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Setting The Scene: The Rise And Coalescence Of Heroism Science, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals, Roderick M. Kramer 2016 University of Richmond

Setting The Scene: The Rise And Coalescence Of Heroism Science, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals, Roderick M. Kramer

Scott T. Allison

This opening chapter of the Handbook of Heroism and Heroic Leadership offers insights and inspiration about the zenith of human behavior. The contributions to this volume offer a sturdy foundations for the development of a multidisciplinary and even transdisciplinary perspective on the antecedents and consequences of heroic behavior. In aggregate, these chapters chart the landscape of what we currently know about heroism-related phenomena, covering a panoply of  human experiences. The chapters encompass such diverse topics as courage, empathy, resilience, hope, meaning, purpose, spirituality, morality, altruism, character strengths, wisdom, development, regeneration, and transformation.    


Students’ Perceptions And Stigma Toward Those With Intellectual And Physical Disabilities, Brighton C. Hollingsworth 2016 Murray State University

Students’ Perceptions And Stigma Toward Those With Intellectual And Physical Disabilities, Brighton C. Hollingsworth

Scholars Week

Students’ Perceptions and Stigma Toward Those with Intellectual and Physical Disabilities

BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that there is a negative impact on those who are labeled as having an intellectual or physical disability (Green, Davis, Karshmer, Marsh, & Straight, 2005). The purpose of this research was to learn more about the stigma against those with disabilities and how one can cope with this stigma.

METHODS: The subjects of this study were 80 General Psychology students. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, which differed in which vignette received. The four vignettes described individuals with the disabilities of (1 ...


Motor Development And Skill Acquisition In Elementary Aged Students, Joanna M. Guerrant Ms. 2016 Morehead State University

Motor Development And Skill Acquisition In Elementary Aged Students, Joanna M. Guerrant Ms.

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Mastering physical movement occurs through motor learning and experience. Motor development is needed for successful acquisition of sport and other physical skills. A lack of motor skills has been associated with decreased physical activity later in life, which has been linked to a variety of hypokinetic diseases. This study examined motor learning and skill acquisition in elementary age children. Twenty 2nd-5th grade students were recruited through the local school system. Subjects did not have any injuries that would preclude them from performing three basic skills (modified squat, tree, and arm and leg raises). IRB approval, parental consent ...


Creating A Common Trajectory: Shared Decision Making And Distributed Cognition In Medical Consultations, Katherine D. Lippa, Valerie L. Shalin 2016 Wright State University

Creating A Common Trajectory: Shared Decision Making And Distributed Cognition In Medical Consultations, Katherine D. Lippa, Valerie L. Shalin

Patient Experience Journal

The growing literature on shared decision making and patient centered care emphasizes the patient’s role in clinical care, but research on clinical reasoning almost exclusively addresses physician cognition. In this article, we suggest clinical cognition is distributed between physicians and patients and assess how distributed clinical cognition functions during interactions between medical professionals and patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A combination of cognitive task analysis and discourse analysis reveals the distribution of clinical reasoning between 24 patients and 3 medical professionals engaged in MS management. Findings suggest that cognition was distributed between patients and physicians in all major tasks ...


Exploring Shame And Guilt In Hiv-Positive Women In Southern India, Mitra L. Lebastchi 2016 University of Denver

Exploring Shame And Guilt In Hiv-Positive Women In Southern India, Mitra L. Lebastchi

Doctoral Papers and Masters Projects

Limited research exists examining shame and guilt among HIV positive populations and across cultural contexts. This study addresses this gap in the literature by considering shame and guilt, and potential associations with mental health symptoms, among a sample of 20 HIV positive women in Southern India. Results indicate that most women experienced high levels of shame and guilt, based on responses to items from an adapted version of the State Shame and Guilt Scale (Marschall, Saftner, & Tangney, 1994). Although correlations were not significant between shame and PTSD or depression, guilt was significantly correlated with both. Future research should focus on ...


Singled In Later Life: Interaction Effects On Family Relations And Health, Hyunsook Kang Ph.D. 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Singled In Later Life: Interaction Effects On Family Relations And Health, Hyunsook Kang Ph.D.

