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Antimicrobial Activity Of Ferulic Acid In Indonesian Purple Rice Through Toll-Like Receptor Signaling, Ernanin Dyah Wijayanti, Anna Safitri, Dian Siswanto, Lidwina Faraline Triprisila, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah 2021 Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Indonesia

Antimicrobial Activity Of Ferulic Acid In Indonesian Purple Rice Through Toll-Like Receptor Signaling, Ernanin Dyah Wijayanti, Anna Safitri, Dian Siswanto, Lidwina Faraline Triprisila, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah

Makara Journal of Science

Purple rice is a potential source of ferulic acid, which has antimicrobial properties. However, the inhibitory mechanism of ferulic acid on the growth of bacteria, particularly Salmonella and Listeria, has not been elucidated. This study aimed to determine the bioactivity of ferulic acid from purple rice as an antimicrobial agent against Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes using in vitro and in silico analyses. The antimicrobial activity of a purple rice ferulic acid extract was tested using the agar well diffusion method. Its effect on bacterial cells was observed using scanning electron microscopy. Ferulic acid was confirmed to have antimicrobial properties ...


An Investigation Into The Prevalence Of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Within An Irish Hospital, Dylan Casey 2021 Munster Technological University, Cork

An Investigation Into The Prevalence Of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Within An Irish Hospital, Dylan Casey

International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are well-recognised nosocomial pathogens that pose a significant threat to public health. Associated with poorer clinical outcomes than their vancomycin-sensitive counterparts, the prevalence of VRE in Ireland has increased in recent times, with the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network reporting that out of 29 countries, Ireland demonstrated the highest rates of vancomycin resistance among invasive Enterococcus faecium isolates between 2011 and 2014 (2011; 34.9%, 2012; 44.0%, 2013; 42.7%, 2014; 45.1%). Herein, we investigate VRE prevalence in the Mercy University Hospital (MUH) – an acute care hospital in southern Ireland. A total of 21 first-time ...


Sepa Enhances Shigella Invasion Of Epithelial Cells By Degrading Alpha-1 Antitrypsin And Producing A Neutrophil Chemoattractant, Mario Meza-Segura, James R. Birtley, Ana Maldonado-Contreras, Christian Mueller, Karl J. Simin, Lawrence J. Stern, Beth A. McCormick 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Sepa Enhances Shigella Invasion Of Epithelial Cells By Degrading Alpha-1 Antitrypsin And Producing A Neutrophil Chemoattractant, Mario Meza-Segura, James R. Birtley, Ana Maldonado-Contreras, Christian Mueller, Karl J. Simin, Lawrence J. Stern, Beth A. Mccormick

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Shigella spp. are highly adapted pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery in human and nonhuman primates. An unusual feature of Shigella pathogenesis is that this organism invades the colonic epithelia from the basolateral pole. Therefore, it has evolved the ability to disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier to reach the basolateral surface. We have shown previously that the secreted serine protease A (SepA), which belongs to the family of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae, is responsible for the initial destabilization of the intestinal epithelial barrier that facilitates Shigella invasion. However, the mechanisms used by SepA to regulate this process remain unknown. To ...


Monitoring Photosynthetic Activity Using In Vivo Chlorophyll A Fluorescence In Microalgae And Cyanobacteria Biofilms In The Nerja Cave (Malaga, Spain), Yolanda Del Rosal, Juan Muñoz-Fernández, Paula S.M. Celis-Plá, Mariona Hernández-Mariné, Félix Álvarez-Gómez, Salvador Merino, Félix L. Figueroa 2021 Nerja Cave Research Institute, Spain

Monitoring Photosynthetic Activity Using In Vivo Chlorophyll A Fluorescence In Microalgae And Cyanobacteria Biofilms In The Nerja Cave (Malaga, Spain), Yolanda Del Rosal, Juan Muñoz-Fernández, Paula S.M. Celis-Plá, Mariona Hernández-Mariné, Félix Álvarez-Gómez, Salvador Merino, Félix L. Figueroa

International Journal of Speleology

The characterization of the most common photosynthetic biofilms in the Nerja Cave by the continuous monitoring of the in vivo chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the incorporation of the irradiance as a new environmental variable related to previous studies in the cave, have allowed us to improve our knowledge about the photosynthetic pattern of the biofilms of the cave. Effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm) and relative electron transport rate (rETR) were determined during periods of the light, whereas the maximal quantum yield (Fv /Fm) was determined during dark periods. Increases in the photosynthetic yields and productivity ...


