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Full-Text Articles in Experimental Analysis of Behavior

Experience-Dependent Changes In Nucleus Accumbens Activity Predict Cued Approach Learning: Contribution Of Nmda Receptors, Mercedes Vega Villar Feb 2020

Experience-Dependent Changes In Nucleus Accumbens Activity Predict Cued Approach Learning: Contribution Of Nmda Receptors, Mercedes Vega Villar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Animals learn associations between environmental cues and the natural rewards they predict (e.g., food, water, sex). As a result, reward-predictive cues come to trigger vigorous reward-seeking responses. Many neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) become excited upon presentation of an already-learned reward-predictive cue. These NAc responses encode the motivational value of the cue and are necessary for the expression of the subsequent approach behavior. However, the precise temporal relationship between the emergence of cue-evoked excitations in the NAc and the acquisition of cued approach behavior remains unknown. In Experiment 1, NAc activity was recorded as rats learned to approach ...


The Study Of Encoding And Depth Of Learning, Camryn Blauth Dec 2019

The Study Of Encoding And Depth Of Learning, Camryn Blauth

Psychology Student Research

This study is looking at how we learn by testing three different levels of encoding. Based on how a word is used the level of encoding changes. In order to test this, three groups were formed based on randomly handing out sheets. Each sheet had a question which required a different level of comprehension. It was a between-subjects design, with self-selecting participants that were mostly 18-year-old female students. The goal of this study was to find out if the more a word is comprehended, or the deeper the encoding, the more likely it is to be able to remember that ...


College Environment And Basic Psychological Needs: Predicting Academic Major Satisfaction., Mary Schenkenfelder, Elisa A. Frickey, Lisa M. Larson Nov 2019

College Environment And Basic Psychological Needs: Predicting Academic Major Satisfaction., Mary Schenkenfelder, Elisa A. Frickey, Lisa M. Larson

Lisa M. Larson

The authors aimed to extend the literature in self-determination theory (SDT) to understand the relations between college environmental variables (faculty and peer support) and academic major satisfaction. The study was disseminated via an online platform to 320 students attending a large midwestern university. Based on SDT, it was hypothesized that student perceptions of their volitional autonomy, competence, and relatedness in their academic major would fully mediate the relations between perceived faculty and peer supports and major satisfaction. This hypothesized model was tested against a partially mediated model and an alternate model that further tested the directionality of the argument. Results ...


#52 - Men's Private And Public Conformity To Masculine Norms, Jasmine Starks Nov 2019

#52 - Men's Private And Public Conformity To Masculine Norms, Jasmine Starks

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Society has a strong influence on how we think and behave. A result of societal norms is toxic masculinity, which addresses harmful effects that conforming to ideal masculine standards can have on a man. In this study, we analyzed the effects that masculine social norms would have on a male college population. The hypothesis was that heterosexual White males in the sample would conform to societal male norms, a topic covered in RW Connell’s “Masculinities”, and show influence of toxic masculinity. The study is preregistered at http://osf.io/5n4ex/. Participants (N = 65) were asked to answer the Conformity ...


#51 - The Effect Of Color On Cognitive Performance And Mood, Valter Andersson, Mckinley O'Kelley, Micaela Wright, Julie Delose Nov 2019

#51 - The Effect Of Color On Cognitive Performance And Mood, Valter Andersson, Mckinley O'Kelley, Micaela Wright, Julie Delose

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The Effect of Color on Cognitive Performance and Mood

Color plays an important role in the way people view the world, and different colors can evoke different emotions (Werner, 1954). In addition, color also impacts performance on cognitive tasks, with red leading to worse performance on anagram tasks compared to green and gray (Elliot et al., 2007). The current research study will extend the work on color and human emotion and behavior by an experimental examination of the impact of color (i.e., red, blue, and gray) on cognitive performance and mood in undergraduate students at a small liberal arts ...