Journal of Human Services: Training, Research, and Practice

This study examines the interaction effects on health and family relations of singled and non-singled older adults. In this study, family relations comprised family criticism and family demands. Data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey were used (57-85 years of age (n=3005). This current study reflects a secondary analysis of the NSHAP data and hypothesized that life-long singled older adults’ health differentially influenced family relation such as family criticism and demands. This study, built on the Convoy Model to account for how singled older adults’ health, is differentially associated with their family criticism and ...


Gender Differences In Exercise Dependence And Eating Disorders In Young Adults: A Path Analysis Of A Conceptual Model, Tevni Grajales, Shelli Meulemans, Peter Pribis, Gretchen Krivak 2016 Andrews University

Gender Differences In Exercise Dependence And Eating Disorders In Young Adults: A Path Analysis Of A Conceptual Model, Tevni Grajales, Shelli Meulemans, Peter Pribis, Gretchen Krivak

Tevni Grajales

Abstract: The purpose of our study was to study the prevalence of exercise dependence (EXD) among college students and to investigate the role of EXD and gender on exercise behavior and eating disorders. Excessive exercise can become an addiction known as exercise dependence. In our population of 517 college students, 3.3% were at risk for EXD and 8% were at risk for an eating disorder. We used Path analysis the simplest case of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to investigate the role of EXD and exercise behavior on eating disorders. We observed a small direct effect from gender to eating ...


The Partnership Paradigm Is A Unified Field Theory For Human Betterment: How It Works In The Minnesota Climate Crisis Movement, Terry W. Hokenson 2016 Minnesota Interfaith Power & Light

The Partnership Paradigm Is A Unified Field Theory For Human Betterment: How It Works In The Minnesota Climate Crisis Movement, Terry W. Hokenson

Interdisciplinary Journal of Partnership Studies

“Intersectionality” is a byword of activists today. While we continue to ply our special causes and organize our various turfs, we are no longer content or even able to isolate ourselves within them as if they were solitary silos. These days most of us realize our causes and constituencies intersect. We attend each others' hearings, workshops and marches, trade ideas across the spectrum, form coalitions, and share hearts and minds on a digital scale that collapses time. We connect dots innumerable as the pixels in a picture, while the clouds grow darker and the lightning strikes nearer.


Death Anxiety, Depression, And Coping In Family Caregivers, Veronica Semenova, Leann Stadtlander 2016 Walden University

Death Anxiety, Depression, And Coping In Family Caregivers, Veronica Semenova, Leann Stadtlander

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

Along with the increase in elderly patients with chronic and disabling conditions, the number of family caregivers continues to rise. Caregiving has been associated with negative physical and psychological impact on the caregivers’ health, as well as, with higher prevalence rates of depression, anxiety, and a higher risk of mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine if death anxiety would be a significant predictor of depression and coping in the sample of adult family caregivers of adult patients. Participants were 46 family caregivers recruited through caregiver websites. Participants completed the Revised Collett–Lester Fear of Death and Dying ...


Healthcare Providers’ Perceptions Of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Patients With Chronic Pain: A Qualitative Investigation, Nicole A. Hollingshead, Marianne S. Matthias, Matthew Bair, Adam T. Hirsh 2016 Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis

Healthcare Providers’ Perceptions Of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Patients With Chronic Pain: A Qualitative Investigation, Nicole A. Hollingshead, Marianne S. Matthias, Matthew Bair, Adam T. Hirsh

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals are at-risk for chronic pain and disparate care. In this qualitative study, we explored providers’ experiences with socioeconomically disadvantaged patients, with a particular focus on providers’: (1) perceptions of socioeconomically disadvantaged patients’ barriers to pain care, (2) attitudes towards this patient population, and (3) chronic pain decisions for these patients. Individual interviews were conducted with twenty-four healthcare providers. Providers discussed several patient-level access barriers, such as not having health insurance, financial constraints, and scheduling difficulties. Providers believed socioeconomically disadvantaged patients were at-risk to misuse prescription opioids and were less comfortable prescribing opioids to these patients. This investigation ...


