Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Microbiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

7,604 Full-Text Articles 17,664 Authors 2,248,781 Downloads 241 Institutions

All Articles in Microbiology

Faceted Search

7,604 full-text articles. Page 1 of 273.

Investigating The Antagonistic Activity Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Against Uropathogenic E. Coli., Ciara Kenneally 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Investigating The Antagonistic Activity Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Against Uropathogenic E. Coli., Ciara Kenneally

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is the presence of bacteria in urine, resembling a state of commensalism. Bacteria are characterised as ABU when they have been isolated from two consecutive urine samples (≥ 105 CFU/ml) from individuals, but without symptoms attributable to a urinary tract infection (UTI). ABU Escherichia coli strains have evolved from uropathogenic ancestors and lack virulence factors associated with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). UPEC are the main etiological agent of urinary tract infections (UTIs), attributable to > 80% of cases. The frequency at which multidrug-resistant UPEC are isolated is affecting guidelines for use of former first-line antibiotics for UTIs ...


Biowill - Characterising Willow Bark Bio-Actives For Skin Therapies, Arnold Marisa 2022 Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Munster Technological University, Kerry, Ireland

Biowill - Characterising Willow Bark Bio-Actives For Skin Therapies, Arnold Marisa

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Willow bark is considered as a disposable by-product when processing willow for biomass. Willow (Salix) is known to contain high value bioactive compounds which include salicin and its derivatives, and other phytochemicals of interest such as polyphenols and flavonoids. The plant is historically known as the primary source of salicylates to which the well-known drug aspirin is derived from. The work forms part of the Interreg project BioWILL, which is focused on integrated “Zero Waste” biorefinery utilising all fractions of willow feedstock for the production of biochemicals and renewable energy. This project aims to investigate the crude and processed bark ...


An Investigation Of The Novel Use Of Bacteriophages To Diagnose And Treat Johne's Disease In Cattle, Max Kevane-Campbell 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland; Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Cork, Ireland

An Investigation Of The Novel Use Of Bacteriophages To Diagnose And Treat Johne's Disease In Cattle, Max Kevane-Campbell

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Johne’s disease is a scourge to dairy farmers all over the world. It is an infectious disease that causes chronic inflammation and lesions along the inside of the small intestine of, primarily, ruminant animals (i.e., cattle and sheep). It is an incurable disease and urgently requires new and radical intervention strategies. Apart from careful on-site farm management practices, little can be offered to farmers to reduce the risk of infection, and nothing short of livestock culling is effective once an animal becomes infected. Currently, there are no vaccines licensed in Ireland or antibiotic treatment strategies available for Johne ...


Effect Of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations Of Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin And Trimethoprim On In-Vitro Biofilm Formation In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Shane Whelan 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Effect Of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations Of Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin And Trimethoprim On In-Vitro Biofilm Formation In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Shane Whelan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of sublethal concentrations of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim on biofilm formation in 57 uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains (UPEC).

The MIC of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim was determined for 57 UPEC isolates. Biofilm formation for each isolate with and without sub-lethal concentrations of each antibiotic was then quantified, and the statistical significance of changes in biofilm formation was ascertained by way of a Dunnett's test.

The effects of sub-MIC antibiotics on biofilm formation of UPEC were variable. A total of 22.8% of strains were induced to form biofilm ...


Investigation Of The Urobiome For The Production Of Novel Antimicrobials Against Uropathogenic E. Coli (Upec), Jennifer Jones 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Investigation Of The Urobiome For The Production Of Novel Antimicrobials Against Uropathogenic E. Coli (Upec), Jennifer Jones

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections globally with antibiotic treatment becoming increasingly less effective. The urobiome remains a relatively understudied niche as a source of potentially novel antimicrobials (e.g., bacteriocins). Improvements to bacterial culturing and sequencing techniques have highlighted the potentially rich source of alternative treatments and control strategies to target uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: (a) BAGEL 4 was used for bioinformatic screening of the genomes of urobiome isolates to identify bacteriocin gene clusters (BGC).