How News Media Coverage Of Crises Promotes Conspiracy Beliefs, Richard Kornrumpf, Adam Enders Phd Oct 2019

How News Media Coverage Of Crises Promotes Conspiracy Beliefs, Richard Kornrumpf, Adam Enders Phd

Posters-at-the-Capitol

While scholars of conspiracy theories have recently made great strides in understanding the basic nature and correlates of conspiratorial thinking, we still know little about how conspiracy beliefs are disseminated and communicated, especially when it comes to traditional media. In this instance, we use a unique experiment to investigate whether media coverage of mass shootings – complete with the uncertainty, conflicting reports, and dubious official narratives that characterize such coverage – provides the raw material for conspiracy theories and promotes conspiracy beliefs among viewers. We find that implicit conspiratorial information – that which causes confusion and foments uncertainty – does not enflame conspiracy beliefs ...


Actual Versus Hypothetical Wta Stated Values For Recreational Fishing Licenses: Experimental Evidence Of Fish Tales, Scott Steinback, Kristy Wallmo, Sabrina Lovell, Eric Thunberg, John Foster Oct 2019

Actual Versus Hypothetical Wta Stated Values For Recreational Fishing Licenses: Experimental Evidence Of Fish Tales, Scott Steinback, Kristy Wallmo, Sabrina Lovell, Eric Thunberg, John Foster

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

We compared hypothetical willingness to accept (WTA) values for Massachusetts saltwater recreational fishing licenses with WTA values obtained in an actual (simulated) marketplace. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation approach, our results align with past evidence that found WTA values elicited from hypothetical transactions overstate those derived from an actual marketplace. We also provide the first evidence about the effectiveness of an ex-post certainty adjustment technique in a WTA environment. While the adjustment technique has been found to eliminate hypothetical bias in willingness to pay (WTP) settings, we find that when applied in a WTA setting, the approach mitigates but ...


Varying Inter-Stimulus And Inter-Trial Intervals During Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing: A Translational Extension Of Autoshaping, Patricia Eberhardt Oct 2019

Varying Inter-Stimulus And Inter-Trial Intervals During Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing: A Translational Extension Of Autoshaping, Patricia Eberhardt

Thesis Projects

Stimulus-stimulus pairing (SSP) is a respondent conditioning procedure often implemented to elicit vocalizations in children with language delays. Unfortunately, the research showing the effect of increased rates of vocalizations is mixed. Through analogies drawn between SSP and autoshaping, da Silva and Williams (under review) identified variables potentially responsible for increasing the efficacy of SSP (da Silva & Williams, under review). The present study sought to evaluate the relative duration of the inter-trial interval (ITI) and the inter-stimulus interval (ISI). Specifically, the duration of the ITI was systematically varied from 15 s to 60 s and the value of ISI was proportional ...


Processing Speed For Action And Semantic Memory, Tyler Surber Oct 2019

Processing Speed For Action And Semantic Memory, Tyler Surber

Master's Theses

Previous research suggests that the processing of affordances may require more perceptually relevant information than words can provide (Surber et al., 2018; Chainay & Humphreys, 2002). The present study investigates this hypothesis with the shoebox task used in Bowers and Turner (2003). A list of 81 object nouns (targets) and associated features (primes: affordance, semantic, and non-associates) was compiled from the McRae, Cree, Seidenberg, and McNorgan (2005) norms. Affordances denote possibilities for action in relation to the object (e.g. chair – sit), whereas semantic features indicate definitional characteristics (e.g. chair – has legs). Affordances and semantic features served as primes in ...


The Influence Of Wearing A Fitbit On Eating Behaviors While Stressed, Maria C.M. Sparacino, Terry F. Pettijohn Ii Oct 2019

The Influence Of Wearing A Fitbit On Eating Behaviors While Stressed, Maria C.M. Sparacino, Terry F. Pettijohn Ii

Honors Theses

Research has demonstrated stress leads to consuming foods of lower nutritional quality as well as a greater quantity of foods. Visual primes have been shown to reduce these detrimental eating behaviors. The present study sought to determine if a fitbit would prime healthy eating behaviors in stressful situations. Participants (N = 41) were randomly assigned to a high or low stress condition, manipulated through the Stroop Test, and were either given a fitbit prime or not. Participant’s food preferences were assessed with the Macronutrient Preference Checklist- Modified for use in North America following the stress manipulation. The results generally did ...


