whole-body. Chapter 2 examined how percussive and nonpercussive music and dance training influence beat perception and production performance using an auditory beat perception task and a finger tapping beat production task. Chapter ...


The Inconvenient Truth About Thinking Chickens, Lori Marino 2017 Animal Studies Repository

The Inconvenient Truth About Thinking Chickens, Lori Marino

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Original Abstract: Domestic chickens are members of an order, Aves, which has been the focus of a revolution in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cognitive, and social complexity. Some birds are now known to be on a par with many mammals in their intelligence, emotional sophistication, and social interaction. Yet views of chickens have largely remained unrevised in light of this new evidence. In this paper, I examine the data on cognition, emotions, personality, and sociality in chickens, exploring such areas as self-awareness, cognitive bias, social learning and self-control, and comparing their abilities with other birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals ...


Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Triage Prioritization Based On User State Assessment, Santosh Mathan, Michael C. Dorneich, Patricia M. Ververs, Stephen Whitlow 2017 Iowa State University

Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Triage Prioritization Based On User State Assessment, Santosh Mathan, Michael C. Dorneich, Patricia M. Ververs, Stephen Whitlow

Michael C. Dorneich

A method and system are provided that prioritize the output of an image triage that is based on rapid serial visual presentation. User responses and estimates of the effectiveness with which each image is likely to have been processed by a user are employed for post triage image prioritization of potential targets. Images associated with a user response, processed during optimal user states, are assigned the highest priority for post triage examination, as targets are likely. Images without a user response that are processed during optimal user states are assigned the lowest priority, as these are unlikely to contain targets ...


Processing Of Spatial Information In Social And Non-Social Stimuli By Opioid-Exposed And Non-Exposed Newborns, Alyson J. Hock 2017 University of Kentucky

Processing Of Spatial Information In Social And Non-Social Stimuli By Opioid-Exposed And Non-Exposed Newborns, Alyson J. Hock

Alyson J. Chroust

The ability to process information from faces is important for effective social functioning. Adults are experts at this function. It has been suggested that the encoding of configural spatial relations among facial features (e.g., the distance between the eyes) contributes to this expertise. I investigated the developmental origin of face processing expertise by studying typically developing newborns’ sensitivity to the distance between the eyes and between the nose and the mouth in face stimuli. Further, I investigated whether prenatal opioid exposure is associated with neonates’ processing of spatial information in social and non-social stimuli. Infants with prenatal opioid-exposure are ...


Walking As Ontological Shifter: Thoughts In The Key Of Life, Bibi (Silvina) Calderaro 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Walking As Ontological Shifter: Thoughts In The Key Of Life, Bibi (Silvina) Calderaro

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

With walking as ontological shifter I pursue an alternative to the dominant modernist episteme that offers either/or onto-epistemologies of opposition and their reifying engagements. I propose this type of walking is an intentional turning towards a set of radical positions that, as integrative aesthetic and therapeutic practice, brings multiplicity and synchronicity to experience and being in an expanded sociality. This practice facilitates the conditions of possibility for recurring points of contact between the interiority perceived as ‘body’ and the exteriority perceived as ‘world.’ While making evident the self’s at once incoherence with it-self, it opens to a space ...


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach To Distinguishing Serial And Parallel Processing, Joseph W. Houpt, Mario Fifić 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach To Distinguishing Serial And Parallel Processing, Joseph W. Houpt, Mario Fifić

Joseph W. Houpt

Research in cognitive psychology often focuses on how people deal with multiple sources of information. One important aspect of this research is whether people use the information in parallel (at the same time) or in series (one at a time). Various approaches to distinguishing parallel and serial processing have been proposed, but many do not satisfactorily address the mimicking dilemma between serial and parallel classes of models. The mean interaction contrast (MIC) is one measure is designed to improve discriminability of serial-parallel model properties. The MIC has been applied in limited settings because the measure required a large number of ...


