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Explicit, Implicit, And Behavioral Stigmatization Of Mental Illness, Jessica S. James 2018 University of Southern Mississippi

Explicit, Implicit, And Behavioral Stigmatization Of Mental Illness, Jessica S. James

Dissertations

Mental health concern is a public health concern that continues to be stigmatized. While the dual process model has been applied to other areas of social cognition (e.g., racism), this framework has not previously been frequently used to examine the stigmatization of mental illness. The current study sought to examine the stigmatization of mental illness within a dual process model to determine the relationship between explicit and implicit stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors. A total of 104 undergraduate students from the University of Southern Mississippi participated in this study. Participants completed multiple implicit and explicit measures of stigmatizing attitudes and ...


Measuring Physiological Responses To Sensation In Typical Adults, Sarah Button, Kristen Christensen, Emily Minor 2018 Dominican University of California

Measuring Physiological Responses To Sensation In Typical Adults, Sarah Button, Kristen Christensen, Emily Minor

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

Objective: Sensory processing issues can have a large negative impact on the ability to participate in daily occupations such as ADLs, access to work, school and leisure environments, and social interactions (Dunn, 2001). The evidence documenting sensory processing issues in adults is sparse. Physiological information can be used as objective evidence to support the claim that those with over-responsivity to sensations are experiencing their environment differently than the typical population. Understanding more about sensory processing in adults may lead to increased recognition of the problem and more opportunities for intervention to increase occupational participation. The purpose of this quantitative study ...


Investigating The Effects Of Sensory Learning In Rats Using Intra And Extra Stimulus Modalities, Ariel M. Kershner 2018 Arcadia University

Investigating The Effects Of Sensory Learning In Rats Using Intra And Extra Stimulus Modalities, Ariel M. Kershner

Faculty Curated Undergraduate Works

The purpose of this study was to see what rats learn about the elements of a compound stimulus (a stimulus composed of two different stimuli), and whether their learning differs if the compound is from the same modality (intra-modal), i.e. both visual, or from different modalities (inter-modal), i.e. visual and auditory. We hypothesized that the rats would respond more to the compound stimuli than to the single stimuli (Pearce and Wilson, 1990), more to the compound modality of inter-modal elements than to the compound modality of intra-modal elements (Miller, 1971 and Gingras, 2009), equally to the intra-modal elements ...


Flight Simulator Fidelity, Training Transfer, And The Role Of Instructors In Optimizing Learning, Paul L. Myers III, Arnold W. Starr, Kadie Mullins 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Flight Simulator Fidelity, Training Transfer, And The Role Of Instructors In Optimizing Learning, Paul L. Myers Iii, Arnold W. Starr, Kadie Mullins

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Simulators have been integrated into flight training at various levels for decades, increasing in utility as they increased in fidelity. Today, practically all levels of qualification in passenger-carrying commercial airliners can be obtained entirely in the simulator, with the first experience in the aircraft on a revenue-producing flight. Flight training in the U.S. is a tightly controlled, highly regulated process overseen by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). It is also a very successful one; commercial aviation maintains a remarkable safety record. To that end, pilot training has been studied and analyzed extensively over the years, and as to the ...


The Empathy Mitigation: Empathy And Its Impact On Pain Perception And Altruistic Motivation, Amanda Daly 2018 Abilene Christian University

The Empathy Mitigation: Empathy And Its Impact On Pain Perception And Altruistic Motivation, Amanda Daly

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Empathy and its impact on pain perception has been studied narrowly with the focus being on participants receiving empathy during a pain procedure. This study reversed the focus and ran a standard cold pressor test (CPT) in the context of an empathy frame structured to elicit an empathic response for others from participants. It was hypothesized that the group receiving the empathic frame would have longer CPT times due to alterations in pain perception from empathy activation and these subjects’ self-reported state-trait empathy level would positively correlate with the increased times. 85 subjects participated with a control group of 43 ...


Correlates Of Functional Capacity Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, Maurice MacDonald, Jennifer Margrett, Ilene C. Siegler, Leonard Poon 2018 Iowa State University

Correlates Of Functional Capacity Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, Maurice Macdonald, Jennifer Margrett, Ilene C. Siegler, Leonard Poon

Peter Martin

This study investigated correlates of functional capacity among participants of the Georgia Centenarian Study. Six domains (demographics and health, positive and negative affect, personality, social and economic support, life events and coping, distal influences) were related to functional capacity for 234 centenarians and near centenarians (i.e., 98 years and older). Data were provided by proxy informants. Domain-specific multiple regression analyses suggested that younger centenarians, those living in the community and rated to be in better health were more likely to have higher functional capacity scores. Higher scores in positive affect, conscientiousness, social provisions, religious coping, and engaged lifestyle were ...


