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Understanding The Effects Of Embryonic Hyperglycemia On Retinal Development And Maintenance, Kayla Titialii-Torres 2022 University of Kentucky

Understanding The Effects Of Embryonic Hyperglycemia On Retinal Development And Maintenance, Kayla Titialii-Torres

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Hundreds of millions of people are affected by diabetes worldwide. Whether they are diagnosed with prediabetes or Type I or II diabetes, there are a variety of mechanisms in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Diabetes is a disease which consists of recurring states of hyperglycemia that can be difficult to manage due to either lack of insulin production or improper utilization of insulin. While these mechanisms of action differ, complications induced by diabetes occur in both poorly regulated Type I and II. Common complications of diabetes include nerve damage, kidney damage, and eye damage. Eye damage specifically is called diabetic retinopathy ...


Novel Biomarkers Of Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Interact With Ciliopathy And Alzheimer’S Associated Proteins, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Amal Alachkar, John R. Yates III, Surya M. Nauli 2021 Chapman University

Novel Biomarkers Of Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Interact With Ciliopathy And Alzheimer’S Associated Proteins, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Amal Alachkar, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ciliary extracellular vesicles (ciEVs), released from primary cilia, contain functional proteins that play an important role in cilia structure and functions. We have recently shown that ciEVs and cytosolic extracellular vesicles (cyEVs) have unique and distinct biomarkers. While ciEV biomarkers have shown some interactions with known ciliary proteins, little is known about the interaction of ciEV proteins with proteins involved in ciliopathy and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we reveal for the first time the protein-protein interaction (PPI) between the top five ciEVs biomarkers with ciliopathy and Alzheimer disease (AD) proteins. These results support the growing evidence of the critical physiological roles ...


Clinical Diagnosis Support With Convolutional Neural Network By Transfer Learning, Spencer Fogleman, Jeremy Otsap, Sangrae Cho 2021 SMU

Clinical Diagnosis Support With Convolutional Neural Network By Transfer Learning, Spencer Fogleman, Jeremy Otsap, Sangrae Cho

SMU Data Science Review

Breast cancer is prevalent among women in the United States. Breast cancer screening is standard but requires a radiologist to review screening images to make a diagnosis. Diagnosis through the traditional screening method of mammography currently has an accuracy of about 78% for women of all ages and demographics. A more recent and precise technique called Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) has shown to be more promising but is less well studied. A machine learning model trained on DBT images has the potential to increase the success of identifying breast cancer and reduce the time it takes to diagnose a patient ...


Structural Basis Of The Super- And Hyper-Relaxed States Of Myosin Ii, Roger W. Craig, Raul A. Padron 2021 UMass Chan Medical School

Structural Basis Of The Super- And Hyper-Relaxed States Of Myosin Ii, Roger W. Craig, Raul A. Padron

Radiology Publications

Super-relaxation is a state of muscle thick filaments in which ATP turnover by myosin is much slower than that of myosin II in solution. This inhibited state, in equilibrium with a faster (relaxed) state, is ubiquitous and thought to be fundamental to muscle function, acting as a mechanism for switching off energy-consuming myosin motors when they are not being used. The structural basis of super-relaxation is usually taken to be a motif formed by myosin in which the two heads interact with each other and with the proximal tail forming an interacting-heads motif, which switches the heads off. However, recent ...


Dicer Represses Antiviral Innate Immunity Pathways In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells, Chandan Gurung 2021 University of Southern Mississippi

Dicer Represses Antiviral Innate Immunity Pathways In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells, Chandan Gurung

Dissertations

Recent studies have demonstrated that embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are deficient in expressing type I interferons (IFN), the cytokines that play key roles in antiviral responses. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and biological implications of this finding are poorly understood. In this study, I used a synthetic RNA-based assay that can simultaneously assess multiple forms of antiviral responses in ESCs. Dicer is an enzyme essential for RNA interference (RNAi), which is used as a major antiviral mechanism in invertebrates but not clear in vertebrates. RNAi activity is detected in wild-type ESCs but is abolished in Dicer knockout ESCs (D−/−ESCs ...


