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Articles 1 - 30 of 2024

Full-Text Articles in Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Serotonin 1a Receptor Modulation On Behavioral Flexibility In Btbr And C57bl/6j Mice, Cassandra Cavazos Aug 2024

Serotonin 1a Receptor Modulation On Behavioral Flexibility In Btbr And C57bl/6j Mice, Cassandra Cavazos

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by a subset of symptoms known as restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs). RRBs are categorized into both lower order and higher order RRBs, where the latter can be described as behavioral inflexibility. The BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) mouse strain has been an extensively used animal model that demonstrate the behavioral symptoms of these individuals, including inflexible behavior. Currently, there are few effective treatments for individuals with ASD that express RRBs. Past research has investigated treatments that target serotonin due its historic involvement in ASD. 8-OH-DPAT (8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamine) tetralin) is a research …


The Role Of 5-Ht6 Receptor Activation In Learning Consolidation, Jasmine Alyssa Robinson Aug 2024

The Role Of 5-Ht6 Receptor Activation In Learning Consolidation, Jasmine Alyssa Robinson

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The focus on serotonergic dysfunction as a contributor to cognitive deficits in disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and schizophrenia drives researchers to investigate the functional impact of specific serotonin receptor types on executive functioning. By discerning the potential enhancement or impairment effects, this endeavor seeks to unravel the complex interplay between serotonin receptors and cognitive abilities. Specifically, within the three domains of learning, acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval, we find serotonergic modulation to be pivotal. Recent studies have highlighted the 5-HT6 receptor as a novel target for cognitive enhancement. However, the majority of the research investigates the effects …


The Institutional Challenges Of A Quantified Self Study An Attempt To Ascertain How Data Collected From A Mobile Device Can Be An Indicator Of Personal Mental Health Over Time., Julian E. Lazaras Jun 2024

The Institutional Challenges Of A Quantified Self Study An Attempt To Ascertain How Data Collected From A Mobile Device Can Be An Indicator Of Personal Mental Health Over Time., Julian E. Lazaras

University Honors Theses

The adoption of an application of new technology always comes with a bias, this is never more true for the case of human behavioral analytics within higher education. While movements such as the quantified self movement make strides to reinterpret the realm of data analytics, psychology, and computer science, there are inevitably limitations to the adoption and application of such approaches within the standard realm of research. Herein is presented a case where an effort to evaluate the prospect of use of mobile phone data as secondary indicators of personal mental health through the lens of data analysis was put …


The Effects Of Perfume On Work Performance, Tian Soon Choo, Hiral Bharatbhai Variya Jun 2024

The Effects Of Perfume On Work Performance, Tian Soon Choo, Hiral Bharatbhai Variya

Introduction to Research Methods RSCH 202

This study investigates how fragrance could affect staff efficiency at work in the service industry, particularly insurance agents. Scent is recognised to affect human behavior and perception; nevertheless, the majority of study to date has overlooked scent's possible impact on job performance in favor of focusing on its relationship to confidence and beauty. We will explore whether wearing perfume improves work performance through a panel study with 100 insurance agents. Performance is gauged by the number of policies sold and the amount of premium generated. Our study proposes to investigate the potential significant impact of perfume, both positive and negative, …


Uncovering The Mimicry Of Online Review Breadth And Depth And Its Subsequent Effect On Consumer Responses, Andrea Pelaez Martinez Jun 2024

Uncovering The Mimicry Of Online Review Breadth And Depth And Its Subsequent Effect On Consumer Responses, Andrea Pelaez Martinez

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Word-of-mouth (WOM) in marketing occurs when consumers discuss a company's product or service or any consumption experience with their friends, family, and others with whom they have any relationship. With the advent of social media, this phenomenon has expanded rapidly into virtual environments where consumer conversation is enabled through chats, forums, social media posts, and online reviews. In response to this rapid growth of online WOM, academics and practitioners have focused their interest on this phenomenon and its implications on consumers, firms, and society. So far, the evidence of the critical role that online WOM plays in helping consumers make …