Do Clothing Style And Color Affect Our Perceptions Of Others?, Ariel M. Kershner 2018 Arcadia University

Do Clothing Style And Color Affect Our Perceptions Of Others?, Ariel M. Kershner

Faculty Curated Undergraduate Works

Prior research has shown that women who wear red clothing or suggestive clothing are perceived as more attractive, having greater sexual intent, and having more negative qualities than women dressed in different colors or less suggestive clothing. This bias towards perceiving sexual intent may be evolutionary or may be due to people projecting their emotions onto others. The current study builds from this research by performing a 2 (color: white or red) x 2 (clothing type: suggestive or non-suggestive) between-subjects experiment. We hypothesized that women would be perceived as more attractive and as having greater sexual intent while wearing red ...


A Graph Theoretic Approach For Generating Hypotheses About Phonetic Cues In Speech, Anne Marie Crinnion, Beth Malmskog, Joe Toscano 2018 Harvard University

A Graph Theoretic Approach For Generating Hypotheses About Phonetic Cues In Speech, Anne Marie Crinnion, Beth Malmskog, Joe Toscano

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Current models of speech perception suggest that combining acoustic cues and factoring out contextual variability allows listeners to recognize speech across different talkers. However, it remains unclear which specific cues are necessary and how their use varies between individual talkers. We use graph theoretic techniques to address these problems by constructing networks connecting talkers and possible cues. We identify subgraphs (Steiner trees) that connect talkers via cues consistently used to indicate specific phonemes. Classifiers trained on these cues match listeners' data better than those trained on all cues, suggesting that Steiner trees can identify the cues necessary for speech recognition.


Beauty Is In The Eye Of The Beer Holder: An Initial Investigation Of The Effects Of Alcohol, Attractiveness, Warmth, And Competence On The Objectifying Gaze In Men, Abigail R. Riemer, Michelle Haikalis, Molly R. Franz, Michael Dodd, David DiLillo, Sarah Gervais 2018 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Beauty Is In The Eye Of The Beer Holder: An Initial Investigation Of The Effects Of Alcohol, Attractiveness, Warmth, And Competence On The Objectifying Gaze In Men, Abigail R. Riemer, Michelle Haikalis, Molly R. Franz, Michael Dodd, David Dilillo, Sarah Gervais

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Despite literature revealing the adverse consequences of objectifying gazes for women, little work has empirically examined origins of objectifying gazes by perceivers. Integrating alcohol myopia and objectification theories, we examined the effects of alcohol as well as perceived female attractiveness, warmth, and competence on objectifying gazes. Specifically, male undergraduates (n = 49) from a large U.S. Midwestern university were administered either an alcoholic or placebo beverage. After consumption, participants were asked to focus on the appearance or personality (counterbalanced) of pictured women who were previously rated as high, average, or low in attractiveness, warmth, and competence. Replicating previous work, appearance ...


If Nonhuman Animals Can Suicide, Why Don’T They?, C. A. Soper, Todd K. Shackelford 2018 University of Gloucestershire, England

If Nonhuman Animals Can Suicide, Why Don’T They?, C. A. Soper, Todd K. Shackelford

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

An evolutionary analysis suggests that selection is unlikely to have tolerated the capacity for intentional self-killing in nonhuman animals. The potential to escape pain by suicide would have presented a recurrent and severe adaptive problem for an animal with a reproductive future to protect. If the potential for suicide arose in the evolutionary past, anti-suicide mechanisms may have co-evolved, as we believe they have in adult humans. Peña-Guzmán’s (2017) argument that some nonhuman animals can suicide is incomplete without an account of the defences that result in the vast majority opting not to.


The Imprint Of Childhood Abuse On Trauma-Related Shame In Adulthood, Joan A. Reid 2018 University of South Florida St. Petersburg

The Imprint Of Childhood Abuse On Trauma-Related Shame In Adulthood, Joan A. Reid

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Research has consistently linked residual trauma-related shame among child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors to sexual revictimization, health risk behaviors, and poorer response to mental health treatment. However, questions remain regarding the imprint of childhood maltreatment on trauma-related shame including which CSA characteristics or types of childhood maltreatment contribute to residual shame in adulthood. Using data drawn from a prospective study of 174 primarily African American women with histories of CSA and a matched comparison group, this study explores whether specific characteristics of CSA (familial CSA, CSA with penetration, force used by CSA perpetrator), repeat sexual victimization in adolescence, childhood physical ...


