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Intuitive Proportion Judgment In Number-Line Estimation: Converging Evidence From Multiple Tasks, Emily Slusser, Hilary Barth 2017 San Jose State University

Intuitive Proportion Judgment In Number-Line Estimation: Converging Evidence From Multiple Tasks, Emily Slusser, Hilary Barth

Emily Slusser

How children’s understanding of numerical magnitudes changes over the course of development remains a key question in the study of numerical cognition. In an ongoing debate about the source of developmental change, some argue that children maintain and access different mental representations of number, with evidence coming largely from common number-line estimation tasks. In contrast, others argue that a theoretical framework based on psychophysical models of proportion estimation accounts for typical performance on these tasks. The current study explored children’s (n = 71) and adults’ (n = 27) performance on two number-line tasks: the “number to position” (or NP) task ...


Social Media And Cognition, Ana C. Ruiz Pardo 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Social Media And Cognition, Ana C. Ruiz Pardo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Social media is an inescapable platform for sharing media and connecting with others. This thesis investigated how social media impacts cognition; specifically, attention. Study 1 investigated typical social media usage patterns and helped gauge which SM platform was most popular. Study 1 revealed three main platforms people used most often: Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat. Facebook was reported as the most popular social media platform. Study 2 investigated how a social media post impacts cognition. It was hypothesized that participants who posted, with the intention of provoking a reaction from their followers, on their social media prior to performing a cognitive ...


Popular Music-Evoked Autobiographical Memories - Developing A Database Of Songs And Studying The Role Of Cue Emotionality And Relevance On Recalled Memories, Krysten Zator 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Popular Music-Evoked Autobiographical Memories - Developing A Database Of Songs And Studying The Role Of Cue Emotionality And Relevance On Recalled Memories, Krysten Zator

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In Study 1, undergraduate students rated popular music songs on several factors. A database of knowledge was created for popular music autobiographical memory (AM) cueing research. Study 2 examined the role of emotional experience and relevance associated with a popular music AM cue on recalled AMs. In Phase 1, undergraduate participants described AMs to short music clips or a blank computer screen (control). In Phase 2, participants answered questions about these AMs. In Phase 3, participants rated musical clips (including Phase 1 stimuli). Unexpectedly, music-cued memories were less salient and did not differ emotionally from control-cued, but contained more perceptual ...


Attentional Preference After A Brief Mindfulness Meditation Intervention, Joshua John Hatherley 2017 The University of Western University

Attentional Preference After A Brief Mindfulness Meditation Intervention, Joshua John Hatherley

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

It has been suggested that as a cognitive exercise, mindfulness meditation has the ability to significantly affect attention in its practitioners. This may help explain why mindfulness meditation has found success in clinical practices. This thesis sought to extend this line of research by investigating the influence of mindfulness meditation on attentional preference. In the context of this paper, attentional preference was seen to be the ability of the viewer to be biased to either detecting local components or the global whole. Study 1 investigated how a 10- minute breathing-oriented mindfulness intervention affects attentional preference on the Navon, Flanker and ...


Individual Differences In The Allocation Of Visual Attention During Navigation, Mikayla Keller 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Individual Differences In The Allocation Of Visual Attention During Navigation, Mikayla Keller

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There are large individual differences in the ability to create an accurate mental representation (i.e., a cognitive map) of a novel environment, yet the factors underlying cognitive map accuracy remain unclear. Given the roles that landmarks and cognitive map accuracy play in successful navigation, the current study examined whether differences in the landmarks that individuals look at while navigating are related to differences in cognitive map accuracy. Participants completed a battery of spatial tests: some that assessed spatial skills prior to a navigation task, and others that tested memory for the environment following exploration of a virtual world. Results ...


Learning To Think Slower: Review Of Thinking, Fast And Slow By Daniel Kahneman (2011), Samuel L. Tunstall, Patrick N. Beymer 2017 Michigan State University

Learning To Think Slower: Review Of Thinking, Fast And Slow By Daniel Kahneman (2011), Samuel L. Tunstall, Patrick N. Beymer

Numeracy

Daniel Kahneman. Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux) 499 pp. ISBN 978-0374275631.

As an expansive review of Kahneman and others' work over the past half-century in understanding human decision-making, Thinking, Fast and Slow provides Numeracy readers much to consider for both pedagogy and research. In this review, we outline Kahneman's core argument—that humans use both rash (emotional) System 1 thinking and slow (logical) System 2 thinking—then discuss how such systems might be addressed in a quantitative literacy classroom.


Revolutionary Coalition Strength And Collective Failure As Determinants Of Status Reallocation, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler 2017 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Revolutionary Coalition Strength And Collective Failure As Determinants Of Status Reallocation, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

This experiment investigated the effects of collective performance and coalition strength on the redistribution of status prerogatives in triads. A status hierarchy was established within triads, such that one person held higher control status and the two others held lower status. Each group performed an ambiguous, decision-making task over two trials. Collective performance (i.e., success vs failure) was manipulated via bogus feedback regarding the group’s performance, while coalition strength was manipulated by varying the extent to which the two low-status members, acting together as a revolutionary coalition, could damage the outcomes received by the high-status member. Results indicate ...