At The Intersection Of Domestic Violence And Mass Shootings: A Qualitative Analysis Of The Relationship Between Ipv And Gun Violence, Troy P. Bleau Jun 2024

At The Intersection Of Domestic Violence And Mass Shootings: A Qualitative Analysis Of The Relationship Between Ipv And Gun Violence, Troy P. Bleau

University Honors Theses

The intersectional study of domestic violence and mass shootings has only recently been the subject of inquiry within the psychology field. Within the past ten years research has been developed to examine the relationship between these two epidemics. What authors have found is that DV does play a role in shooting perpetration (Geller et al., 2021; Glick et al., 2021; Gold et al., 2020; Johnson et al., 2023; Kivisto et al., 2020; Smucker et al., 2018; Zeoli & Paruk, 2019). This study aimed to identify domestic violence as a risk factor to predict, and subsequently intervene before future instances of …


Boring But Demanding: Using Secondary Tasks To Counter The Driver Vigilance Decrement For Partially Automated Driving, Scott Mishler, Jing Chen Jun 2024

Boring But Demanding: Using Secondary Tasks To Counter The Driver Vigilance Decrement For Partially Automated Driving, Scott Mishler, Jing Chen

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective

We investigated secondary–task–based countermeasures to the vigilance decrement during a simulated partially automated driving (PAD) task, with the goal of understanding the underlying mechanism of the vigilance decrement and maintaining driver vigilance in PAD.

Background

Partial driving automation requires a human driver to monitor the roadway, but humans are notoriously bad at monitoring tasks over long periods of time, demonstrating the vigilance decrement in such tasks. The overload explanations of the vigilance decrement predict the decrement to be worse with added secondary tasks due to increased task demands and depleted attentional resources, whereas the underload explanations predict the vigilance …


Exploring The Relationships Between Motivations, Beliefs, Emotions, And Behaviors In The Context Of Organizational Change Readiness, Sidney Taylor Thomas May 2024

Exploring The Relationships Between Motivations, Beliefs, Emotions, And Behaviors In The Context Of Organizational Change Readiness, Sidney Taylor Thomas

Doctoral Dissertations

Organizational change is an inevitable and key feature of an organization’s lifecycle, especially in today’s constantly shifting technological, cultural, and corporate landscapes. However, organizations often struggle to adapt, and change initiatives rarely succeed. Because of this, organizational change readiness has become a popular area of study in the field of industrial-organization psychology. Change readiness in the organizational context has been redefined several times over the past four decades, with recent efforts focused on developing a comprehensive definition and corresponding instrument of measurement for the concept. Change readiness at the individual level is intended to evaluate the psychological state in which …


Witnessing Eyewitness Coercion And Familiarity Affects Defense Attorneys’ Evaluations Of Trial Prospects, Jason Carty May 2024

Witnessing Eyewitness Coercion And Familiarity Affects Defense Attorneys’ Evaluations Of Trial Prospects, Jason Carty

Student Theses

Abstract

The current study is designed to determine whether two case factors affect criminal defense attorneys’ plea decision-making: witness coercion and witness familiarity with the defendant. A sample of 133 criminal defense attorneys (123 after attention checks) reviewed a mock case vignette and a witness interview which varies on two dimensions: coerciveness (coercive, non-coercive) and witness relationship to the defendant (friend, stranger). Attorneys reported their impressions of the case and indicated their recommended minimum and maximum length of negotiated plea agreements, how likely their client was to be convicted at trial, how coercive they thought the mock interview was, and …


Feldenkrais And Music Informed Listening: A Neurophenomenological Perspective On Autism, Arona Primalani May 2024

Feldenkrais And Music Informed Listening: A Neurophenomenological Perspective On Autism, Arona Primalani

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Phenomenologists identify the subjective body and its felt-senses as the basis for human development and consciousness, including mental health. Several mental health disorders, when viewed from a phenomenological perspective, share common symptomology related to varying extents of fractured selves, which in turn hinders dynamic interaction between individuals, their actions, and their relationships with their social and material worlds. Autism is one such condition. Hence, I created an intervention to investigate how listening, which foster subjective and intersubjective experiences, lies at the heart of somatic and arts-based interventions. This thesis, first, begins with a summary of the presenting symptoms observed in …


