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Research Methods in Life Sciences Commons

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Comparing Two Non-Invasive Methods For Assessing Marine Mammal Genetic Diversity: Environmental Dna Vs. Fecal Dna, Sydney Jackson 2022 University of Maine - Main

Comparing Two Non-Invasive Methods For Assessing Marine Mammal Genetic Diversity: Environmental Dna Vs. Fecal Dna, Sydney Jackson

Honors College

As technology and science progresses, the methodology behind observing, monitoring, and sampling marine mammals advances as well. One such technique is environmental DNA or eDNA, which entails extracting organismal DNA from water samples without ever handling or disturbing the organism. It is a cost-efficient and non-invasive method that can be utilized in the sampling of seal haulout sites as is its purpose for this research. Another method, using the DNA analysis of seal fecal samples, is a less invasive method that can also be utilized to monitor and assess marine mammals. Through collecting both fecal and water samples from gray ...


Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. DeSmet 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. Desmet

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019, industries have been impacted globally. The companion animal care industry has not received much recognition in mainstream news, and though multiple grants have been allocated (Nolen, 2020), limited resources were available to individual facilities such as animal shelters, animal day cares, and boarding facilities. Little is known about the long-term effects of the pandemic on these facilities and how companion animal care may have changed. The purpose of this study was to explore the day-to-day impacts and long-term effects of COVID-19 on the companion animal industry in Northwest Arkansas from ...


Development Of The Ark Assay For Quantitating Dna- Protein Crosslink Accumulation And Fanconi Anemia Pathway Involvement In The Repair Process, Naeh Klages-Mundt 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Development Of The Ark Assay For Quantitating Dna- Protein Crosslink Accumulation And Fanconi Anemia Pathway Involvement In The Repair Process, Naeh Klages-Mundt

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) are a common DNA lesion naturally arising in cells, wherein protein becomes covalently and irreversibly bound to the DNA. Given their excessive size, these adducts present a significant challenge to replication and transcription, thus requiring timely and efficient repair. However, the precise mechanisms involved with processing DPC removal remain unclear. Moreover, current methodologies to quantitate DPC accumulation and removal are restrained by a range of limitations. Here, we describe and discuss a new DPC detection assay – the ARK assay – capable of overcoming the limitations incurred by prior assays. The design, which uses dual chaotropic lysis and anionic ...


Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas 2022 University of Alberta

Author Correction: Short Amylin Receptor Antagonist Peptides Improve Memory Deficits In Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Rania Soudy, Ryoichi Kimura, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Westaway, Jing Yang, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Correction to: Scientific Reports https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47255-9, published online 29 July 2019

The original Article contained an error in Figure 1A where the control trace for both the HEK-AMY3 and HEKWT cells was duplicated...

The original Article has been corrected.


Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From People That Use Antibacterial Soap Have A Higher Percentage Of Penicillin Resistance, Xou Xiong 2022 Concordia University, St. Paul

Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates From People That Use Antibacterial Soap Have A Higher Percentage Of Penicillin Resistance, Xou Xiong

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

The Staph Study at CSP aims to identify bacteria from voluntary students. Swabs of bacteria were collected and cultured. Then, a series of tests were performed to identify the type of bacteria present. It was found that 8 of 12 strains collected were Staphylococcus aureus because of the presence of bubbles, light halos, purple clustered bacteria, dark purple halos, and agglutination.


Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (Tsst-1) More Prevalent In Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Taken From Men Than From Women, Bethany Rother 2022 Concordia University, St. Paul

Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (Tsst-1) More Prevalent In Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Taken From Men Than From Women, Bethany Rother

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

S. aureus is an opportunistic bacteria present in the anterior nares of roughly one third of the human population. One of the toxins certain strains are known to produce is toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). This can cause both menstrual and non-menstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS), but is more widely known for the menstrual variation due to the high onset of TSS in women from high absorbency tampons in the 1980s. An analysis of survey data found that surprisingly more men carried S. aureus strains with the TSST-1 gene than women.


Quadruped Gait And Regulation Of Apoptotic Factors In Tibiofemoral Joints Following Intra-Articular Rhprg4 Injection In Prg4 Null Mice, Daniel S. Yang, Edward E. Dickerson, Ling X. Zhang, Holly Richendrfer, Padmini N. Karamchedu, Gary A. Badger, Tannin A. Schmidt, Alger M. Fredericks, Khaled A. Elsaid, Gregory D. Jay 2022 Brown University

Quadruped Gait And Regulation Of Apoptotic Factors In Tibiofemoral Joints Following Intra-Articular Rhprg4 Injection In Prg4 Null Mice, Daniel S. Yang, Edward E. Dickerson, Ling X. Zhang, Holly Richendrfer, Padmini N. Karamchedu, Gary A. Badger, Tannin A. Schmidt, Alger M. Fredericks, Khaled A. Elsaid, Gregory D. Jay

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis (CACP) syndrome leads to diarthrodial joint arthropathy and is caused by the absence of lubricin (proteoglycan 4—PRG4), a surface-active mucinous glycoprotein responsible for lubricating articular cartilage. In this study, mice lacking the orthologous gene Prg4 served as a model that recapitulates the destructive arthrosis that involves biofouling of cartilage by serum proteins in lieu of Prg4. This study hypothesized that Prg4-deficient mice would demonstrate a quadruped gait change and decreased markers of mitochondrial dyscrasia, following intra-articular injection of both hindlimbs with recombinant human PRG4 (rhPRG4). Prg4−/− (N = 44) mice of both sexes were injected with rhPRG4 and ...


Mytrials: Clinical Trial Application Concept, Katie Hollister 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Mytrials: Clinical Trial Application Concept, Katie Hollister

Graphic Communication

A clinical trial’s success is dependent upon whether a patient attends their highly-structured clinical trial visit schedule, which may include both in-person clinic visits and virtual check-in visits. MyTrials is a clinical trial journey app prototype that enables patients to schedule, reschedule, and attend join their in-person or virtual clinic visits. This product seeks to reduce the burden that scheduling places on the patient, and provides trial-provided resources and a daily and weekly timeline to help patients navigate their clinical trial journey.


Cilia Proteins Are Biomarkers Of Altered Flow In The Vasculature, Ankan Gupta, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Madhan Thamilarasan, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Hadeel T. Zedan, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Meghan R. Griffin, Andrew D. Spearman, Amy Pan, Sean P. Palecek, Huseyin C. Yalcin, Surya M. Nauli, Kevin R. Rarick, Rahima Zennadi, Ramani Ramchandran 2022 Medical College of Wisconsin

Cilia Proteins Are Biomarkers Of Altered Flow In The Vasculature, Ankan Gupta, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Madhan Thamilarasan, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Hadeel T. Zedan, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Meghan R. Griffin, Andrew D. Spearman, Amy Pan, Sean P. Palecek, Huseyin C. Yalcin, Surya M. Nauli, Kevin R. Rarick, Rahima Zennadi, Ramani Ramchandran

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Cilia, microtubule-based organelles that project from the apical luminal surface of endothelial cells (ECs), are widely regarded as low-flow sensors. Previous reports suggest that upon high shear stress, cilia on the EC surface are lost, and more recent evidence suggests that deciliation—the physical removal of cilia from the cell surface—is a predominant mechanism for cilia loss in mammalian cells. Thus, we hypothesized that EC deciliation facilitated by changes in shear stress would manifest in increased abundance of cilia-related proteins in circulation. To test this hypothesis, we performed shear stress experiments that mimicked flow conditions from low to high ...


Characterization Of Site-Specific Vegetation Activity In Alaskan Wet And Dry Tundra As Related To Climate And Soil State, Michael Gregory Brown, Kyle C. McDonald, Reiner Zimmermann, Nicholas Steiner, Stephanie DeVries, Laura Bourgeau-Chavez 2022 City College of New York

Characterization Of Site-Specific Vegetation Activity In Alaskan Wet And Dry Tundra As Related To Climate And Soil State, Michael Gregory Brown, Kyle C. Mcdonald, Reiner Zimmermann, Nicholas Steiner, Stephanie Devries, Laura Bourgeau-Chavez

Michigan Tech Publications

We present discrete (2-h resolution) multi-year (2008–2017) in situ measurements of seasonal vegetation growth and soil biophysical properties from two sites on Alaska's North Slope, USA, representing dry and wet sedge tundra. We examine measurements of vertical active soil layer temperature and soil moisture profiles (freeze/thaw status), woody shrub vegetation physiological activity, and meteorological site data to assess interrelationships within (and between) these two study sites. Vegetation phenophases (cold de-hardening start, physiological function start, stem growth start, stem growth end, physiological function end, cold hardening completion) were found to have greater interannual day of year (DOY) occurrence ...


Barriers In Surgical Research: A Perspective From The Developing World, Nadeem Ahmed Siddiqui, Muhammad Aanish Raees, Rehan Nasir Khan, Farhan Zafar 2022 Aga Khan University

Barriers In Surgical Research: A Perspective From The Developing World, Nadeem Ahmed Siddiqui, Muhammad Aanish Raees, Rehan Nasir Khan, Farhan Zafar

Department of Surgery

Research in surgery has led to significant advances over the last century in terms of how medicine is practised in and outside the operating rooms today. Surgical research in the developed countries is responsible for most of this advancement, but it is often inapplicable in resource-limited settings in the developing world. Lower- and middle-income countries are in a unique position to take this work further, but they are limited by certain barriers. These barriers could broadly be classified under social and cultural, infrastructure, financial, ethical, and personal categories. These barriers are often not fully realised, but can potentially be addressed ...


Inhibition Of Interferon-Gamma-Stimulated Melanoma Progression By Targeting Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (Nnos), Shirley Tong, Maris A. Cinelli, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, He Huang, Anika Patel, Richard B. Silverman, Sun Yang 2022 Chapman University

Inhibition Of Interferon-Gamma-Stimulated Melanoma Progression By Targeting Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (Nnos), Shirley Tong, Maris A. Cinelli, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, He Huang, Anika Patel, Richard B. Silverman, Sun Yang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is shown to stimulate melanoma development and progression. However, the underlying mechanism has not been completely defined. Our study aimed to determine the role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-mediated signaling in IFN-γ-stimulated melanoma progression and the anti-melanoma effects of novel nNOS inhibitors. Our study shows that IFN-γ markedly induced the expression levels of nNOS in melanoma cells associated with increased intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels. Co-treatment with novel nNOS inhibitors effectively alleviated IFN-γ-activated STAT1/3. Further, reverse phase protein array (RPPA) analysis demonstrated that IFN-γ induced the expression of HIF1α, c-Myc, and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1 ...


Self-Conscious Emotions And The Right Fronto-Temporal And Right Temporal Parietal Junction, Adriana LaVarco, Nathira Ahmad, Qiana Archer, Matthew Pardillo, Ray Nunez Castaneda, Anthony Minervini, Julian Keenan 2022 Montclair State University

Self-Conscious Emotions And The Right Fronto-Temporal And Right Temporal Parietal Junction, Adriana Lavarco, Nathira Ahmad, Qiana Archer, Matthew Pardillo, Ray Nunez Castaneda, Anthony Minervini, Julian Keenan

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

For more than two decades, research focusing on both clinical and non-clinical populations has suggested a key role for specific regions in the regulation of self-conscious emotions. It is speculated that both the expression and the interpretation of self-conscious emotions are critical in humans for action planning and response, communication, learning, parenting, and most social encounters. Empathy, Guilt, Jealousy, Shame, and Pride are all categorized as self-conscious emotions, all of which are crucial components to one’s sense of self. There has been an abundance of evidence pointing to the right Fronto-Temporal involvement in the integration of cognitive processes underlying ...


A Nationwide Virtual Research Education Program For Medical Students In Pakistan: Methodological Framework, Feasibility Testing, And Outcomes, Ali Aahil Noorali, Maha Inam, Hamna Shahbaz, Hareem Rauf, Faiqa Binte Aamir, Farah Khalid, Saadia Abbas, Abdullah Saeed, Muhammad Daniyal Musharraf, Asma Altaf Hussain Merchant, Babar Hasan, Muneera A. Rasheed, Fyezah Jehan, Muhammad Tariq, Adil Hussain Haider 2022 Aga Khan University

A Nationwide Virtual Research Education Program For Medical Students In Pakistan: Methodological Framework, Feasibility Testing, And Outcomes, Ali Aahil Noorali, Maha Inam, Hamna Shahbaz, Hareem Rauf, Faiqa Binte Aamir, Farah Khalid, Saadia Abbas, Abdullah Saeed, Muhammad Daniyal Musharraf, Asma Altaf Hussain Merchant, Babar Hasan, Muneera A. Rasheed, Fyezah Jehan, Muhammad Tariq, Adil Hussain Haider

Medical College Documents

Introduction: Equipping young medical trainees with fundamental research skills can be a promising strategy to address the need for professionals who can understand and responsibly communicate evolving scientific evidence during a pandemic. Despite an ardent interest to partake in research, most educational institutions in Pakistan and other low-middle income countries have not yet adopted a comprehensive strategy for research skills education. The authors aimed to design and assess the feasibility of implementing the first nation-wide virtual research workshop for medical students in Pakistan.
Methods: The course "Beginners Guide to Research," designed as a nation-wide virtual research workshop series, was conducted ...


Comparison Of Percutaneous Vs Oral Infection Of Hamsters With The Hookworm Ancylostoma Ceylanicum: Parasite Development, Pathology And Primary Immune Response, Richard D. Bungiro, Lisa M. Harrison, Blaise Dondji, Michael Cappello 2022 Yale University

Comparison Of Percutaneous Vs Oral Infection Of Hamsters With The Hookworm Ancylostoma Ceylanicum: Parasite Development, Pathology And Primary Immune Response, Richard D. Bungiro, Lisa M. Harrison, Blaise Dondji, Michael Cappello

Biology Faculty Scholarship

Background

Hundreds of millions of people in poor countries continue to suffer from disease caused by bloodfeeding hookworms. While mice and rats are not reliably permissive hosts for any human hookworm species, adult Golden Syrian hamsters are fully permissive for the human and animal pathogen Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Similar to humans, hamsters may be infected with A. ceylanicum third-stage larvae orally or percutaneously. Oral infection typically leads to consistent worm yields in hamsters but may not accurately reflect the clinical and immunological manifestations of human infection resulting from skin penetration.

Methodology/Principal findings

In this study we compared host responses following ...


An Assessment Of Geographic And Taxonomic Biases In Research On Climate Change-Related Range Shifts, Evan J. Parker 2022 Yale University

An Assessment Of Geographic And Taxonomic Biases In Research On Climate Change-Related Range Shifts, Evan J. Parker

Library Map Prize

Geographic and taxonomic biases in ecological literature inhibit the ability of research to be generalized or translated to other systems. This is particularly true with research on climate change-related range shifts, where a diverse and representative set of observations is needed to understand the significant heterogeneity of range shifts and improve models. A literature review was conducted and biases were assessed by examining the geographic location of study areas, the taxonomic makeup of study species, and the location of study areas within species ranges. A substantial geographic skew towards terrestrial, mid-latitude North America and Europe was observed. However, taxonomic coverage ...


Conditioned Territory Defense In Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches (Gromphadorhina Portentosa), Macy R. Albaitis 2022 Bucknell University

Conditioned Territory Defense In Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches (Gromphadorhina Portentosa), Macy R. Albaitis

Honors Theses

In male blue gourami fish (Trichogaster trichopterus), signaled presentation of a male rival produces an aggressive conditioned response that results in an increased likelihood of the male winning the contest (Hollis, 1984). I replicated this classic study in a species that also shows territorial aggression: the Madagascar hissing cockroach (MHC; Gromphadorhina portentosa). During training, four adult male MHCs were designated as “CS+” animals and received a light (NS) followed by visual access to a rival male (US). Simultaneously, another group of four adult male MHCs designated as “UNC” animals received the light (NS) and visual access to a rival male ...


Screening Ocean Samples From Georgia For The Presence Of Msx And Dermo Using Pcr And Qpcr Methods, Olivia Michelle Williams 2022 University of New Hampshire

Screening Ocean Samples From Georgia For The Presence Of Msx And Dermo Using Pcr And Qpcr Methods, Olivia Michelle Williams

Honors Theses and Capstones

This Senior Thesis project aimed to be able to screen samples that came in from a PhD student in Georgia for the presence of two oyster diseases, MSX and Dermo. This study was done using PCR followed by visualizing on E-gels for initial presence of disease. These were then followed by qPCR and visualization on Criterion gels. These Criterion gels were able to be analyzed in order to calculate the pg/uL of MSX and Dermo in the original ocean samples. Since the samples were sent in over the course of February-August ‘21 the presence over time was also able ...


Review Of The Effects Of Asphalt Fume Emission (Vocs And Pahs) In Vitro, In Vivo And Human Studies, Omran Taqi, Nastassja Lewinski, Elham Fini, Eran Rozewski, Judith Klein-Seetharaman 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Review Of The Effects Of Asphalt Fume Emission (Vocs And Pahs) In Vitro, In Vivo And Human Studies, Omran Taqi, Nastassja Lewinski, Elham Fini, Eran Rozewski, Judith Klein-Seetharaman

Undergraduate Research Posters

Review of the effects of Asphalt fume emission (VOCs and PAHs) in vitro, in vivo and human studies

Omran Taqi, Nastassja Lewinski1

1) Department of Chemical and Life Science Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA

Background

Asphalt is abundantly available around human operations including road paving and roofing sites. However, their emissions and fumes (specifically volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) have been found to have adverse effects on health. Asphalt fumes are a class 2A carcinogen and exposure can increase the risk of lung cancer, asthma, headache, fatigue, and other cardiovascular diseases.

Methods

We used ...


Increasing Detection Sensitivity For Rare And Endangered Species In Kansas Through Development Of An Aquatic Environmental Dna Sampling Protocol, Sarah Hallyburton 2022 Fort Hays State University

Increasing Detection Sensitivity For Rare And Endangered Species In Kansas Through Development Of An Aquatic Environmental Dna Sampling Protocol, Sarah Hallyburton

Master's Theses

Anthropogenic global climate change is forcing the mass extinction of wildlife across the globe. Humans depend on freshwater ecosystems for many aspects of life including agricultural production, sanitation, and recreation. Healthy levels of biodiversity in freshwater environments ensure economically beneficial ecosystem services are maintained. Freshwater ecosystems are hotspots for biodiversity and have higher levels of imperiled organisms compared to terrestrial and marine systems. Within freshwater systems, freshwater mussels (Family: Unionidae) are the most imperiled with over 70% of North American species assigned to a conservation class as judged by state or federal management agencies. The objective of this study was ...


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