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Expressions Of Optimism Bias And "Self" Versus "Other" Perceived Controllability In The Context Of Military-Related Risks, Lauren Lachica-Muschett 2018 Georgia Southern University

Expressions Of Optimism Bias And "Self" Versus "Other" Perceived Controllability In The Context Of Military-Related Risks, Lauren Lachica-Muschett

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

This study aimed to examine expressions of optimism bias and perceived controllability specifically regarding risks often associated with military service. Optimism bias refers to people’s tendency to believe they are less susceptible to experiencing negative life events compared to others. Previous studies show high levels of optimism bias are associated with strong perceptions of personal controllability. Optimism bias is a significant aspect of health promotion research particularly in the field of general occupational health and safety (OHS). However, optimism bias has never been investigated in the military OHS domain. Given the number of risks associated with military occupations, examination ...


Spatial-Relational Learning And Memory Deficits Associated With Nmdar Autoantibodies In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Brittany L. Bascetta 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Spatial-Relational Learning And Memory Deficits Associated With Nmdar Autoantibodies In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Brittany L. Bascetta

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Individuals with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) experience inflammation that may target any organ within the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems. Additionally, these individuals often demonstrate psychological dysfunctions including emotional and cognitive deficits; however, research is inconsistent as to the nature and cause of these dysfunctions. While there are multiple factors that may increase risk for variability in cognitive function, such as population differences, socioeconomic status (SES), mood disorders (depression and anxiety), medication effects, and disease activity, these factors do not reliably predict the severity and extent of cognitive deficits. A growing body of animal research associates autoantibodies ...


Maternal Stress And Stress Symptomatology In Children, Emily Klipa 2017 Otterbein University

Maternal Stress And Stress Symptomatology In Children, Emily Klipa

Distinction Papers

With stress being referred to as the “health epidemic of the 21st century” by the World Health Organization, questions arise about not only how this epidemic affects adults, but also how stress may affect today’s children. Research indicates that stress impacting parents trickle down to children, and the effects can be palpable. In this study the author examined maternal stress as well as stress related symptoms and illnesses in their children. Participants are mothers of children age’s five to ten. The protocol included completion of a four part online survey addressing demographic information, perceived stress, and recent ...


Just Here For Moral Support: A Path Analysis Of Depression And Social Support Networks, Jordan E. Marshall 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Just Here For Moral Support: A Path Analysis Of Depression And Social Support Networks, Jordan E. Marshall

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

Social support has been shown to be associated with lower depression scores in a variety of populations. Using a series of questionnaires, Leahy-Warren, McCarthy, and Corcoran (2011) found significant negative relationships between functional social support and postnatal depression as well as between informal social support and postnatal depression. Grav et. al, (2011) conducted a similar study on the general population, and found that perceived support was significantly correlated to depression. Research suggests that there are gender differences in the relationship between social support and depression. Utilizing data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, Sonnenberg et. al, (2013) found a lack ...


Some Evidence Of Youthful Aging: Elevated Cortisol And The Association With Dna Damage, Jason Fly 2017 University of Northern Iowa

Some Evidence Of Youthful Aging: Elevated Cortisol And The Association With Dna Damage, Jason Fly

Research in the Capitol

Chronic psychological stress as measured by the elevation of the stress hormone cortisol is thought to play a crucial role in the biological mechanisms involved in disease and accelerated aging. In 2011, a critical connection was reported between cortisol and the oxidative damage to DNA in a study of elderly participants (ages 63-83) via 24-hour urinary samples (Joergensen, et. al., 2011). This connection, if verified, has implications for how stress may accelerate aging and the onset of disease. The possible relationship between psychological stress and the cellular damage that underlies aging and disease is explored here, replicating the prior study ...


Secondary Prevention And Cognitive Function After Stroke: A Study Protocol For A 5-Year Follow-Up Of The Aspire-S Cohort, Daniela Rohde, David Williams, Eva Gaynor, Kathleen E. Bennett, Eamon Dolan, Elizabeth Callaly, Margaret Large, Anne Hickey 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Secondary Prevention And Cognitive Function After Stroke: A Study Protocol For A 5-Year Follow-Up Of The Aspire-S Cohort, Daniela Rohde, David Williams, Eva Gaynor, Kathleen E. Bennett, Eamon Dolan, Elizabeth Callaly, Margaret Large, Anne Hickey

Psychology Articles

Introduction Cognitive impairment is common following stroke and can increase disability and levels of dependency of patients, potentially leading to greater burden on carers and the healthcare system. Effective cardiovascular risk factor control through secondary preventive medications may reduce the risk of cognitive decline. However, adherence to medications is often poor and can be adversely affected by cognitive deficits. Suboptimal medication adherence negatively impacts secondary prevention targets, increasing the risk of recurrent stroke and further cognitive decline. The aim of this study is to profile cognitive function and secondary prevention, including adherence to secondary preventive medications and healthcare usage, 5 ...