Determining Effects Of Management Practices On Potato Early Dying And Soil Microbiome And Assessing Risk Of Fungicide Resistance In Verticillium Dahliae, Kedi Li 2021 The University of Maine

Determining Effects Of Management Practices On Potato Early Dying And Soil Microbiome And Assessing Risk Of Fungicide Resistance In Verticillium Dahliae, Kedi Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Potato early dying (PED) is a yield-constraining soilborne disease of potato, caused by Verticillium spp. with V. dahliae being the predominant causal agent. Since the pathogen inhabits soil for long periods, PED management aims to reduce the population of V. dahliae in soil. Benzovindiflupyr and azoxystrobin are effective chemicals and frequently used in the control of V. dahliae. In this study, field trials were conducted at Aroostook Farm, Presque Isle, ME in 2019 and 2020. Chemical and biological products have been studied for PED control, and fungicide resistance was also examined. To evaluate fungicide resistance, benzovindiflupyr was characterized on sensitivity ...


Metabolic Heterogeneity And The Roles Of Cody And Ccpa In Central Metabolism And S. Aureus Biofilm Formation., Logan L. Bulock 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Metabolic Heterogeneity And The Roles Of Cody And Ccpa In Central Metabolism And S. Aureus Biofilm Formation., Logan L. Bulock

Theses & Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is a metabolically versatile human pathogen, causing disease in many areas of the body. Its versatility can be attributed to the fact that it utilizes a variety of tools to adapt to many different environments, including toxins to scavenge from the host and multiple transporters to compete for its preferred carbon sources. S. aureus can also survive in harsh conditions through biofilm development, which are notoriously recalcitrant to antibiotics and immune defenses. Biofilms exhibit marked heterogeneity, with division of labor for production of matrix components and differential gene expression among various niches within the biofilm.

In this study ...


High-Affinity, Neutralizing Antibodies To Sars-Cov-2 Can Be Made Without T Follicular Helper Cells, Jennifer S. Chen, Gowthaman Uthaman, Craig B. Wilen, Stephanie C. Eisenbarth 2021 Yale University

High-Affinity, Neutralizing Antibodies To Sars-Cov-2 Can Be Made Without T Follicular Helper Cells, Jennifer S. Chen, Gowthaman Uthaman, Craig B. Wilen, Stephanie C. Eisenbarth

COVID-19 Publications by UMass Chan Authors

T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are the conventional drivers of protective, germinal center (GC)-based antiviral antibody responses. However, loss of Tfh cells and GCs has been observed in patients with severe COVID-19. As T cell-B cell interactions and immunoglobulin class switching still occur in these patients, non-canonical pathways of antibody production may be operative during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that both Tfh-dependent and -independent antibodies were induced against SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and influenza A virus infection. Even though Tfh-independent antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 had evidence of reduced somatic hypermutation, they were still high-affinity, durable, and reactive against diverse spike-derived ...


Spatial Variability In Streambed Microbial Community Structure Across Two Watersheds, Philips Akinwole, Jinjun Kan, Louis A. Kaplan, Robert H. Findlay 2021 DePauw University

Spatial Variability In Streambed Microbial Community Structure Across Two Watersheds, Philips Akinwole, Jinjun Kan, Louis A. Kaplan, Robert H. Findlay

Biology Faculty publications

Both spatial and temporal variability are key attributes of sedimentary microbial communities, and while spatial effects on beta-diversity appear to dominate at larger distances, the character of spatial variability at finer scales remains poorly understood, especially for headwater stream communities. We investigated patterns of microbial community structure (MCS) in biofilms attached to streambed sediments from two watersheds across spatial scales spanning ,1 m within a single stream to several hundred kilometers between watersheds. Analyses of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles indicated that the variations in MCS were driven by increases in the relative abundance of microeukaryotic photoautotrophs and their contribution ...


Virology: Mutagenizing The Proteolytic Cleavage Site In The Major Capsid Protein In Ssv1, Thejanee Liyanaarachchi 2021 Portland State University

Virology: Mutagenizing The Proteolytic Cleavage Site In The Major Capsid Protein In Ssv1, Thejanee Liyanaarachchi

University Honors Theses

SSV1, spindle-shaped virus 1, is an archaeal virus with a unique shape that belongs to the family of fuselloviruses and infects hyperthermophilic archaea that thrive at 80°C and pH 3. SSV1 has two capsid proteins, VP1 and VP3, that presumably produce the lemon-shaped virion structure characteristic of fuselloviruses. The VP1 amino acid sequence is highly conserved among SSVs. Here, we investigate the importance of the proteolytic cleavage site in position E66 in VP1 by changing its glutamic acid to the other 19 amino acids. We have developed a new protocol for creating SSV1 mutants through HiFi Assembly (NEB) to ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Pine And Miscanthus Biochar On Water Activity And Escherichia Coli Populations In Commercial Broiler Litter, Christopher Austin Marty 2021 Mississippi State University