(b) Expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) was used to culture mid-stream urine samples to ...


Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda Induced Decrease In Neurite Growth In An In Vitro Model Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda Induced Decrease In Neurite Growth In An In Vitro Model Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Title: Short chain fatty acid combination treatment protects against 6-OHDA induced decrease in neurite growth in an in vitro model of Parkinson’s disease.

Authors: Alex Morris1, Louise M. Collins1,2,3, Gerard W. O’Keeffe2, Caitriona M. Guinane1

1 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University (MTU), Cork, Ireland.

2 Department of Anatomy & Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

3 Department of Physiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron degeneration. This leads to motor dysfunction which is accompanied by gastrointestinal comorbidities such as ...


Investigation Of The Antimicrobial Activity Of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Of Human Origin, Ellen Twomey 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Investigation Of The Antimicrobial Activity Of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Of Human Origin, Ellen Twomey

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are significant members of the human microbiome and have been identified as a source of bacteriocins, small bioactive substances recognised for their antimicrobial properties. In this study we screened a bank of 37 human derived CoNS for the production of these peptides with emphasis on identifying those with the ability to inhibit the growth of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Deferred antagonism assays confirmed potential antimicrobial activity in all 37 isolates against sensitive indicator M. luteus, with nine inhibiting the growth of at least one MRSA strain they were overlaid against. Tests performed with the acid-neutralised ...


'Investigating The Effect Of Cell-Free Supernatant Of Probiotic Strains On The Viability Of Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines', Claire M. Doocey 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

'Investigating The Effect Of Cell-Free Supernatant Of Probiotic Strains On The Viability Of Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines', Claire M. Doocey

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a prevalent cancer accounting for over 450,000 deaths globally in 2020, and is associated with limited treatment options and high mortality rates. Mounting evidence implicates the human microbiome in tumorigenesis and cancer progression with key players including Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer and Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal cancer and PC. Current research, however, also suggests a potential role for certain microbial residents in oncological treatment and biotherapeutic development. Recent studies have shown a link between cell-free supernatants (CFS) from probiotic strains and cancer cell death, suggesting their potential in targeting the tumour microenvironment. Probiotic ...


Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy As An Alternative Method For Non-Invasive Sterility Detection In Ready To Feed Infant Milk Products, Peter Myintzaw 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy As An Alternative Method For Non-Invasive Sterility Detection In Ready To Feed Infant Milk Products, Peter Myintzaw

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background: The potential application of rapid, non-destructive, and user-friendly TDLAS technology to detect contamination in commercially sterile dairy beverages where visual inspection is not possible was investigated for the first time. The TDLAS equipment uses laser light to monitor carbon dioxide changes due to microbial growth in the container headspace which has the advantage of being rapid and non-destructive. This study aimed to provide detailed scientific evidence for the application of TDLAS technology as a method to determine product sterility in real food products.

Methods: TDLAS growth detection of Bacillus fengqiuensis, Candida albicans, Lactococcus lactis, Microbacterium luteolum, Paenibacillus chitinolyticus and ...


Application Of Fructans-Degrading Lachancea Fermentati Fst5.1 As An Alternative To Baker’S Yeast In The Production Of A Low-Fodmap Whole Wheat Bread., Małgorzata Borowska 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Application Of Fructans-Degrading Lachancea Fermentati Fst5.1 As An Alternative To Baker’S Yeast In The Production Of A Low-Fodmap Whole Wheat Bread., Małgorzata Borowska

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

FODMAPs are a group of poorly absorbed dietary carbohydrates comprised of easily fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols. When consumed, they can exert gastrointestinal symptoms of pain, flatulence, or an irregular bowel movement in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Whole wheat bread is an excellent source of proteins, vitamins, polyphenols, and other nutrients, but its consumption is restricted in a low-FODMAP diet due to high fructans content. Although alternatives exist, these are primarily gluten-free, often inferior in terms of quality, nutritional profile, and consumer acceptance. Bioprocessing using microbial fermentation has a proven capacity to reduce FODMAPs in cereal products, but ...


