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Cognition and Perception Commons

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Ecopsychology Revisited: For Whom Do The “Nature” Bells Toll? (In Progress), Jorge Conesa-Sevilla 2016 European Ecopsychology Society

Ecopsychology Revisited: For Whom Do The “Nature” Bells Toll? (In Progress), Jorge Conesa-Sevilla

Jorge Conesa-Sevilla PhD

"[...] A recurring theme in “ecopsychology,” in its present and inchoate form, is the continuation and extension of “spirit” in juxtaposition with other privileged and/or habitually preferred (perhaps even psychologically needed) practices or causes (spirituality-somethings, farcical chemistry or physics, yoga, coopted and partially understood indigenous lore, extreme diets, and various fetishes). That these mostly emotion-laden, unreasoned, and/or idiosyncratic amalgamations are prevalent says more about the psychological needs of the persons espousing these sentiments or beliefs (their hobbies or interests) than about “nature.” Certainly, it is nothing new that humans project their hopes, desperations, and wish-fulfillment thinking onto the shifting ...


Multi-Sensory Emotion Recognition With Speech And Facial Expression, Qingmei Yao 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Multi-Sensory Emotion Recognition With Speech And Facial Expression, Qingmei Yao

Dissertations

Emotion plays an important role in human beings’ daily lives. Understanding emotions and recognizing how to react to others’ feelings are fundamental to engaging in successful social interactions. Currently, emotion recognition is not only significant in human beings’ daily lives, but also a hot topic in academic research, as new techniques such as emotion recognition from speech context inspires us as to how emotions are related to the content we are uttering.

The demand and importance of emotion recognition have highly increased in many applications in recent years, such as video games, human computer interaction, cognitive computing, and affective computing ...


On The Screen, In The Mind: An Erp Investigation Into The Interaction Between Visuo-Spatial Information And Spatial Language During On-Line Processing, Emily Zane 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

On The Screen, In The Mind: An Erp Investigation Into The Interaction Between Visuo-Spatial Information And Spatial Language During On-Line Processing, Emily Zane

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This project used Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to explore neurophysiological brain responses to prepositional phrases involving concrete and abstract reference nouns (e.g., "plate" and "moment", respectively) after the presentation of objects with varying spatial features. Prepositional phrases were headed by in or on and were either matching (e.g., "in the plate/moment") or mismatching (e.g., "on the plate/moment"). Conjunction phrase matches and fillers were also presented. Before half of the concrete-phrase items, a photographic depiction of the reference noun was presented. In these photographs, objects were displayed in a way that was either more appropriate for in ...


User Interface Design Recommendations For Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Suas), Camilo Jimenez, Caitlin L. Faerevaag, Florian Jentsch 2016 University of Central Florida

User Interface Design Recommendations For Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Suas), Camilo Jimenez, Caitlin L. Faerevaag, Florian Jentsch

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

The number of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) has dramatically increased in recent years. As a consequence, the number of incidents involving manned and unmanned aircraft has soared. For this reason, the Federal Aviation Administration has released a notice of proposed rulemaking to delineate the operational limitations for sUAS. Many efforts have been introduced to regulate the operations of these systems and educate operators. Despite these efforts, there are no clear standards related to the type of information that should be available to operators, or how this information should be conveyed during flight operations. For this reason we present a ...


Minorities' Perceptions Of Child Protective Services, Vernae Elaine Hicks 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

Minorities' Perceptions Of Child Protective Services, Vernae Elaine Hicks

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The study examined minority persons’ views and experiences with Child Protective Services (CPS) in the community. This study used a qualitative design with face‑to‑face interviews with 12 participants in the community. This study used the “Post‑Positivist” data analysis, which is qualitative in evaluation and explained each participant’s subjective reality.

The study found that most participants were satisfied with the results and were dissatisfied with the process in and of itself. Overall the study found that most participants felt that there was some sort of a disconnect with social workers in reference to cultural competency. Miscommunication between ...


Music And Language Development: Traits Of Nursery Rhymes And Their Impact On Children's Language Development, Ashley Lauren Gonzalez 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Music And Language Development: Traits Of Nursery Rhymes And Their Impact On Children's Language Development, Ashley Lauren Gonzalez

Music

From birth--possibly even before birth--the amount and array of external stimuli profoundly affect a child’s cognitive and linguistic development. In addition to verbal communication from parent to child, singing proves to be an integral aid to a child’s development of speech and language, allegedly due to repetitions of words and rhythms. Nursery rhymes are, from infancy, among the most commonly presented forms of musical stimulus for children. The repetitive nature of the nursery rhymes undoubtedly supports language and speech development, but various characteristics of nursery rhymes, specifically pitch interval, meter, phrase length, contour, and harmony, also contribute substantially ...