The Perception Of Power, Samuel B. Bacharach, Edward J. Lawler 2017 Cornell University

The Perception Of Power, Samuel B. Bacharach, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

This study examines the impact of some basic exchange-theory variables, the value and scarcity of outcomes, on perceptions of Self and Other power in a conflict setting. Each respondent took the role of an employee in conflict with an employer, and assessed the magnitude of Self and Other (employer) power. Four variables are manipulated: Self’s outcome scarcity, the value of the outcome to Self, Other’s outcome scarcity, and the value of the outcome to Other. The results are consistent with predictions drawn from the Blau, and Emerson (a, b) treatments of dependence relations. The results suggest that the ...


Perceptions Of Power In Conflict Situations, Samuel B. Bacharach, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler 2017 Cornell University

Perceptions Of Power In Conflict Situations, Samuel B. Bacharach, H. Andrew Michener, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

Subjects rendered judgments regarding the power of the participants in a series of conflictual circumstances where an adversary threatened a target. These situations manipulated four independent variables: (a) the adversary's capacity to damage the target's interests, (b) the adversary's probability of actually attacking, (c) the target's ability to block the impending attack, and (d) the target's capacity to retaliate. Results showed that all of the independent variables affected the subjects' judgments of the adversary's power, while three of them (damage, blockage, and retaliation) affected judgments of the target's power. Differences in the predictive ...


Growing Up With Porn: The Developmental And Societal Impact Of Pornography On Children, Gail Dines 2017 Wheelock College

Growing Up With Porn: The Developmental And Societal Impact Of Pornography On Children, Gail Dines

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


The Public Health Harms Of Pornography: The Brain, Erectile Dysfunction, And Sexual Violence, John D. Foubert 2017 Oklahoma State University

The Public Health Harms Of Pornography: The Brain, Erectile Dysfunction, And Sexual Violence, John D. Foubert

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Three Interfaces For 360-Degree Video On Spatial Cognition, Wutthigrai Boonsuk, Stephen B. Gilbert, Jonathan W. Kelly 2017 Iowa State University

The Impact Of Three Interfaces For 360-Degree Video On Spatial Cognition, Wutthigrai Boonsuk, Stephen B. Gilbert, Jonathan W. Kelly

Jonathan W. Kelly

In this paper, we describe an experiment designed to evaluate the effectiveness of three interfaces for surveillance or remote control using live 360-degree video feeds from a person or vehicle in the field. Video feeds are simulated using a game engine. While locating targets within a 3D terrain using a 2D 360-degree interface, participants indicated perceived egocentric directions to targets and later placed targets on an overhead view of the terrain. Interfaces were compared based on target finding and map placement performance. Results suggest 1) non-seamless interfaces with visual boundaries facilitate spatial understanding, 2) correct perception of self-to-object relationships is ...


Assessing Multiple Participant View Positioning In Virtual Reality-Based Training, Jonathan W. Kelly, Eliot Winer, Stephen B. Gilbert, Michael Curtis, Eduardo Rubio, Ken Kopecky, Joseph Scott Holub, Julio de la Cruz 2017 Iowa State University

Assessing Multiple Participant View Positioning In Virtual Reality-Based Training, Jonathan W. Kelly, Eliot Winer, Stephen B. Gilbert, Michael Curtis, Eduardo Rubio, Ken Kopecky, Joseph Scott Holub, Julio De La Cruz

Jonathan W. Kelly

As cost, time, and other challenging resource requirements are placed on U.S. Joint forces training, the role of simulations will play an even greater role than it does today. To effectively aid a Warfighter in gaining critical skills and to assess the proficiency of those skills, computer-based training must advance beyond traditional desktop simulations and monoscopic projection technology. Virtual Reality (VR) based training has been proven in fields such as medical and engineering to increase a trainee’s level of immersion, and increase training performance in several metrics including accuracy and efficiency, while simultaneously decreasing cost. Warfighter training offers ...


Comparing Training Performance With Vibrotactile Hit Alerts Vs. Audio Alerts, Stephen B. Gilbert, Anthony Civitate, Jonathan W. Kelly, Frederick Thompson, Alisha Smith, Ken Kopecky, Eliot Winer, Julio de la Cruz 2017 Iowa State University

Comparing Training Performance With Vibrotactile Hit Alerts Vs. Audio Alerts, Stephen B. Gilbert, Anthony Civitate, Jonathan W. Kelly, Frederick Thompson, Alisha Smith, Ken Kopecky, Eliot Winer, Julio De La Cruz

Jonathan W. Kelly

Live, virtual, and constructive training that integrates dismounted warfighter training with convoy training, pilot training, and other systems has been demonstrated to reduce training time, and studies have shown that a high level of immersion and the illusion of presence in a VR environment contribute to this success. However, current force-on-force training simulators lack one major quality that is needed to impart this strong sense of presence for warfighters: the consequence of getting shot.

