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Patterns And Sources Of Variation In Heterospecific Pollen Deposition In Flowers Of The Native Blue Cardinal Flower (Lobelia Siphilitica), Allie Drinnon 2023 East Tennessee State University

Patterns And Sources Of Variation In Heterospecific Pollen Deposition In Flowers Of The Native Blue Cardinal Flower (Lobelia Siphilitica), Allie Drinnon

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Plants species interactions via pollinators are a model system to understand the mechanisms that generate plant diversity in nature. However, most studies have focused on plant-plant interactions via pollinator attraction while ignoring the role of plant-plant interactions via pollen transfer. Heterospecific pollen transfer (henceforth HP) can be common and have negative fitness effects. Negative HP fitness effects may prompt the evolution of adaptive strategies to minimize them. However, the extent of spatial variation in HP load size within and among populations, a tenet for natural selection, remains unexplored. Such knowledge would hence constitute a first step in advancing our understanding ...


In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi 2022 University of Hawaii at Hilo

In Vivo Efficacy Of Pyrantel Pamoate As A Post-Exposure Prophylactic For Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus Cantonensis), John Jacob, Argon Steel, Lisa Kaluna, Steven Hess, Israel Leinbach, Carmen Antaky, Robert Sugihara, Lindsey Hamilton, Peter Follett, Kathleen Howe, Steven Jacquier, Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit, Susan Jarvi

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is a neurotropic nematode, and the leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. The parasite is usually contracted through ingestion of infected gastropods, often hidden in raw or partially cooked produce. Pharmaceutical grade pyrantel pamoate was evaluated as a post-exposure prophylactic against A. cantonensis. Pyrantel pamoate is readily available over-the-counter in most pharmacies in the USA and possesses anthelmintic activity exclusive to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Administering pyrantel pamoate immediately after exposure should theoretically paralyze the larvae in the GIT, causing the larvae to be expelled via peristalsis without entering the systemic circulation. In this study, pyrantel ...


Elucidating Mechanisms Of Biofluorescence And Bioluminescence In Marine Organisms, Andrew M. Guarnaccia 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Elucidating Mechanisms Of Biofluorescence And Bioluminescence In Marine Organisms, Andrew M. Guarnaccia

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Biofluorescence and bioluminescence are two methods of light emission that entail separate mechanisms of action but end at the same process: a colorful display that have tremendous ecological and behavioral benefits, whether it be used to communicate with conspecifics, camouflage into a multicolored background, attract unsuspecting prey, or alert others to a predator. In biofluorescence, higher-energy, shorter wavelength light is absorbed then re-emitted as lower-energy, longer-wavelength light. Bioluminescence on the other hand entails a chemical reaction in which a small molecule is oxidized by an enzyme, creating a high-energy intermediate that sheds the excess energy in the form of visible ...


Epidemiological Assessment Of Wolbachia-Based Biocontrol For Reduction Of Dengue Morbidity, Olga Vasilieva, Oscar E. Escobar, Hector J. Martinez, Pierre-Alexandre Bliman, Yves Dumont 2022 Universidad Del Valle

Epidemiological Assessment Of Wolbachia-Based Biocontrol For Reduction Of Dengue Morbidity, Olga Vasilieva, Oscar E. Escobar, Hector J. Martinez, Pierre-Alexandre Bliman, Yves Dumont

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


De-Coupling Cell-Autonomous And Non-Cell-Autonomous Fitness Effects Allows Solution Of The Fokker-Planck Equation For The Evolution Of Interacting Populations, Steph J. Owen 2022 Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute

De-Coupling Cell-Autonomous And Non-Cell-Autonomous Fitness Effects Allows Solution Of The Fokker-Planck Equation For The Evolution Of Interacting Populations, Steph J. Owen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Gene Drives And The Consequences Of Over-Suppression, Cole Butler 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Gene Drives And The Consequences Of Over-Suppression, Cole Butler

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Parameter Estimation Using Nudging On The Logistic Growth Equation, Susan Rogowski 2022 Florida State University

