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Big Fires, Big Trees, And Big Plots: Enhancing Our Ecological Understanding Of Fire With Unprecedented Field Data, Tucker J. Furniss 2021 Utah State University

Big Fires, Big Trees, And Big Plots: Enhancing Our Ecological Understanding Of Fire With Unprecedented Field Data, Tucker J. Furniss

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Wildfire is an inexorable process in western landscapes, posing a major challenge to land managers: how can we use fire to restore healthy forests without jeopardizing human communities? The purpose of this dissertation is to produce research that will help guide management and support effective wildland fire use in fire-prone forests.

I utilized a longitudinal dataset from a single, large forest plot that burned under serendipitous circumstances during the 2013 Rim Fire. My research revealed that post-fire mortality models under-predict mortality of large trees, and may need to be re-calibrated to perform well under future climates. I used satellite-derived data ...


Susceptibility Of High-Elevation Forests To Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus Ponderosae Hopkins) Under Climate Change, David N. Soderberg 2021 Utah State University

Susceptibility Of High-Elevation Forests To Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus Ponderosae Hopkins) Under Climate Change, David N. Soderberg

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Across western North America, pine forests are important for timber, wildlife habitat, and at high elevations are important for water retention and yield from rain and snowmelt. The mountain pine beetle (MPB) is one of the most significant disturbance agents shaping pine forests, and like all insects, temperature is a major driver of its population success and the dynamics of the landscapes that they inhabit. Changing temperature regimes can therefore directly influence MPB population persistence at a particular location, in addition to potential shifts in the range boundaries that they inhabit. MPB is currently expanding its range northward in British ...


Our Peer The Pigeon: Impacts Of The Covid-19 “Anthropause” On Psu Campus Urban Foragers, Audrey R. Douglass 2021 Portland State University

Our Peer The Pigeon: Impacts Of The Covid-19 “Anthropause” On Psu Campus Urban Foragers, Audrey R. Douglass

University Honors Theses

The 2020 COVID Pandemic presented a paradigm shift dubbed, by some scholars, the ‘Anthropause’, an ecological epoch in which humans faded from the public sphere. As was the case for many urban species that depend on the foraging of food waste, this meant a fundamental disruption to their food systems and to the entire urban eco-web. The PSU Campus Park Blocks presents a unique opportunity to observe animal behavior, while also a succinct microcosm to study food waste flow changes, and compare species layout to other urban parks in the METRO area. Decreased food waste output from proximal restaurants, businesses ...


Increased Iron-Carbon Interactions Under Long-Term Acid Deposition Enhance Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration In A Tropical Forest In Southern China, Jingwen Chen, Yuanliu Hu, Steven J. Hall, Dafeng Hui, Jianling Li, Guoyin Chen, Lianwei Sun, Deqiang Zhang, Qi Deng 2021 South China Botanical Garden

Increased Iron-Carbon Interactions Under Long-Term Acid Deposition Enhance Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration In A Tropical Forest In Southern China, Jingwen Chen, Yuanliu Hu, Steven J. Hall, Dafeng Hui, Jianling Li, Guoyin Chen, Lianwei Sun, Deqiang Zhang, Qi Deng

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Atmospheric acid deposition remains a widespread problem that may influence the protection of carbon (C) in soil by altering organo-mineral interactions. However, the impacts of additional acidity on organo-mineral interactions and soil C sequestration in naturally acidic tropical soils with a high content of reactive iron (Fe) phases have not been well studied. Here we sampled a nearly 10-yr field experiment with a gradient of acidity treatments (0, 9.6, 32, 96 mol H+ ha− 1 yr− 1 as nitric acid + sulfuric acid) to examine how acidification alters organo-mineral interactions and soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in a tropical forest ...


Cave-Dwelling Heleomyzid Flies (Diptera: Heleomyzidae) From The Polish Caves. Historical Overview And New Data, Joanna Kocot-Zalewska, Andrzej J. Woźnica 2021 Upper Silesian Museum, Department of Natural History, Poland

Cave-Dwelling Heleomyzid Flies (Diptera: Heleomyzidae) From The Polish Caves. Historical Overview And New Data, Joanna Kocot-Zalewska, Andrzej J. Woźnica

International Journal of Speleology

This article details the analysed results of the recent study on heleomyzid flies (Diptera: Heleomyzidae) that occurred in the caves of Kraków-Częstochowa Upland. Additionally, all accessible information about those flies from the Polish caves has been compiled. In effect, 23 species from seven genera were identified. Among these determined species, one was considered as troglobiont, eleven as eutroglophiles, nine as subtroglophiles, and two as trogloxenes. Dominant species were Scoliocentra brachypterna, Heleomyza captiosa and Eccoptomera pallescens. The highest number of species has currently been found in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland.


