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Explicit, Implicit, And Behavioral Stigmatization Of Mental Illness, Jessica S. James 2018 University of Southern Mississippi

Explicit, Implicit, And Behavioral Stigmatization Of Mental Illness, Jessica S. James

Dissertations

Mental health concern is a public health concern that continues to be stigmatized. While the dual process model has been applied to other areas of social cognition (e.g., racism), this framework has not previously been frequently used to examine the stigmatization of mental illness. The current study sought to examine the stigmatization of mental illness within a dual process model to determine the relationship between explicit and implicit stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors. A total of 104 undergraduate students from the University of Southern Mississippi participated in this study. Participants completed multiple implicit and explicit measures of stigmatizing attitudes and ...


Measuring Physiological Responses To Sensation In Typical Adults, Sarah Button, Kristen Christensen, Emily Minor 2018 Dominican University of California

Measuring Physiological Responses To Sensation In Typical Adults, Sarah Button, Kristen Christensen, Emily Minor

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

Objective: Sensory processing issues can have a large negative impact on the ability to participate in daily occupations such as ADLs, access to work, school and leisure environments, and social interactions (Dunn, 2001). The evidence documenting sensory processing issues in adults is sparse. Physiological information can be used as objective evidence to support the claim that those with over-responsivity to sensations are experiencing their environment differently than the typical population. Understanding more about sensory processing in adults may lead to increased recognition of the problem and more opportunities for intervention to increase occupational participation. The purpose of this quantitative study ...


Correlates Of Functional Capacity Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, Maurice MacDonald, Jennifer Margrett, Ilene C. Siegler, Leonard Poon 2018 Iowa State University

Correlates Of Functional Capacity Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, Maurice Macdonald, Jennifer Margrett, Ilene C. Siegler, Leonard Poon

Peter Martin

This study investigated correlates of functional capacity among participants of the Georgia Centenarian Study. Six domains (demographics and health, positive and negative affect, personality, social and economic support, life events and coping, distal influences) were related to functional capacity for 234 centenarians and near centenarians (i.e., 98 years and older). Data were provided by proxy informants. Domain-specific multiple regression analyses suggested that younger centenarians, those living in the community and rated to be in better health were more likely to have higher functional capacity scores. Higher scores in positive affect, conscientiousness, social provisions, religious coping, and engaged lifestyle were ...


Do Clothing Style And Color Affect Our Perceptions Of Others?, Ariel M. Kershner 2018 Arcadia University

Do Clothing Style And Color Affect Our Perceptions Of Others?, Ariel M. Kershner

Faculty Curated Undergraduate Works

Prior research has shown that women who wear red clothing or suggestive clothing are perceived as more attractive, having greater sexual intent, and having more negative qualities than women dressed in different colors or less suggestive clothing. This bias towards perceiving sexual intent may be evolutionary or may be due to people projecting their emotions onto others. The current study builds from this research by performing a 2 (color: white or red) x 2 (clothing type: suggestive or non-suggestive) between-subjects experiment. We hypothesized that women would be perceived as more attractive and as having greater sexual intent while wearing red ...


The Imprint Of Childhood Abuse On Trauma-Related Shame In Adulthood, Joan A. Reid 2018 University of South Florida St. Petersburg

The Imprint Of Childhood Abuse On Trauma-Related Shame In Adulthood, Joan A. Reid

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Research has consistently linked residual trauma-related shame among child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors to sexual revictimization, health risk behaviors, and poorer response to mental health treatment. However, questions remain regarding the imprint of childhood maltreatment on trauma-related shame including which CSA characteristics or types of childhood maltreatment contribute to residual shame in adulthood. Using data drawn from a prospective study of 174 primarily African American women with histories of CSA and a matched comparison group, this study explores whether specific characteristics of CSA (familial CSA, CSA with penetration, force used by CSA perpetrator), repeat sexual victimization in adolescence, childhood physical ...


