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On Edge: The Impact Of Race-Related Vigilance On Obesity Status In African-Americans, Lauren R. Powell, William M. Jesdale, Stephenie C. Lemon 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

On Edge: The Impact Of Race-Related Vigilance On Obesity Status In African-Americans, Lauren R. Powell, William M. Jesdale, Stephenie C. Lemon

Stephenie C. Lemon

OBJECTIVE: Nearly half of African-Americans are classified as obese. Perceived racism has been associated with obesity, yet the internal experiences of racism have received little attention. African Americans who face racism may "ready themselves" to cope through survival strategies, including race-related vigilance. This study explores the association between race-related vigilance and obesity in African Americans. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Reactions to Race module of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (years 2002-2010) was used. Our sample size consisted of 12,214 African-Americans. Race-related vigilance was assessed as: "How often do you think about your race?" and classified as: never, < daily, daily, and > daily ...


Perceived Control, Voluntariness And Emotional Reactions In Relocated Areas Of Russia, Ukraine And Belarus, Carol Jeniffer Figueiredo, Britt-Marie Drottz-Sjöberg 2017 University of New Hampshire

Perceived Control, Voluntariness And Emotional Reactions In Relocated Areas Of Russia, Ukraine And Belarus, Carol Jeniffer Figueiredo, Britt-Marie Drottz-Sjöberg

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

[Excerpt] "The Chernobyl accident occurred at a time of considerable social and economic changes in the former Soviet Union. The contamination due to the accident still covers parts of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Some areas were considered too contaminated to suit long-term human settlement and a considerable number of people were therefore moved from their homes and resettled in other areas. Resettlement policies often differed between the states. Some variations in state policy included the duration before implementation of the decision to resettle people from certain areas, the swiftness of the transition, and the acceptance of personal initiatives in the ...


Religious/Spiritual Coping In Older African American Women, Danice B. Greer, Willie M. Abel 2017 The University of Texas at Tyler

Religious/Spiritual Coping In Older African American Women, Danice B. Greer, Willie M. Abel

The Qualitative Report

The purpose of this study was to identify religious/spiritual coping behaviors of African American women with hypertension (HTN) and explore how religious/spiritual coping influences adherence to high blood pressure (HBP) therapy in older African American women. A mixed-method research design guided this study. Twenty African American women with primary HTN were enrolled in this study using a mixed methods concurrent triangulation design. Data collection included physiologic, descriptive, and sociodemographic data. Adherence was measured using the Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy scale (Kim, Hill, Bone, & Levine, 2000), and religious/spiritual coping was evaluated with the Brief Religious/Spiritual Coping scale. Qualitative data were obtained by audiotaped interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. Descriptive, physiologic data and data from questionnaires were analyzed. Five themes emerged. (a) Feelings of dizziness, lightheadedness, and feeling sick; (b) Belief in God or a Supreme Being, (c) Prayer as the ...


Self-Compassion And Breast Cancer In 23 Cancer Respondents: Is The Way You Relate To Yourself A Factor In Disease Onset And Progress?, Karen G. Kearnery, Richard E. Hicks 2017 Bond University

Self-Compassion And Breast Cancer In 23 Cancer Respondents: Is The Way You Relate To Yourself A Factor In Disease Onset And Progress?, Karen G. Kearnery, Richard E. Hicks

Richard Hicks

Breast Cancer has been extensively studied. However, there is limited knowledge about how psychological factors such as levels of self-compassion may be related to disease onset. This study examined whether higher levels of selfcompassion may be associated with a delayed onset of cancer and its progression and lower hyper-arousal scores in Australian women with breast cancer, using retrospective recollections as part of the study design. Participants from Australian cancer support groups were invited to complete an online survey including demographic and cancer history information, a hyper-arousal scale and a self-compassion scale (self-report scales). After data screening 23 of the 31 ...


Sociocultural Risk Factors For Elevated Perceived Stress Among African American Smokers, Monica Webb Hooper, Noella A. Dietz, Joseph C. Wilson 2017 Case Western Reserve University

Sociocultural Risk Factors For Elevated Perceived Stress Among African American Smokers, Monica Webb Hooper, Noella A. Dietz, Joseph C. Wilson

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Introduction: African Americans experience unique stressors that may inhibit smoking cessation and enhance relapse rates. Few studies, however, have focused on risk factors for perceived stress among treatment seekers. Because African Americans are less likely to quit compared to the larger community, understanding factors associated with perceived stress among smokers has the potential to improve intervention outcomes. This study examined psychosocial and cultural correlates of stress in a sample of African American participants in a randomized controlled trial.