Playing With International Students From Asia: An Exploration Of Cultural Commonalities And Differences In Developmental Transformations (Dvt), Hazuki Okamoto May 2024

Playing With International Students From Asia: An Exploration Of Cultural Commonalities And Differences In Developmental Transformations (Dvt), Hazuki Okamoto

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Asian international students in the United States face a multitude of challenges such as language barriers, differences in cultural norms and behaviors, and identity confusion while navigating a foreign landscape. Developmental Transformations (DvT), a form of drama therapy, may apply to these challenges by enabling participants to explore different identities and express themselves creatively beyond the language barrier. This community engagement project was designed for Asian international students to be seen and heard by utilizing DvT. Within an in-person workshop, five participants played with their shared stories, and explored international and cultural roles in group DvT. Key takeaways from the …


The Power Of Words: Unpacking Language's Role In Educational Inequities, Zara Yokohama, Liz Beccari, Malcolm Jasmin May 2024

The Power Of Words: Unpacking Language's Role In Educational Inequities, Zara Yokohama, Liz Beccari, Malcolm Jasmin

Symposium Of University Research and Creative Expression (SOURCE)

The language used to describe racial disparities in education may inadvertently influence how we address them. Framing such disparities as “achievement gap” rather than as “inequality in educational outcomes” assumes a deficit thinking mindset, shifting focus from the structural injustices contributing to education disparities to individuals, resulting in decreased prioritization of racial equity (Quinn & Desruisseaux, 2022). We aim to replicate this prioritization effect, specify the language driving the effect, and examine the impact of frames on perceptions of how to achieve racial equity. Participants were randomly assigned to conditions framing racial equity concerns as: a racial achievement gap, racial …


Exploring The Relationship Between Anxiety And Virtual Reality Sickness, David Wesley Woolverton May 2024

Exploring The Relationship Between Anxiety And Virtual Reality Sickness, David Wesley Woolverton

<strong> Theses and Dissertations </strong>

As virtual reality (VR) becomes more commonly used in education, it is important to understand the technology’s weakness and mitigate any potential negative effects on student success. One adverse side-effect of VR use is simulation-induced motion sickness, known in the context of VR as VR sickness. Previous research by Howard and Van Zandt (2021) found that possessing a phobia had a significant positive correlation with VR sickness, but only if the phobia is triggered by the simulation, suggesting that symptoms are actually connected to the anxiety the phobia induces. This study explored the hypothesized correlation between anxiety and VR sickness, …


Mate Guarding Against Strong Men Displaying Affiliative And Aggressive Humor, Jacob Pauley May 2024

Mate Guarding Against Strong Men Displaying Affiliative And Aggressive Humor, Jacob Pauley

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Mate retention behaviors serve to discourage partner defection from a current pairbond. Such behaviors are oftentimes more prevalent toward intrasexual rivals exhibiting physical and behavioral cues implicating that rival as an optimal mate. Among these features in men are their upper body strength, a feature diagnostic of heritable fitness, and men's ability to produce humor, a cue to their social competence. This study considered the intersection of these desirable features in shaping men's mate retention behavior toward an intrasexual rival. After learning of a hypothetical interloper exhibiting high or low upper body strength while similarly using humor in an affiliative …


Commercially Sexually Exploited Children Targeted Within Social Services, Britny Ragland May 2024

Commercially Sexually Exploited Children Targeted Within Social Services, Britny Ragland

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

This study used a survey to describe social workers’ and MSW students’ level of preparedness in identifying and providing prevention and intervention for commercially sexually exploited children (CSEC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate perceptions of social workers and social work students have the necessary skills, knowledge, and training to identify, and provide intervention for Commercially Sexually Exploited Children (CSEC). Data was collected from thirty-five participants. Findings were that there appears to be no significance between the level of skills, knowledge and training among social workers and social work students in their ability to provide intervention for commercially …


Examining The Effects Of Menstrual Cycle Phase And Hormonal Contraceptive Use On Women's Sleep, Charles Ethan Coombs May 2024

