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Black Girlhood: Reshaping The Identity And Improving The Well-Being Of African American Girls, Karla La'Toya Sapp Ed.D 2017 U Matter Consulting and Counseling

Black Girlhood: Reshaping The Identity And Improving The Well-Being Of African American Girls, Karla La'toya Sapp Ed.D

National Youth-At-Risk Conference Savannah

The identity and overall well-being of African American girls tends to be influenced, both positively and negatively, by the following factors: mass media, gender roles, and environmental factors. Black Girlhood examines the identity development of African American girls utilizing the relational developmental systems theory framework. Black Girlhood also explores the role that mass media, gender roles, and environmental factors shape how African American girls view themselves, while providing interventions that can allow the reshaping of their identity and improvement in their overall well-being.


The Effects Of Secret Instructions And Yes/No Questions On Maltreated And Nonmaltreated Children's Reports Of A Minor Transgression, elizabeth c. ahern, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly McWilliams, Thomas D. Lyon 2017 University of Cambridge

The Effects Of Secret Instructions And Yes/No Questions On Maltreated And Nonmaltreated Children's Reports Of A Minor Transgression, Elizabeth C. Ahern, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly Mcwilliams, Thomas D. Lyon

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

This study examined the effects of secret instructions (distinguishing between good/bad secrets and encouraging disclosure of bad secrets) and yes/no questions (DID: “Did the toy break?” versus DYR: “Do you remember if the toy broke?”) on 262 4- to 9- year old maltreated and nonmaltreated children’s reports of a minor transgression. Over two-thirds of children failed to disclose the transgression in response to free recall (invitations and cued invitations). The secret instruction increased disclosures early in free recall, but was not superior to no instruction when combined with cued invitations. Yes/no questions specifically asking about the ...


Adhd And Theory Of Mind In School-Age Children: Exploring The Cognitive Nature Of Social Interactions In Children With Adhd, Rachel Feigenbaum 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Adhd And Theory Of Mind In School-Age Children: Exploring The Cognitive Nature Of Social Interactions In Children With Adhd, Rachel Feigenbaum

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experience significant difficulties with social skills (Barkley, 2006; DuPaul & Stoner, 2003; Stormont, 2001). The inhibitory deficit associated with ADHD is typically identified as the cause of these impaired social skills (Barkley, 2006). Additionally, some researchers have suggested that theory of mind (ToM), which is the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and to others, may be involved, but the research on ToM deficits in children with ADHD is limited and the findings are mixed. A key methodological issue in this literature is the use of traditional but problematic measures of advanced ToM. These measures ...


A Street Child’S Perspective: A Grounded Theory Study Of How Street Children Experience And Cope With Grief, Somidha Ray 2017 University of Delhi, Jesus and Mary College

A Street Child’S Perspective: A Grounded Theory Study Of How Street Children Experience And Cope With Grief, Somidha Ray

The Qualitative Report

The research project entitled – “A Street Child’s Perspective: A Grounded Theory Study of How Street Child Experience and Cope with Grief,” seeks to understand and explain how street children experience and cope with grief. Grief is multi-faceted and highly subjective. However, most street children, sharing the same contexts and backgrounds show some commonality in their experiences and coping styles. The paper attempts to understand grief as it is subjectively experienced by street children. The research employed qualitative techniques – In-Depth Interviewing, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and field notes. The researcher contacted an NGO and through them, gained access to street ...


Challenging The Credibility Of Alleged Victims Of Child Sexual Abuse In Scottish Courts, Zsofia Szojka, Samantha J. Andrews, Michael E. Lamb, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Thomas D. Lyon 2017 University of London

Challenging The Credibility Of Alleged Victims Of Child Sexual Abuse In Scottish Courts, Zsofia Szojka, Samantha J. Andrews, Michael E. Lamb, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Thomas D. Lyon

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

This study examined the effects of credibility-challenging questions (n = 2,729) on 62 5- to 17-year-olds’ testimony in child sexual abuse cases in Scotland by categorizing the type, source, and content of the credibility-challenging questions defence lawyers asked and assessing how children responded. Credibility-challenging questions comprised 14.9% of all questions asked during cross-examination. Of defence lawyers’ credibility-challenging questions, 77.8% focused generally on children’s honesty, whereas the remainder referred to specific inconsistencies in the children’s testimony. Children resisted credibility challenges 54% of the time, significantly more often than they provided compliant responses (26.8%). The tendency to ...