Methods: At baseline, participants reported demographic factors and completed assessments of smoking history, alcohol use, friend and household smoking, weight concerns, acculturation ...


Depressive Symptoms And Sleep Disturbances In Korean American Women, Eunjung Kim, Sinhye Kim, Kevin Cain 2017 University of Washington

Depressive Symptoms And Sleep Disturbances In Korean American Women, Eunjung Kim, Sinhye Kim, Kevin Cain

Asian/Pacific Island Nursing Journal

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances among Korean American women. Forty-nine women completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and revised Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II. Overall, participants scored 12.56 (SD = 9.93) on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, 5.31 (SD = 3.01) on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and -2.27 (SD = 1.64) on the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II. Approximately 29% of the women (n = 14) scored 16 or higher on the Center for Epidemiologic ...


Burnout-Depression Overlap: A Study Of New Zealand Schoolteachers, Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Eric Mayor, Eric Laurent 2017 Université de Neuchâtel

Burnout-Depression Overlap: A Study Of New Zealand Schoolteachers, Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld, Eric Mayor, Eric Laurent

Publications and Research

We examined the overlap of burnout with depression in a sample of 184 New Zealand schoolteachers. Burnout and depressive symptoms were strongly correlated with each other (r = .73; disattenuated correlation: .82) and moderately correlated with dysfunctional attitudes, ruminative responses, and pessimistic attributions. All the participants with high frequencies of burnout symptoms were identified as clinically depressed. Suicidal ideation was reported by 36% of those participants. Three groups of teachers emerged from a two-step cluster analysis: “low burnout-depression,” “medium burnout-depression,” and “high burnout-depression.” The correlation between the affective-cognitive and somatic symptoms of depression was similar in strength to the burnout-depression correlation ...


Self-Compassion And Breast Cancer In 23 Cancer Respondents: Is The Way You Relate To Yourself A Factor In Disease Onset And Progress?, Karen G. Kearnery, Richard E. Hicks 2017 Bond University

Self-Compassion And Breast Cancer In 23 Cancer Respondents: Is The Way You Relate To Yourself A Factor In Disease Onset And Progress?, Karen G. Kearnery, Richard E. Hicks

Faculty of Society and Design Publications

Breast Cancer has been extensively studied. However, there is limited knowledge about how psychological factors such as levels of self-compassion may be related to disease onset. This study examined whether higher levels of selfcompassion may be associated with a delayed onset of cancer and its progression and lower hyper-arousal scores in Australian women with breast cancer, using retrospective recollections as part of the study design. Participants from Australian cancer support groups were invited to complete an online survey including demographic and cancer history information, a hyper-arousal scale and a self-compassion scale (self-report scales). After data screening 23 of the 31 ...


Setting The Scene: The Rise And Coalescence Of Heroism Science, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals, Roderick M. Kramer 2016 University of Richmond

Setting The Scene: The Rise And Coalescence Of Heroism Science, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals, Roderick M. Kramer

Scott T. Allison

This opening chapter of the Handbook of Heroism and Heroic Leadership offers insights and inspiration about the zenith of human behavior. The contributions to this volume offer a sturdy foundations for the development of a multidisciplinary and even transdisciplinary perspective on the antecedents and consequences of heroic behavior. In aggregate, these chapters chart the landscape of what we currently know about heroism-related phenomena, covering a panoply of  human experiences. The chapters encompass such diverse topics as courage, empathy, resilience, hope, meaning, purpose, spirituality, morality, altruism, character strengths, wisdom, development, regeneration, and transformation.    


