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Dairy By-Product Derived Cardioprotective Lipids, Hannah Ring 2022 Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Munster Technological University, Kerry, Ireland

Dairy By-Product Derived Cardioprotective Lipids, Hannah Ring

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder, characterised by the accumulation of plaque on the walls of the arteries. Rupture of this plaque often results in life threatening clinical complications such as heart attack and stroke, which currently are the two leading causes of global mortality. Dietary guidelines usually condemn the consumption of whole fat dairy products due to their saturated fat content and this ingredient’s association with cholesterol and cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. This viewpoint however, is dated and controversial as much data is emerging on the cardiometabolic benefits of polar lipids found in dairy products which are …


Biowill - Characterising Willow Bark Bio-Actives For Skin Therapies, Arnold Marisa 2022 Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Munster Technological University, Kerry, Ireland

Biowill - Characterising Willow Bark Bio-Actives For Skin Therapies, Arnold Marisa

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Willow bark is considered as a disposable by-product when processing willow for biomass. Willow (Salix) is known to contain high value bioactive compounds which include salicin and its derivatives, and other phytochemicals of interest such as polyphenols and flavonoids. The plant is historically known as the primary source of salicylates to which the well-known drug aspirin is derived from. The work forms part of the Interreg project BioWILL, which is focused on integrated “Zero Waste” biorefinery utilising all fractions of willow feedstock for the production of biochemicals and renewable energy. This project aims to investigate the crude and …


Autofluorescence Microscopy -- Identifying Bacterial Signals On Rock Samples, Noel Case 2022 Portland State University

Autofluorescence Microscopy -- Identifying Bacterial Signals On Rock Samples, Noel Case

University Honors Theses

One common method for identifying microbes present fluid and non-fluid samples is fluorescent dye staining, in which samples are stained with a fluorophore - a molecule excited by an external light source that re-emits energy as higher-wavelength light. The excitation wavelength used greatly impacts the observability of microbes in the resulting fluorescence images, and deep ultraviolet excitation (200-280 nm) seems to provide the highest signal-to-noise ratio of any excitation range. By inoculating rock samples (gypsum and marble) with B. subtilis, staining with SYTO 9, Acridine Orange and FM 1-43 dyes, and imaging with deep UV (275 nm), near UV (365 …


Dj-1 Is Not A Deglycase And Makes A Modest Contribution To Cellular Defense Against Methylglyoxal Damage In Neurons, Melissa Conti Mazza, Sarah C. Shuck, Jiusheng Lin, Michael Moxley, John Termini, Mark R. Cookson, Mark A. Wilson 2022 National Institutes of Health

Dj-1 Is Not A Deglycase And Makes A Modest Contribution To Cellular Defense Against Methylglyoxal Damage In Neurons, Melissa Conti Mazza, Sarah C. Shuck, Jiusheng Lin, Michael Moxley, John Termini, Mark R. Cookson, Mark A. Wilson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Human DJ-1 is a cytoprotective protein whose absence causes Parkinson's disease and is also associated with other diseases. DJ-1 has an established role as a redox-regulated protein that defends against oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Multiple studies have suggested that DJ-1 is also a protein/nucleic acid deglycase that plays a key role in the repair of glycation damage caused by methylglyoxal (MG), a reactive α-keto aldehyde formed by central metabolism. Contradictory reports suggest that DJ-1 is a glyoxalase but not a deglycase and does not play a major role in glycation defense. Resolving this issue is important for understanding how …


Biomass Estimation Of Marine Biofilms On Plastic Surfaces, Kian Banihashemi, Fernando Javier Gil 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Biomass Estimation Of Marine Biofilms On Plastic Surfaces, Kian Banihashemi, Fernando Javier Gil

Biological Sciences

Plastics have become a major source of marine pollution, which threatens food safety and quality, human health, and marine ecosystems. Due to the drastic negative effects of plastics in a marine environment, alternative biodegradable plastics are being generated that are more eco-friendly and have less environmental impact. Though some of these plastics are known to biodegrade, the process of degradation for bioplastics has not been heavily studied in a marine environment. This pilot project sought to both quantify the process of biodegradation and compare across different methods for effectiveness of biomass estimation, which serves as an indicator of biodegradation. Plastics …


Rhizosphere-Competent Actinobacterial Isolates With Acc Deaminase Activity Alleviate Salt Stress In Tomato Plants In The Uae, Alaa Ahmed Abbas Elbadawi 2022 United Arab Emirates University