Parameter Estimation Using Nudging On The Logistic Growth Equation, Susan Rogowski

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Bioeconomic Analysis In A Predator-Prey System With Harvesting: A Case Study In The Chesapeake Bay Fisheries, Iordanka Panayotova, Maila Hallare 2022 Christopher Newport University

Bioeconomic Analysis In A Predator-Prey System With Harvesting: A Case Study In The Chesapeake Bay Fisheries, Iordanka Panayotova, Maila Hallare

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Elevated Substitution Rates Among Wolbachia-Infected Mosquito Species Results In Apparent Phylogenetic Discordance., James E. Russell, Michael Saum, Rebekah Williams 2022 Georgia Gwinnett College

Elevated Substitution Rates Among Wolbachia-Infected Mosquito Species Results In Apparent Phylogenetic Discordance., James E. Russell, Michael Saum, Rebekah Williams

Georgia Journal of Science

As one of the most widely distributed bacterial cytoplasmic symbionts on earth, Wolbachia pipientis Hertig serves as a model organism for the understanding of host-symbiont interactions. Many mosquito species are infected with Wolbachia strains that induce a form of reproductive manipulation called cytoplasmic incompatibility, in which infected females gain a reproductive advantage over uninfected females in mixed infection populations. The selective advantage of cytoplasmic incompatibility often results in a population sweep of Wolbachia and co-transmitted mitochondrial genomes. Mitochondrial evolution and phylogenetic inferences drawn from mitochondrial gene sequences are thus potentially compromised by reproductive manipulating symbionts, like Wolbachia. Our initial analyses ...


A Test Of Food Partitioning Between The Aquatic Larvae Of Two Parapatric Species Of Two-Lined Salamander (Eurycea Bislineata Species Complex) In A Zone Of Sympatric Contact, Carlos D. Camp, S. Michael Owensby, Emily Benfield, Jessica A. Wooten 2022 Piedmont University

A Test Of Food Partitioning Between The Aquatic Larvae Of Two Parapatric Species Of Two-Lined Salamander (Eurycea Bislineata Species Complex) In A Zone Of Sympatric Contact, Carlos D. Camp, S. Michael Owensby, Emily Benfield, Jessica A. Wooten

Georgia Journal of Science

Phylogenetically related species with similar ecologies often partition resources when in sympatry. Food is an important factor in the co-occurrence of sympatric salamanders, and food partitioning occurs in a variety of sympatric, similar species. Several members of the Two-lined Salamander (Eurycea bislineata) species complex are largely parapatric but co-exist within a narrow zone of sympatric contact. Because larvae of these salamanders frequently occur in very high densities, we tested the hypothesis that larvae of the Blue Ridge Salamander (E. wilderae) and the Southern Two-lined Salamander (E. cirrigera) partition food in sympatry in northeastern Georgia. We predicted that the diets of ...


Review Of Orthochiroides Kovařík, 1998 With Description Of A New Species (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe 2022 Marshall University

Review Of Orthochiroides Kovařík, 1998 With Description Of A New Species (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe

Euscorpius

The genus Orthochiroides Kovařík, 1998 is reanalyzed. Revised diagnoses and new illustrations for the genus and all four of its species are presented. A new species, O. somalilandus sp. n. from Somaliland is described and illustrated. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus with several other similar genera of small buthids are inferred from a parsimony analysis of 43 discrete morphological characters. The recent synonymy of Orthochiroides with Orthochirus is refuted and the genus is revalidated.


Regional Landscape Transformation And Sustainability Of The Rural Homegarden Agroforestry System In The Chengdu Plain, China, ZHOU Lian, HUANG Xueyuan, ZHAO Chunmei, PU Tiancun, ZHANG Lei 2022 College of Landscape Architecture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China

Regional Landscape Transformation And Sustainability Of The Rural Homegarden Agroforestry System In The Chengdu Plain, China, Zhou Lian, Huang Xueyuan, Zhao Chunmei, Pu Tiancun, Zhang Lei

Regional Sustainability

Traditional rural homegarden agroforestry system in the Chengdu Plain of China, called “Linpan” in Chinese, integrates the ecological functions of the landscape with human production activities. Studying the driving mechanisms of rural landscape changes in the Chengdu Plain is of great significance from stakeholders’ perspective. Taking the Pidu Linpan Farming System (PLFS) in the suburban area of Chengdu (designated as one of China-Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems in 2020) as a case, this study combined remote sensing image analysis, oral history interviews, and focus group interviews to elucidate the driving forces of landscape changes in the PLFS. The results show ...


