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Cognition and Perception Commons

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Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley

Master's Theses

Non-scientific literature consistently describes dolphins as “curious animals,” but there has been little systematic research on curiosity in dolphins. Curiosity in humans and certain non-human animal species, including birds and non-human primates, has been studied by examining individual differences in exploration and reactions to novel stimuli. Additionally, research has explored how human infants and non-human animals react when an event violates their expectations. The present study explored dolphins’ reactions to spontaneously surprising and expectation-violating stimuli. The reactions of dolphins, 15 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and 6 rough-toothed (Steno bredanensis), at Gulf World Marine Park were analyzed in response to events that ...


The Porn Myth: Exposing The Myth Behind The Fantasy Of Pornography By Matt Fradd, Donald L. Hilton Jr. 2017 University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, USA

The Porn Myth: Exposing The Myth Behind The Fantasy Of Pornography By Matt Fradd, Donald L. Hilton Jr.

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


Gender Differences In Risk Perception: Broadening The Contexts, Jan L. Hitchcock 2017 University of New Hampshire

Gender Differences In Risk Perception: Broadening The Contexts, Jan L. Hitchcock

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The author surveys literature on the effect of gender on risk perception.


Over A Decade Of Comparative Risk Analysis: A Review Of The Human Health Rankings, David M. Konisky 2017 University of New Hampshire

Over A Decade Of Comparative Risk Analysis: A Review Of The Human Health Rankings, David M. Konisky

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The author reviews a method for undertaking a cross-project comparison of comparative risk analyses to understand which environmental problem areas have been cited most as often posing the severest risks.


Poorer European Countries Are Less Concerned About Biotechnology Than Richer Countries, Michael Siegrist 2017 University of New Hampshire

Poorer European Countries Are Less Concerned About Biotechnology Than Richer Countries, Michael Siegrist

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The author examines the relationship between GNP, media coverage, and public perceptions of the utility, risk, and acceptability of medical and food-related applications of biotechnology.


Age Differences In Personal Risk Perceptions: A Note On An Exploratory Descriptive Study, Juanita V. Field, George E. Schreer 2017 University of New Hampshire

Age Differences In Personal Risk Perceptions: A Note On An Exploratory Descriptive Study, Juanita V. Field, George E. Schreer

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The authors test for differences in risk perceptions among different age groups.


Perceived Control, Voluntariness And Emotional Reactions In Relocated Areas Of Russia, Ukraine And Belarus, Carol Jeniffer Figueiredo, Britt-Marie Drottz-Sjöberg 2017 University of New Hampshire

Perceived Control, Voluntariness And Emotional Reactions In Relocated Areas Of Russia, Ukraine And Belarus, Carol Jeniffer Figueiredo, Britt-Marie Drottz-Sjöberg

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

[Excerpt] "The Chernobyl accident occurred at a time of considerable social and economic changes in the former Soviet Union. The contamination due to the accident still covers parts of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Some areas were considered too contaminated to suit long-term human settlement and a considerable number of people were therefore moved from their homes and resettled in other areas. Resettlement policies often differed between the states. Some variations in state policy included the duration before implementation of the decision to resettle people from certain areas, the swiftness of the transition, and the acceptance of personal initiatives in the ...


Varied Definitions Of Risk Related To Sensation Seeking Trait, Pål Ø.U. Dåstol, Britt-Marie Drottz-Sjöberg 2017 University of New Hampshire

Varied Definitions Of Risk Related To Sensation Seeking Trait, Pål Ø.U. Dåstol, Britt-Marie Drottz-Sjöberg

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

[Excerpt] "Risk judgments seem related to which definitions of risk a person uses. Earlier studies suggest that people who use a "probability" definition of risk give different, and somewhat lower, subjective estimates of risk than those who instead prefer a "consequence" definition. In addition, an "optimistic bias" often can be found, and subjects usually evaluate personal risk systematically lower than risk for people in general."


