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Leveraging Bio-Inspired Molecules For Cancer Theranostics, Douglas S. MacPherson 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Leveraging Bio-Inspired Molecules For Cancer Theranostics, Douglas S. Macpherson

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A variety of molecules can be radiolabeled and delivered to a cancer site for the purposes of diagnostics and therapy. Among the most promising of tumor targeting molecules are peptides and antibodies. These bio-inspired molecules can be designed and synthesized to target and respond to cancer cells based on the properties of those cells. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes are over-expressed by some metastatic cancers, in which they are responsible for the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. In recent years, MMPs have emerged as promising targets for enzyme-responsive diagnostic probes because oligopeptides can be designed to be selectively hydrolyzed …


Analysis Of Biologically Effective Dose For Retroactive Yttrium-90 Trans-Arterial Radioembolization Treatment Optimization, MJ Lindsey 2023 Claremont McKenna College

Analysis Of Biologically Effective Dose For Retroactive Yttrium-90 Trans-Arterial Radioembolization Treatment Optimization, Mj Lindsey

CMC Senior Theses

Trans-arterial radioembolization (TARE) is a protracted modality of radiation therapy where radionuclides labeled with Yttrium-90 (90Y) are inserted inside a patient's hepatic artery to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While TARE has been shown to be a clinically effective and safe treatment, there is little understanding of the radiobiological relationship between absorbed dose and tissue response, and thus there is no dosimetric standard for treatment planning. The Biologically Effective Dose (BED) formalism, derived from the Linear-Quadratic model of radiobiology, is used to weigh the absorbed dose by the time pattern of delivery. BED is a virtual dose that can …


A Review On Nanomaterials And Nanohybrids Based Bio-Nanocomposites For Food Packaging, Kalpani Y. Perera, Amit K. Jaiswal, Swarna Jaiswal 2022 Technological University Dublin

A Review On Nanomaterials And Nanohybrids Based Bio-Nanocomposites For Food Packaging, Kalpani Y. Perera, Amit K. Jaiswal, Swarna Jaiswal

Articles

With an increasing demand for a novel, eco-friendly, high-performance packaging material “bio-nanocomposites” has attracted great attention in recent years. The review article aims at to evaluating recent innovation in bio-nanocomposites for food packaging applications. The current trends and research over the last three years of the various bio-nanocomposites including inorganic, organic nanomaterials, and nanohybrids, which are suitable as food packaging materials due to their advanced properties such as high mechanical, thermal, barrier, antimicrobial, and antioxidant are described in detail. In addition, the legislation, migration studies, and SWOT analysis on bio-nanocomposite film have been discussed. It has been observed that the …


Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill 2022 Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest

Therapies For Mitochondrial Disorders, Kayli Sousa Smyth, Anne Mulvihill

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Mitochondria are cytoplasmic, double-membrane organelles that synthesise adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria contain their own genome, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is maternally inherited from the oocyte. Mitochondrial proteins are encoded by either nuclear DNA (nDNA) or mtDNA, and both code for proteins forming the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes of the respiratory chain. These complexes form a chain that allows the passage of electrons down the electron transport chain (ETC) through a proton motive force, creating ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This study aims to explore current and prospective therapies for mitochondrial disorders (MTDS). MTDS are clinical syndromes coupled with abnormalities …


Sequencing An Inserted Concatemer In Caenorhabditis Elegans Strain Hlh-29::Gfp, Simon T. Anderson 2022 James Madison University

Sequencing An Inserted Concatemer In Caenorhabditis Elegans Strain Hlh-29::Gfp, Simon T. Anderson

Senior Honors Projects, 2020-current

Hairy/Enhancer of Split (HES) proteins and their homologs play vital roles in the development of animals, and in the regulation of cancer and other diseases. HLH-29 is an REF-1 family protein and a Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of human HES proteins. A transgenic animal model has been developed to facilitate analyses of this protein, containing an inserted concatemer of the green fluorescent protein reporter gene, regulated by the hlh-29 promoter, and a mutant rol-6 allele. Though the strain has been used previously, the location and structure of the insertion has been unknown. Sequencing of the whole hlh-29::gfp genome with high-molecular weight …


An Investigation Of The Effects Of Insulin And Magnesium On Bone Homeostasis In A 3d Bone Model, Katherine Lefferts 2022 Seton Hall University

An Investigation Of The Effects Of Insulin And Magnesium On Bone Homeostasis In A 3d Bone Model, Katherine Lefferts