Do Depressive Symptoms Predict The Incidence Of Myocardial Infarction Independent Of Hopelessness?, Patrick Pössel, Amanda M. Mitchell, Kimmo Ronkainen, George A. Kaplan, Jussi Kauhanen, Maarit Valtonen 2017 University of Louisville

Do Depressive Symptoms Predict The Incidence Of Myocardial Infarction Independent Of Hopelessness?, Patrick Pössel, Amanda M. Mitchell, Kimmo Ronkainen, George A. Kaplan, Jussi Kauhanen, Maarit Valtonen

Patrick Pössel

Depression and hopelessness predict myocardial infarction (MI), but it is unclear whether depression and hopelessness are independent predictors of MI incidents. Hopelessness, depression, and MI incidence rate 18 years later were measured in 2005 men. Cox regressions were conducted with hopelessness and depression serving as individual predictors of MI. Another Cox model examined whether the two predictors predict MI when adjusting for each other. Depression and hopelessness predicted MI in independent regressions but when adjusting for each other, hopelessness, but not depression, predicted MI incidents. Thus, these results suggest that depression and hopelessness are not independent predictors of MI.


Depression As A Risk Factor For Breast Cancer : Investigating Methodological Limitations In The Literature., Patrick Pössel, Erica Adams, Jeffrey C. Valentine 2017 University of Louisville

Depression As A Risk Factor For Breast Cancer : Investigating Methodological Limitations In The Literature., Patrick Pössel, Erica Adams, Jeffrey C. Valentine

Patrick Pössel

Purpose: A relationship between depression and the development of breast cancer has not been convincingly shown in the research conducted over the past three decades. Methods: In an effort to better understand the conflicting results, a review was conducted focusing on the methodological problems associated with this literature, including time frame between the assessment of depression and the diagnosis of breast cancer and the use of somatic items in measuring depression. Fifteen breast cancer prospective studies were reviewed. Results: While twelve of the studies found positive associations between depression and breast cancer development, three studies found negative associations. With regards ...


Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


A Visit To The Doctor: Preparation For Activism, Simone Watson 2017 University of Rhode Island

A Visit To The Doctor: Preparation For Activism, Simone Watson

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Cumulative Sexual Victimization And Mental Health Outcomes Among Incarcerated Women, Jennifer Hartsfield, Susan F. Sharp, Sonya Conner 2017 Bridgewater State University

Cumulative Sexual Victimization And Mental Health Outcomes Among Incarcerated Women, Jennifer Hartsfield, Susan F. Sharp, Sonya Conner

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This research explores the relationship between three different types of self-reported sexual victimization and subsequent mental health problems in a sample of incarcerated women. Previous literature establishes a link between victimization histories and poor mental health outcomes. This study focuses on sexual victimization experienced as a child, as an adolescent and as an adult, both individually and cumulatively, in relation to entering prison with a mental health diagnosis as well as reporting current depressive symptoms while incarcerated. Each type of victimization is significantly related to both prior mental health diagnosis and current depression in prison. Furthermore, there is an additive ...


The Porn Myth: Exposing The Myth Behind The Fantasy Of Pornography By Matt Fradd, Donald L. Hilton Jr. 2017 University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, USA

The Porn Myth: Exposing The Myth Behind The Fantasy Of Pornography By Matt Fradd, Donald L. Hilton Jr.

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Frontline Reports: Emergent Topics For Scholarly Development, Donna M. Hughes 2017 University of Rhode Island

Frontline Reports: Emergent Topics For Scholarly Development, Donna M. Hughes

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Dignity is a scholarly journal dedicated to creating a publishing space for all members of the community—survivors, activists, legal advocates, service providers, researchers, theorists, and scholars—who write about exploitation and violence. Frontline Reports put Dignity on the leading edge of naming, describing, and analyzing topics relevant to our work of ending exploitation and violence. Each report teaches us about the immediate topic and opens up new horizons for future scholarship. By bringing all together, we facilitate the exchange of information and enhance the development of scholarship in the field.


The Color Ceiling: African Americans Still Fighting For Equity And Equality, Osaro Airen Ph.D, LPC, NCC 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University

The Color Ceiling: African Americans Still Fighting For Equity And Equality, Osaro Airen Ph.D, Lpc, Ncc

Journal of Human Services: Training, Research, and Practice

There currently exists a unique ceiling-effect that has plagued the African American community for a number of years but due to the group being placed under the Glass Ceiling umbrella, the true nature of their issues have been vastly overlooked. To bring to light the true nature of these issues, the author created the term, Color Ceiling. The Color Ceiling refers to the invisible barriers that impede financial equity, employment equity, and promotional advancement for African Americans in the workplace specifically higher education.