The Relationship Between Clinical Teaching Effectiveness And Emotional Intelligence In Clinical Nurse Faculty In Pre-Licensure Baccalaureate Programs In New York State, Caroline K. Mosca 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Relationship Between Clinical Teaching Effectiveness And Emotional Intelligence In Clinical Nurse Faculty In Pre-Licensure Baccalaureate Programs In New York State, Caroline K. Mosca

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

It is important to evaluate the Clinical Teaching Effectiveness (CTE) of nurse faculty because clinical teaching is one of the most effective pedagogies in nursing education (Billings & Halstead, 2012). However, clinical faculty must be able to manage effectively the stressors of the clinical setting, where lessons can be unpredictable and the environment is often laden with intense emotion (Gerolamo & Roemer, 2011; Ondrejka, 2013; Roberts, Chrisman, & Flowers, 2013). Emotional Intelligence (EI) may facilitate CTE because higher EI has been associated with improved management of stress in both nursing and the general workplace (Goleman, 1995; Görgens-Ekermans & Brand, 2012; Karimi, Leggat, Donohue, & Cooper, 2014). EI modulates the stress response and may enhance faculty’s ability to teach in the clinical setting (Ondrejka, 2013). However, to date, only one study has investigated the relationship between EI and CTE in nursing faculty, and this study was limited to a small sample at one institution (Allen, Ploeg, & Kaasalainen (2012). The present study investigated the relationship between EI and CTE from ...


Adhd And Theory Of Mind In School-Age Children: Exploring The Cognitive Nature Of Social Interactions In Children With Adhd, Rachel Feigenbaum 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Adhd And Theory Of Mind In School-Age Children: Exploring The Cognitive Nature Of Social Interactions In Children With Adhd, Rachel Feigenbaum

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experience significant difficulties with social skills (Barkley, 2006; DuPaul & Stoner, 2003; Stormont, 2001). The inhibitory deficit associated with ADHD is typically identified as the cause of these impaired social skills (Barkley, 2006). Additionally, some researchers have suggested that theory of mind (ToM), which is the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and to others, may be involved, but the research on ToM deficits in children with ADHD is limited and the findings are mixed. A key methodological issue in this literature is the use of traditional but problematic measures of advanced ToM. These measures ...


How Should Justice Policy Treat Young Offenders?, B J. Casey, Richard J. Bonnie, Andre Davis, David L. Faigman, Morris B. Hoffman, Owen D. Jones, Read Montague, Stephen J. Morse, Marcus E. Raichle, Jennifer A. Richeson, Elizabeth S. Scott, Laurence Steinberg, Kim A. Taylor-Thompson, Anthony D. Wagner 2017 Yale University - Department of Psychology

How Should Justice Policy Treat Young Offenders?, B J. Casey, Richard J. Bonnie, Andre Davis, David L. Faigman, Morris B. Hoffman, Owen D. Jones, Read Montague, Stephen J. Morse, Marcus E. Raichle, Jennifer A. Richeson, Elizabeth S. Scott, Laurence Steinberg, Kim A. Taylor-Thompson, Anthony D. Wagner

Faculty Scholarship

The justice system in the United States has long recognized that juvenile offenders are not the same as adults, and has tried to incorporate those differences into law and policy. But only in recent decades have behavioral scientists and neuroscientists, along with policymakers, looked rigorously at developmental differences, seeking answers to two overarching questions: Are young offenders, purely by virtue of their immaturity, different from older individuals who commit crimes? And, if they are, how should justice policy take this into account?

A growing body of research on adolescent development now confirms that teenagers are indeed inherently different from adults ...


Frequency Of Use And Perceived Credibility Of Information Sources And Variations By Socioeconomic Factors Among Savannah River Stakeholders, Bryan L. Williams, Alex Vallei, Sylvia Brown, Michael Greenberg 2017 University of New Hampshire

Frequency Of Use And Perceived Credibility Of Information Sources And Variations By Socioeconomic Factors Among Savannah River Stakeholders, Bryan L. Williams, Alex Vallei, Sylvia Brown, Michael Greenberg

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The authors examine the factors effecting credibility of risk communication in the communities surrounding the Savannah River Nuclear Weapons Site.


Hazards, Risk And The Press: A Comparative Analysis Of Newspaper Coverage Of Nuclear And Chemical Weapons Sites, Karen Lowrie, Michael Greenberg, Lynn Waishwell 2017 University of New Hampshire

Hazards, Risk And The Press: A Comparative Analysis Of Newspaper Coverage Of Nuclear And Chemical Weapons Sites, Karen Lowrie, Michael Greenberg, Lynn Waishwell

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The authors present a comparative analysis of newspaper coverage for four hazardous substance containment facilities located in different parts of the country.


Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael 2017 CUNY Graduate Center

Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael

Publications and Research

Cognitive sociology is the study of the conditions under which meaning is constituted through processes of reification. Cognitive sociology traces its origins to writings in the sociology of knowledge, sociology of culture, cognitive and cultural anthropology, and more recently, work done in cultural sociology and cognitive science. Its central questions revolve around locating these processes of reification since the locus of cognition is highly contentious. Researchers consider how individuality is related to notions of society (structures, institutions, systems, etc.) and notions of culture (cultural forms, cultural structures, sub-cultures, etc.). These questions further explore how these answers depend on learning processes ...


Connecting Numbers With Emotion: Review Of Numbers And Nerves: Information, Emotion, And Meaning In A World Of Data By Scott Slovic And Paul Slovic (2015), Samuel L. Tunstall 2017 Michigan State University

Connecting Numbers With Emotion: Review Of Numbers And Nerves: Information, Emotion, And Meaning In A World Of Data By Scott Slovic And Paul Slovic (2015), Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

Scott Slovic and Paul Slovic (Eds.). Numbers and Nerves: Information, Emotion, and Meaning in a World of Data (Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2015). 272 pp. ISBN 978-0-87071-776-5.

It is common to view quantitative literacy as reasoning with respect to numbers. In Numbers and Nerves, the contributors to the volume make clear that we should attend not only to how students consciously reason with numbers, but also how our innate biases influence our actions when faced with numbers. Beginning with the concepts of psychic numbing, and then psuedoinefficacy, the contributors to the volume examine how our behaviors when faced ...


A Systems Approach To The Problem Of Falls In Old Age, Patrick A. Dillon 2017 University of Kentucky

A Systems Approach To The Problem Of Falls In Old Age, Patrick A. Dillon

Theses and Dissertations--Gerontology

The problem of falls in old age is enormously costly and disruptive for the older individual, others, and society, and its severity is likely to intensify as our population ages. This dissertation takes a systems-oriented approach toward the falls problem and is presented in two parts. The first part critically develops a new approach to the problem of falls. The second part describes an empirical study that applies this new approach in a pragmatic manner.

Conventional fall prevention strategies employ a reductionist approach to the problem of falls. This approach is questioned because it corresponds poorly to the holistic nature ...


The Potential For Sentience In Fishes, Jay R., Stauffer Jr. 2017 Penn State University

The Potential For Sentience In Fishes, Jay R., Stauffer Jr.

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Balcombe’s book is filled with information on the biology, behavior, and life history of fishes. I do not agree with all his premises. I am still somewhat perplexed about the discussion of whether fish feel pain; I am not sure whether the distinction between nociception and pain makes any difference. Overall, however, his treatment of the principles of both natural and sexual selection is comprehensive and accurate, and has greatly increased my knowledge and awareness of the biology, ethology, and potential for sentience in fishes. In summary, this work has exposed me to new ideas about how to examine ...


What Does It Feel Like To Be An Electroreceptive Fish?, Leo Bernd Kramer 2017 University of Regensburg, Zoological Institute

What Does It Feel Like To Be An Electroreceptive Fish?, Leo Bernd Kramer

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The weakly electric knifefish Eigenmannia emits an electric organ discharge (EOD) of constant frequency and sinusoidal waveform that varies with sex and age. Eigenmannia discriminates among these except when stimulated at the same frequency as its own EOD frequency. In that case, it needs to perform a Jamming Avoidance Response (frequency shift) which results in a beating mixed signal. By a sophisticated analysis of the amplitude and phase modulations of the beat signal, Eigenmannia derives the frequency difference, its sign, and the waveform of the stimulus, hence the signaller’s identity. The human ear is not capable of an equivalent ...


What Can Research On Nonhumans Tell Us About Human Dissonance?, Jennifer Vonk 2017 Oakland University

What Can Research On Nonhumans Tell Us About Human Dissonance?, Jennifer Vonk

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Zentall’s thoughtful review of the literature on cognitive dissonance in nonhumans helps to highlight the common finding that similar outcomes in humans and nonhumans can be attributed to different underlying mechanisms. I advocate a more fully comparative approach to the underlying mechanisms, avoiding the assumption of shared processes in humans and nonhumans.


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