Law And Psychology Grows Up, Goes Online, And Replicates, Kristin Firth, David A. Hoffman, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan 2017 University of Chicago, Booth School of Business, Student

Law And Psychology Grows Up, Goes Online, And Replicates, Kristin Firth, David A. Hoffman, Tess Wilkinson-Ryan

Faculty Scholarship

Over the last thirty years, legal scholars have increasingly deployed experimental studies, particularly hypothetical scenarios, to test intuitions about legal reasoning and behavior. That movement has accelerated in the last decade, facilitated in large part by cheap and convenient Internet participant recruiting platforms like Amazon Mechanical Turk. The widespread use of MTurk subjects, a practice that dramatically lowers the barriers to entry for experimental research, has been controversial. At the same time, law and psychology’s home discipline is experiencing a public crisis of confidence widely discussed in terms of the “replication crisis.” At present, law and psychology research is ...


Review Of Training Principles For Flight Training In Aircraft Or Simulator, Stefan Kleinke 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Review Of Training Principles For Flight Training In Aircraft Or Simulator, Stefan Kleinke

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

In human-performance-driven fields such as the social and behavioral sciences and education, there is a particular risk for a disconnect between current research and applied practice. Often, new findings require policy changes and workforce re-education before being applied in a meaningful way. Therefore, a continuous need for practitioner professional development and continuation training exists to ensure informed practices. This presentation is motivated by these needs and aims to help flight training professionals to make informed decisions when designing and conducting flight training events. Based on a conceptual framework of cognitive and behavioral theories in learning, a variety of common training ...


An Examination Of The Relationship Between Ethnic Identity Development, Cognitive Complexity, Differentiation Of Self, And Reports Of Racial And Ethnic Microaggressions, DeShae C. Gatti 2017 Stephen F Austin State University

An Examination Of The Relationship Between Ethnic Identity Development, Cognitive Complexity, Differentiation Of Self, And Reports Of Racial And Ethnic Microaggressions, Deshae C. Gatti

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Although individuals may not engage in racism consciously due to social undesirability, they may have biases that manifest in more subtle and unconscious ways. Research has found that people of color experiencing different racial and ethnic microaggressions in their everyday lives are subject to pervasive and negative impacts on their mental health, though little is known about the influence of one’s ethnic identity formation, affective processes, and cognitive processes. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the degree to which ethnic identity development, cognitive complexity, and differentiation of self were associated reported experiences of microaggressions. The analysis indicated ...


Bringing Awe Down To Earth: Inspiring High Performance Through Positive Executive Coaching, Chad Thomas 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Bringing Awe Down To Earth: Inspiring High Performance Through Positive Executive Coaching, Chad Thomas

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

What inspires and sustains high performance? Positive psychology, the scientific study of human strengths and well-being, provides evidence-based insights into the mechanisms of, and characteristics associated with, flourishing. Astronauts represent a paragon of high performance through the intensely focused preparation, passion, and perseverance required in their training and during space missions. This capstone draws on both scientific findings from positive psychology and insights from astronaut training to provide a unique lens for a positive executive coaching program. In addition to a review of relevant positive psychology research to illustrate the principles of this program, this capstone includes personal anecdotes and ...


Popular Music-Evoked Autobiographical Memories - Developing A Database Of Songs And Studying The Role Of Cue Emotionality And Relevance On Recalled Memories, Krysten Zator 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Popular Music-Evoked Autobiographical Memories - Developing A Database Of Songs And Studying The Role Of Cue Emotionality And Relevance On Recalled Memories, Krysten Zator

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In Study 1, undergraduate students rated popular music songs on several factors. A database of knowledge was created for popular music autobiographical memory (AM) cueing research. Study 2 examined the role of emotional experience and relevance associated with a popular music AM cue on recalled AMs. In Phase 1, undergraduate participants described AMs to short music clips or a blank computer screen (control). In Phase 2, participants answered questions about these AMs. In Phase 3, participants rated musical clips (including Phase 1 stimuli). Unexpectedly, music-cued memories were less salient and did not differ emotionally from control-cued, but contained more perceptual ...