Long-Term Gene–Culture Coevolution And The Human Evolutionary Transition, Timothy M. Waring, Zachary T. Wood 2021 University of Maine

Long-Term Gene–Culture Coevolution And The Human Evolutionary Transition, Timothy M. Waring, Zachary T. Wood

School of Economics Faculty Scholarship

It has been suggested that the human species may be undergoing an evolutionary transition in individuality (ETI). But there is disagreement about how to apply the ETI framework to our species, and whether culture is implicated as either cause or consequence. Long-term gene–culture coevolution (GCC) is also poorly understood. Some have argued that culture steers human evolution, while others proposed that genes hold culture on a leash. We review the literature and evidence on long-term GCC in humans and find a set of common themes. First, culture appears to hold greater adaptive potential than genetic inheritance and is probably ...


Genomic And Ecological Dimensions Of Malagasy Reptile And Amphibian Biodiversity, Arianna L. Kuhn 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Genomic And Ecological Dimensions Of Malagasy Reptile And Amphibian Biodiversity, Arianna L. Kuhn

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A long history of isolation coupled with complex topographic and ecological landscapes makes Madagascar ideal for exploring the historical factors that have shaped patterns of population diversity and endemism. Many species-level studies have suggested Late Quaternary climate change may have influenced population dynamics in the tropics, but Madagascar’s ecologically unique biomes or individual species properties may have driven idiosyncratic responses to these shifts. Using community-scale population genetic data I implement a hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation (hABC) approach to evaluate the degree of synchronous population expansion during glacial cycles across herpetofaunal assemblages both within and across discrete biomes and taxonomic ...


Microbial-Host Dynamics And The Evolution Of Nearshore Diversity In Hippocampus Abdominalis, Jimiane L. Ashe 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Microbial-Host Dynamics And The Evolution Of Nearshore Diversity In Hippocampus Abdominalis, Jimiane L. Ashe

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Local adaptation is a fundamental concept at the core of evolutionary process. Devising means to break down larger concepts and systematically test internal mechanisms are key to understanding the driving forces behind the influence of environmental differences on biological systems. To understand dynamic processes in the natural world, we must strip away layers and confounding variables that may mask the signal we hope to understand. In this case seahorse species, Hippocampus abdominalis, or the pot-bellied seahorse, made an unlikely but ideal study system. The first layer to strip away was neutral genetic variation within the population. A multilocus genetic dataset ...


Rapid Warming Events In A Small Coastal Upwelling Embayment, Tatjana E. Ellis 2021 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Rapid Warming Events In A Small Coastal Upwelling Embayment, Tatjana E. Ellis

Physics

Temperature variability in the nearshore coastal ocean influences various biological processes and can drive changes in biodiversity and habitat range. Despite recent progress, there are still significant gaps in the understanding of drivers of temperature variability in upwelling bays, particularly at higher frequencies. In this study, we analyzed a decade of nearshore temperature measurements both inside and outside a small coastal embayment located in central California [San Luis Obispo (SLO) bay], as well as temperature data from satellites, to characterize rapid warming events. We found that rapid warming events, defined using rates of temperature change across different thresholds, occurred more ...


From Psychology To Phylogeny: Bridging Levels Of Analysis In Cultural Evolution, Mason Youngblood 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

From Psychology To Phylogeny: Bridging Levels Of Analysis In Cultural Evolution, Mason Youngblood

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cultural evolution, or change in the socially learned behavior of a population over time, is a fascinating phenomenon that is widespread in humans and present in some non-human animals. In this dissertation, I present an array of cultural evolutionary studies that bridge pattern and process in a wide range of research models including music, extremism, and birdsong. The first chapter is an introduction to the field of cultural evolution, including a bibliometric analysis of its structure. The second and third chapters are studies on the cultural dynamics of music sampling traditions in hip-hop and electronic music communities and far-right extremism ...