A Graph Theoretic Approach For Generating Hypotheses About Phonetic Cues In Speech, Anne Marie Crinnion, Beth Malmskog, Joe Toscano 2018 Harvard University

A Graph Theoretic Approach For Generating Hypotheses About Phonetic Cues In Speech, Anne Marie Crinnion, Beth Malmskog, Joe Toscano

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Current models of speech perception suggest that combining acoustic cues and factoring out contextual variability allows listeners to recognize speech across different talkers. However, it remains unclear which specific cues are necessary and how their use varies between individual talkers. We use graph theoretic techniques to address these problems by constructing networks connecting talkers and possible cues. We identify subgraphs (Steiner trees) that connect talkers via cues consistently used to indicate specific phonemes. Classifiers trained on these cues match listeners' data better than those trained on all cues, suggesting that Steiner trees can identify the cues necessary for speech recognition.


Beauty Is In The Eye Of The Beer Holder: An Initial Investigation Of The Effects Of Alcohol, Attractiveness, Warmth, And Competence On The Objectifying Gaze In Men, Abigail R. Riemer, Michelle Haikalis, Molly R. Franz, Michael Dodd, David DiLillo, Sarah Gervais 2018 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Beauty Is In The Eye Of The Beer Holder: An Initial Investigation Of The Effects Of Alcohol, Attractiveness, Warmth, And Competence On The Objectifying Gaze In Men, Abigail R. Riemer, Michelle Haikalis, Molly R. Franz, Michael Dodd, David Dilillo, Sarah Gervais

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Despite literature revealing the adverse consequences of objectifying gazes for women, little work has empirically examined origins of objectifying gazes by perceivers. Integrating alcohol myopia and objectification theories, we examined the effects of alcohol as well as perceived female attractiveness, warmth, and competence on objectifying gazes. Specifically, male undergraduates (n = 49) from a large U.S. Midwestern university were administered either an alcoholic or placebo beverage. After consumption, participants were asked to focus on the appearance or personality (counterbalanced) of pictured women who were previously rated as high, average, or low in attractiveness, warmth, and competence. Replicating previous work, appearance ...


Caterpillar/Basil-Plant Tandems, Paco Calvo 2018 University of Murcia

Caterpillar/Basil-Plant Tandems, Paco Calvo

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

According to Reber (2016), subjectivity springs from primitive life itself. Granting his non-neurocentric stance, I shall try to show that his framework falls prey to zoocentric preconceptions that divest certain non-animal life-forms of mentality. There is no reason to exclude the possibility that plants have evolved different structures that underlie their own subjective experiences, all according to Reber’s model. It is the degree of phenotypic flexibility and integration that we observe in the behavioral repertoire of plants that may end up supporting their capacity for subjective experience. This remains an open empirical question.


Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, Antonio Preti 2018 Centro Medico Genneruxi

Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, Antonio Preti

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Evolutionary processes are characterized by both continuity and discontinuity. Evidence on suicide in nonhuman animals is faint and often rests on the metaphorical or anthropomorphic use of the term. Suicidal behavior might be an evolutionary jump relatively recent in our species: a byproduct of living in groups of people who are not as closely related genetically as in social groups of nonhuman mammals.


Peace Guardians, Watts Bears And The Maori Haka, Zachariah Fisher 2017 Peace Guardians

Peace Guardians, Watts Bears And The Maori Haka, Zachariah Fisher

The STEAM Journal

In the summer of 2017, Peace Guardians carried out a summer school program for twenty inner city kids ranging from 8-13 years old in Watts Los Angeles. The program was part of the annual Watts Bears summer school. The Watts Bears are group of student football and track athletes coached by the Los Angeles Police Department. Working in conjunction with the Watts officers and coaches, Peace Guardians and guest teachers spent four hours a day with the students facilitating mindfulness exercises and the Haka as wellness tools to incorporate into their lives in and out of the classroom and football ...