Distinguishing Between Investigator Discriminability And Eyewitness Discriminability: A Method For Creating Full Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves Of Lineup Identification Performance, Andrew M. Smith, Yueran Yang, Gary L. Wells Aug 2019

Distinguishing Between Investigator Discriminability And Eyewitness Discriminability: A Method For Creating Full Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves Of Lineup Identification Performance, Andrew M. Smith, Yueran Yang, Gary L. Wells

Gary L. Wells

The conceptual frameworks provided by both the lineups-as-experiments analogy and Signal Detection Theory have proven important to furthering understanding of performance on eyewitness identification-procedures. The lineups-as-experiments analogy proposes that when investigators carry out a lineup procedure, they are acting as experimenters, and should therefore follow the same tried-and-true procedures that experimenters follow when executing an experiment. Signal Detection Theory offers a framework for distinguishing between factors that improve the trade-off between culprit and innocent-suspect identifications (discriminability) and factors that impact the frequency of suspect identifications (conservativeness). The present work offers an integration of these two conceptual frameworks. We argue that ...


Recent Trends, Current Research In Cyberpsychology: A Literature Review, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh Aug 2019

Recent Trends, Current Research In Cyberpsychology: A Literature Review, Amarjit Kumar Singh, Pawan Kumar Singh

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Cyberpsychology refers to the study of the mind and behavior in the context of interactions with technology. It is an emerging branch, which has focused on the psychological aspects connected to the increasing presence and usages of technology in modern lives. This paper traces recent advancement and trends of Cyberpsychology is an emerging domain of knowledge and goes on the give a literature review of the same. An analysis of the recent research and literature covering 300 most relevant research papers from the period of 2012 to 15, August 2019 was conducted to determine and shape the research pattern based ...


Theoretical Considerations For Extracting Meaning From Personal Profile System Data: The Need For Independent Construct Validity Studies, Thomas G. Henkel, James Noel Wilmoth Aug 2019

Theoretical Considerations For Extracting Meaning From Personal Profile System Data: The Need For Independent Construct Validity Studies, Thomas G. Henkel, James Noel Wilmoth

Tom G. Henkel

The Personal Profile System (PPS) is a psychological testing instrument that has been widely used. The construct validity of the PPS was studied through a review of the literature. This paper organizes the literature review into three broad categories: the background of the PPS; the reliability of the PPS; and the validity of the PPS. The PPS is a self-scoring instrument measuring the behavioral responses of people along four dimensions: (1) dominance; (2) influencing; (3) steadiness; and (4) compliance. The instrument is designed to provide a systematic and comprehensive perception of an individual's behavioral tendencies and the behavioral tendencies ...


Factoring The Personal Profile System For Construct Validity: Three Analyses Under Different Standardization Assumptions, Thomas G. Henkel, James Noel Wilmoth Aug 2019

Factoring The Personal Profile System For Construct Validity: Three Analyses Under Different Standardization Assumptions, Thomas G. Henkel, James Noel Wilmoth

Tom G. Henkel

Three types of data were factor analyzed using principal components extractions with orthogonal and oblique rotations to test publisher claims for construct validity of the Personal Profile System (PPS). Behavioral descriptor data from 1,045 senior non-commissioned Air Force officers were factored as raw data, mean corrected data, and standardized z-scores (correlations). The most efficacious solution was produced with standardized z-scores generating four factors accounting for 86% of the total variance. The measure of sampling adequacy for every descriptor exceeded 0.922. The first factor was general with approximately equal loadings on each of the dominance, influencing, steadiness, and compliance ...