Examining The Effects Of Menstrual Cycle Phase And Hormonal Contraceptive Use On Women's Sleep, Charles Ethan Coombs

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Women overrepresent men for sub-optimal sleep, a consequence of hormone fluctuation in the menstrual cycle affecting sleep regulatory pathways. While research has examined the prevalence of sub-optimal sleep through cycle phases, little research has examined how hormonal contraceptives (HC’s) could similarly affect women’s sleep, while also neglecting to utilize subjective sleep measures. In this study, we examine subjective sleep quality among naturally cycling (NC) women, women using different HC types, and between active and inactive phase pill users by subjecting 463 women to a subjective sleep battery. We hypothesized that HC users would report more sub-optimal sleep than NC women. …


An Experimental Test Of Mental Health Help-Seeking Intentions As A Function Of Demographics And Disorder Type, Alyssa Hartley May 2024

An Experimental Test Of Mental Health Help-Seeking Intentions As A Function Of Demographics And Disorder Type, Alyssa Hartley

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The current study sought to understand help-seeking behaviors for diverse psychological disorders across different demographic groups. Previous literature finds that help-seeking behaviors are greater in non-minority women in higher socioeconomic statuses, and greater for neurocognitive disorders. This study focuses specifically on university students (N= 276). Participants took diagnostic measures and then were told their scores were clinically elevated for either anxiety or ADHD. Participants were then asked qualitative questions regarding their help-seeking intentions. Findings that were consistent with previous literature are that women were more likely to help-seek than men, and participants in the ADHD condition were more likely to …


The Role Of Awe In Risk-Taking And The Exploration Of The Unknown, Matthew Thomas Richesin May 2024

The Role Of Awe In Risk-Taking And The Exploration Of The Unknown, Matthew Thomas Richesin

Doctoral Dissertations

Much has been learned about awe through scientific inquiry in the last twenty years, however, few researchers have looked to understand the adaptive function. Recent work has suggested that the function of awe is cognitive in nature. This view argues that the function awe plays is linked to how individuals respond to uncertainty. This approach proposes that awe should be linked to various epistemic dispositions such as curiosity, impulsivity, intolerance to uncertainty, and existential thinking. It further suggests that awe will have a distinct effect on risk-taking behaviors compared to fear and curiosity. The current project consists of three studies …


The Role Of Psychological Distance On The Antecedents And Consequences Of Political Outgroup Moral Derogation, Phillip P. Mcgarry May 2024

The Role Of Psychological Distance On The Antecedents And Consequences Of Political Outgroup Moral Derogation, Phillip P. Mcgarry

Doctoral Dissertations

Political polarization in the United States has continually increased at least across the past 40 years. Political partisans now regard out-party members as immoral. I employed three experiments (Experiment 1: n = 1070; Experiment 2: n = 402; Experiment 3: n = 392) to explore the antecedents and consequences of moral derogation in an inter-party context using the Ultimatum Game (UG) paradigm. Psychological distance was manipulated in Experiment 3, by randomly assigning participants to play the UG either in the same room or an adjacent room as a confederate. Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 were conducted online and served as …


The Effectiveness Of Weighted Blankets As A Sleep Promoting Behavior: A Quasi -Experimental Study, Irish Amalia, Sali R. Asih, Inge U. Wiswanti, Ina Saraswati Apr 2024

The Effectiveness Of Weighted Blankets As A Sleep Promoting Behavior: A Quasi -Experimental Study, Irish Amalia, Sali R. Asih, Inge U. Wiswanti, Ina Saraswati

Psychological Research on Urban Society

Sleep is crucial to the overall well-being of individuals. Sleep deficiency can lead to various physical and mental health issues, including more severe insomnia, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Improving sleep quality is often emphasized through sleep hygiene. An emerging nonpharmacological intervention is the use of weighted blankets, which apply deep-pressure stimulation to promote feelings of relaxation, comfort, and security similar to a gentle hug. This study explored the effects of weighted blankets on sleep quality and symptoms of insomnia, anxiety, and depression. Thirty participants (M = 33 years, SD = 9.13) used weighted blankets for 14 nights. They completed the …


