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Ecopsychology Revisited: For Whom Do The “Nature” Bells Toll? (In Progress), Jorge Conesa-Sevilla 2016 European Ecopsychology Society

Ecopsychology Revisited: For Whom Do The “Nature” Bells Toll? (In Progress), Jorge Conesa-Sevilla

Jorge Conesa-Sevilla PhD

"[...] A recurring theme in “ecopsychology,” in its present and inchoate form, is the continuation and extension of “spirit” in juxtaposition with other privileged and/or habitually preferred (perhaps even psychologically needed) practices or causes (spirituality-somethings, farcical chemistry or physics, yoga, coopted and partially understood indigenous lore, extreme diets, and various fetishes). That these mostly emotion-laden, unreasoned, and/or idiosyncratic amalgamations are prevalent says more about the psychological needs of the persons espousing these sentiments or beliefs (their hobbies or interests) than about “nature.” Certainly, it is nothing new that humans project their hopes, desperations, and wish-fulfillment thinking onto the shifting ...


On The Screen, In The Mind: An Erp Investigation Into The Interaction Between Visuo-Spatial Information And Spatial Language During On-Line Processing, Emily Zane 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

On The Screen, In The Mind: An Erp Investigation Into The Interaction Between Visuo-Spatial Information And Spatial Language During On-Line Processing, Emily Zane

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This project used Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to explore neurophysiological brain responses to prepositional phrases involving concrete and abstract reference nouns (e.g., "plate" and "moment", respectively) after the presentation of objects with varying spatial features. Prepositional phrases were headed by in or on and were either matching (e.g., "in the plate/moment") or mismatching (e.g., "on the plate/moment"). Conjunction phrase matches and fillers were also presented. Before half of the concrete-phrase items, a photographic depiction of the reference noun was presented. In these photographs, objects were displayed in a way that was either more appropriate for in ...


User Interface Design Recommendations For Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Suas), Camilo Jimenez, Caitlin L. Faerevaag, Florian Jentsch 2016 University of Central Florida

User Interface Design Recommendations For Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Suas), Camilo Jimenez, Caitlin L. Faerevaag, Florian Jentsch

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

The number of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) has dramatically increased in recent years. As a consequence, the number of incidents involving manned and unmanned aircraft has soared. For this reason, the Federal Aviation Administration has released a notice of proposed rulemaking to delineate the operational limitations for sUAS. Many efforts have been introduced to regulate the operations of these systems and educate operators. Despite these efforts, there are no clear standards related to the type of information that should be available to operators, or how this information should be conveyed during flight operations. For this reason we present a ...


Exercises On Overcoming Perfectionist Tendencies, Jake Yoo 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Exercises On Overcoming Perfectionist Tendencies, Jake Yoo

Bachelor of Fine Arts Senior Papers

In my latest series, I investigate my neurotic perfectionist tendency through repetition of phrases that I understand to be true in my head, but have a problem with accepting it in my heart. This way, I am studying my personal biases and the way I perceive the world in order to break free from unwanted behaviors and process negative emotions. Louise Bourgeois is a historical precedence to my practice as whole, while the series functions similarly to Yayoi Kusama’s dot and net paintings—a psychological portrait achieved through continuous repetition of a few elements.


Virtual V1sion: A Collaborative Coding Project, Cheryl Olman 2016 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

Virtual V1sion: A Collaborative Coding Project, Cheryl Olman

MODVIS Workshop

Virtual V1sion is a new idea for fostering modeling collaborations and data sharing. While still in its infancy, the ultimate goal is a website that hosts repositories for (1) interchangeable model elements, (2) datasets that can be fit/predicted by those models, and (3) educational modules that explain the background for both the models and the datasets. The scope of the modeling is limited to predictions of V1 responses, although not all computations represented by model elements in Virtual V1sion are required to be V1-intrinsic: a goal of the project is to provide a framework in which predictions for modulation ...


A Neural Circuit For Visual Information Spreading, Gregory Francis 2016 Purdue University

A Neural Circuit For Visual Information Spreading, Gregory Francis

MODVIS Workshop

I describe a neural circuit made of integrate-and-fire neurons that instantiates a mechanism for the spreading of visual information. The circuit is simple and operates at a reasonable time scale with reasonable parameter values. Slight alterations to the anatomy allow the circuit to spread information across surfaces (constrained by the surface boundaries) as for brightness and color effects or across a group/object (as for some attention effects).