Effects Of Restrained Eating On Episodic Memory And Implications For Homeostatic Appetite Regulation, Morgan Kindel 2017 Chapman University

Effects Of Restrained Eating On Episodic Memory And Implications For Homeostatic Appetite Regulation, Morgan Kindel

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Recent studies in the fields of Psychology and Neuroscience suggest a relationship between episodic memory and appetite regulation. A majority of these studies have used BMI as an important variable in this relationship and have found mild episodic memory deficits to be more likely in individuals with higher BMI’s. The goal of this research was to determine whether restrained disordered eating, regardless of BMI, influenced episodic memory and appetite regulation. Initially, we predicted that individuals showing dietary restraint would show signs of a stronger episodic memory, and therefore would have weaker hunger cues and stronger satiety cues, and that ...


Addressing Our Implicit Bias Against Embracing Creative Ideas, Michelle K. Neumayer Ms. 2017 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Addressing Our Implicit Bias Against Embracing Creative Ideas, Michelle K. Neumayer Ms.

Creative Studies Graduate Student Master's Projects

The purpose of this Master's Project is to highlight the fact that we all carry an implicit bias against embracing creative ideas experienced as psychological reactions such as anxiety related to the uncertainties that surround truly creative ideas. Two main innovation processes, Creative Problem Solving and Design Thinking will be compared against suggestions by social psychologist and creativity researcher Jennifer Mueller for addressing this bias. One of the main areas of discussion will revolve around the need to balance two opposing mind-sets often used by decision-makers, which results in the ability to think more like an inventor. Characteristics of ...


Language Experience With A Native-Language Phoneme Sequence Modulates The Effects Of Attention On Cortical Sensory Processing, Valerie L. Shafer, Monica Wagner, Jungmee Lee, Francesca Mingino, Colleen O'Brien, Adam Constantine, Mitchell Steinschneider 2017 CUNY Graduate Center

Language Experience With A Native-Language Phoneme Sequence Modulates The Effects Of Attention On Cortical Sensory Processing, Valerie L. Shafer, Monica Wagner, Jungmee Lee, Francesca Mingino, Colleen O'Brien, Adam Constantine, Mitchell Steinschneider

Publications and Research

Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) reflect spectro-temporal feature changes within the spoken word and are sufficiently reliable to probe deficits in auditory processing. The current research assessed whether attentional modulation would alter the morphology of these AEPs and whether native-language experience with phoneme sequences would influence the effects of attention. Native-English and native-Polish adults listened to nonsense word pairs that contained the phoneme sequence onsets /st/, /sət/, /pət/ that occur in both the Polish and English languages and the phoneme sequence onset /pt/ that occurs in the Polish language, but not the English language. Participants listened to word pairs within two ...


Housing Diversity In Children’S Literature, Carla Earhart 2017 Ball State University

Housing Diversity In Children’S Literature, Carla Earhart

Charleston Library Conference

Previous studies have examined diversity in children’s literature: Gender diversity, racial diversity, religious diversity, and diversity in family composition. This project examines an often overlooked diversity issue in children’s literature: Housing diversity. In the stories they read and the accompanying images, children need to see a variety of housing environments and need to see the settings and the people portrayed in a positive manner.

Renting an apartment is an increasingly popular housing option for many families. However, many children’s books glamorize living in a traditional house. Using a rubric designed by the course instructor, students in a ...


Beliefs In Advance Care Planning Among Chinese Americans: Similarities And Differences Between The Younger And Older Generations, Mei ching Lee, Ha Do Byon, Katherine Hinderer, Carla Alexander 2017 University of Maryland at Baltimore

Beliefs In Advance Care Planning Among Chinese Americans: Similarities And Differences Between The Younger And Older Generations, Mei Ching Lee, Ha Do Byon, Katherine Hinderer, Carla Alexander

Asian/Pacific Island Nursing Journal

The purpose of this research is to explore behavioral, normative, and control beliefs in the discussion of advance care planning (ACP) among older and younger Chinese Americans. Ethnic minority groups have been identified as less engaged in ACP and this represents an ethnic and cultural gap. Older Chinese American adults often have different beliefs and values compared to the younger generation who are more acculturated to American mainstream culture. These differences may hinder the discussion of ACP with Chinese older adults.