Profiling Cybercriminals: Behavioral Analysis And Motivations Behind Cybercrime Activities, A'Shya Latrice Reynolds Apr 2024

Profiling Cybercriminals: Behavioral Analysis And Motivations Behind Cybercrime Activities, A'Shya Latrice Reynolds

Cybersecurity Undergraduate Research Showcase

The study of cybercriminal behavior and motivations is crucial for understanding and combating the evolving landscape of digital crime. This paper delves into the intricate realm of cybercrime profiling, employing a multidisciplinary approach to dissect the behavioral patterns and underlying motivations of cybercriminals. Drawing from psychology, sociology, and criminology, the research examines the intricate interplay of individual traits, social dynamics, and technological factors that shape cybercriminal activities.

Through analysis of case studies and research, this paper uncovers the diverse range of motivations driving individuals towards engaging in cybercrime. From financial gain and ideological extremism to thrill-seeking and revenge, cybercriminals exhibit …


Making Deception Fun: Teaching Autistic Individuals How To Playfriendly Tricks, Adel Naj, Megan St. Clair, Kacie Massoudie, Jonathan Tarbox, Lauri Simchoni, Marianne Jackson, Angela Persicke Apr 2024

Making Deception Fun: Teaching Autistic Individuals How To Playfriendly Tricks, Adel Naj, Megan St. Clair, Kacie Massoudie, Jonathan Tarbox, Lauri Simchoni, Marianne Jackson, Angela Persicke

Psychology Division Scholarship

Perspective taking is a critical repertoire for navigating social relationships and consists of a variety of complex verbalskills, including socially adaptive forms of deception. Detecting and being able to use socially adaptive deception likelyhas many practical uses, including defending oneself against bullying, telling white lies to avoid hurting others’ feelings,keeping secrets and bluffing during games, and playing friendly tricks on others. Previous research has documented thatsome Autistic1 children have challenges identifying deception and playfully deceiving others (Reinecke et al., 1997). Thecurrent study employed a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the use of multiple exemplar training, rules,modeling, practice, and …


The Effects Of Background Music On Productivity In Classrooms, Trinity Carter Apr 2024

The Effects Of Background Music On Productivity In Classrooms, Trinity Carter

Selected Student Publications

This paper examines how background music influences productivity in classroom settings.

thorough research has shown that music does stimulate the brain (Rickard & McFerran, 2011) but due to limitations in research, a general consensus on how it affects a person’s productivity cannot be drawn (de la Mora Velasco & Hirumi, 2020). The study attempted to address the limitations noticed across multiple studies: (1) specification of how background music is manipulated during the study (2) number of participants (3) testing only in educational settings and (4) effects of background music on conceptual learning. It was expected that background music would be …


The Psychological Effects Of Solitary Confinement On Incarcerated Individuals: A Systematic Literature Review, Lara Z. Parkes, Jonathan C. Dowers Apr 2024

The Psychological Effects Of Solitary Confinement On Incarcerated Individuals: A Systematic Literature Review, Lara Z. Parkes, Jonathan C. Dowers

Selected Student Publications

This systematic literature review looks at previous research that explores the possibility of a correlation between solitary confinement and the presence of mental illness within those isolated inmates. Twenty percent of prison inmates experience isolation for up to twenty-two hours per day with restricted social interaction and limited amenities (Hagan et al., 2018; Ryan & DeVylder, 2020). Certain inmate demographics are more likely to be sent into isolation in an effort to protect themselves or others, including members of the LGBTQIA+ community, the developmentally impaired, and the mentally ill. However, this practice often has the opposite of its intended effect. …


A Comparison Of The Relative Magnitude Of Combinations Of Relapse Types In Rats, Mary Bridges Apr 2024

A Comparison Of The Relative Magnitude Of Combinations Of Relapse Types In Rats, Mary Bridges