Factor Analysis Of The Personal Profile System, Thomas G. Henkel, James Noel Wilmoth Aug 2019

Factor Analysis Of The Personal Profile System, Thomas G. Henkel, James Noel Wilmoth

Tom G. Henkel

Principal components extraction with orthogonal and oblique rotations tested construct validity for the Personal Profile System. MOST-LIKE endorsements of 96 behavioral descriptors were coded with 4, LEAST-LIKE with 1, and unendorsed with 2.5. Descriptor data from 1,045 senior noncommissioned Air Force officers were normalized. Four factors accounted for 85% of total variance, with 19 descriptors loading significantly on two factors and the remaining 77 on just one factor. The measure of sampling adequacy for every descriptor exceeded .94. One factor for the varimax-rotated (best) analysis was bi-scalar, loading on Steadiness and Compliance descriptors; a second resembled Influencing, a ...


Assessment Of Sex Differences And Amphetamine On Schedule-Induced Polydipsia, Min Park Aug 2019

Assessment Of Sex Differences And Amphetamine On Schedule-Induced Polydipsia, Min Park

All NMU Master's Theses

Amphetamine (AMPH) is one of the most common psychotropic drugs abused in the United States. Its major pharmacological effect is to increase synaptic dopamine levels in the mesolimbic reward pathway, which in turn causes behavioral effects in animals, and subjective effects in humans. These reinforcing properties of AMPH trigger very strong levels of craving the drug, and eventually result in patterns of compulsive use of AMPH. Regarding psychostimulant action, female rats have been reported to be more vulnerable to the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants. In the current study, schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP), an animal model of compulsive behavior, was applied for ...


How Does Alcohol Intoxication Impair Risk Detection Of Sexual Assault? Testing An Integration Of Alcohol Myopia And Social Information Processing Theories, Alexander James Melkonian Aug 2019

How Does Alcohol Intoxication Impair Risk Detection Of Sexual Assault? Testing An Integration Of Alcohol Myopia And Social Information Processing Theories, Alexander James Melkonian

Theses and Dissertations

Sexual assault among young adults is a highly prevalent public health concern. Alcohol is often implicated as a risk factor for sexual assault through its impairing effects on an individual’s ability to process and respond to social cues in the environment. The effect of alcohol myopia can result in greater focus of attention on salient environmental cues. The relationship between alcohol intoxication and resulting behavior may depend on what type of information is most salient. The current study examined the effects of alcohol on social information processing as it relates to sexual assault risk detection. Method: Participants were 48 ...


Hating Evil: Understanding The Role Of Evil In Interpersonal Hate, Carmen Merrick Aug 2019

Hating Evil: Understanding The Role Of Evil In Interpersonal Hate, Carmen Merrick

Theses and Dissertations

Research has demonstrated that hate is a protective emotional response to perceived evil, yet the dimensions by which people perceive evil have not been clearly identified. Research has also indicated that it is evil to feel hate, which presents an interesting paradox: if hate protects us from evil, then how can it be evil to feel hate? The present research attempts to identify the dimensions of evil and elucidate the relationship between hate and evil by comparing it to the relationship between dislike and evil. Study 1 tested how participants identified evil in third person scenarios. As predicted, evil was ...


Like Me, Do What I Say, & Think About My Influence: The Effects On Witness Choosing And Metacognition, Brittany Race Aug 2019

Like Me, Do What I Say, & Think About My Influence: The Effects On Witness Choosing And Metacognition, Brittany Race

Theses and Dissertations

Confidence can be a strong predictor of accuracy if circumstances are ideal (Wixted & Wells, 2017), but ideal circumstances are not always present. As such it is important to understand ways to ameliorate potentially negative effects on eyewitness metacognition. Rapport building, though seen as an important element of police/witness interaction (Vallano et al., 2015), can lead to some potentially negative memory effects (Wright et al., 2015). Additionally steering, or the process of directing a witness toward a particular suspect, can increase false identifications. Recently the researcher has developed a paradigm meant to better calibrate confidence by reinstating the context of ...