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes formation, degradation, and repair in a constant state of remodeling. Bone remodeling is performed and regulated by three cell types: osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. Bone homeostasis, the balance of bone formation and resorption, is regulated by biologically active substances secreted by the three bone cell types, as well as circulating hormones and proteins in the body. Insulin is the main anabolic hormone in the body, and its effects on bone homeostasis and regulation are still being uncovered. Magnesium is a trace element that is critical to bone homeostasis. It affects the secretion of …


Detecting Bacterial Species From Ancient Human Skeletal Samples, Ariel Owens, Daisy McGrath, Tsai-Tien Tseng 2022 Kennesaw State University

Detecting Bacterial Species From Ancient Human Skeletal Samples, Ariel Owens, Daisy Mcgrath, Tsai-Tien Tseng

Symposium of Student Scholars

Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) via morphological analysis is difficult and often inconsistent. With next-generation sequencing (NGS), ancient host microbiomes can be subjected to metagenomic analyses for the detection of TB in silico. Suitable bioinformatic workflows are needed for reliable ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis of causative agents. This study aims to enhance available bioinformatic screening methods to create more suitable bioinformatic processes and generate insights in relation to TB.

This research utilizes publicly available NGS data accessed through the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Initial quality control steps included adapter trimming with Trim …


Clove Essential Oil And Nanoclays-Based Active Food Packaging, Kalpani Y. Perera, Shubham Sharma, Amit K. Jaiswal, Swarna Jaiswal 2022 Technological University Dublin

Clove Essential Oil And Nanoclays-Based Active Food Packaging, Kalpani Y. Perera, Shubham Sharma, Amit K. Jaiswal, Swarna Jaiswal

Articles

Active food packaging materials enhance the shelf-life of food products while reducing food waste. The current study aims to develop a biodegradable active food packaging material. The food packaging material was developed with the incorporation of clove essential oil, sodium alginate, gelatin, and nanoclay films were prepared. The influences of nanoclay and clove on the surface, optical, mechanical, chemical, barrier, and pH-indicating properties were studied. The lightness and yellowness increased by 1.06 folds and 3.34 folds when compared to clove (control), respectively. The UV barrier property 0.08±0.01nm in all films, while 8.37 folds reduction in transparency has been observed as …


A Systematic Literature Review On The Capability Of Sio₂-Np’S Exposure To Exacerbate Parkinson’S (Pd) Pathology And The Risk Factors For Biomedical Applications In Pd, Seth Abdallah 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

A Systematic Literature Review On The Capability Of Sio₂-Np’S Exposure To Exacerbate Parkinson’S (Pd) Pathology And The Risk Factors For Biomedical Applications In Pd, Seth Abdallah

Capstone Experience

Silica Dioxide nanoparticles (SiO₂-NP) have become increasingly ubiquitous in industry, which has stimulated research into the potential toxicity of these compounds. Recent studies have explored the association between amorphous silica nanoparticle exposure and the potential for neurotoxicity. Additionally, research has been conducted in the application of SiO₂-NP’s in theranostics and as drug directing agents , which based on current literature may be contraindicated for individuals with conditions such as Parkinson's Disease (PD) which is characterized by neuroinflammation. The following literature review will discuss evidence for silica dioxide nanoparticle exposure to induce neurotoxicity which may exacerbate neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. …


Characterization Of Algerian Apricots (Prunus Armeniaca) Using Morphological And Pomological Markers, Kaouther Boutiti, Ines Bellil, Douadi Khelifi 2022 Laboratoire de Génétique Biochimie et Biotechnologies Végétales, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université Frères Mentouri Constantine 1, Constantine, Algeria

Characterization Of Algerian Apricots (Prunus Armeniaca) Using Morphological And Pomological Markers, Kaouther Boutiti, Ines Bellil, Douadi Khelifi

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of an Algerian apricot germplasm. This Algerian apricot was characterized by a green-yellow skin, a red ground color, and a light orange flesh color in general. Besides, highly positive and negative significant correlations were revealed between the studied characters. Whereby, the principal component analysis explained 81% of the variability. Fruit, stone and leaves dimensions were the main features that explained evidentially the majority of variability. Moreover, the cluster analysis divided the accessions into two major groups. Thus, Algerian accessions selected in this study may have the potential to be used …


Heterodimerization Between Chemokine Receptors Cxcr4 And Ccr7 And Its Role In Cancer, Maryam Naveed Muhammad Tariq 2022 United Arab Emirates University

Heterodimerization Between Chemokine Receptors Cxcr4 And Ccr7 And Its Role In Cancer, Maryam Naveed Muhammad Tariq