Empathy And Fairness In Nonhuman Primates: Evolutionary Bases Of Human Morality, Colt Halter 2021 Brigham Young University

Empathy And Fairness In Nonhuman Primates: Evolutionary Bases Of Human Morality, Colt Halter

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Darwin offered an evolutionary perspective on the origins of human morality, suggesting that humans share a biological foundation with nonhuman primates. This paper reviews the current literature on moral and prosocial behaviors of nonhuman primates, specifically examining whether nonhuman primates exhibit behaviors that are typical of empathy and fairness. The literature documents that nonhuman primates exhibit empathetic behaviors regarding emotional contagion and sympathetic concern. There is also evidence that nonhuman primates have a sense of fairness, seen in their reciprocal behaviors and aversion to inequity. Taken together, this suggests that there are evolutionary roots of morality, lending empirical support to ...


Survivorship Of Soybean Aphid Biotypes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) On Winter Hosts, Common And Glossy Buckthorn, Doris M. Lagos-Kutz, Glen L. Hartman 2021 USDA ARS, Urbana, IL

Survivorship Of Soybean Aphid Biotypes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) On Winter Hosts, Common And Glossy Buckthorn, Doris M. Lagos-Kutz, Glen L. Hartman

Insecta Mundi

The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., both in Asia where it is native, and in the USA where it is adventive. The rapid spread and establishment of the soybean aphid in the USA since its discovery in 2000 was successful because of extensive soybean production in the Midwest and the wide distribution of common buckthorn, Rhamnus cathartica (L.), its preferred primary winter host. The survivorship of four soybean aphid biotypes on com­mon and glossy buckthorn, Frangula alnus Mill., were compared. Our study showed that nymph oviparae of ...


New Adult Host Records For Three Buprestidae (Coleoptera) Rarely Encountered In The United States And Significant Extension Of The Known Geographic Range Of Agrilus Pilosicollis Fisher, Jason A. Hansen, Christine A. Nalepa 2021 USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Los Indios, TX

New Adult Host Records For Three Buprestidae (Coleoptera) Rarely Encountered In The United States And Significant Extension Of The Known Geographic Range Of Agrilus Pilosicollis Fisher, Jason A. Hansen, Christine A. Nalepa

Insecta Mundi

New adult host records of Agrilus langei Obenberger, A. pilosicollis Fisher, and Dicerca mutica LeConte (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) are reported. The known geographic range of A. pilosicollis is expanded from the type location in Kansas south to Texas and east to North Carolina. Images with key characters of each of the three species are included.

Among the nearly 800 species of buprestids in North America (north of Mexico) are those known from very few specimens. Distribution and plant host information for such species is understandably limited and, in many cases, completely unknown (Nelson et al. 2008). A knowledge of host utilization ...


Chlamydastis Meyrick Of Costa Rica: Barcodes, Biology, And Descriptions Of 36 New Species (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae), Eugenie Phillips-Rodríguez, John W. Brown, Winnie Hallwachs, Daniel H. Janzen 2021 Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica

Chlamydastis Meyrick Of Costa Rica: Barcodes, Biology, And Descriptions Of 36 New Species (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae), Eugenie Phillips-Rodríguez, John W. Brown, Winnie Hallwachs, Daniel H. Janzen

Insecta Mundi

We recognize and review 40 species of Chlamydastis Meyrick, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Depressari­idae) from Costa Rica, including four previously described (i.e., C. vividella (Busck, 1914), revived status; C. phytoptera (Busck, 1914); C. orion Busck, 1920; and C. ungulifera (Meyrick, 1929)) and 36 new species: C. abelulatei Phillips and Brown, new species; C. carolinagodoyae Phillips and Brown, new species; C. angelsolisi Phillips and Brown, new species; C. lindapitkinae Phillips and Brown, new species; C. iangauldi Phillips and Brown, new species; C. anniapicadoae Phillips and Brown, new species; C. antonioazofeifai Phillips and Brown, new species; C. mignondavisae Phillips and Brown, new ...


Phenotypic Plasticity And Parental Effect On Rearing Of Two Diverse Habitat Environment For Laboratory Reared Sympetrum Meridionale, Imane Halassi, Ali Elafri, Ismahan Halassi, Hichem Amari, Moussa Houhamdi 2021 Biology, Water and Environment Laboratory, Faculty SNV-STU, University 8 May 1945 Guelma, BO. 401 24000 Guelma, Algeria.