A qualitative design was used. The Theory of Planned Behavior guided the development of the interview guide. We recruited ...


The Conundrum Of Causal Reasoning, Beri Brown 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

The Conundrum Of Causal Reasoning, Beri Brown

Beri Brown

Causal reasoning is marked by the ability to mentally reconstruct the missing part of a sequence in order to reproduce an outcome.  While research on causal reasoning has been done with children, the results of the studies have been inconsistent.  A standardized paradigm for comparative causal reasoning studies does not exist.  Nissani (2006) investigated causal reasoning in a tool-use task with elephants and concluded that elephants were not capable of causal reasoning.  The current study, a modified replication, yielded results that were not congruent with Nissani’s (2006) manuscript.  Additionally, it was very unlikely that the Nissani (2006) study truly ...


Feature Space Augmentation: Improving Prediction Accuracy Of Classical Problems In Cognitive Science And Computer Vison, Piyush Saxena 2017 Marquette University

Feature Space Augmentation: Improving Prediction Accuracy Of Classical Problems In Cognitive Science And Computer Vison, Piyush Saxena

Dissertations (2009 -)

The prediction accuracy in many classical problems across multiple domains has seen a rise since computational tools such as multi-layer neural nets and complex machine learning algorithms have become widely accessible to the research community. In this research, we take a step back and examine the feature space in two problems from very different domains. We show that novel augmentation to the feature space yields higher performance. Emotion Recognition in Adults from a Control Group: The objective is to quantify the emotional state of an individual at any time using data collected by wearable sensors. We define emotional state as ...


Intuitive Proportion Judgment In Number-Line Estimation: Converging Evidence From Multiple Tasks, Emily Slusser, Hilary Barth 2017 San Jose State University

Intuitive Proportion Judgment In Number-Line Estimation: Converging Evidence From Multiple Tasks, Emily Slusser, Hilary Barth

Emily Slusser

How children’s understanding of numerical magnitudes changes over the course of development remains a key question in the study of numerical cognition. In an ongoing debate about the source of developmental change, some argue that children maintain and access different mental representations of number, with evidence coming largely from common number-line estimation tasks. In contrast, others argue that a theoretical framework based on psychophysical models of proportion estimation accounts for typical performance on these tasks. The current study explored children’s (n = 71) and adults’ (n = 27) performance on two number-line tasks: the “number to position” (or NP) task ...


Syntax And Semantics Of Perceptual Representation, James K. Quilty-Dunn 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Syntax And Semantics Of Perceptual Representation, James K. Quilty-Dunn

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a defense of perceptual pluralism, the thesis that perceptual systems deliver multiple types of representations including those used in thought. In particular, it argues that perceptual systems output iconic (i.e., image-like, analog) representations as well as discursive (i.e., language-like, digital) states. A central thesis is that perceptual representations of objects are propositional and composed of concepts. It also develops a compositional syntax of iconic representation called the coordination model, according to which icons are sets of primitive parts, each of which determines values along multiple analog feature dimensions simultaneously. The dissertation supports the conclusion that ...


Examining The Differences In Beat Perception And Production Between Musicians And Dancers, Tram Nguyen 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Examining The Differences In Beat Perception And Production Between Musicians And Dancers, Tram Nguyen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The ability to perceive and produce a beat is believed to be universal in humans, but there are factors that may give rise to individual differences. The research presented in this dissertation examined four factors that may influence beat processing and sensorimotor synchronization performance: 1) expertise: in music and dance, 2) training style: percussive and nonpercussive, 3) stimulus modality: auditory and visual, and 4) movement type: effector-specific or whole-body. Chapter 2 examined how percussive and nonpercussive music and dance training influence beat perception and production performance using an auditory beat perception task and a finger tapping beat production task. Chapter ...


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