The Effects Of The Putative Confession And Parent Suggestion On Children's Disclosure Of A Minor Transgression, Elizabeth B. Rush, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, J A. Quas, Thomas D. Lyon 2017 University of California, Irvine

The Effects Of The Putative Confession And Parent Suggestion On Children's Disclosure Of A Minor Transgression, Elizabeth B. Rush, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, J A. Quas, Thomas D. Lyon

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Purpose: This study examined the effects of the putative confession (telling the child that an adult “told me everything that happened and he wants you to tell the truth”) on children’s disclosure of a minor transgression after questioning by their parents. Methods: Children (N = 188; 4 – 7-year-olds) played with a confederate, and while doing so, for half of the children, toys broke. Parents then questioned their children about what occurred, and half of the parents were given additional scripted suggestive questions. Finally, children completed a mock forensic investigative interview. Results: Children given the putative confession were 1.6 times ...


The Productivity Of Wh- Prompts When Children Testify, Samantha J. Andrews, Elizabeth C. Ahern, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Thomas D. Lyon 2017 University of Cambridge

The Productivity Of Wh- Prompts When Children Testify, Samantha J. Andrews, Elizabeth C. Ahern, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Thomas D. Lyon

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Wh- prompts (what, how, why, who, when, where) vary widely in their specificity and accuracy, but differences among them have largely been ignored in research examining the productivity of different question-types in child testimony. We examined 120 6- to 12-year-olds’ criminal court testimony in child sexual abuse cases to compare the productivity of various wh- prompts. We distinguished among what/how prompts, most notably: what/how-happen prompts focusing generally on events, what/how-dynamic prompts focusing on actions or unfolding processes/events, what/how-causality prompts focusing on causes and reasons, and what/how-static prompts focusing on non-action contextual information regarding location ...


Spatial Language, Question Type, And Young Children's Ability To Describe Clothing: Legal And Developmental Implications, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly McWilliams, Thomas D. Lyon 2017 Arizona State University

Spatial Language, Question Type, And Young Children's Ability To Describe Clothing: Legal And Developmental Implications, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly Mcwilliams, Thomas D. Lyon

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Children’s descriptions of clothing placement and touching with respect to clothing are central to assessing child sexual abuse allegations. This study examined children’s ability to answer the types of questions attorneys and interviewers typically ask about clothing, using the most common spatial terms (on/off, outside/inside, over/under). Ninety-seven 3- to 6-year-olds were asked yes/no (e.g. “Is the shirt on?”), forced-choice (e.g., “Is the shirt on or off?”), open-choice (e.g., “Is the shirt on or off or something else?”), or where questions (e.g., “Where is the shirt?”) about clothing using a human ...


Investigative Interviewing Of The Child, Thomas D. Lyon 2017 University of Southern California

Investigative Interviewing Of The Child, Thomas D. Lyon

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

This chapter reviews best practice interviewing for legal practitioners and others who work with children.


18. When Interviewing Children: A Review And Update., Karen J. Saywitz, Thomas D. Lyon, Gail S. Goodman 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

18. When Interviewing Children: A Review And Update., Karen J. Saywitz, Thomas D. Lyon, Gail S. Goodman

Thomas D. Lyon

In this chapter, we highlight principles for interviewing children based on the best available science, understanding that such principles keep changing as new evidence accumulates and that gaps exist in the knowledge base where guidance is limited. Interviewers will need to stay abreast of new developments. First, we briefly describe the data base from which the tools derive--studies conducted in the laboratory and in the field. Then we discuss evidence-based interview tools and features of the interview about which there is sufficient empirical evidence and consensus to derive “toolboxes.” We discuss interview structure, setting, children’s reluctance and suggestibility, rapport ...