Parametrically Constrained Lightness Model Incorporating Edge Classification And Increment-Decrement Neural Response Asymmetries, Michael E. Rudd 2016 mrudd@u.washington.edu

Parametrically Constrained Lightness Model Incorporating Edge Classification And Increment-Decrement Neural Response Asymmetries, Michael E. Rudd

MODVIS Workshop

Lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments has the form of a parabolic (2nd-order polynomial) function when matches are plotted against annulus luminance on log-log axes. Rudd (2010) has proposed a computational cortical model to account for this fact and has subsequently (Rudd, 2013, 2014, 2015) extended the model to explain data from other lightness paradigms, including staircase-Gelb and luminance gradient illusions (Galmonte, Soranzo, Rudd, & Agostini, 2015). Here, I re-analyze parametric lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments by Rudd and Zemach (2007) and Rudd (2010) for the purpose of further testing the model and to try to constrain the model parameters. Specifically, I test the model assumptions that: 1) lightness is computed by a process that spatially sums steps in log luminance across space, giving 1/3 the weight to incremental steps in log luminance that it gives to decremental steps in log luminance (defined in terms of luminance steps from the background to the target); 2) only luminance steps that are interpreted by the observer as steps in surface reflectance (as opposed to steps in illumination) contribute to the lightness computation. The quantitative analysis confirms these assumptions in the ...


Figure-Ground Organization Using 3d Symmetry, Aaron Michaux, Vijai Jayadevan, Edward Delp, Zygmunt Pizlo 2016 Purdue University

Figure-Ground Organization Using 3d Symmetry, Aaron Michaux, Vijai Jayadevan, Edward Delp, Zygmunt Pizlo

MODVIS Workshop

We present a novel approach to object localization using mirror symmetry as a general purpose and biologically motivated prior. 3D symmetry leads to good segmentation because (i) almost all objects exhibit symmetry, and (ii) configurations of objects are not likely to be symmetric unless they share some additional relationship. Furthermore, psychophysical evidence suggests that the human vision system makes use symmetry in constructing 3D percepts, indicating that symmetry may be important in object localization. No general purpose approach is known for solving 3D symmetry correspondence in 2D camera images, because few invariants exist. Therefore, to test symmetry as a clustering ...


A Mixture Model Demonstrates Use Of Distinct Strategies In A Global Motion Direction Task, Lanya Tianhao Cai, Benjamin T. Backus 2016 SUNY College of Optometry

A Mixture Model Demonstrates Use Of Distinct Strategies In A Global Motion Direction Task, Lanya Tianhao Cai, Benjamin T. Backus

MODVIS Workshop

Mixture models are well known in cognitive psychology, less so in vision. Are there cases where the data allow clear testing as to whether different strategies are employed in a task? Most psychophysical measurements manipulate a single staircase variable to map out a monotonic increasing function, but if performance is limited by different mechanisms over the range of the variable, classical fitting could be inappropriate. We present a data set and analyses that confirm the presence of two visual strategies addressing the same task, with the choice of strategies depending on the staircase variable. In a net-motion discrimination task, stimuli ...


Choice-Dependent Perceptual Biases, Long Luu, Alan A. Stocker 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Choice-Dependent Perceptual Biases, Long Luu, Alan A. Stocker

MODVIS Workshop

The perceived motion direction of a dynamic random dot stimulus is systematically biased when preceded by a motion discrimination task (Jazayeri and Movshon, 2007). The biases were originally thought to occur because subjects mistakenly reuse the neural read-out optimized for the discrimination task when forming the percept (Fig.1a, Task-dependent model). In a series of experiments, we demonstrated that this explanation is incorrect and that the biases actually result from the conditioning of the percept on the preceding discrimination judgment (Fig1.b, Choice-dependent model). Experiment 1 was aimed at replicating the biases for an orientation stimulus. Subjects first indicated whether ...


An Image-Based Model For Early Visual Processing, Heiko H. Schütt, Felix A. Wichmann 2016 University of Tübingen

An Image-Based Model For Early Visual Processing, Heiko H. Schütt, Felix A. Wichmann

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Focusing On Selection For Fixation, John K. Tsotsos, Calden Wloka, Yulia Kotseruba 2016 York University

Focusing On Selection For Fixation, John K. Tsotsos, Calden Wloka, Yulia Kotseruba

MODVIS Workshop

Building on our presentation at MODVIS 2015, we continue in our quest to discover a functional, computational, explanation of the relationship among visual attention, interpretation of visual stimuli, and eye movements, and how these produce visual behavior. Here, we focus on one component, how selection is accomplished for the next fixation. The popularity of saliency map models drives the inference that this is solved; we suggested otherwise at MODVIS 2015. Here, we provide additional empirical and theoretical arguments. We then develop arguments that a cluster of complementary, conspicuity representations drive selection, modulated by task goals and history, leading to a ...


Learning Object Representations For Modeling Attention In Real World Scenes, Alex Schwarz, Frederik Beuth, Fred H. Hamker 2016 Chemnitz University of Technology

Learning Object Representations For Modeling Attention In Real World Scenes, Alex Schwarz, Frederik Beuth, Fred H. Hamker

MODVIS Workshop

Models of visual attention have been rarely used in real world tasks as they have been typically developed for psychophysical setups using simple stimuli. Thus, the question remains how objects must be represented to allow such models an operation in real world scenarios. We have previously presented an attention model capable of operating on real-world scenes (Beuth, F., and Hamker, F. H. 2015, NCNC, which is a successor of Hamker, F. H., 2005, Cerebral Cortex), and show here how its object representations have been learned. We have used a learning rule based on temporal continuity (Földiák, P., 1991, Neural Computation ...