The Effects Of Hand Holding On Cancer Patients Level Of Anxiety: A Single-Case Study, West Loveland Aug 2019

The Effects Of Hand Holding On Cancer Patients Level Of Anxiety: A Single-Case Study, West Loveland

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore how the anxiety levels of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients receiving chemotherapy are affected while holding hands with a secure attachment. This study utilized three experimental single-case designs: participant one measured under a B-design, participant two measured under a B-A design, and participant three measured under an A-B design. Each participant’s anxiety was assessed during six chemotherapy treatments and one meeting with their primary oncologist to discuss the prognosis of their cancerous disease. Results visually indicate a greater effect on anxiety reduction during treatment when the intervention is utilized compared to only ...


Measuring Contextual Factors Associated With Experiential Avoidance Using A Behavior Analogue Paradigm, Meaghan M. Lewis Aug 2019

Measuring Contextual Factors Associated With Experiential Avoidance Using A Behavior Analogue Paradigm, Meaghan M. Lewis

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between levels of state and trait experiential avoidance across two different contexts using behavior analogue methodology. Performance on the cold pressor task (threshold, tolerance, endurance, and intensity; Zettle et al., 2012) was compared to performance on a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) to obtain a behavioral measure of experiential avoidance that was standardized across these four behavioral indices. Data were collected from a convenience sample of undergraduate students (N = 133) from college classrooms on the campus of Western Michigan University. Participants ...


The Effect Of Conversational Agent Skill On User Behavior During Deception, Ryan M. Schuetzler, G Mark Grimes, Justin Scott Giboney Jul 2019

The Effect Of Conversational Agent Skill On User Behavior During Deception, Ryan M. Schuetzler, G Mark Grimes, Justin Scott Giboney

Ryan Schuetzler

No abstract provided.


Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of Putative Antipsychotic Drugs, Alex Lekander Jul 2019

Discriminative Stimulus Effects Of Putative Antipsychotic Drugs, Alex Lekander

All NMU Master's Theses

This study attempted to further explore the discriminative stimulus properties of antipsychotic drugs, by establishing the typical antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine, and the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine as discriminative stimulus in two different groups of rats. The rats trained to discriminate chlorpromazine from vehicle failed to do so reliably, however nine of ten rats trained to discriminate 1.25 mg/kg clozapine from vehicle were able to acquire the discrimination in 19.1 sessions. The clozapine cue partially generalized (63.13% drug lever responding [SEM = ± 18.91]) to the antimalarial drug methylene blue at the 7.5 mg/kg dose, but ...


The Effects Of Automation Transparency And Reliability On Task Shedding And Operator Trust, William Everett Lehman Jul 2019

The Effects Of Automation Transparency And Reliability On Task Shedding And Operator Trust, William Everett Lehman

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Because automation use is common in many domains, understanding how to design it to optimize human-automation system performance is vital. Well-calibrated trust ensures good performance when using imperfect automation. Two factors that may jointly affect trust calibration are automation transparency and perceived reliability. Transparency information that explains automated processes and analyses to the operator may help the operator choose appropriate times to shed task control to automation. Because operator trust is positively correlated with automation use, behaviors such as task shedding to automation can indicate the presence of trust. This study used a 2 (reliability; between) × 3 (transparency; within) split-plot ...


Inhibition Of Return In Visual Search: Disentangling Overlapping Contributions With Event-Related Potentials, Allison Michelle Pierce Jul 2019

Inhibition Of Return In Visual Search: Disentangling Overlapping Contributions With Event-Related Potentials, Allison Michelle Pierce

Theses and Dissertations

Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the finding that responses to previously attended locations are slower than those to previously unattended locations. Despite over 30 years of research on IOR, there is still no consensus in the field regarding what the underlying mechanism of this effect is. Although IOR is traditionally studied within spatial cueing paradigms, this effect is thought to reflect a mechanism that facilitates efficient visual search. The following studies explored the hypothesis that multiple processes contribute to the IOR effect in visual search and examined whether these are the same processes that result in IOR in cueing ...


