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Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor 2023 West Virginia University

Targeting The Cerebrovasculature In Sepsis: A Focus On The Brain Microvascular Endothelium, Divine C. Nwafor

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a critical interface between the systemic circulation and the brain. It is a specialized multicellular unit composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), pericytes, a basement membrane, and astrocytic end foot processes. BMECs are a principal component of the BBB that provide the structural framework needed for the stringent transport of molecules into the brain. BMEC dysfunction permits the trafficking of neurotoxins from systemic circulation into the brain, which ultimately exacerbates BBB dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Studies have shown that BBB dysfunction is a key determinant of cognitive decline in sepsis. However, there are critical knowledge ...


The Neurobiology Of The Healing Arts: Expressive Arts Therapy As An Effective Treatment For Adults Diagnosed With Complex Ptsd Due To Complex Trauma In Childhood: A Literature Review, Cheryl Ratliff 2022 Lesley University

The Neurobiology Of The Healing Arts: Expressive Arts Therapy As An Effective Treatment For Adults Diagnosed With Complex Ptsd Due To Complex Trauma In Childhood: A Literature Review, Cheryl Ratliff

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Empirically based therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found to be less effective in treating more severe trauma presentations such as complex PTSD (CPTSD). Neurobiological investigation provides a framework for examining the physical and psychological effects of trauma on brain and nerve structures and provides insight into how to effectively treat CPTSD. This literature review examined symptomology of CPTSD resulting from complex trauma in childhood, neurobiological effects of trauma and their implications for treatment, and the efficacy of the current treatment models, primarily those of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), narrative exposure therapy (NET), and somatic psychotherapies ...


Novel Strategies For Glutamate Clearance In The Glia-Deprived Synaptic Hub Of C. Elegans, Joyce Chan 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Novel Strategies For Glutamate Clearance In The Glia-Deprived Synaptic Hub Of C. Elegans, Joyce Chan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, Glutamate (Glu) is critical for normal neuronal physiology. Disruption in Glu clearance results in hyper-stimulation of glutamatergic circuits, potentially leading to excitotoxic neurodegeneration. The canonical model of brain connectivity describes glutamatergic synapses as well insulated and enveloped by glia. These glia express Glu Transporters (GluTs) which work to clear Glu following synaptic activity. However, critical areas of the brain such as the mammalian hippocampus display poor synaptic isolation, which may result in Glu spillover between adjacent synapses and subsequent loss of circuit specificity. How accurate signal transmission is achieved in these ...


Therapeutic Treatment With The Anti-Inflammatory Drug Candidate Mw151 May Partially Reduce Memory Impairment And Normalizes Hippocampal Metabolic Markers In A Mouse Model Of Comorbid Amyloid And Vascular Pathology, David J. Braun, David K. Powell, Christopher J. McLouth, Saktimayee M. Roy, D. Martin Watterson, Linda J. Van Eldik 2022 University of Kentucky

Therapeutic Treatment With The Anti-Inflammatory Drug Candidate Mw151 May Partially Reduce Memory Impairment And Normalizes Hippocampal Metabolic Markers In A Mouse Model Of Comorbid Amyloid And Vascular Pathology, David J. Braun, David K. Powell, Christopher J. Mclouth, Saktimayee M. Roy, D. Martin Watterson, Linda J. Van Eldik

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly, but therapeutic options are lacking. Despite long being able to effectively treat the ill-effects of pathology present in various rodent models of AD, translation of these strategies to the clinic has so far been disappointing. One potential contributor to this situation is the fact that the vast majority of AD patients have other dementia-contributing comorbid pathologies, the most common of which are vascular in nature. This situation is modeled relatively infrequently in basic AD research, and almost never in preclinical studies. As part of our efforts to ...


Influence Of Core Temperature On Psychomotor Performance During Cold Weather Military Training, Douglas Jones, Rebecca Weller, Stephen Eggan, Nicholas Roberts, Weimin Zheng, Jay Heaney, Timothy Dunn 2022 Naval Health Research Center

Influence Of Core Temperature On Psychomotor Performance During Cold Weather Military Training, Douglas Jones, Rebecca Weller, Stephen Eggan, Nicholas Roberts, Weimin Zheng, Jay Heaney, Timothy Dunn

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Purpose: Cold environments may deteriorate psychomotor performance due to slowing of neuronal signals, distractions caused by pain and discomfort, and a loss of manual dexterity. The extent to which core temperature (Tc) influences psychomotor performance in the cold has not been established. Therefore, psychomotor performance and Tc were assessed during a cold weather military training exercise to evaluate this relationship.