Precise Measurements Of Perceptual Attention Filters For Features, Peng Sun, Charles Chubb, Charles E. Wright, Stefanie Drew, George Sperling 2016 New York University

Precise Measurements Of Perceptual Attention Filters For Features, Peng Sun, Charles Chubb, Charles E. Wright, Stefanie Drew, George Sperling

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Fish Pain: An Inconvenient Truth, Culum Brown 2016 Macquarie University

Fish Pain: An Inconvenient Truth, Culum Brown

Culum Brown

Whether fish feel pain is a hot political topic. The consequences of our denial are huge given the billions of fish that are slaughtered annually for human consumption. The economic costs of changing our commercial fishery harvest practices are also likely to be great. Key outlines a structure-function analogy of pain in humans, tries to force that template on the rest of the vertebrate kingdom, and fails. His target article has so far elicited 34 commentaries from scientific experts from a broad range of disciplines; only three of these support his position. The broad consensus from the scientific community is ...


Educating Spouses May Be Key To Helping Veterans, Shawn J. Gourley 2016 Liberty University

Educating Spouses May Be Key To Helping Veterans, Shawn J. Gourley

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

Veterans’ and family members are facing great difficulties when the veteran returns home to transition into civilian life. Marriages are struggling, and families are being torn apart when the veteran returns home with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Although there are many programs that have been created to educate spouses about PTSD, however, they often fall short of being able to prepare a family for the actual experience of transition. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is starting to come up with programs to help couples and research is starting to gain empirical support; there are still many couples left ...


Teachers' Perceptions Of Students' Creativity Characteristics, Serap Gurak-Ozdemir 2016 Buffalo State College

Teachers' Perceptions Of Students' Creativity Characteristics, Serap Gurak-Ozdemir

Creative Studies Graduate Student Master's Theses

Teachers’ perceptions of an ideal student were investigated in terms of their FourSight preferences (i.e. Ideator, Clarifier, Developer, and Implementer). Based on these preferences, 275 teachers who were currently working in Western New York region described their “ideal” student with 66 adjectives of Torrance Ideal Child Checklist. Results showed that for each of FourSight preferences, teachers have a tendency to support characteristics associated with their own preference. More specifically, teachers with a stronger Ideator tendency encouraged the students’ Ideator characteristics more compared to Developer and Implementer styles. Teachers with a Clarifier tendency do not seem to favor students’ Ideator ...


The Development Of The Scale Of Contemplative Practice In Higher Education, Maryann Krikorian 2016 Chapman University

The Development Of The Scale Of Contemplative Practice In Higher Education, Maryann Krikorian

College of Educational Studies Dissertations

Some scholars have formed a more expansive view of knowledge that moves beyond the cognitive notion of intellect. For example, emotional intelligence (EI) theory posits that human intelligence encompasses both cognitive and emotional competencies, providing a framework for the concept of contemplative practices in an endeavor to support an eclectic understanding of cognition. Contemplative practices may benefit graduate student disposition and inform areas of educator preparation through the use of emotional adeptness in higher education. The purpose of this study was to: (a) develop a self-report measure: Scale of Contemplative Practice in Higher Education (SCOPE); (b) address the issues of ...


Building Object Representations: Mechanisms Of Perceptual Learning In Human Visual Cortex, Stephanie M. Long 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Building Object Representations: Mechanisms Of Perceptual Learning In Human Visual Cortex, Stephanie M. Long

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Extensive literature in the cognitive neurosciences has been dedicated to understanding the neural processes involved in object category learning. However, much remains to be learned regarding the mechanisms by which high-level visual patterns are extracted from a crowded visual scene, segregated into discrete object categories, and represented in the cortical visual hierarchy. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural underpinnings of visual object category extraction in a cluttered visual environment. Electroencephalography (EEG) was continuously recorded while subjects were given a hybrid of an object category learning and visual search task. In this hybrid task, a peripheral array ...


Pulling The Trigger: Dehumanization Of African Americans And Police Violence, Themal I. Ellawala 2016 Clark University

Pulling The Trigger: Dehumanization Of African Americans And Police Violence, Themal I. Ellawala

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

Police shootings and killing of African American targets has reached epidemic proportions and has captured the attention of the entire country. Research in social psychology has studied many dimensions of this layered issue, and has generated disparate findings regarding the role of racial bias in police violence. The process of implicit dehumanization of African Americans, especially youth, has been proposed as particularly salient in making shoot/don’t shoot decisions. This paper suggests that the paradigm of dehumanization could complete the understanding of racialized police violence and reconcile contradictory research findings, while highlighting areas for future research.


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