Visual Code: Breaking The Binary, Jacob Johannesen, Andrew Adriance 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Visual Code: Breaking The Binary, Jacob Johannesen, Andrew Adriance

Liberal Arts and Engineering Studies

This project seeks to create an accessible programming language that is more visually based. Although some solutions exist, namely MIT’s Scratch, nothing has caught up to the mobile age. This proj- ect aims to reframe creating a game or app into the context of tell- ing a story, putting character creation first. By researching sto- ry-telling and how people learn, and by applying technical and user interface design knowledge, this project intends to deliver a soft- ware solution that opens introductory coding education to more people.


Sex Differences In Cognition, Emotional Reactivity, And Motor Ability In Gonadally-Intact Middle-Aged Marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus), Nichole J. Gervais, Kathryn P. Workman, Matthew LaClair, Agnes Lacreuse 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Sex Differences In Cognition, Emotional Reactivity, And Motor Ability In Gonadally-Intact Middle-Aged Marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus), Nichole J. Gervais, Kathryn P. Workman, Matthew Laclair, Agnes Lacreuse

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Sex differences in cognition are well documented. Women outperform men on measures of perceptual speed and verbal abilities, while men outperform women on tests of spatial processing. Robust sex differences also exist in stress responses. However, it is unclear how these sex differences change over time and whether males and females follow different trajectories of age-related cognitive decline. Studies in nonhuman primate models can help resolve this issue. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate with a short lifespan that can perform complex cognitive tasks in computerized settings that are comparable to those used with humans. The ...


Exercises On Overcoming Perfectionist Tendencies, Jake Yoo 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Exercises On Overcoming Perfectionist Tendencies, Jake Yoo

Bachelor of Fine Arts Senior Papers

In my latest series, I investigate my neurotic perfectionist tendency through repetition of phrases that I understand to be true in my head, but have a problem with accepting it in my heart. This way, I am studying my personal biases and the way I perceive the world in order to break free from unwanted behaviors and process negative emotions. Louise Bourgeois is a historical precedence to my practice as whole, while the series functions similarly to Yayoi Kusama’s dot and net paintings—a psychological portrait achieved through continuous repetition of a few elements.


Slowed Temporal Disengagement From Ambiguous Information In Trait Anxiety, Tiffany Arango 2016 CUNY Hunter College

Slowed Temporal Disengagement From Ambiguous Information In Trait Anxiety, Tiffany Arango

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

We investigated the relation between trait anxiety and temporal disengagement from social and nonsocial affective information. Participants (n =54) completed a disengagement task and self-report questionnaires. Trait anxiety was associated with slower temporal disengagement from neutral nonsocial information, but did not predict above and beyond state anxiety.


Selective Attention To Threat In People With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis, Amberle Cusmano 2016 CUNY Hunter College

Selective Attention To Threat In People With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis, Amberle Cusmano

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

People with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show increased attention towards or away from threat in their environment; the current literature is divided on the direction of these effects. This meta-analysis aims to aggregate and examine if people with PTSD display selective attention to threat compared to people without PTSD.


Virtual V1sion: A Collaborative Coding Project, Cheryl Olman 2016 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

Virtual V1sion: A Collaborative Coding Project, Cheryl Olman

MODVIS Workshop

Virtual V1sion is a new idea for fostering modeling collaborations and data sharing. While still in its infancy, the ultimate goal is a website that hosts repositories for (1) interchangeable model elements, (2) datasets that can be fit/predicted by those models, and (3) educational modules that explain the background for both the models and the datasets. The scope of the modeling is limited to predictions of V1 responses, although not all computations represented by model elements in Virtual V1sion are required to be V1-intrinsic: a goal of the project is to provide a framework in which predictions for modulation ...


A Neural Circuit For Visual Information Spreading, Gregory Francis 2016 Purdue University

A Neural Circuit For Visual Information Spreading, Gregory Francis

MODVIS Workshop

I describe a neural circuit made of integrate-and-fire neurons that instantiates a mechanism for the spreading of visual information. The circuit is simple and operates at a reasonable time scale with reasonable parameter values. Slight alterations to the anatomy allow the circuit to spread information across surfaces (constrained by the surface boundaries) as for brightness and color effects or across a group/object (as for some attention effects).


Parametrically Constrained Lightness Model Incorporating Edge Classification And Increment-Decrement Neural Response Asymmetries, Michael E. Rudd 2016 mrudd@u.washington.edu

Parametrically Constrained Lightness Model Incorporating Edge Classification And Increment-Decrement Neural Response Asymmetries, Michael E. Rudd

MODVIS Workshop

Lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments has the form of a parabolic (2nd-order polynomial) function when matches are plotted against annulus luminance on log-log axes. Rudd (2010) has proposed a computational cortical model to account for this fact and has subsequently (Rudd, 2013, 2014, 2015) extended the model to explain data from other lightness paradigms, including staircase-Gelb and luminance gradient illusions (Galmonte, Soranzo, Rudd, & Agostini, 2015). Here, I re-analyze parametric lightness matching data from disk-annulus experiments by Rudd and Zemach (2007) and Rudd (2010) for the purpose of further testing the model and to try to constrain the model parameters. Specifically, I test the model assumptions that: 1) lightness is computed by a process that spatially sums steps in log luminance across space, giving 1/3 the weight to incremental steps in log luminance that it gives to decremental steps in log luminance (defined in terms of luminance steps from the background to the target); 2) only luminance steps that are interpreted by the observer as steps in surface reflectance (as opposed to steps in illumination) contribute to the lightness computation. The quantitative analysis confirms these assumptions in the ...