The Effect Of Twist1b And Twist2 Knockdown On Tgf-Beta Signaling Expression In Tendon Progenitors, Marinia N. Bishay 2021 Belmont University

The Effect Of Twist1b And Twist2 Knockdown On Tgf-Beta Signaling Expression In Tendon Progenitors, Marinia N. Bishay

Honors Theses

Somites are important mesoderm structures that form in regularly timed intervals from the anterior end of the paraxial mesoderm at the end of gastrulation during embryogenesis. Cells of the ventromedial portion of the somite, the sclerotome, undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition, surround the notochord, and give rise to connective tissues of the axial skeleton including the vertebrae, tendons, and ligaments. We are interested in understanding how the sclerotome is compartmentalized into the region that makes tendons. Genes expressed in the sclerotome, twist1 and twist2, are likely involved in the downstream differentiation of sclerotome to tendon progenitors. Previous studies have shown ...


Metabolic Regulation During Extraembryonic Endoderm Differentiation, Mohamed Gatie 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Metabolic Regulation During Extraembryonic Endoderm Differentiation, Mohamed Gatie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The inner cell mass undergoes orchestrated cellular divisions resulting in the formation of the epiblast (EPI) and primitive endoderm (PrE). Understanding the process of cell fate specification is crucial to appreciate the intricacies of proper embryonic development. While the mouse embryo is an excellent model, limitations do exist with number, technical challenges, and accessibility, therefore, in my thesis I employed two cell-based models to recapitulate the EPI-PrE fate in vitro. Many signaling pathways have been implicated in this lineage decision, metabolism and its downstream products have been recently regarded as a driver of lineage commitment. Using various biochemical, molecular, and ...


Novel Approaches For Enhancing Cell Survival And Function In Vivo, Ou Wang 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Novel Approaches For Enhancing Cell Survival And Function In Vivo, Ou Wang

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

FDA has approved several cell-based therapeutics and hundreds of cell therapy clinical trials are ongoing. Cells will be a significant type of medicine after small molecule and protein drugs. However, several obstacles need to be addressed to achieve the widespread use of cellular therapeutics. The first challenge is the low efficacy of cell transplantation due to low retention, survival, integration, and function of cells in vivo. The second challenge is producing a massive number of cells for clinical treatment with cost-effectively and reproducibly technologies.

In this thesis, we proposed and investigated two approaches to address these challenges. To begin with ...


The Effects Of Chronic Ethanol Exposure On Caenorhabditis Elegans Germline, Andrea Zegarra 2021 Seton Hall University

The Effects Of Chronic Ethanol Exposure On Caenorhabditis Elegans Germline, Andrea Zegarra

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Ethanol is the most commonly abused drug in the world. Alcohol consumption increases a number of health risks, morbidity and mortality, and chronic and acute diseases. Some health risks include high blood pressure, stroke, liver disease, cancer, and can include mental health and social problems. Chronic alcohol consumption can lead to learning and memory problems, along with alcohol dependence. Additionally, alcohol consumption has an impact on ovarian reserve, steroid hormone production, sperm quality, fecundity, and fertility treatments. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of ethanol exposure on fertility of the N2 wild type as measured by ...


Saf-A Mutants Disrupt Chromatin Structure Through Dominant Negative Effects On Rnas Associated With Chromatin, Heather J. Kolpa, Kevin M. Creamer, Lisa L. Hall, Jeanne B. Lawrence 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Saf-A Mutants Disrupt Chromatin Structure Through Dominant Negative Effects On Rnas Associated With Chromatin, Heather J. Kolpa, Kevin M. Creamer, Lisa L. Hall, Jeanne B. Lawrence

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Here we provide a brief review of relevant background before presenting results of our investigation into the interplay between scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A), chromatin-associated RNAs, and DNA condensation. SAF-A, also termed heterogenous nuclear protein U (hnRNP U), is a ubiquitous nuclear scaffold protein that was implicated in XIST RNA localization to the inactive X-chromosome (Xi) but also reported to maintain open DNA packaging in euchromatin. Here we use several means to perturb SAF-A and examine potential impacts on the broad association of RNAs on euchromatin, and on chromatin compaction. SAF-A has an N-terminal DNA binding domain and C-terminal RNA ...