Whither Voluntary Communities Of Co-Located Patients In Vietnam? Empirical Evidence From A 2016 Medical Survey Dataset, Quan-Hoang Vuong 2016 Universite Libre de Bruxelles

Whither Voluntary Communities Of Co-Located Patients In Vietnam? Empirical Evidence From A 2016 Medical Survey Dataset, Quan-Hoang Vuong

Quan-Hoang Vuong

Background: Empirical evidence on quality of life of poor patients falls short for policy-making in Vietnam. Financial burdens and isolation give rise to Vietnamese voluntary co-location clusters where patients seek to rely on each other. These communities, although important, have been under-researched. Increasingly, there are questions about their sustainability. Aim & Objectives: This study aims to identify factors that affect sustainability of such co-location clusters, seeking to measure the community prospect through critical determinants as seen by member patients. An in-depth analysis is expected to yield insights that help shape future policies contributing to improvement of healthcare systems.  Material & Method: A ...


Predictors Of Substance Use, Relationship Arrangements And Intimacy Expectancies Among Gay Couples And Associations To Erikson Intimacy Development, Jonathan Lopez Matos 2016 CUNY Hunter College

Predictors Of Substance Use, Relationship Arrangements And Intimacy Expectancies Among Gay Couples And Associations To Erikson Intimacy Development, Jonathan Lopez Matos

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This study explored relationship arrangements, intimacy expectancies of substance use and the potential role of Eriksonian intimacy development on drug use among gay and bisexual men. Data were collected from 339 partnered gay/bisexual men across the United States. Measures addressed arrangement type, intimacy expectancies, Eriksonian intimacy and drug use.


Tobacco Use, Cessation, And Locus Of Control Among College Students, Bernard Ambe 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Tobacco Use, Cessation, And Locus Of Control Among College Students, Bernard Ambe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the locus of control among American college students (b) determine if tobacco use or cessation correlate with any demographic variables to better understand the efficacy of tobacco interventions and help design an intervention most effective in the prominent LOC of college students.

The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was modified for the purposes of this study and used to determine demographic factors and tobacco usage status. The modified GATS survey also included the LOC questionnaire which yielded the data. Seventy-four responses were recorded. The mean locus of control scores were ...


Distress, Circadian Rhythms, Immunity, And Survival In Presurgical Breast Cancer Patients., Whitney Nicole Rebholz 2016 University of Louisville

Distress, Circadian Rhythms, Immunity, And Survival In Presurgical Breast Cancer Patients., Whitney Nicole Rebholz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Women with breast cancer experience significant stress related to diagnosis and treatment, which may negatively affect physiology (e.g., circadian, endocrine, and immune) and contribute to cancer progression. Demographic (e.g., ethnic minority) and neighborhood factors can contribute to cancer-related stress. African American women with breast cancer experience more adverse disease pathology and earlier mortality; however, factors that explain these disparities rarely have been explored. It is hypothesized that psychosocial stressors (i.e., ethnicity, neighborhood stress, and cancerrelated stress) will be related to one another. Associations of psychosocial stress with physiological disruption are posited with regard to circadian, endocrine, and ...


Role Of Causal Information In Patient Education: An Experimental And Clinical Approach, Karen M. Zhang 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Role Of Causal Information In Patient Education: An Experimental And Clinical Approach, Karen M. Zhang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

It is somewhat paradoxical that few patient education interventions actually consider the processes by which individuals best learn health-related information. The paucity of empirically validated teaching strategies impedes efforts to improve the delivery of care in cardiovascular rehabilitation and secondary prevention (CRSP) programs. The main goal of this dissertation was to examine whether explaining how illness pathophysiology, symptoms and health behaviour are interconnected (i.e., causal information) enhances the effectiveness of patient education materials.

This question was first addressed in a laboratory setting (Study 1) in which younger and older adults read about a fictitious disease under two conditions ...


Students’ Perceptions And Stigma Toward Those With Intellectual And Physical Disabilities, Brighton C. Hollingsworth 2016 Murray State University

Students’ Perceptions And Stigma Toward Those With Intellectual And Physical Disabilities, Brighton C. Hollingsworth

Scholars Week

Students’ Perceptions and Stigma Toward Those with Intellectual and Physical Disabilities

BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that there is a negative impact on those who are labeled as having an intellectual or physical disability (Green, Davis, Karshmer, Marsh, & Straight, 2005). The purpose of this research was to learn more about the stigma against those with disabilities and how one can cope with this stigma.

METHODS: The subjects of this study were 80 General Psychology students. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, which differed in which vignette received. The four vignettes described individuals with the disabilities of (1 ...