Theses

In physiology, the functional and physical interactions between cell surface receptors for signal molecules such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and cytokines, provides an important mechanism of diversity and regulation of signal transduction. Therefore, investigating the functional interactions between these receptors is of great importance for understanding their role in physiology and pathophysiology with potential application in drug discovery. In this context, numerous evidences support the implication of two chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CCR7, in many cancer types. In this study, we hypothesized that the functional, and perhaps the physical interaction, occurring between CXCR4 and CCR7 may constitute one of the key …


Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Comparison Of The Humoral Immune Response Following Both Bacterial Challenge And Rnai Of Major Factors On Proliferation Of Bartonella Quintana In The Human Louse, Jake Zina

Masters Theses

Human body lice, Pediculus humanus humanus, and head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have been hematophagous ectoparasites of humans for thousands of years. Despite being ecotypes, only body lice are known to transmit bacterial diseases to humans, and it appears that lower humoral and cellular immune responses allow body lice to possess a higher vector competence. We previously observed that the transcription level of the defensin 1 gene was up-regulated only in head lice following oral challenge of Bartonella quintana, a causative agent of trench fever, and also that body lice excreted more viable B. quintana in their …


Intracellular Delivery Of Therapeutic Biomolecules Through Versatile Polymer Nanotechnology, David C. Luther 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Intracellular Delivery Of Therapeutic Biomolecules Through Versatile Polymer Nanotechnology, David C. Luther

Doctoral Dissertations

Advancing pharmaceutical technology has made it possible to treat diseases once considered ‘undruggable.’ Access to these new pharmaceutical targets is possible thanks to the advent of protein and nucleic acid therapeutics. Responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as cutting-edge treatments for cancer and multiple sclerosis have centered on these biologic therapies, promising even greater value in the future. However, their utility is limited at a cellular level by inability to cross the plasma membrane. Nanocarrier technologies encapsulate therapeutics and facilitate uptake into the cell but are often trapped and degraded in endosomes. Arginine-functionalized gold nanoparticles (Arg-NPs) provide efficient, direct …


Using The Embl-Ebi Clustal Omega Tool To Calculate Diversity Of Heavy Chain Phage-Display Libraries, Michael Bodri, Shane A. Webb 2022 University of North Georgia

Using The Embl-Ebi Clustal Omega Tool To Calculate Diversity Of Heavy Chain Phage-Display Libraries, Michael Bodri, Shane A. Webb

Georgia Journal of Science

Here we show that traditional Sanger sequencing combined with analysis tools available from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), specifically EMBOSS Transeq and Clustal Omega, is extremely effective in the analysis of naïve phage display antibody libraries for the determination of library size and diversity. The free tools are easy to use and require little manipulation of reads by hand, allowing analysis to be performed on a standard personal computer. Utilization of this technique has applicability to researchers with limited access to deep sequencing. The primary drawback to this analysis methodology is that antibodies with particular molecular or …


Leaf Phenology And Freeze Tolerance Of The Invasive Tree Pyrus Calleryana (Roseaceae) And Potential Native Competitors, Margaret E. Maloney, Abby Hay, Eric B. Borth, Ryan W. McEwan 2022 University of Dayton

Leaf Phenology And Freeze Tolerance Of The Invasive Tree Pyrus Calleryana (Roseaceae) And Potential Native Competitors, Margaret E. Maloney, Abby Hay, Eric B. Borth, Ryan W. Mcewan

Biology Faculty Publications

Pyrus calleryana is one of the most problematic invasive species in the eastern United States. The mechanisms that enable Py. calleryana to establish and outcompete native plants are not fully understood but likely include a profile of advantageous traits. Extended leaf phenology is a characteristic noted in many woody invasive plants. Leaf phenology of Py. calleryana and two native woody species, Populus deltoides and Platanus occidentalis, was observed in natural areas near Dayton, OH from December 2019 to November 2020. A frost event in May also gave us the serendipitous opportunity to assess frost tolerance of these species. We …


Reproducibility Of Protein X-Ray Diffuse Scattering And Potential Utility For Modeling Atomic Displacement Parameters, Zhen Su, Medhanjali Dasgupta, Frédéric Poitevin, Irimpan I. Mathews, Henry van den Bedem, Michael E. Wall, Chun Hong Yoon, Mark A. Wilson 2022 SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, University of California