Theses

Applied behavior analysis uses scientifically derived methods to create treatments for socially significant behaviors. A threat to these successful treatments is the recurrence of previously reduced behavior (i.e., relapse). Relapse can be categorized into several types depending on the variables that induce relapse. Three types prevalent in clinical settings are reinstatement (i.e., induced by re-exposure to reinforcers or stimuli paired with the target behavior), renewal (i.e., induced by changes in context), and resurgence (i.e., induced by worsening of alternative reinforcement). Because relapse is harmful to long-term treatment maintenance, prior research has developed and tested mitigation strategies for these relapse types, …


Controlling The Narrative: The Effects Of Media Coverage On Fear Of Crime And Socio-Political Ideology, Andrew Koppelman Apr 2024

Controlling The Narrative: The Effects Of Media Coverage On Fear Of Crime And Socio-Political Ideology, Andrew Koppelman

Theses

Several decades of study have established an understanding that media have a unique power to influence the perspectives and worldviews of audiences. This phenomenon has been explored through the lenses of Social Learning and Cultivation theory, wherein media appeal to base human tendencies of self-preservation and teaches audiences how to maximize rewards for their actions by acting as a sort of instructor or friendly warning from members of the community. While prior studies have suggested the presence of this effect, little research has been devoted to understanding the ways that this may influence behaviors in viewers. My research seeks to …


The Perception Of Children As Reliable Eyewitnesses, Shelby Mcdonald Apr 2024

The Perception Of Children As Reliable Eyewitnesses, Shelby Mcdonald

Psychology Student Papers and Posters

Eyewitness accounts have been integral to the criminal justice system. However, given that not every criminal case has forensic evidence that is available or admissible, the reliance on eyewitness accounts conjures questions about believability. This is an important area of research because the over-belief of witnesses may lead to wrongful convictions, yet under-belief may leave the victim without justice. The current study investigated how child-witness age, race, role as a witness (bystander versus victim), and the gender of the juror influenced the perception of child eyewitnesses through the lens of the Witness Credibility Model. Participants were presented with the testimony …


Visual Attention In Remote Vehicle Supervision: Examining The Effects Of Mental Models And Information Bandwidth, Michael Stanley Politowicz Apr 2024

Visual Attention In Remote Vehicle Supervision: Examining The Effects Of Mental Models And Information Bandwidth, Michael Stanley Politowicz

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Advances in automation and aviation technologies have been catalysts for the emerging market of Advanced Air Mobility (AAM), an ecosystem of novel aircraft concepts including package delivery drones and passenger carrying air-taxis. Future aircraft operators in this environment will be tasked with remotely supervising multiple highly automated aircraft on a visual interface while receiving less training than traditional pilots. More research should explore how an operator’s potentially limited understanding of an automated system affects visual performance and interactions between human operators and AAM technologies. This study examined the influence of mental models of an autopilot system on visual attention allocation …


The Role Of Age And Biological Sex On Short-Term Memory In The Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus Auratus), Laura E. Garcia, Mario Gil Mar 2024

The Role Of Age And Biological Sex On Short-Term Memory In The Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus Auratus), Laura E. Garcia, Mario Gil

Research Symposium

Background: Aging plays an important role in cognitive function, memory, and mental health. As we age, some cognitive functions become weaker. Aging is also a critical risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease. With recent advances seen in public health, humans are living longer years. This makes it a challenge to make those added years healthy. For this reason, it is important to continue studying its effects by using, the Syrian hamster, as a model. The purpose of the study is to identify other factors that might also have a role in short-term memory, besides aging.

Methods: All behavioral …


Anticipated Intergroup Anxiety & Misattribution Of Arousal, Nazia Khan Mar 2024

Anticipated Intergroup Anxiety & Misattribution Of Arousal, Nazia Khan

College of Science and Health Theses and Dissertations

The current research attempted to link misattribution of arousal with intergroup anxiety. Specifically, we linked the presence of (i.e., or lack thereof) of sound– a clear misattribute participants can blame their intergroup anxiety on– to anticipating intergroup contact by manipulating the randomly assigned interaction partner and misattribution of arousal sound condition participants were in. Participants viewed a confederate’s name and picture on a screen and anticipated an interaction. Participants’ intercultural interaction comfort was measured as well as their anxiety levels and Stroop task performance. A two-way ANOVA revealed that there was not a statistically significant interaction between the effects of …