Role Of Internal Calcium Stores In The Kca2.3 Regulation Of Human Uterine Smooth Muscle Contractions, Bri Kestler 2021 University of South Alabama

Role Of Internal Calcium Stores In The Kca2.3 Regulation Of Human Uterine Smooth Muscle Contractions, Bri Kestler

Theses and Dissertations

Minute-to-minute regulation of intercellular calcium concentrations is essential to allow the uterus to phasically contract and relax in a manner required for delivery. A specific class of calcium-activated potassium (KCa2.3) channels has been strongly implicated in the negative feedback control of intracellular calcium levels. Overexpression of KCa2.3 channels compromises labor by diminishing uterine contractions. Pharmacologic positive modulation of KCa2.3 channels with the small molecule cyclohexyl-[2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-methyl-pyrimidin-4-yl]amine(CyPPA), increases the calcium sensitivity of KCa2.3 channels and promotes membrane hyperpolarization through potassium efflux. Local coupling of plasma membrane channels, such as TRP and KCa ...


The Role Of The Erbb Signaling Pathway In Cardiovascular Progenitor Cell-Based Repair, Christopher Ramos 2021 California State University, San Bernardino

The Role Of The Erbb Signaling Pathway In Cardiovascular Progenitor Cell-Based Repair, Christopher Ramos

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Adult mammalian hearts lack self-renewal and proliferative capabilities necessary for cardiovascular regeneration. Current treatments using cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) for cell-based repair do not restore cardiac function in patients who experience a myocardial infarction (MI). Our laboratory has been studying Islet-1+ neonatal CPCs as a promising candidate for cell-based repair due to their ability to significantly improve cardiac function after MI in sheep. The current study addresses the hypothesis that the ERBB pathway is linked to the Hippo-pathway to activate YAP1 by the involvement of an autocrine loop that upregulates neuregulin (NRG). In our sheep model of MI and cardiovascular ...


College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, December 2021, College Of Natural Sciences 2021 South Dakota State University

College Of Natural Sciences Newsletter, December 2021, College Of Natural Sciences

College of Natural Sciences Newsletters and Reports

Volume 2, Issue 12

Page 1 Dean's Message
Page 2 Awards & Recognition
Page 2 Media Coverage of CNS
Page 3 Media Coverage Cont.
Page 4 Science as Art Competition
Page 5 Open PRAIRIE Data
Page 5 Grants Awarded in CNS


Investigating Therapeutic Strategies To Target Metabolic Vulnerabilities Of Nsclc Tumors With Mutant Keap1 Gene, Pranavi Koppula 2021 The Texas Medical Center Library

Investigating Therapeutic Strategies To Target Metabolic Vulnerabilities Of Nsclc Tumors With Mutant Keap1 Gene, Pranavi Koppula

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The metabolic vulnerability of cancers has long been envisaged as an attractive window to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Metabolic flexibility at the cellular level encompasses the efficient rerouting of anabolic and catabolic pathways in response to varying environmental stimuli to maintain cellular homeostasis and sustain proliferation. The primary objective of this study is to identify metabolic vulnerabilities bestowed by KEAP1/NRF2 signaling axis through SLC7A11. SLC7A11 is a transcriptional target of NRF2, an essential regulator of cellular anti-oxidant response. Under unstressed basal conditions, NRF2 interacts with KEAP1, a tumor suppressor gene and a substrate adaptor protein of the Cullin3-dependent ubiquitin ...