Narrative Skills Predict Peer Adjustment Across Elementary School Years, Alice J. Davidson, Marsha D. Walton, Bhavna Kansal, Robert Cohen 2017 Rollins College

Narrative Skills Predict Peer Adjustment Across Elementary School Years, Alice J. Davidson, Marsha D. Walton, Bhavna Kansal, Robert Cohen

Faculty Publications

The importance of peer adjustment in middle childhood coincides with developing social cognitive and discursive skills that include the ability to make personal narrative accounts. Authoring personal stories promotes attention to the sequence of events, the causal connections between events, the moral significance of what has happened, and the motives that drive human action: these skills may be critical for the establishment and maintenance of satisfying peer relationships during elementary school. The present study extended previous research by considering whether narrative skills in written stories about peer interactions predicted peer adjustment. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, 92 children ...


Female Superiority In Social Cognition: Can Pretend Play Help The Boys Catch Up?, Maria Weiss 2017 Scripps College

Female Superiority In Social Cognition: Can Pretend Play Help The Boys Catch Up?, Maria Weiss

Scripps Senior Theses

The effect of pretend play on 150 (~ 75 girls; 75 boys; M=3 yro) preschool children’s social cognition will be assessed through a semester long intervention study. Research has reported a trend of female superiority in empathy and ToM and a likelihood of young girls to engage in pretend play more frequently and to a higher degree than young boys. Previous research has also found a relationship between play and social cognition, as through the act of imagination, one is able to thoroughly take on the perspectives of someone other than the self. This study attempts to show a ...


The Giving Tree Academy, David A. Hurdle 2017 Claremont McKenna College

The Giving Tree Academy, David A. Hurdle

CMC Senior Theses

A proposal for a new preschool based in Pomona, California, targeted towards children from low-income backgrounds. Includes extensive research on preschool nationwide, the state of California, and in Pomona. Within the paper a new preschool curriculum and specific teacher practices are discussed. Intended as a model for a new school. or to be adapted for use in educational policy.


A Qualitative Study Of The Context Of Child And Adolescent Substance Use Initiation And Patterns Of Use In The First Year For Early And Later Initiators, Sharon Kingston, Maya Rose, Julian Cohen-Serrins, Emily Knight 2017 Dickinson College

A Qualitative Study Of The Context Of Child And Adolescent Substance Use Initiation And Patterns Of Use In The First Year For Early And Later Initiators, Sharon Kingston, Maya Rose, Julian Cohen-Serrins, Emily Knight

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Individuals who initiate substance use before high school are at higher risk of negative outcomes. Eighty-six young adults between the ages of 18 and 28 participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews focused on the circumstances surrounding participants’ first use of substances and their pattern of use in the year following initiation in order to investigate similarities and differences between early versus later initiators. Initiation and use among early initiators were more likely to be encouraged by poor parental monitoring or active facilitation of use by parents. Early initiators were more likely to report risky patterns of use such as daily use ...


The Influence Of Books, Television, And Computers On Empathy And Altruistic Behavior In Young Children, Alicia Breyer 2017 Scripps College

The Influence Of Books, Television, And Computers On Empathy And Altruistic Behavior In Young Children, Alicia Breyer

Scripps Senior Theses

The rising prevalence of media use and the decreasing use of books create a need for research on the positive learning effects these platforms may have on children. This study will explore how learning platforms (specifically books, television, and computers) in early childhood affect development of social awareness – in particular, empathy and altruistic behavior. The researcher will recruit approximately 192 participants, ages 3 to 5, and randomly assign them to one of three groups: book readers, television viewers, and computer gamers. The subject of the platform will be kept consistent through the use of the children’s television program Daniel ...


Self-Esteem And Social Anxiety In Children With Communication Impairments, Rebekah I. Novom 2017 Scripps College

Self-Esteem And Social Anxiety In Children With Communication Impairments, Rebekah I. Novom

Scripps Senior Theses

The proposed study will investigate how having a speech and/or language impairment, as well as age, affect children’s self-esteem and levels of social anxiety compared to children who have typical language development (TLD). This cross-sectional correlational study will examine approximately 160 participants between the ages of 5 to 10 who fall into one of four communication type groups: speech impairments (speech sound disorders and/or stuttering), language impairments (specific language impairment), speech and language impairments, or TLD. The participants’ self-esteem, levels of social anxiety, and attitudes about their communication ability will be measured via established scales. Participants will ...