Hepatitis B And D: A Forecast On Actions Needed To Reduce Incidence And Achieve Elimination, Scott Greenhalgh, Andrew Klug 2022 Siena College

Hepatitis B And D: A Forecast On Actions Needed To Reduce Incidence And Achieve Elimination, Scott Greenhalgh, Andrew Klug

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

Viral hepatitis negatively affects the health of millions, with the worst health outcomes associated with the hepatitis D virus (HDV). Fortunately, HDV is rare and requires prior infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) before it can establish infection and transmit. Here, we develop a mathematical model of HBV and HDV transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa to investigate the effects of hepatitis B vaccination on both HBV and HDV. Our findings illustrate a hepatitis B vaccination rate above 0.006 year-1 reduces hepatitis D by over 90%, and a vaccination rate above 0.0221 year-1 reduces hepatitis B by ...


Reconstructing The Ecological Relationships Of Late Cretaceous Antarctic Dinosaurs And How Functional Tooth Morphology Influenced These Relationships, Ian D. Broxson 2022 Eastern Washington University

Reconstructing The Ecological Relationships Of Late Cretaceous Antarctic Dinosaurs And How Functional Tooth Morphology Influenced These Relationships, Ian D. Broxson

2022 Symposium

The Sandwich Bluff Formation of the James Ross Basin of Antarctica has recently yielded a group of five late Cretaceous dinosaurs that lived contemporaneously with each other, a first for Antarctica. These five dinosaurs include fragmentary remains of two differently sized elasmarian ornithopods, a possible megaraptor, a hadrosaur, and a nodosaur. In this study we will construct a model of the ecological relationships of late Cretaceous Antarctica. Additionally, we will look at what specific factors allowed this group of four herbivores and a carnivore to coexist in a restricted locality and what niches were filled by each species. Methods to ...


Trophish: Building A Global Database Of Freshwater Trophic Interactions, Jacob M. Ridgway 2022 University of South Dakota

Trophish: Building A Global Database Of Freshwater Trophic Interactions, Jacob M. Ridgway

Honors Thesis

Freshwater management and research frequently use the trophic data of freshwater fishes. Despite this fact, it is difficult to perform a simple search of dietary information for any one fish species. FishBase represents, to our knowledge, the largest compilation of freshwater dietary information to date. However, it excludes a large portion of the ecological literature due to its development taking place prior to the creation of most modern scientific search engines. Our project (TroPhish) is building upon FishBase by digitizing approximately 130 years of data from the fish predation literature. Data from the primary and grey (e.g. theses, dissertations ...


Quantifying The Relationship Between Pond Size And Water Quality, Rebekah Mason 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Quantifying The Relationship Between Pond Size And Water Quality, Rebekah Mason

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The water quality of ponds, streams, and groundwater is at risk due to agricultural and urban development. Implementation of ponds near developmental areas can act as catchment sites to reduce further water pollution (Bichsel et al., 2015). However, maintenance of pond water quality is necessary for continued water supply to livestock and general recreational use. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between pond size (surface area range from 142 to 5336 m2) and water quality. Analysis of water quality parameters, including dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, and chlorophyll-a, were conducted during the summer of 2021 and winter of ...


Using Community Science To Assess The Effect Of Wing Pattern And Weather On Butterfly Behavior, Abbigail Merrill 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Using Community Science To Assess The Effect Of Wing Pattern And Weather On Butterfly Behavior, Abbigail Merrill

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Signaling in insects is used as communication and for attraction of mates. The physical appearance of the insect as well as conditions such as weather can play a role in visual signaling, by influencing the wavelengths of light available, and subsequent signal detection. We do not know, however, whether signals butterflies present broadly correlate with how they behave. In this study, we looked at the wing patterns and behavior of butterflies in Northwest Arkansas over a 3.5-year period to assess the relationship between wing pattern, weather, and behavior. We used observational data collected by hundreds of University of Arkansas ...