Analysis Of Soxs In S. Typhimurium By Transposon Mutagenesis, Joel Hanns, Brenda Pratte, Lon Chubiz PhD, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Analysis Of Soxs In S. Typhimurium By Transposon Mutagenesis, Joel Hanns, Brenda Pratte, Lon Chubiz Phd, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

The mar-sox-rob regulon has been implicated in transcriptional regulation of several stress responses, such efflux of antibiotics, enzymes that break down reactive oxygen species, repression of biofilm formation, or repression of motility through downregulation of flagellar expression. This system is conserved among enteric bacteria and has been studied in species, such as E. coli and S. typhimurium. Some of these mechanisms can be costly and slow cell growth while increasing the probability of survival through tolerance of toxic environments. SoxS works in coordination with SoxR to respond to redox stress encountered by the cell. Interestingly, the overexpression of SoxS in ...


Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz PhD, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Resolving The Repression Pathway Of Virulence Gene Hila In Salmonella, Alexandra King, Lon Chubiz Phd, Brenda Pratte, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Salmonella is a relatively abundant, virulent species of bacteria that is most known for spreading gastrointestinal diseases through food. These illnesses result in approximately 1.35 million infections, including over 25,000 hospitalizations each year, in the U.S. alone (CDC.gov). As antibiotic resistance becomes an increasingly urgent public health problem, the importance of developing alternative treatment methods is only becoming more crucial. One of the genes responsible for this virulence is known as hilA. HilA is the main transcriptional regulator of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island-1 gene (UniProt). SPI-1 plays an important role in the invasion of Salmonella into epithelial ...


Biomass Estimation Of Marine Biofilms On Plastic Surfaces, Kian Banihashemi, Fernando Javier Gil 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Biomass Estimation Of Marine Biofilms On Plastic Surfaces, Kian Banihashemi, Fernando Javier Gil

Biological Sciences

Plastics have become a major source of marine pollution, which threatens food safety and quality, human health, and marine ecosystems. Due to the drastic negative effects of plastics in a marine environment, alternative biodegradable plastics are being generated that are more eco-friendly and have less environmental impact. Though some of these plastics are known to biodegrade, the process of degradation for bioplastics has not been heavily studied in a marine environment. This pilot project sought to both quantify the process of biodegradation and compare across different methods for effectiveness of biomass estimation, which serves as an indicator of biodegradation. Plastics ...


Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer 2022 Seton Hall University

Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Drug resistant microbes are a considerable challenge for modern medicine to overcome. The research described in this dissertation involved development of lipid flippase inhibitors and investigating their potential as antimicrobial agents against various drug resistant microbes. The microbes primarily investigated were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) & Cryptococcus neoformans. Chapter 1 reviews the historical perspective and summarizes the current state of the field of research. In Chapter 2, the design space of an antimicrobial peptide known as humimycin was explored and the effects of modifications on its structure were observed against MRSA. Several key observations resulted. Most notably, the nanoparticles formed ...


Parameter Estimation Using Nudging On The Logistic Growth Equation, Susan Rogowski 2022 Florida State University

Parameter Estimation Using Nudging On The Logistic Growth Equation, Susan Rogowski

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Elevated Substitution Rates Among Wolbachia-Infected Mosquito Species Results In Apparent Phylogenetic Discordance., James E. Russell, Michael Saum, Rebekah Williams 2022 Georgia Gwinnett College

Elevated Substitution Rates Among Wolbachia-Infected Mosquito Species Results In Apparent Phylogenetic Discordance., James E. Russell, Michael Saum, Rebekah Williams