Phenotypic Plasticity And Parental Effect On Rearing Of Two Diverse Habitat Environment For Laboratory Reared Sympetrum Meridionale, Imane Halassi, Ali Elafri, Ismahan Halassi, Hichem Amari, Moussa Houhamdi

Journal of Bioresource Management

Laboratory observations on rearing experiment of Odonata serve to answer many evolutionary and ecological questions. In order to evidences the role of species parental habitat provenience in the development behaviour of their offspring, we surveyed several life history traits of two rearing populations of Sympetrum meridionale (Anisoptera: Sympetrinae), coming from two different habitats across north-eastern Algeria. The first one is a RAMSAR wetland called ‘Mekhada’ (a perennial water body), and the second one is a temporary pond located at “Maouna” Mountain (1400 m altitude). Overall, the development patterns of the two populations of dragonflies vary with the type of habitat ...


Teacher Background Knowledge: Biodiversity, Center for Urban Resilience 2021 Loyola Marymount University and Loyola Law School

Teacher Background Knowledge: Biodiversity, Center For Urban Resilience

Module 06: Urban Biodiversity

No abstract provided.


Somalibuthus Sabae Sp. N., A New Buthid Scorpion From Kenya (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Laban Njoroge 2021 Marshall University

Somalibuthus Sabae Sp. N., A New Buthid Scorpion From Kenya (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Laban Njoroge

Euscorpius

The poorly known buthid genus Somalibuthus Kovařík, 1998, is recorded for the first time from Kenya, with the description of a new species, S. sabae sp. n., from Kiwayu Island in the Kiunga Marine National Reserve. Based on a detailed study of the new materials, a revised diagnosis is given for the genus. Several generic characters suggest affinities with three other genera of small buthids found in the Horn of Africa: Neobuthus Hirst, 1911, Gint Kovařík, Lowe, Plíšková et Šťáhlavský, 2013, and Lanzatus Kovařík, 1998.


Identification And Comparison Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi And Soil Microbiomes Between American Chestnuts And Surrounding Hardwoods, Sarah Andrews, Geoffrey Eger, Isabella Vahle 2021 Kennesaw State University

Identification And Comparison Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi And Soil Microbiomes Between American Chestnuts And Surrounding Hardwoods, Sarah Andrews, Geoffrey Eger, Isabella Vahle

Symposium of Student Scholars

Background/Questions/Methods

The introduction of the Chinese chestnut blight in 1904 decimated native American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkh.) populations. In this study we aim to: 1) document the location of individual chestnuts in our vicinity; 2) document healthy versus blight infected individuals; 3) characterize putative differences in the soil microbiome between infected and non-infected individuals, as well as between chestnuts and hardwood neighbors. With this information we hope to provide new insights into mechanisms that may enhance blight and fungal resistance in American chestnuts through the understanding of the interactions between the trees and their surrounding soil microbiome ...


Examining The Sustainability Of Restored Sub-Tidal Oyster Reefs In Coastal Louisiana, Sarah C. LeBlanc 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Examining The Sustainability Of Restored Sub-Tidal Oyster Reefs In Coastal Louisiana, Sarah C. Leblanc

LSU Master's Theses

Climate related alterations and anthropogenic disturbance threaten the ecological integrity and sustainability of coastal estuaries. Many activities seek to restore and sustain these at-risk areas with the goal of restoring systems to historic patterns of succession and community development; however long-term monitoring of restoration projects remains limited. Additionally, restoration efforts aim to achieve certain success thresholds, however, these thresholds are often vague, absent, or inconsistent, and receive little long-term analyses following restoration. A key coastal engineer, the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), provides multiple ecosystem services, but recent population decline has prompted investment in restoration. Restoration activities include cultch planting, reef ...


Introduction Of Native Podostemum Ceratophyllum Michx. (Podostemaceae, Hornleaf Riverweed) Into The Norwalk River, Wilton, Ct, Kelly Marie Nealon 2021 Western Connecticut State University

Introduction Of Native Podostemum Ceratophyllum Michx. (Podostemaceae, Hornleaf Riverweed) Into The Norwalk River, Wilton, Ct, Kelly Marie Nealon

MS in Integrated Biological Diversity

Podostemum ceratophyllum (Podostemaceae), “Hornleaf riverweed,” is a native aquatic flowering plant that occurs only attached to rocks in fast flowing water. The species occurs in much of eastern United States and Canada. Over the last several decades the species has notably declined in numbers, largely as a result of human induced factors. The ecological importance of P. ceratophyllum in rivers is well documented. This research is the first attempt to transplant the species into a river where it was not known to occur, with the goal of helping to mitigate the loss of populations. The plant was taken from two ...


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