Methods: Thirty-six military personnel (age: 26 ± 4 yr, ht: 175 ± 8 cm, wt: 79.1 ± 11.1 kg) participating in cold weather training volunteered for this study. Participants completed a 10-min immersion in cold (1°C) water, followed ...


Remodelling Criminal Insanity: Exploring Philosophical, Legal, And Medical Premises Of The Medical Model Used In Norwegian Law, Linda Gröning, Unn K. Haukvik, Stephen J. Morse, Susanna Radovic 2022 University of Bergen

Remodelling Criminal Insanity: Exploring Philosophical, Legal, And Medical Premises Of The Medical Model Used In Norwegian Law, Linda Gröning, Unn K. Haukvik, Stephen J. Morse, Susanna Radovic

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This paper clarifies the conceptual space of discussion of legal insanity by considering the virtues of the ‘medical model’ model that has been used in Norway for almost a century. The medical model identifies insanity exclusively with mental disorder, and especially with psychosis, without any requirement that the disorder causally influenced the commission of the crime. We explore the medical model from a transdisciplinary perspective and show how it can be utilised to systematise and reconsider the central philosophical, legal and medical premises involved in the insanity debate. A key concern is how recent transdiagnostic and dimensional approaches to psychosis ...


A New Window Into Children's Memory: Professor Of Psychology Martha Arterberry's New Study Comes With Implications For Eyewitness Testimonies, Kardelen Koldas 2022 Colby College

A New Window Into Children's Memory: Professor Of Psychology Martha Arterberry's New Study Comes With Implications For Eyewitness Testimonies, Kardelen Koldas

Colby Magazine

When children are eyewitnesses—to an incident, an accident, or a crime— does age matter? Are older kids more precise in recounting an event than the younger ones?


The Electrophysiological Correlates Of Text Integration And Direct Vs. Indirect Articles: A Centralized And Lateralized Examination, Deanna C. Hall 2022 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Electrophysiological Correlates Of Text Integration And Direct Vs. Indirect Articles: A Centralized And Lateralized Examination, Deanna C. Hall

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

As we read, we develop mental models of the discourse content called situation models. Situation models are integral to how we keep track of information, and to do so in an ongoing event incoming information needs to be integrated into the model or discarded. The type of information being presented, and its relation to prior data, impacts how that new information is processed. The current research examined discourse passages containing concepts that were either previously mentioned (match), mentioned with a general term (general category), unmentioned in lieu of another concept (mismatch), or completely unmentioned previously (indeterminate), and examined how these ...


The Benefits Of Astaxanthin To Improve Pain Relief In Patients With Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial, Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon, Mary Rose Angelina Budi Harsana 2021 Faculty of Medicine, Duta Wacana Christian University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

The Benefits Of Astaxanthin To Improve Pain Relief In Patients With Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial, Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon, Mary Rose Angelina Budi Harsana

Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research

Treatment of diabetic neuropathy is still carried out by providing symptomatic therapy, which only improves ± 50% of the total symptoms felt by patients, but does not tackle the underlying causes of the disease. Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic carotenoid that could be an additional treatment option. We aimed to measure the effectiveness of administering astaxanthin as an additional therapy to improve the impact of pain and discomfort experienced daily by diabetes mellitus patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. We conducted a randomized experimental study with an open label design of 36 patients who had been diagnosed with painful ...


Valorisation Of The Effects Of Bioactive Compounds Of The Ethanolic Extract Of Ramalina Farinacea (Ramalinaceae) On The Development, Eating And Pupation Behavior Of Drosophila Melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Fatma Zohra Saadane, Nour El Imene Boublata, Sarra Habbachi, Abir Bouzar, Waffa Habbachi, Abderachid Slimani, Abdelkrim Tahraoui 2021 Applied Neuroendocrinology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Badji Mokhtar, Annaba, 23000, Algeria.

Valorisation Of The Effects Of Bioactive Compounds Of The Ethanolic Extract Of Ramalina Farinacea (Ramalinaceae) On The Development, Eating And Pupation Behavior Of Drosophila Melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Fatma Zohra Saadane, Nour El Imene Boublata, Sarra Habbachi, Abir Bouzar, Waffa Habbachi, Abderachid Slimani, Abdelkrim Tahraoui

Journal of Bioresource Management

Plants are rich in bioactive chemical secondary metabolites and have proven insecticidal activity by killing or repelling insects. In this work, we aim to evaluate the direct and delayed effects of ethanolic plant extracts on the vinegar fly (Drosophila melanogaster). The treatment was performed by ingestion on second instar larvae (L2) to evaluate the impact of the ethanolic extract on development for 15 days and subsequently on the feeding behavior of the larvae. The results of this study indicate a slowing down of pupal growth until the adult stage, at the three concentrations (0.25 µg/ml, 0.5 µg ...


Depression And Behavioral Changes Associated With Social Media Dependency During Covid-19 Pandemic Among University Students In Bangladesh: A Cross- Sectional Study, Sushmita Karmokar, Md. Ashraful Islam, Mohammad Hamid Al Muktadir, Rakibul Hasan, Abu Montakim Tareq, Mohammad Nurul Amin, Talha Bin Emran 2021 Department of Food Technology and Nutrition Science, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Noakhali 3814, Bangladesh

Depression And Behavioral Changes Associated With Social Media Dependency During Covid-19 Pandemic Among University Students In Bangladesh: A Cross- Sectional Study, Sushmita Karmokar, Md. Ashraful Islam, Mohammad Hamid Al Muktadir, Rakibul Hasan, Abu Montakim Tareq, Mohammad Nurul Amin, Talha Bin Emran

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: With its rapid spread, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had a detrimental effect on students’ psychological well-being, depression, and behavioral changes due to indefinite educational leaves, lockdowns, restricted outdoor activities, and excess use of social media. This study aims to assess the relationship of social media exposure with the psychological well-being, depression, and behavioral changes of Bangladeshi university students.

Methods: A web-based cross-sectional survey was carried out on 530 students from June 17 to July 10, 2020, to evaluate psychological well-being, depression, behavioral changes, and social media exposure via self-reported measures.

Results: The prevalence of factors were as ...


Linguistic Variation From Cognitive Variability: The Case Of English 'Have', Muye Zhang 2021 Yale University

Linguistic Variation From Cognitive Variability: The Case Of English 'Have', Muye Zhang

Linguistics Graduate Dissertations

In this dissertation, I seek to construct a model of meaning variation built upon variability in linguistic structure, conceptual structure, and cognitive makeup, and in doing so, exemplify an approach to studying meaning that is both linguistically principled and neuropsychologically grounded. As my test case, I make use of the English lexical item ‘have' by proposing a novel analysis of its meaning based on its well-described variability in English and its embed- ding into crosslinguistically consistent patterns of variation and change.

I support this analysis by investigating its real-time comprehension patterns through behavioral, electropsychophysiological, and hemodynamic brain data, thereby incorporating ...


Comparative Route Of Administration Studies Using Therapeutic Sirnas Show Widespread Gene Modulation In Dorset Sheep, Chantal M. Ferguson, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Julia F. Alterman, Andrew H. Coles, Matthew R. Hassler, Dimas Echeverria, James W. Gilbert, Emily G. Knox, Jillian Caiazzi, Reka A. Haraszti, Robert M. King, Toloo Taghian, Ajit S. Puri, Richard P. Moser, Matthew J. Gounis, Neil Aronin, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Anastasia Khvorova 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Comparative Route Of Administration Studies Using Therapeutic Sirnas Show Widespread Gene Modulation In Dorset Sheep, Chantal M. Ferguson, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Julia F. Alterman, Andrew H. Coles, Matthew R. Hassler, Dimas Echeverria, James W. Gilbert, Emily G. Knox, Jillian Caiazzi, Reka A. Haraszti, Robert M. King, Toloo Taghian, Ajit S. Puri, Richard P. Moser, Matthew J. Gounis, Neil Aronin, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Anastasia Khvorova

Radiology Publications

siRNAs comprise a class of drugs that can be programmed to silence any target gene. Chemical engineering efforts resulted in development of divalent siRNAs (di-siRNAs), which support robust and long-term efficacy in rodent and nonhuman primate brains upon direct cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) administration. Oligonucleotide distribution in the CNS is nonuniform, limiting clinical applications. The contribution of CSF infusion placement and dosing regimen on relative accumulation, specifically in the context of large animals, is not well characterized. To our knowledge, we report the first systemic, comparative study investigating the effects of 3 routes of administration - intrastriatal (i.s.), i.c.v ...


Let There Be Light: Restoring Vision With Optogenetics, Kristin Woodard 2021 Kenyon College

Let There Be Light: Restoring Vision With Optogenetics, Kristin Woodard

Scientific Kenyon: The Neuroscience Edition

No abstract provided.


Exercise As A Treatment For Cognitive Decline In Older Adults: The Role Of Growth Factors And Inflammatory Cytokines, Joshua A. Titus 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Exercise As A Treatment For Cognitive Decline In Older Adults: The Role Of Growth Factors And Inflammatory Cytokines, Joshua A. Titus

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the effects that exercise modalities have on neurotrophic and inflammatory blood markers and cognitive outcomes in older adults. A systematic review and meta-analysis were completed. The included studies illustrated that most of the literature evaluated the effect of aerobic exercise interventions on systemic concentrations of the blood marker brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The review found that aerobic exercise increases BDNF and resistance training increases insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Interventions with sex-specific cohorts presented advantages in males for blood marker and cognitive outcomes compared to females. One of three included interventions decreased ...