Rhizosphere-Competent Actinobacterial Isolates With Acc Deaminase Activity Alleviate Salt Stress In Tomato Plants In The Uae, Alaa Ahmed Abbas Elbadawi

Biology Theses

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most popular vegetables in the world, including the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Salinity is a global menace to plant growth and development, causing significant economic losses to tomato and other crop plants. It is well-known that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase (ACCD) can increase plant tolerance to environmental stresses. This can be attributed to the increased activity of the enzyme ACCD, which breaks down ACC [the immediate precursor of ethylene (ET)] to ammonia and α-ketobutyrate, to lower the overproduction of ET levels in planta and to reduce the damages caused …


Altered Collective Mitochondrial Dynamics In The Arabidopsis Msh1 Mutant Compromising Organelle Dna Maintenance, Joanna M. Chustecki, Ross D. Etherington, Daniel J. Gibbs, Iain G. Johnston 2022 University of Birmingham

Altered Collective Mitochondrial Dynamics In The Arabidopsis Msh1 Mutant Compromising Organelle Dna Maintenance, Joanna M. Chustecki, Ross D. Etherington, Daniel J. Gibbs, Iain G. Johnston

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Mitochondria form highly dynamic populations in the cells of plants (and almost all eukaryotes). The characteristics and benefits of this collective behaviour, and how it is influenced by nuclear features, remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we use a recently developed quantitative approach to reveal and analyse the physical and collective ‘social’ dynamics of mitochondria in an Arabidopsis msh1 mutant where the organelle DNA maintenance machinery is compromised. We use a newly created line combining the msh1 mutant with mitochondrially targeted green fluorescent protein (GFP), and characterize mitochondrial dynamics with a combination of single-cell time-lapse microscopy, computational tracking, and network …


In Silico Identification Of Potential Inhibitors Of The Sars‑Cov‑2 Nucleocapsid Through Molecular Docking‑Based Drug Repurposing, Rukhsar Afreen, Saleem Iqbal, Ab Rauf Shah, Heena Afreen, Maitreyi College, Mohd. Shkir 2022 University of Delhi

In Silico Identification Of Potential Inhibitors Of The Sars‑Cov‑2 Nucleocapsid Through Molecular Docking‑Based Drug Repurposing, Rukhsar Afreen, Saleem Iqbal, Ab Rauf Shah, Heena Afreen, Maitreyi College, Mohd. Shkir

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, and its effects on people worldwide continue to grow. Protein-targeted therapeutics are currently unavailable for this virus. As with other coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most conserved RNA-binding structural protein of SARS-CoV-2. The N protein is an appealing target because of its functional role in viral transcription and replication. Therefore, molecular docking method for structure-based drug design was used to investigate the binding energy and binding modes of various anti-N inhibitors in depth. The inhibitors selected were originally developed to target stress granules and other molecules involved in RNA …


Guard-Cell-Targeted Overexpression Of Arabidopsis Hexokinase 1 Can Improve Water Use Efficiency In Field-Grown Tobacco Plants, Liana G. Acevedo-Siaca, Katarzyna Glowacka, Steven M. Driever, Coralie E. Salesse-Smith, Nitsan Lugassi, David Granot, Stephen P. Long, Johannes Kromdijk 2022 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Guard-Cell-Targeted Overexpression Of Arabidopsis Hexokinase 1 Can Improve Water Use Efficiency In Field-Grown Tobacco Plants, Liana G. Acevedo-Siaca, Katarzyna Glowacka, Steven M. Driever, Coralie E. Salesse-Smith, Nitsan Lugassi, David Granot, Stephen P. Long, Johannes Kromdijk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Water deficit currently acts as one of the largest limiting factors for agricultural productivity worldwide. Additionally, limitation by water scarcity is projected to continue in the future with the further onset of effects of global climate change. As a result, it is critical to develop or breed for crops that have increased water use efficiency and that are more capable of coping with water scarce conditions. However, increased intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) typically brings a trade-off with CO2 assimilation as all gas exchange is mediated by stomata, through which CO2 enters the leaf while water vapor exits. …


Isolation And Characterization Of Α-Hcd7 Scfv Expressing Exosomes And Synthesis Of Hybrid Exosome-Liposome For Analyses, Sahil Patel 2022 University of Texas at Tyler