57. Spatial Language, Question Type, And Young Children’S Ability To Describe Clothing: Legal And Developmental Implications, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly McWilliams, Thomas D. Lyon 2016 Arizona State University

57. Spatial Language, Question Type, And Young Children’S Ability To Describe Clothing: Legal And Developmental Implications, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly Mcwilliams, Thomas D. Lyon

Thomas D. Lyon

Children’s descriptions of clothing placement and touching with respect to clothing are central to assessing child sexual abuse allegations. This study examined children’s ability to answer the types of questions attorneys and interviewers typically ask about clothing, using the most common spatial terms (on/off, outside/inside, over/under). Ninety-seven 3- to 6-year-olds were asked yes/no (e.g. “Is the shirt on?”), forced-choice (e.g., “Is the shirt on or off?”), open-choice (e.g., “Is the shirt on or off or something else?”), or where questions (e.g., “Where is the shirt?”) about clothing using a human ...


58. The Effects Of Secret Instructions And Yes/No Questions On Maltreated And Non-Maltreated Children’S Reports Of A Minor Transgression., Elizabeth C. Ahern, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly McWilliams, Thomas D. Lyon 2016 University of Cambridge

58. The Effects Of Secret Instructions And Yes/No Questions On Maltreated And Non-Maltreated Children’S Reports Of A Minor Transgression., Elizabeth C. Ahern, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Kelly Mcwilliams, Thomas D. Lyon

Thomas D. Lyon

This study examined the effects of secret instructions (distinguishing between good/bad secrets and encouraging disclosure of bad secrets) and yes/no questions (DID: “Did the toy break?” versus DYR: “Do you remember if the toy broke?”) on 262 4- to 9- year old maltreated and nonmaltreated children’s reports of a minor transgression. Over two-thirds of children failed to disclose the transgression in response to free recall (invitations and cued invitations). The secret instruction increased disclosures early in free recall, but was not superior to no instruction when combined with cued invitations. Yes/no questions specifically asking about the ...


56. Pragmatic Failure And Referential Ambiguity When Attorneys Ask Child Witnesses “Do You Know/Remember” Questions., Angela D. Evans, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Thomas D. Lyon 2016 Brock University

56. Pragmatic Failure And Referential Ambiguity When Attorneys Ask Child Witnesses “Do You Know/Remember” Questions., Angela D. Evans, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Thomas D. Lyon

Thomas D. Lyon

“Do you know” and “Do you remember” (DYK/R) questions explicitly ask whether one knows or remembers some information while implicitly asking for that information. This study examined how 104 4- to 9-year-old children testifying in child sexual abuse cases responded to DYK/R wh- and yes/no questions. When asked DYK/R questions containing an implicit wh- question requesting information, children often provided unelaborated “Yes” responses. Attorneys’ follow-up questions suggested that children usually misunderstood the pragmatics of the questions. When DYK/R questions contained an implicit yes/no question, unelaborated “Yes” or “No” responses could be responding to the ...


Pragmatic Failure And Referential Ambiguity When Attorneys Ask Child Witnesses "Do You Know/Remember" Questions, Angela D. Evans, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Thomas D. Lyon 2016 Brock University

Pragmatic Failure And Referential Ambiguity When Attorneys Ask Child Witnesses "Do You Know/Remember" Questions, Angela D. Evans, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Thomas D. Lyon

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

“Do you know” and “Do you remember” (DYK/R) questions explicitly ask whether one knows or remembers some information while implicitly asking for that information. This study examined how 104 4- to 9-year-old children testifying in child sexual abuse cases responded to DYK/R wh- and yes/no questions. When asked DYK/R questions containing an implicit wh- question requesting information, children often provided unelaborated “Yes” responses. Attorneys’ follow-up questions suggested that children usually misunderstood the pragmatics of the questions. When DYK/R questions contained an implicit yes/no question, unelaborated “Yes” or “No” responses could be responding to the ...


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