Social Media And Cognition, Ana C. Ruiz Pardo 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Social Media And Cognition, Ana C. Ruiz Pardo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Social media is an inescapable platform for sharing media and connecting with others. This thesis investigated how social media impacts cognition; specifically, attention. Study 1 investigated typical social media usage patterns and helped gauge which SM platform was most popular. Study 1 revealed three main platforms people used most often: Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat. Facebook was reported as the most popular social media platform. Study 2 investigated how a social media post impacts cognition. It was hypothesized that participants who posted, with the intention of provoking a reaction from their followers, on their social media prior to performing a cognitive ...


Ask The Pendulum: Personality Predictors Of Ideomotor Performance, Jay A. Olson, Ewalina Jeyanesan, Amir Raz 2017 McGill University

Ask The Pendulum: Personality Predictors Of Ideomotor Performance, Jay A. Olson, Ewalina Jeyanesan, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

For centuries, people have asked questions to hand-held pendulums and interpreted their movements as responses from the divine. These movements occur due to the ideomotor effect, wherein priming or thinking of a motion causes muscle movements that end up swinging the pendulum. By associating particular swinging movements with “yes” and “no” responses, we investigated whether pendulums can aid decision-making and which personality traits correlate with this performance. Participants (N=80) completed a visual detection task in which they searched for a target letter among rapidly presented characters. In the verbal condition, participants stated whether they saw the target in each ...


During The Wait: A Phenomenological Study On Denied Social Security Dissability Applicants Awaiting Appeal, Stefanie A. Ford 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

During The Wait: A Phenomenological Study On Denied Social Security Dissability Applicants Awaiting Appeal, Stefanie A. Ford

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the essence of the experience of individuals who were denied Social Security Disability benefits and who sought the appeals process. In the first round, five semi-structured face-to-face interviews allow the participants to share their thoughts, feelings, and actions taken and, if any, what life changes occurred during the appeals process. Data analysis using phenomenological methods create textural-structural descriptions from which, in a second interview, applicants choose to confirm, edit, or add to their analyzed interviews. The findings present as seven major themes that describes the phenomenon. They are: (a) procedural unfairness ...


Attentional Preference After A Brief Mindfulness Meditation Intervention, Joshua John Hatherley 2017 The University of Western University

Attentional Preference After A Brief Mindfulness Meditation Intervention, Joshua John Hatherley

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

It has been suggested that as a cognitive exercise, mindfulness meditation has the ability to significantly affect attention in its practitioners. This may help explain why mindfulness meditation has found success in clinical practices. This thesis sought to extend this line of research by investigating the influence of mindfulness meditation on attentional preference. In the context of this paper, attentional preference was seen to be the ability of the viewer to be biased to either detecting local components or the global whole. Study 1 investigated how a 10- minute breathing-oriented mindfulness intervention affects attentional preference on the Navon, Flanker and ...


Individual Differences In The Allocation Of Visual Attention During Navigation, Mikayla Keller 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Individual Differences In The Allocation Of Visual Attention During Navigation, Mikayla Keller

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There are large individual differences in the ability to create an accurate mental representation (i.e., a cognitive map) of a novel environment, yet the factors underlying cognitive map accuracy remain unclear. Given the roles that landmarks and cognitive map accuracy play in successful navigation, the current study examined whether differences in the landmarks that individuals look at while navigating are related to differences in cognitive map accuracy. Participants completed a battery of spatial tests: some that assessed spatial skills prior to a navigation task, and others that tested memory for the environment following exploration of a virtual world. Results ...


Learning To Think Slower: Review Of Thinking, Fast And Slow By Daniel Kahneman (2011), Samuel L. Tunstall, Patrick N. Beymer 2017 Michigan State University

Learning To Think Slower: Review Of Thinking, Fast And Slow By Daniel Kahneman (2011), Samuel L. Tunstall, Patrick N. Beymer

Numeracy

Daniel Kahneman. Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux) 499 pp. ISBN 978-0374275631.

As an expansive review of Kahneman and others' work over the past half-century in understanding human decision-making, Thinking, Fast and Slow provides Numeracy readers much to consider for both pedagogy and research. In this review, we outline Kahneman's core argument—that humans use both rash (emotional) System 1 thinking and slow (logical) System 2 thinking—then discuss how such systems might be addressed in a quantitative literacy classroom.


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