Isolation And Characterization Of Α-Hcd7 Scfv Expressing Exosomes And Synthesis Of Hybrid Exosome-Liposome For Analyses, Sahil Patel

Biotechnology Theses

The goal of this thesis project is to isolate and characterize exosomes that express anti-human CD7 (α-hCD7) single chain variable fragment (scFv), which will be further utilized for T celltargeted gene editing. To reach this goal, exosomes from HEK 293 cells and Jurkat cells were isolated and characterized with different methodologies. To obtain α-hCD7 scFv-expressing exosomes, the HEK 293 cells were subjected to transfection of custom-plasmid pDisplay-αhCD7 scFv, and the expression of α-hCD7 scFv on the HEK 293-derived exosomes were then confirmed by immunogold staining, western blotting, and flow cytometry. To transfect 293 cells, calcium phosphate transfection was utilized, and …


Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne 2022 Technological University Dublin

Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, both infrared absorption and Raman scattering, are high precision, label free analytical techniques which have found applications in fields as diverse as analytical chemistry, pharmacology, forensics and archeometrics and, in recent times, have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications. As analytical techniques, they have been applied to the characterisation of viruses as early as the 1970s, and, in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, have been explored in response to the World Health Organisation as novel methodologies to aid in the global efforts to implement and improve rapid screening of viral infection. This review …


Molecular-Level Control Over Ionic Conduction And Ionic Current Direction By Designing Macrocycle-Based Ionomers, Shyambo Chatterjee, Ehsan Zamani, Seefat Farzin, Iman Evazzade, Oghenetega Allen Obewhere, Tyler James Johnson, Vitaly Alexandrov, Shudipto Konika Dishari 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Molecular-Level Control Over Ionic Conduction And Ionic Current Direction By Designing Macrocycle-Based Ionomers, Shyambo Chatterjee, Ehsan Zamani, Seefat Farzin, Iman Evazzade, Oghenetega Allen Obewhere, Tyler James Johnson, Vitaly Alexandrov, Shudipto Konika Dishari

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering -- All Faculty Papers

Poor ionic conductivity of the catalyst-binding, submicrometer- thick ionomer layers in energy conversion and storage devices is a huge challenge. However, ionomers are rarely designed keeping in mind the specific issues associated with nanoconfinement. Here, we designed nature-inspired ionomers (calix-2) having hollow, macrocyclic, calix[4]arene-based repeat units with precise, sub-nanometer diameter. In ≤100 nm-thick films, the in-plane proton conductivity of calix-2 was up to 8 times higher than the current benchmark ionomer Nafion at 85% relative humidity (RH), while it was 1−2 orders of magnitude higher than Nafion at 20−25% RH. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and other synthetic techniques allowed us …


The Role Of Foxd1 In Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma, Kyle H. Bond 2022 University of Maine

The Role Of Foxd1 In Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma, Kyle H. Bond

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the 8th most common cancer in the United States, with the clear cell variant (ccRCC) being the most prevalent. Over 14,000 people die every year to RCC, with rates continuing to increase with an aging general population. Patients suffering from metastatic RCC (mRCC) have extremely poor prognoses, with a 5-year survival of only 11.2%. Current treatment options include resection of primary lesions, tyrosine kinase inhibition (Sunitinib, Pazopanib), mTOR inhibition (Temsirolimus, Everolimus), and immune checkpoint inhibition (Nivolumab, Atezolizumab). Recent attention has been drawn to inhibition of transcription factors like HIF2α (Belzutifan). There is a need …


Improving The Biocompatibility Of The Bio-Inorganic Interface For Enhanced Photosystem I-Based Biophotovoltaic Device Performance, Alexandra H. Teodor 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Improving The Biocompatibility Of The Bio-Inorganic Interface For Enhanced Photosystem I-Based Biophotovoltaic Device Performance, Alexandra H. Teodor

Doctoral Dissertations

The world’s energy demands are projected to increase by nearly 50% by the year 2040, and consumption of carbon-based fuels continues to release greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere. This has been causally linked with climate change and increased extreme weather events, which has been further linked to adverse health outcomes and negative effects on biodiversity, food security, and increased disease transmission. Clearly, there is a need for a sustainable, carbon-free, and cost-effective method of energy production to meet growing energy production demands. The sun irradiates Earth’s surface annually with ~80,000 terawatts (TW), making solar …