Challenging The “Jolly Fat” Hypothesis Among Older Adults: High Body Mass Index Predicts Increases In Depressive Symptoms Over A 5-Year Period, Peter J. Dearborn MA, Michael A. Robbins Ph.D., Merrill F. Elias Ph.D., MPH 2016 University of Maine

Challenging The “Jolly Fat” Hypothesis Among Older Adults: High Body Mass Index Predicts Increases In Depressive Symptoms Over A 5-Year Period, Peter J. Dearborn Ma, Michael A. Robbins Ph.D., Merrill F. Elias Ph.D., Mph

Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Papers

Several investigators have observed lowered risk of depression among obese older adults, coining the “jolly fat” hypothesis. We examined this hypothesis using baseline and a 5-year follow-up body mass index, depressive symptoms, and covariates from 638 community-based older adults. High objectively measured body mass index and functional limitations predicted increased future depressive symptoms. However, symptoms did not predict future body mass index. Self-reported body mass index showed similar associations despite underestimating obesity prevalence. Results did not differ on the basis of gender. Results for this study, the first longitudinal reciprocal risk analysis between objectively measured body mass index and depressive ...


Motor Development And Skill Acquisition In Elementary Aged Students, Joanna M. Guerrant Ms. 2016 Morehead State University

Motor Development And Skill Acquisition In Elementary Aged Students, Joanna M. Guerrant Ms.

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Mastering physical movement occurs through motor learning and experience. Motor development is needed for successful acquisition of sport and other physical skills. A lack of motor skills has been associated with decreased physical activity later in life, which has been linked to a variety of hypokinetic diseases. This study examined motor learning and skill acquisition in elementary age children. Twenty 2nd-5th grade students were recruited through the local school system. Subjects did not have any injuries that would preclude them from performing three basic skills (modified squat, tree, and arm and leg raises). IRB approval, parental consent ...


Creating A Common Trajectory: Shared Decision Making And Distributed Cognition In Medical Consultations, Katherine D. Lippa, Valerie L. Shalin 2016 Wright State University

Creating A Common Trajectory: Shared Decision Making And Distributed Cognition In Medical Consultations, Katherine D. Lippa, Valerie L. Shalin

Patient Experience Journal

The growing literature on shared decision making and patient centered care emphasizes the patient’s role in clinical care, but research on clinical reasoning almost exclusively addresses physician cognition. In this article, we suggest clinical cognition is distributed between physicians and patients and assess how distributed clinical cognition functions during interactions between medical professionals and patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A combination of cognitive task analysis and discourse analysis reveals the distribution of clinical reasoning between 24 patients and 3 medical professionals engaged in MS management. Findings suggest that cognition was distributed between patients and physicians in all major tasks ...


Exploring Shame And Guilt In Hiv-Positive Women In Southern India, Mitra L. Lebastchi 2016 University of Denver

Exploring Shame And Guilt In Hiv-Positive Women In Southern India, Mitra L. Lebastchi

Doctoral Papers and Masters Projects

Limited research exists examining shame and guilt among HIV positive populations and across cultural contexts. This study addresses this gap in the literature by considering shame and guilt, and potential associations with mental health symptoms, among a sample of 20 HIV positive women in Southern India. Results indicate that most women experienced high levels of shame and guilt, based on responses to items from an adapted version of the State Shame and Guilt Scale (Marschall, Saftner, & Tangney, 1994). Although correlations were not significant between shame and PTSD or depression, guilt was significantly correlated with both. Future research should focus on ...


Singled In Later Life: Interaction Effects On Family Relations And Health, Hyunsook Kang Ph.D. 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Singled In Later Life: Interaction Effects On Family Relations And Health, Hyunsook Kang Ph.D.

Journal of Human Services: Training, Research, and Practice

This study examines the interaction effects on health and family relations of singled and non-singled older adults. In this study, family relations comprised family criticism and family demands. Data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey were used (57-85 years of age (n=3005). This current study reflects a secondary analysis of the NSHAP data and hypothesized that life-long singled older adults’ health differentially influenced family relation such as family criticism and demands. This study, built on the Convoy Model to account for how singled older adults’ health, is differentially associated with their family criticism and ...


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