Evaluating The Effects Of Pine And Miscanthus Biochar On Water Activity And Escherichia Coli Populations In Commercial Broiler Litter, Christopher Austin Marty

Theses and Dissertations

The decrease in subtherapeutic antibiotic administration in poultry has increased the need to address production challenges caused by pathogens, such as E. coli. One potential way to improve bird health and reduce bacterial infection is through the addition of litter amendments that absorb moisture. Biochar (BC) has previously been shown to increase water holding capacity in poultry litter, but its effects on E. coli mitigation are unknown. The objectives of this research were to 1) evaluate water activity of poultry litter amended with pine and miscanthus BC, and 2) determine the effects of different BC inclusion rates on litter E ...


Soil Microbial Community Dynamics In Response To Prescribed Extreme Fires Following Juniperus Virginiana Invasion In The Loess Canyons Of Nebraska, Julie A. Fowler 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Soil Microbial Community Dynamics In Response To Prescribed Extreme Fires Following Juniperus Virginiana Invasion In The Loess Canyons Of Nebraska, Julie A. Fowler

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

In Nebraska and other regions of the Great Plains, the conifer Juniperus virginiana (eastern redcedar) is converting grasslands to dense woodlands. This is driven by the interacting drivers of fire suppression, altered grazing regimes, climate change and other anthropogenic factors, impacting the provisioning of ecosystem services. This vegetation state transition modifies water resource regulation and biogeochemical cycles leading to altered edaphic properties including soil microbial community composition. To restore these grasslands and control J. virginiana spread, prescribed extreme burns are implemented as a management tool through local prescribed burn associations. We hypothesized that the alternative state transition to dense J ...


A Temporal Analysis Of The Microbiota And Biofouling Development On Artificial Substrates In The Port Everglades Inlet, Florida, Denise Swack 2021 Nova Southeastern University

A Temporal Analysis Of The Microbiota And Biofouling Development On Artificial Substrates In The Port Everglades Inlet, Florida, Denise Swack

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

A pilot project was deployed in Port Everglades Inlet, Florida that aimed to evaluate the biofilm composing the microbiome on ecologically engineered artificial substrates used to build Coastal Marine Infrastructure. In April of 2017, an Articulated Concrete Block Mattress comprised of an ecological engineered concrete substrate and a standard smooth surface control substrates were compared. This study will provide a profile on the microbiome community on artificial substrates within Port Everglades Inlet on bio-enhancing concrete-based solutions in our Coastal Marine Infrastructure. To study the microbial community, the 16s rRNA technology was used in Illumina’s high-throughput DNA sequencing. Samples were ...


Trained Immunity Enhances The Immune Response And Maintains Microbiome Diversity In Aging And Sepsis, P. Spencer Gill 2021 East Tennessee State University

Trained Immunity Enhances The Immune Response And Maintains Microbiome Diversity In Aging And Sepsis, P. Spencer Gill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The global population is rapidly aging. It is estimated that over the next thirty years, the number of individuals >60 years of age will increase by over a billion, and the number of individuals over age 80 may increase by 300 million. As humans age, our immune system becomes progressively weaker through a process called immune senescence. This age-related decrease in immune function increases susceptibility to infection and chronic diseases. Sepsis is a leading cause of death worldwide. Over the past two decades, there has been an increased incidence of sepsis which is due, in part, to our aging population ...


Probiotic Intervention Improves Recovery Of Hippocampal Memory And Hippocampal Atrophy Following Disruption From High-Fat Diet In Adult Rats, Sanyourah A. El-Hulu 2021 Belmont University

Probiotic Intervention Improves Recovery Of Hippocampal Memory And Hippocampal Atrophy Following Disruption From High-Fat Diet In Adult Rats, Sanyourah A. El-Hulu

Honors Theses

Presently, lifestyle factors such as chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption occurs concomitantly with weight gain and obesity (Gil-Cardoso et al., 2017; Stranahan et al., 2008). In turn, obesity has been associated with impairments to mental functioning, specifically to memory. Human epidemiological studies show that HFD intake containing saturated, and omega-6-fatty acids is associated with worse performance on a cognitive task whereas a lower fat diet containing omega-3-fatty acids is associated with a protective effect against cognitive decline (Zhang et al., 2006; Uranga et al., 2010). One explanation for this is the critical role of the gut bacteria in brain health ...