Figure-Ground Organization Using 3d Symmetry, Aaron Michaux, Vijai Jayadevan, Edward Delp, Zygmunt Pizlo 2016 Purdue University

Figure-Ground Organization Using 3d Symmetry, Aaron Michaux, Vijai Jayadevan, Edward Delp, Zygmunt Pizlo

MODVIS Workshop

We present a novel approach to object localization using mirror symmetry as a general purpose and biologically motivated prior. 3D symmetry leads to good segmentation because (i) almost all objects exhibit symmetry, and (ii) configurations of objects are not likely to be symmetric unless they share some additional relationship. Furthermore, psychophysical evidence suggests that the human vision system makes use symmetry in constructing 3D percepts, indicating that symmetry may be important in object localization. No general purpose approach is known for solving 3D symmetry correspondence in 2D camera images, because few invariants exist. Therefore, to test symmetry as a clustering ...


A Mixture Model Demonstrates Use Of Distinct Strategies In A Global Motion Direction Task, Lanya Tianhao Cai, Benjamin T. Backus 2016 SUNY College of Optometry

A Mixture Model Demonstrates Use Of Distinct Strategies In A Global Motion Direction Task, Lanya Tianhao Cai, Benjamin T. Backus

MODVIS Workshop

Mixture models are well known in cognitive psychology, less so in vision. Are there cases where the data allow clear testing as to whether different strategies are employed in a task? Most psychophysical measurements manipulate a single staircase variable to map out a monotonic increasing function, but if performance is limited by different mechanisms over the range of the variable, classical fitting could be inappropriate. We present a data set and analyses that confirm the presence of two visual strategies addressing the same task, with the choice of strategies depending on the staircase variable. In a net-motion discrimination task, stimuli ...


Choice-Dependent Perceptual Biases, Long Luu, Alan A. Stocker 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Choice-Dependent Perceptual Biases, Long Luu, Alan A. Stocker

MODVIS Workshop

The perceived motion direction of a dynamic random dot stimulus is systematically biased when preceded by a motion discrimination task (Jazayeri and Movshon, 2007). The biases were originally thought to occur because subjects mistakenly reuse the neural read-out optimized for the discrimination task when forming the percept (Fig.1a, Task-dependent model). In a series of experiments, we demonstrated that this explanation is incorrect and that the biases actually result from the conditioning of the percept on the preceding discrimination judgment (Fig1.b, Choice-dependent model). Experiment 1 was aimed at replicating the biases for an orientation stimulus. Subjects first indicated whether ...


An Image-Based Model For Early Visual Processing, Heiko H. Schütt, Felix A. Wichmann 2016 University of Tübingen

An Image-Based Model For Early Visual Processing, Heiko H. Schütt, Felix A. Wichmann

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Focusing On Selection For Fixation, John K. Tsotsos, Calden Wloka, Yulia Kotseruba 2016 York University

Focusing On Selection For Fixation, John K. Tsotsos, Calden Wloka, Yulia Kotseruba

MODVIS Workshop

Building on our presentation at MODVIS 2015, we continue in our quest to discover a functional, computational, explanation of the relationship among visual attention, interpretation of visual stimuli, and eye movements, and how these produce visual behavior. Here, we focus on one component, how selection is accomplished for the next fixation. The popularity of saliency map models drives the inference that this is solved; we suggested otherwise at MODVIS 2015. Here, we provide additional empirical and theoretical arguments. We then develop arguments that a cluster of complementary, conspicuity representations drive selection, modulated by task goals and history, leading to a ...


Learning Object Representations For Modeling Attention In Real World Scenes, Alex Schwarz, Frederik Beuth, Fred H. Hamker 2016 Chemnitz University of Technology

Learning Object Representations For Modeling Attention In Real World Scenes, Alex Schwarz, Frederik Beuth, Fred H. Hamker

MODVIS Workshop

Models of visual attention have been rarely used in real world tasks as they have been typically developed for psychophysical setups using simple stimuli. Thus, the question remains how objects must be represented to allow such models an operation in real world scenarios. We have previously presented an attention model capable of operating on real-world scenes (Beuth, F., and Hamker, F. H. 2015, NCNC, which is a successor of Hamker, F. H., 2005, Cerebral Cortex), and show here how its object representations have been learned. We have used a learning rule based on temporal continuity (Földiák, P., 1991, Neural Computation ...


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