Caterpillar/Basil-Plant Tandems, Paco Calvo 2018 University of Murcia

Caterpillar/Basil-Plant Tandems, Paco Calvo

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

According to Reber (2016), subjectivity springs from primitive life itself. Granting his non-neurocentric stance, I shall try to show that his framework falls prey to zoocentric preconceptions that divest certain non-animal life-forms of mentality. There is no reason to exclude the possibility that plants have evolved different structures that underlie their own subjective experiences, all according to Reber’s model. It is the degree of phenotypic flexibility and integration that we observe in the behavioral repertoire of plants that may end up supporting their capacity for subjective experience. This remains an open empirical question.


Sentient Plants? Nervous Minds?, Arthur S. Reber 2018 University of British Columbia

Sentient Plants? Nervous Minds?, Arthur S. Reber

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The commentaries by Calvo (2018) and Mallatt & Feinberg (2017) on my 2016 target branch out from a common conceptual node like forks in a road. Calvo criticizes me for not acknowledging that plants too are likely to be sentient and claims I have fallen into the kind of category error of which I accuse others ─ a zoocentric bias that fails to grant consciousness to flora. Mallatt & Feinberg maintain that I've gone too far in granting sentience to any species that lacks a nervous system. Calvo makes some good points but there are other issues concerning plant sentience such as ...


Chickens Play To The Crowd, Cinzia Chiandetti 2018 University of Trieste, Department of Life Sciences

Chickens Play To The Crowd, Cinzia Chiandetti

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The time was ripe for Marino’s review of chickens’ cognitive capacities. The research community, apart from expressing gratitude for Marino’s work, should now use it to increase public awareness of chickens’ abilities. People’s views on many animals are ill-informed. Scientists need to communicate and engage with the public about the relevance and societal implications of their findings.


Continuum And Temporality, Gerard Kuperus 2018 University of San Francisco

Continuum And Temporality, Gerard Kuperus

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

I fully support the continuum proposed in the target article and argue along the same lines that we should be suspicious of drawing any strict borders between human and non-human animals. Since we can say very little with absolute certainty about human intentions regarding suicide, we have no certainty about the intentions of non-human animals. Although I am very sympathetic to Peña-Guzmán’s overall argument, I suggest that time could be taken into consideration as well.


Animal Suicide And "Anthropodenial", Ryan Hediger 2018 Kent State University - Tuscarawas Campus

Animal Suicide And "Anthropodenial", Ryan Hediger

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Increasing understanding of the impressive cognitive and social capacities of nonhuman animals suggests the possibility that they may sometimes commit suicide. Such notions tend to be dismissed as “anthropomorphism.” That interpretive hazard, I argue, must be weighed against the opposite hazard of “anthropodenial” — “the a priori rejection of shared characteristics between humans and animals” (de Waal 2006). If animals do commit suicide, how often is it motivated precisely by the impact of humans on animal life?


Lessons From Chimpanzee Sign Language Studies, Mary Lee Jensvold 2018 Central Washington University

Lessons From Chimpanzee Sign Language Studies, Mary Lee Jensvold

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Claims are often made about behaviors being unique to humans; the evidence usually shows they are not. Sign language studies on chimpanzees may provide a useful model for comparative studies of suicide. A productive approach to comparative studies is to focus on observable behaviors rather than getting lost in the pitfalls of vague definitions and changing measures.


Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, Antonio Preti 2018 Centro Medico Genneruxi

Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, Antonio Preti

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Evolutionary processes are characterized by both continuity and discontinuity. Evidence on suicide in nonhuman animals is faint and often rests on the metaphorical or anthropomorphic use of the term. Suicidal behavior might be an evolutionary jump relatively recent in our species: a byproduct of living in groups of people who are not as closely related genetically as in social groups of nonhuman mammals.


Post-Darwin Skepticism And Run-Of-The-Mill Suicide, John Hadley 2018 Western Sydney University

Post-Darwin Skepticism And Run-Of-The-Mill Suicide, John Hadley

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Peña-Guzmán’s depiction of the opponent of animal suicide as a conservative is a straw man. It is possible to accept that animals are self-conscious and reflexive yet still reject the view that they have the mental wherewithal to commit run-of-the-mill suicide. That animal behaviour can be positioned on a continuum of self-destructive behaviour does not establish that animals can intentionally kill themselves.


An Adaptationist Perspective On Animal Suicide, Timothy P. Racine 2018 Simon Fraser University

An Adaptationist Perspective On Animal Suicide, Timothy P. Racine

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Peña-Guzmán’s discussion of suicide in nonhuman animals has broad implications. In this commentary, I focus on the logical relation between suicide and intention. Proximate cause must be distinguished from ultimate function in explanations of suicide. I briefly discuss two adaptationist accounts of suicidal behavior.


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