Georgia Journal of Science

As one of the most widely distributed bacterial cytoplasmic symbionts on earth, Wolbachia pipientis Hertig serves as a model organism for the understanding of host-symbiont interactions. Many mosquito species are infected with Wolbachia strains that induce a form of reproductive manipulation called cytoplasmic incompatibility, in which infected females gain a reproductive advantage over uninfected females in mixed infection populations. The selective advantage of cytoplasmic incompatibility often results in a population sweep of Wolbachia and co-transmitted mitochondrial genomes. Mitochondrial evolution and phylogenetic inferences drawn from mitochondrial gene sequences are thus potentially compromised by reproductive manipulating symbionts, like Wolbachia. Our initial analyses ...


Assembly And Repair Of Photosystem Ii, Virginia M. Johnson 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Assembly And Repair Of Photosystem Ii, Virginia M. Johnson

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Photosystem II is a light-driven water-plastoquinone oxidoreductase present in cyanobacteria, plants, and algae. It is the photosynthetic membrane protein complex responsible for oxidizing water into molecular oxygen, which is necessary for life as we know it. As a multi-subunit membrane-protein-pigment complex, Photosystem II undergoes a complex cycle of assembly, damage, and repair called the Photosystem II lifecycle. This cycle must consistently occur to maintain a high level of photosynthetic activity at the cellular level. Cyanobacteria, oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, are frequently used as model organisms to study oxygenic photosynthetic processes due to their ease of growth and genetic manipulation. Cyanobacterial PSII ...


Candida Species And Bacterial Strains In The Vaginal Microbiome, Brett Tortelli 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Candida Species And Bacterial Strains In The Vaginal Microbiome, Brett Tortelli

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The vaginal environment is a dynamic ecosystem, hosting various microbial species from diverse taxa including bacteria, fungi and viruses. The composition of bacteria within the vaginal microbiome has gained a lot of recent attention and has been associated with reproductive health and disease. The vaginal microbiome of healthy reproductive-aged women is frequently dominated by Lactobacillus species and has low species diversity when compared to other anatomic sites. The composition of the bacterial community is often described in terms of five common community types. Four of the five community types are dominated by a single Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. iners ...


The Role Of Fibroblast Growth Factor-9 In Influenza A Virus Pathogenesis, Bradley Edward Hiller 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

The Role Of Fibroblast Growth Factor-9 In Influenza A Virus Pathogenesis, Bradley Edward Hiller

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a respiratory virus in the Orthomyxoviridae family which causes both seasonal epidemics and pandemics. IAV preferentially infects epithelial cells in the upper and lower respiratory tract, resulting in a range of disease severity from mild upper respiratory infections to potentially-lethal pneumonia. Ultimately, the severity of symptoms and complications from IAV infection depends on control of virus replication in the lungs, the inflammatory nature of the immune response, and the effectiveness of post-infection lung repair to regain pulmonary function. An arsenal of secreted proteins in the lung regulates these antiviral, inflammatory, and regenerative activities during infection ...


Characterization Of A Helicobacter Pylori Small Rna By Rt-Pcr, Roxanne McPeck, Andrea Castillo 2022 Eastern Washington University

Characterization Of A Helicobacter Pylori Small Rna By Rt-Pcr, Roxanne Mcpeck, Andrea Castillo

2022 Symposium

Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial gastric pathogen infecting approximately 50% of the human population, produces gastritis, ulcers, and gastric cancers. Colonizing the inhospitable and fluctuating environment in the stomach requires tight genetic control. However, H. pylori lacks many genetic regulatory elements present in other bacteria to control gene expression. Instead, over 200 small RNAs (sRNAs; noncoding RNAs shorter than 300 nucleotides) have been found in this bacterium, but few have been fully characterized. Of those, many are antisense to virulence genes. Characterizing these sRNAs is important in understanding the mechanisms of molecular genetics and potentially supporting medical management of this pathogen ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress