Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

19,010 Full-Text Articles 31,483 Authors 5,194,972 Downloads 300 Institutions

All Articles in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Faceted Search

19,010 full-text articles. Page 1 of 673.

Patterns And Sources Of Variation In Heterospecific Pollen Deposition In Flowers Of The Native Blue Cardinal Flower (Lobelia Siphilitica), Allie Drinnon 2023 East Tennessee State University

Patterns And Sources Of Variation In Heterospecific Pollen Deposition In Flowers Of The Native Blue Cardinal Flower (Lobelia Siphilitica), Allie Drinnon

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Plants species interactions via pollinators are a model system to understand the mechanisms that generate plant diversity in nature. However, most studies have focused on plant-plant interactions via pollinator attraction while ignoring the role of plant-plant interactions via pollen transfer. Heterospecific pollen transfer (henceforth HP) can be common and have negative fitness effects. Negative HP fitness effects may prompt the evolution of adaptive strategies to minimize them. However, the extent of spatial variation in HP load size within and among populations, a tenet for natural selection, remains unexplored. Such knowledge would hence constitute a first step in advancing our understanding …


Local And Regional Landscape Characteristics Driving Habitat Selection By Greater Sage-Grouse Along A Fragmented Range Margin, Aidan T. Beers 2023 Utah State University

Local And Regional Landscape Characteristics Driving Habitat Selection By Greater Sage-Grouse Along A Fragmented Range Margin, Aidan T. Beers

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In response to ongoing landscape change, wildlife species are likely to respond in varied ways. By studying habitat specialists, we are able to better understand the most likely ways in which the denizens of threatened ecosystems will react to those changes. Among the most threatened ecosystem types in North America are sagebrush ecosystems of the Intermountain West, where one of its most well-known residents, greater sage grouse (hereafter, “sage-grouse), have lost more than 50% of their habitat due to fire, invasive species, climate change, encroachment by coniferous forests and avian predators using it, and human-caused landscape conversion. Sage-grouse rely on …


Non-Aggressive Competition Between Males Of Srilankametrus Yaleensis (Kovařík Et Al., 2019) (Scorpionidae), And Other Types Of Agonistic Behavior Observed In Scorpions, Victoria Tang 2023 Marshall University

Non-Aggressive Competition Between Males Of Srilankametrus Yaleensis (Kovařík Et Al., 2019) (Scorpionidae), And Other Types Of Agonistic Behavior Observed In Scorpions, Victoria Tang

Euscorpius

A peculiar intraspecific agonistic behavior involving a non-aggressive physical combat is reported between the adult males of Srilankametrus yaleensis (Kovařík et al., 2019) (Scorpionidae: Heterometrinae). The adult males were observed to resort to a ritualized and relatively gentle way for strength demonstration. The combat is characterized by lateral spreading of pedipalps, chelicerae-to-chelicerae collision, and entanglement of metasomal segments. This behavior is hereby considered a form of an intrasexual combat defined as the “arm-span competition”. It is hypothesized to be beneficial for solving territorial and/ or sexual competitions while avoiding unnecessary mortality which could pose adverse impact to the natural populations. …


A Statistical Analysis Of The Change In Age Distribution Of Spawning Hatchery Salmon, Rachel Macaulay, Emily Barrett, Grace Penunuri, Eli E. Goldwyn 2023 University of Portland

A Statistical Analysis Of The Change In Age Distribution Of Spawning Hatchery Salmon, Rachel Macaulay, Emily Barrett, Grace Penunuri, Eli E. Goldwyn

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

Declines in salmon sizes have been reported primarily as a result of younger maturation rates. This change in age distribution poses serious threats to salmon-dependent peoples and ecological systems. We perform a statistical analysis to examine the change in age structure of spawning Alaskan chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha using 30 years of hatchery data. To highlight the impacts of this change, we investigate the average number of fry/smolt that each age of spawning chum/Chinook salmon produce. Our findings demonstrate an increase in younger hatchery salmon populations returning to spawn, and fewer amounts of fry produced …


Burmese Pythons In Florida: A Synthesis Of Biology, Impacts, And Management Tools, Jacquelyn C. Guzy, Bryan G. Falk, Brian J. Smith, Johnd David Willson, Robert N. Reed, Nicholas G. Aumen, Michael L. Avery, Ian A. Bartoszek, Earl Campbell, Michael S. Cherkiss, Natalie M. Claunch, Andrea F. Currylow, Tylan Dean, Jeremy Dixon, Richard Engeman, Sarah Funck, Rebekah Gibble, Kodiak C. Hengstebeck, John S. Humphrey, Margaret E. Hunter, Jillian M. Josimovich, Jennifer Ketterlin, Michael Kirkland, Frank J. Mazzotti, Robert McCleery, Melissa A. Miller, Matthew McCollister, M. Rockwell Parker, Shannon E. Pittman, Michael Rochford, Christina Romagosa, Art Roybal, Ray W. Snow, McKayla M. Spencer, J. Hardin Waddle, Any A. Yackel Adams, Kristen M. Hart 2023 USGS Wetland and Aquatic Research Center, Davie, Florida,

Burmese Pythons In Florida: A Synthesis Of Biology, Impacts, And Management Tools, Jacquelyn C. Guzy, Bryan G. Falk, Brian J. Smith, Johnd David Willson, Robert N. Reed, Nicholas G. Aumen, Michael L. Avery, Ian A. Bartoszek, Earl Campbell, Michael S. Cherkiss, Natalie M. Claunch, Andrea F. Currylow, Tylan Dean, Jeremy Dixon, Richard Engeman, Sarah Funck, Rebekah Gibble, Kodiak C. Hengstebeck, John S. Humphrey, Margaret E. Hunter, Jillian M. Josimovich, Jennifer Ketterlin, Michael Kirkland, Frank J. Mazzotti, Robert Mccleery, Melissa A. Miller, Matthew Mccollister, M. Rockwell Parker, Shannon E. Pittman, Michael Rochford, Christina Romagosa, Art Roybal, Ray W. Snow, Mckayla M. Spencer, J. Hardin Waddle, Any A. Yackel Adams, Kristen M. Hart

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) are native to southeastern Asia, however, there is an established invasive population inhabiting much of southern Florida throughout the Greater Everglades Ecosystem. Pythons have severely impacted native species and ecosystems in Florida and represent one of the most intractable invasive-species management issues across the globe. The difficulty stems from a unique combination of inaccessible habitat and the cryptic and resilient nature of pythons that thrive in the subtropical environment of southern Florida, rendering them extremely challenging to detect. Here we provide a comprehensive review and synthesis of the science relevant to managing invasive …


National Development And The Sustainability Of Mining In The Atacama Desert, Chile, Dakota Soleil Osgood 2023 SIT Graduate Institute/SIT Study Abroad

National Development And The Sustainability Of Mining In The Atacama Desert, Chile, Dakota Soleil Osgood

Capstone Collection

As climate change continues to intensify on a global scale, efforts have been made to implement renewable energies and progressive technologies. These tools are critical in the shift towards a more sustainable practice, and yet analysis of localized impacts from the development of these mechanisms is inadequate. Chile has been and continues to be a leading country in mineral extraction, with an economic history founded in the mining industry. The establishment of mining in Chile as a progressive tool has aided the social and economic development of the nation. Consequences of mining extraction, however, include intensive environmental degradation, human rights …


The Future Of Pandemics: Land Use Controls As Means Of Preventing Zoonotic Disease, Bailey Andree 2023 Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

The Future Of Pandemics: Land Use Controls As Means Of Preventing Zoonotic Disease, Bailey Andree

Pace International Law Review

Zoonotic diseases are increasing in frequency as climate change worsens around the world, with the recent COVID-19 pandemic highlighting the inadequate mechanisms in place to counteract disease spread. This article reviews various zoonotic diseases and their patterns of spread, highlighting land use change as the key driver of disease to demonstrate the need for legal intervention. International land use law is a little-developed subsect of environmental law that holds the key to combating this disease spread, and this article proposes solutions through this legal lens. Land use techniques which may be used to combat disease spread include conservation laws, setback …


Lychas Jakli Sp. N. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Indonesia, František Kovařík 2023 Marshall University

Lychas Jakli Sp. N. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Indonesia, František Kovařík

Euscorpius

A new species Lychas jakli sp. n. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) is described from Indonesia, fully illustrated with color photos showing its morphology and habitus. A new synonymy is proposed: Lychas kotao Lourenço, 2020 = Lychas mucronatus (Fabricius, 1798), syn. n.


Taxonomic Notes On The Luciolinae (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), Oliver Keller, Lesley Ballantyne 2023 Florida State Collection of Arthropods

Taxonomic Notes On The Luciolinae (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), Oliver Keller, Lesley Ballantyne

Insecta Mundi

Several nomenclatural changes for taxa in the firefly subfamily Luciolinae (Coleoptera: Lampyri­dae) are proposed. Evidence is presented to correct the year of description for Luciola dregei Motschulsky 1853 to Motschulsky 1854 when the name was ratified. We correct the authorities and years of descriptions for type species designations for the genera Delopleurus Motschulsky, 1853, and Delopyrus Motschulsky, 1853 to Motschulsky 1854 for both. All remaining taxa described as variations in the subfamily Luciolinae by McDermott (1966), are evaluated to subspecies with their availability determined based on ICZN (1999) Article 45.6.


New Host And Distribution Records Plus Additional Notes For North American Species Of Chrysobothris Eschscholtz (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), With Designation Of A Lectotype For Chrysobothris Vulcanica Leconte, 1861, Richard L. Westcott 2023 Oregon Department of Agriculture

New Host And Distribution Records Plus Additional Notes For North American Species Of Chrysobothris Eschscholtz (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), With Designation Of A Lectotype For Chrysobothris Vulcanica Leconte, 1861, Richard L. Westcott

Insecta Mundi

New distribution and host records plus additional notes are provided for North American spe­cies in the genus Chrysobothris Eschscholtz (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Forty-one species are treated. The occurrence of Chrysobothris bicolor Horn in the USA is refuted. Chrysobothris breviloboides Barr is newly synonymized with Chrysobothris breviloba Fall. The southernmost record for Chrysobothris piuta Wick­ham, from Baja California, Mexico, is established. A specimen of the Argentinian Chrysobothris rugosa Gory and Laporte labeled from Florida is reported. A lectotype for Chrysobothris vulcanica LeConte is newly designated.


Thirteen New Species Of Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) From Texas, Jing Zhang, Qian Cong, Nick V. Grishin 2023 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center

Thirteen New Species Of Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) From Texas, Jing Zhang, Qian Cong, Nick V. Grishin

Insecta Mundi

Analyses of whole genomic shotgun datasets, COI barcodes, morphology, and historical literature suggest that the following 13 butterfly species from the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) in Texas, USA are distinct from their closest named relatives and therefore are described as new (type localities are given in parenthesis): Spicauda atelis Grishin, new species (Hidalgo Co., Mission), Urbanus (Urbanus) rickardi Grishin, new species (Hidalgo Co., nr. Madero), Urbanus (Urbanus) oplerorum Grishin, new spe­cies (Hidalgo Co., Mission/Madero), Telegonus tsongae Grishin, new species (Starr Co., Roma), Autochton caballo Grishin, new species (Hidalgo Co., 6 mi W of Hidalgo), Epargyreus fractigutta …


New Species And Taxonomical And Geographical Notes On Cerambycidae And Disteniidae (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea), Daniel Heffern, Juan Pablo Botero, Antonio Santos-Silva 2023 Houston, TX

New Species And Taxonomical And Geographical Notes On Cerambycidae And Disteniidae (Coleoptera: Chrysomeloidea), Daniel Heffern, Juan Pablo Botero, Antonio Santos-Silva

Insecta Mundi

Four new species of Coleoptera are described: Pentanodes clavatus new species, from Ecuador; Pentanodes baldwini new species, from Panama (Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Tillomorphini); Elytrimita­trix (Grossifemora) dilatata new species, from Mexico (Disteniidae) and Novantinoe falsa new species, from Mexico (Disteniidae). Taxonomical notes on Euderces cribellatus (Bates, 1885) (Tillomorphini) and Oreodera Audinet-Serville, 1835 (Lamiinae: Acrocinini) are provided. Additionally, new records are provided for Oreo­dera noguerai McCarty, 2001 (new state record), Adetus croton Heffern, Santos-Silva and Botero, 2019 (new country record), Icimauna sarauaia Martins and Galileo, 1991 (new country record), and Phoebe mexicana Bates, 1881 (new state record).


A New Species Of Biclonuncaria Razowski And Becker, 1993 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Polyorthini) From Costa Rica, John W. Brown 2023 National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

A New Species Of Biclonuncaria Razowski And Becker, 1993 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Polyorthini) From Costa Rica, John W. Brown

Insecta Mundi

Biclonuncaria recurvana, new species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Polyorthini), is described and il­lustrated from Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica. It is most similar to B. conica Razowski, 1993, from Mexico, but the two are easily distinguished by features of the male genitalia. Biclo­nuncaria recurvana has been reared (n = 12 specimens) from field-collected larvae feeding on the leaves of Dalbergia glomerata Hemsley (Fabaceae), consistent with the previously reported host plant for B. dalbergiae Razowski and Becker, 1993, which has been reared from Dalbergia in Brazil.


A Dynamical System Model Of Dengue Transmission For Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, Gregory Schmidt, Benjamin Whipple, Vinodh Chellamuthu, Xiaoxia Xie 2023 Utah Tech University

A Dynamical System Model Of Dengue Transmission For Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, Gregory Schmidt, Benjamin Whipple, Vinodh Chellamuthu, Xiaoxia Xie

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

The dengue virus is a serious concern in many parts of the world, including Brazil. As data indicates, a prominent vector for dengue is the mosquito Aedes aegypti. By using the dengue incidence records from the Brazilian SINAN database, we estimate the population of A. aegypti within the city of Rio de Janeiro. Using historical climate data for Rio de Janeiro and the computed population estimates, we extend an existing model for the population dynamics of mosquitoes to incorporate precipitation in aquatic stages of development for A. aegypti.


Still A Private Universe? Community College Students’ Understanding Of Evolution, Meredith A. Dorner, Philip Sadler, Brian Alters 2023 Irvine Valley College

Still A Private Universe? Community College Students’ Understanding Of Evolution, Meredith A. Dorner, Philip Sadler, Brian Alters

Education Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Measuring what students know and retain about evolution is essential to improving our understanding of how students learn evolution. The literature shows that college students appear to have a poor understanding of evolution, answering questions on various instruments correctly only about half of the time. There is little research regarding evolution understanding among community college students and so this study examines if those students who are enrolled in life science classes, who are assessed using questions based on grade eight standards, show a better understanding of evolutionary principles than younger students and if there are differences in knowledge based …


Orb-Web Spider Argiope (Araneidae) As Indigenous Arrow Poison Of G/Ui And G//Ana San Hunters In The Kalahari, Tharina L. Bird, Smith Moeti, Robert K. Hitchcock, Melinda C. Kelly, Lefang L. Chobolo, Nonofo Gotcha, Kgosi K. Moatlhodi, Leungo D. Mukoka, Emmanuel K. Sekopo, Caroline Simmrita Chaboo 2023 Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, Pretoria, South Afr

Orb-Web Spider Argiope (Araneidae) As Indigenous Arrow Poison Of G/Ui And G//Ana San Hunters In The Kalahari, Tharina L. Bird, Smith Moeti, Robert K. Hitchcock, Melinda C. Kelly, Lefang L. Chobolo, Nonofo Gotcha, Kgosi K. Moatlhodi, Leungo D. Mukoka, Emmanuel K. Sekopo, Caroline Simmrita Chaboo

Publications of UNSM Staff and Affiliates

Hunting has been crucial in early human evolution. Some San (Bushmen) of southern Africa still practice their indigenous hunting. The use of poisons is one remarkable aspect of their bow-and-arrow hunting but the sources, taxonomic identifications of species used, and recipes, are not well documented. This study reports on fieldwork to investigate recent indigenous hunting practices of G/ui and G//ana San communities in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR), Botswana. Here we discuss their use of spider poison. The hunters use the contents of the opisthosoma (‘abdomen’) of a spider as sole ingredient of the arrow poison and discard the …


Range-Wide Sources Of Variation In Reproductive Rates Of Northern Spotted Owls, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Julianna M. Jenkins, James E. Hines, James D. Nichols, Katie M. Dugger, Alan B. Franklin, Peter C. Carlson, William L. Kendall, Damon B. Lesmeister, Christopher McCafferty, Steven H. Ackers, L. Steven Andrews, Larissa L. Bailey, Jesse Burgher, Kenneth P. Burnham, Tara Chestnut, Mary M. Conner, Raymond J. Davis, Krista E. Dilione, Eric D. Forsman, Elizabeth M. Glenn, Scott A. Gremel, Keith A. Hamm, Dale R. Herter, J. Mark Higley, Rob B. Horn, David W. Lamphear, Trent L. McDonald, Janice A. Reid, Carl J. Schwarz, David C. Simon, Stan G. Sovern, James K. Swingle, J. David Wiens, Heather Wise, Charles B. Yackulic 2023 Oregon State University

Range-Wide Sources Of Variation In Reproductive Rates Of Northern Spotted Owls, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Julianna M. Jenkins, James E. Hines, James D. Nichols, Katie M. Dugger, Alan B. Franklin, Peter C. Carlson, William L. Kendall, Damon B. Lesmeister, Christopher Mccafferty, Steven H. Ackers, L. Steven Andrews, Larissa L. Bailey, Jesse Burgher, Kenneth P. Burnham, Tara Chestnut, Mary M. Conner, Raymond J. Davis, Krista E. Dilione, Eric D. Forsman, Elizabeth M. Glenn, Scott A. Gremel, Keith A. Hamm, Dale R. Herter, J. Mark Higley, Rob B. Horn, David W. Lamphear, Trent L. Mcdonald, Janice A. Reid, Carl J. Schwarz, David C. Simon, Stan G. Sovern, James K. Swingle, J. David Wiens, Heather Wise, Charles B. Yackulic

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

We conducted a range-wide investigation of the dynamics of site-level reproductive rate of northern spotted owls using survey data from 11 study areas across the subspecies geographic range collected during 1993–2018. Our analytical approach accounted for imperfect detection of owl pairs and misclassification of successful reproduction (i.e., at least one young fledged) and contributed further insights into northern spotted owl population ecology and dynamics. Both nondetection and state misclassification were important, especially because factors affecting these sources of error also affected focal ecological parameters. Annual probabilities of site occupancy were greatest at sites with successful reproduction in the previous year …


Movements And Resource Selection Of Wild Pigs Associated With Growth Stages Of Corn, Bethany A. Friesenhahn, Randall W. DeYoung, Michael J. Cherry, Humberto L. perotto-Baldivieso, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Nathan P. Snow 2023 Texas A&M University

Movements And Resource Selection Of Wild Pigs Associated With Growth Stages Of Corn, Bethany A. Friesenhahn, Randall W. Deyoung, Michael J. Cherry, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Nathan P. Snow

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are one of the most successful invasive species globally and are often implicated in agricultural damage. This damage is expected to increase as ranges of wild pigs expand, impacting the human food supply and increasing costs of food production. Our objective was to evaluate movement behaviors of wild pigs relative to resource availability and landscape features in an agriculture-dominated landscape, with a goal of informing management practices for reducing damage to corn. We monitored hourly movements of adult wild pigs relative to corn crops using GPS collars during the 2019 and 2020 growing seasons (Feb–Sept) in …


Assessment Of Living Shorelines For Restoring Fish Habitats: A Case Study From Coastal Alabama, Claire Legaspi, Matheus de Barros, Alexandra Rodriguez, Ronald Baker 2023 Texas A&M

Assessment Of Living Shorelines For Restoring Fish Habitats: A Case Study From Coastal Alabama, Claire Legaspi, Matheus De Barros, Alexandra Rodriguez, Ronald Baker

Gulf and Caribbean Research

No abstract provided.


Potential Effects Of Road Proximity On Zooplankton Communities And Water Quality In Lakes In The Northwest Territories, Marie N. Hannan 2023 Wilfrid Laurier University

Potential Effects Of Road Proximity On Zooplankton Communities And Water Quality In Lakes In The Northwest Territories, Marie N. Hannan

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Studies conducted along Canada’s Dempster Highway in the Northwest Territories have shown that road dust can affect water quality in roadside lakes, leading to higher calcium, conductivity, and pH levels. These water quality changes have the potential to affect important members of the lower aquatic food web, such as zooplankton.

For my thesis research, I had two main objectives: 1) To determine if changes in water chemistry caused by deposition of road dust affects zooplankton communities; and 2) To examine if the type of roadside vegetation influences the effects of road dust on aquatic habitats. To achieve these objectives, I …


Digital Commons powered by bepress