Sleep, Executive Control, And Psychopathology In Children: A Longitudinal Study And An Examination Of Brief Sleep Treatment, Katherine M. Kidwell 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Sleep, Executive Control, And Psychopathology In Children: A Longitudinal Study And An Examination Of Brief Sleep Treatment, Katherine M. Kidwell

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

Researchers have acknowledged that poor sleep is not merely a symptom of psychopathology but also a contributing factor to the development of psychopathology in children (Walker & Harvey, 2010). However, more research is needed to explicate the associations among sleep, executive control (EC), and psychopathology. Specifically, there are few studies using longitudinal designs and limited research on how treating sleep can improve mental health symptoms. This dissertation provides a conceptual framework for the associations among sleep, EC, and psychopathology. The conceptual framework is bolstered by two studies. Study 1 is an examination of early sleep problems and preschool EC as predictors ...


Differences In Depression, Anxiety, And Life Satisfaction Between Intercollegiate Athletes, Intramural Participants, And Non-Athletes, Megan Wilson 2016 Western Kentucky University

Differences In Depression, Anxiety, And Life Satisfaction Between Intercollegiate Athletes, Intramural Participants, And Non-Athletes, Megan Wilson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

It is widely supported that participation in athletics is positively correlated with increased overall health. However, some research indicates that participation in increased levels of competition is positively correlated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. This means, that if compared, athletes competing nationally or internationally would report higher levels of both depression and anxiety than athletes competing at the intercollegiate level. Research indicates that this could be caused by increased amounts of pressure, personal cost, and expectation.

This study examines potential differences between intercollegiate, intramural, and non-athletes in these areas on a college campus. The first hypothesis is that ...


Symptoms, Contributing Factors, And Screening For Perinatal Mood And Anxiety Disorders In U.S. Latinas: A Literature Review, Jennifer N. S. Massie 2016 University of San Francisco

Symptoms, Contributing Factors, And Screening For Perinatal Mood And Anxiety Disorders In U.S. Latinas: A Literature Review, Jennifer N. S. Massie

Master's Projects

This literature review was conducted to gather the published information on the topic of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders in the Latina population in the United States. Academic databases were searched for articles published between 2005 and 2016. 60 articles were considered, and a final sample of 36 articles and websites was included in this review.

Evidence suggests that Latina women in the perinatal period (pregnant and up to one year postpartum) in the United States of America tend to have a higher risk and incidence of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders than White women, and a higher risk and ...


Barriers And Facilitators To Deaf Trauma Survivors’ Help-Seeking Behavior: Lessons For Behavioral Clinical Trials Research: A Master’S Thesis, Melissa L. Anderson 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Barriers And Facilitators To Deaf Trauma Survivors’ Help-Seeking Behavior: Lessons For Behavioral Clinical Trials Research: A Master’S Thesis, Melissa L. Anderson

Melissa L. Anderson

Deaf individuals experience significant obstacles to participating in behavioral health research when careful consideration is not given to accessibility in the design of study methodology. To inform such considerations, we conducted a secondary analysis of a mixed-methods study that explored 16 Deaf trauma survivors’ help-seeking experiences. Our objective was to identify key findings and qualitative themes from consumers' own words that can be applied to the design of behavioral clinical trials methodology. In many ways, the themes that emerged are what we would expect of any research participant, Deaf or hearing – a need for communication access, empathy, respect, strict confidentiality ...


Adapting Behavioral Interventions For Social Media Delivery, Sherry L. Pagoto, Molly E. Waring, Christine N. May, Eric Y. Ding, Werner H. Kunz, Rashelle B. Hayes, Jessica L. Oleski 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Adapting Behavioral Interventions For Social Media Delivery, Sherry L. Pagoto, Molly E. Waring, Christine N. May, Eric Y. Ding, Werner H. Kunz, Rashelle B. Hayes, Jessica L. Oleski

Molly E. Waring

Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral ...