On Edge: The Impact Of Race-Related Vigilance On Obesity Status In African-Americans, Lauren R. Powell, William M. Jesdale, Stephenie C. Lemon 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

On Edge: The Impact Of Race-Related Vigilance On Obesity Status In African-Americans, Lauren R. Powell, William M. Jesdale, Stephenie C. Lemon

Stephenie C. Lemon

OBJECTIVE: Nearly half of African-Americans are classified as obese. Perceived racism has been associated with obesity, yet the internal experiences of racism have received little attention. African Americans who face racism may "ready themselves" to cope through survival strategies, including race-related vigilance. This study explores the association between race-related vigilance and obesity in African Americans. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Reactions to Race module of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (years 2002-2010) was used. Our sample size consisted of 12,214 African-Americans. Race-related vigilance was assessed as: "How often do you think about your race?" and classified as: never, < daily, daily, and > daily ...


Assessing Depression In Cancer Patients : A Longitudinal Comparison Of Three Questionnaires., Patrick Possel, Kerstin Knopf 2017 University of Louisville

Assessing Depression In Cancer Patients : A Longitudinal Comparison Of Three Questionnaires., Patrick Possel, Kerstin Knopf

Patrick Pössel

The article by Johns et al. (1) compares the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 20-item depression scale (HSCL-20) (2), the Short-Form 36 Mental Health Inventory five-item distress scale (MHI-5) (3), and the Patient Health Questionnaire nine-item depression scale (PHQ-9) (4) in 309 adults with cancer in a longitudinal study.


Religious/Spiritual Coping In Older African American Women, Danice B. Greer, Willie M. Abel 2017 The University of Texas at Tyler

Religious/Spiritual Coping In Older African American Women, Danice B. Greer, Willie M. Abel

The Qualitative Report

The purpose of this study was to identify religious/spiritual coping behaviors of African American women with hypertension (HTN) and explore how religious/spiritual coping influences adherence to high blood pressure (HBP) therapy in older African American women. A mixed-method research design guided this study. Twenty African American women with primary HTN were enrolled in this study using a mixed methods concurrent triangulation design. Data collection included physiologic, descriptive, and sociodemographic data. Adherence was measured using the Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy scale (Kim, Hill, Bone, & Levine, 2000), and religious/spiritual coping was evaluated with the Brief Religious/Spiritual Coping scale. Qualitative data were obtained by audiotaped interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. Descriptive, physiologic data and data from questionnaires were analyzed. Five themes emerged. (a) Feelings of dizziness, lightheadedness, and feeling sick; (b) Belief in God or a Supreme Being, (c) Prayer as the ...


Self-Compassion And Breast Cancer In 23 Cancer Respondents: Is The Way You Relate To Yourself A Factor In Disease Onset And Progress?, Karen G. Kearnery, Richard E. Hicks 2017 Bond University

Self-Compassion And Breast Cancer In 23 Cancer Respondents: Is The Way You Relate To Yourself A Factor In Disease Onset And Progress?, Karen G. Kearnery, Richard E. Hicks

Richard Hicks

Breast Cancer has been extensively studied. However, there is limited knowledge about how psychological factors such as levels of self-compassion may be related to disease onset. This study examined whether higher levels of selfcompassion may be associated with a delayed onset of cancer and its progression and lower hyper-arousal scores in Australian women with breast cancer, using retrospective recollections as part of the study design. Participants from Australian cancer support groups were invited to complete an online survey including demographic and cancer history information, a hyper-arousal scale and a self-compassion scale (self-report scales). After data screening 23 of the 31 ...


Sociocultural Risk Factors For Elevated Perceived Stress Among African American Smokers, Monica Webb Hooper, Noella A. Dietz, Joseph C. Wilson 2017 Case Western Reserve University

Sociocultural Risk Factors For Elevated Perceived Stress Among African American Smokers, Monica Webb Hooper, Noella A. Dietz, Joseph C. Wilson

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Introduction: African Americans experience unique stressors that may inhibit smoking cessation and enhance relapse rates. Few studies, however, have focused on risk factors for perceived stress among treatment seekers. Because African Americans are less likely to quit compared to the larger community, understanding factors associated with perceived stress among smokers has the potential to improve intervention outcomes. This study examined psychosocial and cultural correlates of stress in a sample of African American participants in a randomized controlled trial.

Methods: At baseline, participants reported demographic factors and completed assessments of smoking history, alcohol use, friend and household smoking, weight concerns, acculturation ...


Depressive Symptoms And Sleep Disturbances In Korean American Women, Eunjung Kim, Sinhye Kim, Kevin Cain 2017 University of Washington

Depressive Symptoms And Sleep Disturbances In Korean American Women, Eunjung Kim, Sinhye Kim, Kevin Cain

Asian/Pacific Island Nursing Journal

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances among Korean American women. Forty-nine women completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and revised Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II. Overall, participants scored 12.56 (SD = 9.93) on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, 5.31 (SD = 3.01) on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and -2.27 (SD = 1.64) on the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II. Approximately 29% of the women (n = 14) scored 16 or higher on the Center for Epidemiologic ...


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