A Comprehensive Bison Management And Research Plan For The Crane Trust, Joshua D. Wiese 2022 The Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust, Inc.

A Comprehensive Bison Management And Research Plan For The Crane Trust, Joshua D. Wiese

Other Publications in Wildlife Management

The Great Plains were once a vast grassland ecosystem, but, due to agricultural and human development, are one of the most endangered ecosystems in North America. What remains is generally fragmented, threatened by invasive species, and lacks the natural ecosystem processes that shaped these grasslands such as periodic wildfire and bison grazing. Since 1978, the Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust, Inc. (dba “Crane Trust”) has worked to maintain the function of grassland and riparian habitats to benefit endangered Whooping Cranes, Sandhill Cranes, and other migratory bird species. They protect ~8,100 acres, including the largest contiguous portion of lowland ...


The Effects Of Dissolved And Suspended Solids On Freshwater Meiofauna, Jessica Cline 2022 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

The Effects Of Dissolved And Suspended Solids On Freshwater Meiofauna, Jessica Cline

Honors Theses

Meiofauna include small-sized animals (< 1mm) distributed in all aquatic ecosystems on Earth, where they play fundamental trophic and ecological roles. The biodiversity of marine meiofauna and its links with anthropogenic activities is routinely investigated, however, freshwater communities are less known. This is particularly true for the Southeastern United States, which is greatly investigated and elected a hotspot of biodiversity for larger species but very little is known about the meiofauna. The purpose of this research is to reveal the biodiversity of meiofauna from the Tennessee River and test for potential correlations with anthropogenic activities. As a proxy for pollution, dissolved and suspended solids were considered in this study. The research hypothesis is that meiofaunal biodiversity would be affected by possible changes of dissolved and suspended solids in the water column. Possible mechanisms causing biodiversity shifts could be ascribed to osmotic stresses of animals to cope with variation in dissolved solids or, more indirectly, because different sunlight penetration caused by suspended solids would affect primary production. To test the hypothesis, water samples were collected from nine stations located along the Tennessee River in Hamilton County. Each station was visited three times, and, during each visit, environmental parameters (including dissolved and suspended solids) were measured. Meiofauna biodiversity (estimated as richness, community composition, and phylogenetic diversity) was revealed using a metagenomic approach. Statistical analyses were applied to test for possible correlations between the biodiversity estimates and the measured environmental parameters. Results show a high biodiversity of meiofauna with more than 200 amplicon-sequence variants distributed across 10 metazoan phyla. Environmental conditions are highly variable among stations and statistical analyses show that while both dissolved solids (TDS) and turbidity (suspended solids, NTU) did not significantly affect meiofauna biodiversity in the collected samples, various other water, and sediment metrics were found to be significant predictors of meiofauna biodiversity. In conclusion, the results of this project not only reveal for the first time the meiofauna biodiversity from the Tennessee River, but also suggest that meiofauna could be used as bioindicators for several anthropogenic activities in freshwater ecosystems.


Study Of Adaptive Radiation Effects On Sprint Performance In Anolis Ecomorphs, Alexander J. Bergeson 2022 University of South Dakota

Study Of Adaptive Radiation Effects On Sprint Performance In Anolis Ecomorphs, Alexander J. Bergeson

Honors Thesis

Anolis lizards have become model organisms for the study of adaptive radiation and convergent evolution due to repeated patterns of specialization that allow them to live in different environmental niches within the habitats they occur. As part of a suite of adaptations for living in specific habitats, many species have repeatedly evolved specific changes in anatomy and physiology that make them better able to perform and survive in their surroundings. These specialized forms are referred to as “ecomorphs” based on their preferred habitats and have been well documented among Caribbean anoles. Mainland species, on the other hand, are less studied ...


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