College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, December 2021, College Of Natural Sciences 2021 South Dakota State University

College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, December 2021, College Of Natural Sciences

College of Natural Sciences Newsletters and Reports

Volume 2, Issue 12

Page 1 Dean's Message
Page 2 Awards & Recognition
Page 2 Media Coverage of CNS
Page 3 Media Coverage Cont.
Page 4 Science as Art Competition
Page 5 Open PRAIRIE Data
Page 5 Grants Awarded in CNS


Deciphering The Role Of Hsp110 Chaperones In Diseases Of Protein Misfolding, Unekwu M. Yakubu 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Deciphering The Role Of Hsp110 Chaperones In Diseases Of Protein Misfolding, Unekwu M. Yakubu

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Molecular chaperones maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis) by ensuring the proper folding of polypeptides. Loss of proteostasis has been linked to the onset of numerous neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease. Hsp110 is a member of the Hsp70 class of molecular chaperones and acts as a nucleotide exchange factor (NEF) for Hsp70, the preeminent Hsp70-family protein folding chaperone. Hsp110 promotes rapid cycling of ADP for ATP, allowing Hsp70 to properly fold nascent or unfolded polypeptides in iterative cycles. In addition to its NEF activity, Hsp110 possesses an Hsp70-like substrate binding domain (SBD) whose biological roles are ...


Characterizing Long Covid: Deep Phenotype Of A Complex Condition, Rachel R. Deer, Feifan Liu, Melissa A. Haendel, Peter N. Robinson 2021 University of Texas Medical Branch

Characterizing Long Covid: Deep Phenotype Of A Complex Condition, Rachel R. Deer, Feifan Liu, Melissa A. Haendel, Peter N. Robinson

COVID-19 Publications by UMass Chan Authors

BACKGROUND: Numerous publications describe the clinical manifestations of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC or "long COVID"), but they are difficult to integrate because of heterogeneous methods and the lack of a standard for denoting the many phenotypic manifestations. Patient-led studies are of particular importance for understanding the natural history of COVID-19, but integration is hampered because they often use different terms to describe the same symptom or condition. This significant disparity in patient versus clinical characterization motivated the proposed ontological approach to specifying manifestations, which will improve capture and integration of future long COVID studies.

METHODS: The Human Phenotype Ontology ...


Glycan Functionalization Of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (Ionps) As A Method Of Inactivating Antibiotic Resistant Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Via A Magnetically Mediated Energy Delivery (Magmed) System, Cedric Taylor 2021 Clemson University

Glycan Functionalization Of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (Ionps) As A Method Of Inactivating Antibiotic Resistant Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Via A Magnetically Mediated Energy Delivery (Magmed) System, Cedric Taylor

All Theses

With the increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria, current established therapeutic treatment methods are rapidly demonstrating decreasing efficacy. For this project, we are studying a novel alternate mechanism of treating antibiotic resistant bacteria by utilizing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) coated with a heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol polymer (PEG) and functionalized with glycan structures that can interact with Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090. Interaction between the IONPs and bacteria is manipulated by an external alternating magnetic field (AMF) in a process known as magnetically mediated energy delivery (MagMED). Magnetic IONPs were synthesized and reacted with PEG (PEG-IONPs) and functionalized with glycans Gal(α1-3)Gal ...


Response Of Soil Viral And Microbial Functional Diversity To Long-Term Agricultural Management In Jackson, West Tennessee, Ning Duan 2021 Biosystem Engineering and Soil Science

Response Of Soil Viral And Microbial Functional Diversity To Long-Term Agricultural Management In Jackson, West Tennessee, Ning Duan

Doctoral Dissertations

Soil microbial communities are a critical component for ecosystem stability and function. Viruses, as an important biotic controller, have the potential to regulate the abundance and diversity of bacterial communities through infection. Soil is known to harbor abundant and diverse viral assemblages but their ecological role and influence on microbial processes has not been fully elucidated. Microbes can be influenced by viruses not only from infection but though biogeochemical feedbacks of the “microbial (bacterium–phage–DOC) loop” or “viral shunt”. However, we know relatively little about the microbial community and function under the regulation of viruses in soil and how ...


Determining The Ecological And Physiological Factors Contributing To The Competitive Success Of Prochlorococcus In The Oligotrophic Ocean, Benjamin C. Calfee 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Determining The Ecological And Physiological Factors Contributing To The Competitive Success Of Prochlorococcus In The Oligotrophic Ocean, Benjamin C. Calfee

Doctoral Dissertations

Prochlorococcus is a genus of extremely successful marine cyanobacteria. This success is realized through its pervasive biogeographical range and presence in almost all open ocean environments where it usually it the dominant phytoplankton. Limited capabilities of culturing and genetic manipulation of this organism have resulted in assumptions about this success overwhelmingly based on field observations. These studies have assumed adaptations for resource uptake and utilization in nutrient limited environments to cause dominance of Prochlorococcus over other photosynthetic microbes. In an attempt to definitively explain this through laboratory culture, we developed a culturing system to assay questions of nutrient limitation effects ...


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