4d Ex Vivo Crispr/Cas9 Whole-Genome Screen To Identify Genes Regulating Lung Cancer Metastasis, Alexandria Plumer 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

4d Ex Vivo Crispr/Cas9 Whole-Genome Screen To Identify Genes Regulating Lung Cancer Metastasis, Alexandria Plumer

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Metastatic lung cancer has a 5-year survival rate of 5%. Lung cancers tend to be asymptomatic until late stages, and almost 90% are not diagnosed until they are advanced. Metastases are very rare events, often initiated by a single cell from a primary tumor into a new niche at a distant location. Investigation of the early metastatic process is of urgent need for the development of early diagnostics and targeted therapeutics. We performed a proof-of-concept CRISPR/Cas9 whole genome knockout screen in the A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line and utilized a novel ex vivo 4D lung metastasis model to find ...


Exploring The Role Of Ampk In Nutrient Sensing And Signaling In The Human Parasite Trypanosoma Brucei, Jessica Jones 2021 Clemson University

Exploring The Role Of Ampk In Nutrient Sensing And Signaling In The Human Parasite Trypanosoma Brucei, Jessica Jones

All Dissertations

African trypanosomes are protozoan parasites that cause the diseases African sleeping sickness and nagana, in humans and cattle respectively. These parasites have complex life cycles with infection of a mammalian host, ~5mM glucose, following transmission by an insect vector, essentially zero glucose. With these pathogens being exposed to rapidly changing glucose abundance in a host-dependent manner, the ability to sense and rapidly respond to changes in the availability of the hexose are critical. First, I provide a review of glucose metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei. Then, we explore the role of the catalytic α subunit of AMPK, a eukaryotic master regulator ...


Comprehensive Study Of Human Pathogenic Trypanosomatids: From Chemotherapies To Disease Ecology, Felipe Rodriguez 2021 University of Texas at El Paso

Comprehensive Study Of Human Pathogenic Trypanosomatids: From Chemotherapies To Disease Ecology, Felipe Rodriguez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The vector-borne diseases Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, caused by the kinetoplastid parasites Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi respectively, are among the most important parasitic diseases in the group of neglected tropical diseases. Even though the two diseases are endemic to the Americas, they affect millions of people worldwide. Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease cause a great array of symptoms and some of them can be fatal if left undiagnosed and untreated. Current treatment regimens are becoming less effective, vaccines are still not available, and diagnosis needs to be improved. Vector control has been responsible for a decrease of diseases in endemic ...


Effect Of Estrogen Pretreatment On Glial-Like Cell Viability Following Stress Response Hormone Treatment, Bridget N. Smith, Kevin S. Burgess, Kathleen S. Hughes 2021 Columbus State University

Effect Of Estrogen Pretreatment On Glial-Like Cell Viability Following Stress Response Hormone Treatment, Bridget N. Smith, Kevin S. Burgess, Kathleen S. Hughes

Georgia Journal of Science

The role of steroid hormones is critical in cellular function. Previous studies have found a positive correlation between the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol and cellular protection. Conversely, exogenous conjugated equine estrogens provide less protective mechanisms than endogenous hormones, and little is known about the role of estrogens in cellular protection during a stress response. In the present study, we compare the effects of short-term estrogen pretreatments (alone and in combination) on cell viability when cells with glial cell morphology are exposed to either epinephrine or cortisol. Results showed that 1 µM 17β-estradiol resulted in decreased cell viability following the epinephrine treatment ...


Neural Network Controller Vs Pulse Control To Achieve Complete Eradication Of Cancer Cells In A Mathematical Model, Joel A. Quevedo, Sergio A. Puga, Paul A. Valle 2021 Tijuana Institute of Technology, México

Neural Network Controller Vs Pulse Control To Achieve Complete Eradication Of Cancer Cells In A Mathematical Model, Joel A. Quevedo, Sergio A. Puga, Paul A. Valle

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Chemoimmunotherapy Treatment Strategies On A Mathematical Model Of Cancer Evolution, Sandra M. Lopez, Yolocuauhtli Salazar, Paul A. Valle 2021 Tijuana Institute of Technology, México

Chemoimmunotherapy Treatment Strategies On A Mathematical Model Of Cancer Evolution, Sandra M. Lopez, Yolocuauhtli Salazar, Paul A. Valle

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


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