Rare And Low Frequency Genomic Variants Impacting Neuronal Functions Modify The Dup7q11.23 Phenotype, Farah Qaiser, Yue Yin, Carolyn B. Mervis, Colleen A. Morris, Bonita P. Klein-Tasman, Elaine Tam, Lucy R. Osborne, Ryan K.C. Yuen 2021 University of Toronto

Rare And Low Frequency Genomic Variants Impacting Neuronal Functions Modify The Dup7q11.23 Phenotype, Farah Qaiser, Yue Yin, Carolyn B. Mervis, Colleen A. Morris, Bonita P. Klein-Tasman, Elaine Tam, Lucy R. Osborne, Ryan K.C. Yuen

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

© 2021, The Author(s). Background: 7q11.23 duplication (Dup7) is one of the most frequent recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but based on gold-standard assessments, only 19% of Dup7 carriers have ASD, suggesting that additional genetic factors are necessary to manifest the ASD phenotype. To assess the contribution of additional genetic variants to the Dup7 phenotype, we conducted whole-genome sequencing analysis of 20 Dup7 carriers: nine with ASD (Dup7-ASD) and 11 without ASD (Dup7-non-ASD). Results: We identified three rare variants of potential clinical relevance for ASD: a 1q21.1 microdeletion (Dup7-non-ASD) and two ...


Being The Curriculum, Alyssa Hillary Zisk 2021 University of Rhode Island

Being The Curriculum, Alyssa Hillary Zisk

Ought: The Journal of Autistic Culture

This article is a work of creative non-fiction. Part of the work is my reflections on one systemically awkward experience of introducing my neurodivergence, autism, to my classmates in my graduate program in neuroscience. Part of the work engages with theory and neuroscientific/cognitive findings that I either shared during the presentation or encountered since but would have been relevant to the experience. The two parts are intertwined, because life isn't neatly separable.


Probiotic Intervention Improves Recovery Of Hippocampal Memory And Hippocampal Atrophy Following Disruption From High-Fat Diet In Adult Rats, Sanyourah A. El-Hulu 2021 Belmont University

Probiotic Intervention Improves Recovery Of Hippocampal Memory And Hippocampal Atrophy Following Disruption From High-Fat Diet In Adult Rats, Sanyourah A. El-Hulu

Honors Theses

Presently, lifestyle factors such as chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption occurs concomitantly with weight gain and obesity (Gil-Cardoso et al., 2017; Stranahan et al., 2008). In turn, obesity has been associated with impairments to mental functioning, specifically to memory. Human epidemiological studies show that HFD intake containing saturated, and omega-6-fatty acids is associated with worse performance on a cognitive task whereas a lower fat diet containing omega-3-fatty acids is associated with a protective effect against cognitive decline (Zhang et al., 2006; Uranga et al., 2010). One explanation for this is the critical role of the gut bacteria in brain health ...


Modulation Of Stress-Induced Behaviors Through Orexinergic Signaling In The Basolateral Amygdala, Jazmine D W Yaeger 2021 University of South Dakota

Modulation Of Stress-Induced Behaviors Through Orexinergic Signaling In The Basolateral Amygdala, Jazmine D W Yaeger

Dissertations and Theses

Stress initiates behavioral disturbances, which are often seen as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. While stress is involved in the formation of disordered states, only certain individuals are vulnerable to, and therefore experience, these outcomes. Further, females are more likely to be diagnosed with stress-induced psychiatric disorders. Elements within stress neurocircuitry offer insight into differential behavioral outcomes associated with stressful experiences; and the basolateral amygdala (BLA), where pro- and anti-stress signals are integrated, is likely an important mediator in phenotype development. The orexin system, too, while being strongly associated with sleep, motivation, and ...


Deciphering The Role Of Hsp110 Chaperones In Diseases Of Protein Misfolding, Unekwu M. Yakubu 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Deciphering The Role Of Hsp110 Chaperones In Diseases Of Protein Misfolding, Unekwu M. Yakubu

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Molecular chaperones maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis) by ensuring the proper folding of polypeptides. Loss of proteostasis has been linked to the onset of numerous neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease. Hsp110 is a member of the Hsp70 class of molecular chaperones and acts as a nucleotide exchange factor (NEF) for Hsp70, the preeminent Hsp70-family protein folding chaperone. Hsp110 promotes rapid cycling of ADP for ATP, allowing Hsp70 to properly fold nascent or unfolded polypeptides in iterative cycles. In addition to its NEF activity, Hsp110 possesses an Hsp70-like substrate binding domain (SBD) whose biological roles are ...


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