Building A Statistical Model Of The Drivers Of Self-Presentation, Kathleen Jocoy Jul 2019

Building A Statistical Model Of The Drivers Of Self-Presentation, Kathleen Jocoy

Theses and Dissertations

The attempt to maintain a consistently positive public image is known as self-presentation; however, the structure of self-presentation has not been adequately explored. This paper aimed to identify a theory-based model for self-presentation by examining the relationship between personality traits and utilization of self-presentational behaviors. A review of the literature suggested self-presentation would be best modeled with a second order two-factor model with second order factors of Evaluation and Response. The second order factor of Evaluation is expected to explain the first order factors Perceived Anonymity, Sociability, and Communality while the second order factor of response is expected to explain ...


Conceptualization Of Faculty Work Motivation: Overcoming The Impasse, Julie Nikolaeva Thompson Jul 2019

Conceptualization Of Faculty Work Motivation: Overcoming The Impasse, Julie Nikolaeva Thompson

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The work motivation literature is at an impasse. At the same time, changing economic and social conditions necessitate an ongoing transformation for how organizations motivate their workforce. Although changes in the nature of work have captured the attention of researchers, calls for more research to further develop work motivation theory have largely gone unnoticed. The scarcity of new theoretical research contributes to a lack of contextual understanding in work motivation. As such, organizational leaders continue to develop interventions based on the findings of potentially outdated work motivation theories. This may lead to diminished work motivation, productivity, and commitment, particularly for ...


Age-Dependent Effects Of Eedq On Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Activity And D2 Receptor Supersensitivity, Angie Teran Jul 2019

Age-Dependent Effects Of Eedq On Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Activity And D2 Receptor Supersensitivity, Angie Teran

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The neurochemical changes occurring between the preweanling period and adolescence could be crucial for understanding the role development plays in the manifestation of psychotic behaviors. N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) fully attenuates the DA agonist-induced behaviors of adult rats, while potentiating the DA agonist-induced locomotor activity of preweanling rats. My specific hypotheses were as follows: (1) Systemically administered EEDQ would block the cocaine-induced locomotor activity of adult rats. (2) Systemically administered EEDQ would potentiate the cocaine-induced locomotion of preweanling rats. (3) EEDQ would increase the Emax values (a measure of D2 receptor sensitivity) of preweanling rats, but not adolescent or adult ...


Preschool Self-Regulation: A Predictor Of School Readiness, Romin Emmanuel Geiger Jul 2019

Preschool Self-Regulation: A Predictor Of School Readiness, Romin Emmanuel Geiger

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Substantial evidence from previous research has supported the idea that greater self-regulation in the form of “cool” self-regulation or executive functioning and “hot” self-regulation or effortful control is associated with higher academic achievement within the preschool years and school readiness in the kindergarten years (Anaya, 2016; Carlson, 2005). However, there are only a few studies that assess the prediction of school readiness through validated cool and hot self-regulation tasks (Carlson, 2005; Krain, Wilson, Arbuckle, Kastellanos, & Wilham, 2006; Rothbart, Ellis, Rueda, & Posner, 2003; Thompson & Giedd, 2000). There also few studies examining to what extent cool and hot-self-regulation tasks predict socio-emotional (Blair, 2002) and academic achievement ...


An Empirical Examination Of Contemporary American Spiritualism And Mediumship At Lily Dale, New York, Diana Ali Jun 2019

An Empirical Examination Of Contemporary American Spiritualism And Mediumship At Lily Dale, New York, Diana Ali

Western Research Forum

American Spiritualism is an American religion that was born in 1848 in Hydesville, New York. Its central principles state that there is life after death and that mediums have the capability to communicate with discarnate beings. Mediums are persons who claim they can communicate with the dead. Today, Lily Dale, New York is the largest surviving community of American Spiritualism, with a population of mediums that host an annual festival that draws large crowds from around the world upwards of 20,000-30,000 visitors. The author of the present interdisciplinary study outlined a historical overview of American Spiritualism and conducted ...