Interactions Between Soft Nanoparticles And Mammalian Cells, Mitchell Raith 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Interactions Between Soft Nanoparticles And Mammalian Cells, Mitchell Raith

Doctoral Dissertations

Nanoparticles have been of interest to the pharmaceutical industry since the 1980s. The first FDA approved nanoparticle-based therapies included liposomal anesthesia agents. Since then, the amount of FDA-approved nanoparticle therapies remains low. This is because nanoparticle-patient interactions can be very complex and are not well understood. Complicating factors also include increasing obesity rates among the patient population and many small animal pre-clinical trials are completed with healthy, lean animals. The biochemical differences between lean and obese patients prevents early studies from accurately predicting nanoparticle clinical behaviors. Many nanoparticles fail in trails. In this thesis, I aimed to uncover how nanoparticles …


Defining Interactions Between Deformable Dna Origami And Lipid Bilayers Through Molecular Dynamics Simulation, Zachary A. Loyd 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Defining Interactions Between Deformable Dna Origami And Lipid Bilayers Through Molecular Dynamics Simulation, Zachary A. Loyd

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Consumer Preferences For Lab Grown Meat: The Effect Of Information On Consumer Choice, Aryn Blumenberg 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Consumer Preferences For Lab Grown Meat: The Effect Of Information On Consumer Choice, Aryn Blumenberg

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Global population growth and increased meat demand present challenges for the agricultural industry to produce meat sustainably. In-vitro meat (IVM) is an alternative that could reduce negative impacts associated with livestock production. The goal of this study was to examine consumers’ preferences for IVM. A choice experiment was created with twelve choice tasks that varied across five attributes: production method (IVM or conventional), carbon trust label, organic label, animal welfare label, and price. 1,120 US consumers were randomly assigned to one of four information treatments, differing by information presented regarding IVM: 1) neutral (baseline), 2) positive, 3) negative, and 4) …


Unraveling The Genetic Architecture Of Somatic Embryogenesis In Upland Cotton, Adam M. Canal 2022 Clemson University

Unraveling The Genetic Architecture Of Somatic Embryogenesis In Upland Cotton, Adam M. Canal

All Theses

Somatic embryogenesis is the de novo development of asexual embryos because of the plasticity of the plant cell. In tissue culture, the biochemical and genetic mechanisms of dedifferentiated callus tissues can be reprogrammed to transdifferentiate into developed, polarized embryos, which can ultimately regenerate into whole plants. Although this rarely occurs in nature, scientists have exploited this process for decades to regenerate whole plants following gene transformation or for micropropagation. While some species are amenable to in vitro regeneration, upland cotton is particularly recalcitrant, with regenerative potential being confined to only several genotypes. The lack of elite, regenerable genotypes greatly restricts …


Identifying Genetic Differences Among African American And Caucasian Triple Negative Breast Cancer Genotypes, Christopher Jordan Dixon 2022 Texas Southern University

Identifying Genetic Differences Among African American And Caucasian Triple Negative Breast Cancer Genotypes, Christopher Jordan Dixon

Theses (2016-Present)

Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are closely related to basal-like cancers and classified based on their molecular signatures and their progenitor cell type. TNBCs lack the presence of three common types of receptors known to fuel breast cancer growth: estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptors 2 (HER2neu). TNBC represent 10-20% of all molecular breast cancer subtypes. Even though genomic and transcriptome analyses show that many of the molecular signatures associated with TNBC are not related to ethnicity, clinicians and researchers find that African American (AA) TNBC women have higher mortality rates compared to Caucasian …


Alterations Of The Gut Mycobiome In Patients With Ms - A Bioinformatic Approach, Saumya Shah 2022 University of Connecticut

Alterations Of The Gut Mycobiome In Patients With Ms - A Bioinformatic Approach, Saumya Shah

Honors Scholar Theses

The mycobiome is the fungal component of the gut microbiome and is implicated in several autoimmune diseases. However, its role in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been studied. We performed descriptive and formal statistical tests using the R language to characterize the gut mycobiome in people with MS (pwMS) and healthy controls. We found that the microbiome composition of multiple sclerosis patients is different from healthy people. The mycobiome had significantly higher alpha diversity and inter-subject variation in pwMS than controls. Additionally, Saccharomyces and Aspergillus were over-represented in pwMS. Different mycobiome profiles, defined as mycotypes, were associated with different bacterial …


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