Reproducibility Of Protein X-Ray Diffuse Scattering And Potential Utility For Modeling Atomic Displacement Parameters, Zhen Su, Medhanjali Dasgupta, Frédéric Poitevin, Irimpan I. Mathews, Henry Van Den Bedem, Michael E. Wall, Chun Hong Yoon, Mark A. Wilson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Protein structure and dynamics can be probed using x-ray crystallography. Whereas the Bragg peaks are only sensitive to the average unit-cell electron density, the signal between the Bragg peaks—diffuse scattering—is sensitive to spatial correlations in electron-density variations. Although diffuse scattering contains valuable information about protein dynamics, the diffuse signal is more difficult to isolate from the background compared to the Bragg signal, and the reproducibility of diffuse signal is not yet well understood. We present a systematic study of the reproducibility of diffuse scattering from isocyanide hydratase in three different protein forms. Both replicate diffuse datasets and datasets obtained from …


Development And Optimization Of An Immunoassay For The Detection Of Antibodies Against Sars-Cov-2 With In-House Recombinant Rbd Protein, Safira Pinaka Pramestika Ratu, Silmi Mariya, Rachmitasari Noviana, Uus Saepuloh, Huda Salahudin Darusman 2022 Biotechnology, Multidiciplinary Program, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

Development And Optimization Of An Immunoassay For The Detection Of Antibodies Against Sars-Cov-2 With In-House Recombinant Rbd Protein, Safira Pinaka Pramestika Ratu, Silmi Mariya, Rachmitasari Noviana, Uus Saepuloh, Huda Salahudin Darusman

Makara Journal of Science

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 poses a major threat to the global community, particularly in Indonesia. Countermeasures to prevent the spread of this disease have also been implemented, including the implementation of a vaccination program. An immunoassay technique that can be used to analyze antibodies that might develop following vaccination is the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We produced the recombinant spike protein used in this study. The optimization comprised adjusted concentrations of spike recombinant protein (5 and 10 ng/mL), blocking agent (2.5% and 5%), and conjugate (1:1000 and 1:5000). The optimal conditions in this study included a spiked concentration of …


Mutation Of Aspergillus Sp. Using Ultraviolet Light And Nitrous Acid For Amylase Production From Banana Peels, Cyprian Erumiseli Oshoma, Johnson Oche Akor, Beckley Ikhajiagbe, Marcel James Ikenebomeh 2022 Department of Microbiology, University of Benin, Benin City 300213, Nigeria

Mutation Of Aspergillus Sp. Using Ultraviolet Light And Nitrous Acid For Amylase Production From Banana Peels, Cyprian Erumiseli Oshoma, Johnson Oche Akor, Beckley Ikhajiagbe, Marcel James Ikenebomeh

Makara Journal of Science

Strain improvement through mutagenesis is important in the commercial development of microbial fermentation. This study aimed to produce amylase from banana (Musa sapientum) peels by using mutant Aspergillus sp. strains obtained via ultraviolet (UV) radiation and nitrous acid-based mutagenesis. Results revealed that banana peels pretreated with 0.8 N HCl had a biomass yield of 3.02 g/L and amylase activity of 2.81 U/L. Of the UV mutants, strain AUV1 had the highest biomass and amylase activity of 4.50 ± 0.21 g/L and 3.46 ± 0.14 U/L, respectively. Subsequently, HNO2 mutants showed that strain ANA6 had 30.64% and …


Editorial: Function And Formation Of Mitochondrial Metalloproteome, Michał Wasilewski, Vishal M. Gohil, Oleh Khalimonchuk 2022 Polish Academy of Sciences

Editorial: Function And Formation Of Mitochondrial Metalloproteome, Michał Wasilewski, Vishal M. Gohil, Oleh Khalimonchuk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


In Silico Screening Of Violacein As An Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor, Smitha S Bhat, Sindhu R, Shashanka K Prasad 2022 Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore

In Silico Screening Of Violacein As An Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor, Smitha S Bhat, Sindhu R, Shashanka K Prasad

International Journal of Health and Allied Sciences

EGFR is a key player in the signalling cascades of various kinds of cancers and tyrosine kinase inhibitors block EGFR signalling. Natural products have long been used as candidates for therapy in the management of cancer. Violacein, a bacterial pigment, has been known for its numerous biological applications such as antimicrobial, antileishmanial, antiviral, as well as antitumoral. Computational studies have concluded that it may have activity against cancers like pancreatic cancer, thyroid cancer, colorectal cancer, and endometrial cancer indicating its potential application as a broad range of anti-cancerous drug. This study aimed to perform the molecular docking of violacein with …


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