Adapting Behavioral Interventions For Social Media Delivery, Sherry L. Pagoto, Molly E. Waring, Christine N. May, Eric Y. Ding, Werner H. Kunz, Rashelle B. Hayes, Jessica L. Oleski 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Adapting Behavioral Interventions For Social Media Delivery, Sherry L. Pagoto, Molly E. Waring, Christine N. May, Eric Y. Ding, Werner H. Kunz, Rashelle B. Hayes, Jessica L. Oleski

Rashelle B. Hayes

Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral ...


Increasing Caregiver Supervision Of Young Children: Teaching Scanning, Predicting Behavior, And Modifying For Safety, Natalie Truba 2016 Western Michigan University

Increasing Caregiver Supervision Of Young Children: Teaching Scanning, Predicting Behavior, And Modifying For Safety, Natalie Truba

Dissertations

Unintentional injuries account for a significant number of child deaths and visits to the emergency department. Although increased supervision is routinely shown to be an effective method of preventing unintentional childhood injuries, few interventions systemically teach caregivers behavioral skills to supervise their children appropriately. The present study utilized a multiple baseline design to pilot test an intervention designed to increase caregiver supervision and decrease unintentional childhood injuries by training caregivers how to provide appropriate levels of supervision for their young children (ages 6 to 36 months). Specifically, caregivers were taught in the present study include: (1) scanning the environment (for ...


The Lived Experience Of Individuals With Chronic Back And Neck Pain, Depression, And/Or Anxiety, Tara L. Palmeri 2016 Western Michigan University

The Lived Experience Of Individuals With Chronic Back And Neck Pain, Depression, And/Or Anxiety, Tara L. Palmeri

Dissertations

More than 1.5 billion people worldwide suffer from chronic pain (CP). People who experience chronic pain are 20 to 40% more likely to meet criteria for an anxiety disorder, and three to four times more likely to be clinically depressed than their pain-free counterparts. The relationship between CP and mental health has been studied quantitatively; however, few researchers have investigated co-morbid CP and mental health through a phenomenological lens. The subjective nature of the relationship is not comprehensively addressed within the literature.

This qualitative phenomenological study explored (a) how individuals with chronic back and/or neck pain (CBNP) experience ...


The Role Of Infectious And Stress-Related Onsets In Myalgic Encephalomyelitis And Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Symptomatology And Functioning, Andrew R. Devendorf, Abigail A. Brown, Leonard A. Jason 2016 DePaul University

The Role Of Infectious And Stress-Related Onsets In Myalgic Encephalomyelitis And Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Symptomatology And Functioning, Andrew R. Devendorf, Abigail A. Brown, Leonard A. Jason

DePaul Discoveries

This study examined how the mode of onset for myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome (ME and CFS) impacts patients’ presenting symptomatology. Specifically, this study investigated the differences between the most commonly reported ME and CFS onsets: infectious, stress-related, and a combined infectious and stress-related onset (referred to as ‘combined onset’). Three patient samples were combined and utilized. All participants met Fukuda et al. (1994) criteria and self-reported their illness onset. Analyses showed the infectious group reported the most impairment for general health functioning—which relates to the susceptibility of getting or feeling sick—in comparison to the stress-related group ...


Dancing In The Dark: Sleep-Dependent Motor Skill Memory Consolidation And Periodic Limb Movement Disorder, Valya Sergeeva 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Dancing In The Dark: Sleep-Dependent Motor Skill Memory Consolidation And Periodic Limb Movement Disorder, Valya Sergeeva

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by dysfunction of the striatum and brief, repetitive limb movements during sleep. PLMD can severely disrupt non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Motor skills learning and memory consolidation are dependent on striatal activation, the latter enhanced by NREM sleep. Therefore, we investigated whether individuals with PLMD had learning and sleep-related memory deficits, and whether this putative deficit was related to sleep quality or symptom severity. 14 adults with a PLM index >15/hr underwent two nights (baseline, training) of polysomnographic recording. 15 age-matched healthy controls underwent three nights (baseline, undisturbed training ...


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