Simulated return-fire systems have been developed for different purposes including military, police and entertainment. Some use projectiles, but that approach is usually limited to a shoot ...


Second-Language Acquisition And Motivation: A Literature Review, Pat Goodridge 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Second-Language Acquisition And Motivation: A Literature Review, Pat Goodridge

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

This literature review traces the development of motivation in second-language acquisition, a field that has evolved from basic associations between affective factors and second-language performance to nuanced approaches of how motivation is shaped by a learner’s subjective cognition. With this review, we see that motivation’s role has always been central to language learning, and the development of our understanding of this role has mirrored the development of our understanding of second-language acquisition’s psychological and cognitive aspects. Such understanding contributes to many areas of second-language pedagogy, developmental psychology, and applied linguistics, all of which are relevant to our ...


Age-Related Differences In Context-Specificity Benefits Ambiguous Predictive Learning, Catherine Luna 2017 Western Kentucky University

Age-Related Differences In Context-Specificity Benefits Ambiguous Predictive Learning, Catherine Luna

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The present study investigated age differences in the context-specificity effect in learning. Ambiguity was manipulated in two conditions in a predictive learning paradigm (Callejas-Aguilera & Rosas, 2010) to encourage participants to attend to context. In the ambiguous condition, foods led to the presence of the illness equally as often as its absence. In the non-ambiguous condition, foods consistently led to the presence of the illness or consistently lead to its absence. Participants were instructed to make predictive judgments for foods leading to the presence of an illness in one of two restaurant contexts. During the test, participants made predictive judgments of ...


Space Perception In Virtual Environments: Displacement From The Center Of Projection Causes Less Distortion Than Predicted By Cue-Based Models, Jonathan W. Kelly, Melissa Burton, Brice Pollock, Eduardo Rubio, Michael Curtis, Julio de la Cruz, Stephen B. Gilbert, Eliot H. Winer 2017 Iowa State University

Space Perception In Virtual Environments: Displacement From The Center Of Projection Causes Less Distortion Than Predicted By Cue-Based Models, Jonathan W. Kelly, Melissa Burton, Brice Pollock, Eduardo Rubio, Michael Curtis, Julio De La Cruz, Stephen B. Gilbert, Eliot H. Winer

Jonathan W. Kelly

Virtual reality systems commonly include both monocular and binocular depth cues, which have the potential to provide viewers with a realistic impression of spatial properties of the virtual environment. However, when multiple viewers share the same display, only one viewer typically receives the projectively correct images. All other viewers experience the same images despite displacement from the center of projection (CoP). Three experiments evaluated perceptual distortions caused by displacement from the CoP and compared those percepts to predictions of models based on monocular and binocular viewing geometry. Leftward and rightward displacement from the CoP caused virtual angles on the ground ...


The Cognitive Implications Of Virtual Locomotion With A Restricted Field Of View, William E. Marsh, Jonathan W. Kelly, Veronica J. Dark, James H. Oliver 2017 Iowa State University

The Cognitive Implications Of Virtual Locomotion With A Restricted Field Of View, William E. Marsh, Jonathan W. Kelly, Veronica J. Dark, James H. Oliver

Jonathan W. Kelly

A study was conducted to examine the impact, in terms of cognitive demands, of a restricted field of view (FOV) on semi-natural locomotion in virtual reality (VR). Participants were divided into two groups: high-FOV and low-FOV. They were asked to perform basic movements using a locomotion interface while simultaneously performing one of two memory tasks (spatial or verbal) or no memory task. The memory tasks were intended to simulate the competing demands when a user has primary tasks to perform while using an unnatural interface to move through the virtual world. Results show that participants remembered fewer spatial or verbal ...


Do Spellings Of Words And Phonemic Awareness Training Facilitate Vocabulary Learning In Preschoolers?, Robin O'Leary 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Do Spellings Of Words And Phonemic Awareness Training Facilitate Vocabulary Learning In Preschoolers?, Robin O'Leary

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of phoneme awareness training and orthography to the learning of new vocabulary words by partial alphabetic phase readers. We hypothesized that four and five year old children taught to segment words with letters would outperform those trained with shape markers and those that received no segmentation training on an invented spelling task. We also hypothesized that students seeing the spellings of new vocabulary words (names) would learn the words in fewer trials, remember the names and features better and would be able to better recognize letter labels when presented alone ...


Spatial-Relational Learning And Memory Deficits Associated With Nmdar Autoantibodies In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Brittany L. Bascetta 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Spatial-Relational Learning And Memory Deficits Associated With Nmdar Autoantibodies In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Brittany L. Bascetta

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Individuals with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) experience inflammation that may target any organ within the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems. Additionally, these individuals often demonstrate psychological dysfunctions including emotional and cognitive deficits; however, research is inconsistent as to the nature and cause of these dysfunctions. While there are multiple factors that may increase risk for variability in cognitive function, such as population differences, socioeconomic status (SES), mood disorders (depression and anxiety), medication effects, and disease activity, these factors do not reliably predict the severity and extent of cognitive deficits. A growing body of animal research associates autoantibodies ...


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