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Balancing Renewable Energy And River Resources By Moving From Individual Assessments Of Hydropower Projects To Energy System Planning, Jeffrey J. Opperman, Juan Pablo Carvallo, Rafael Kelman, Rafael J. P. Schmitt, Rafael M. Almeida, Emily Chapin, Alexander Flecker, Marc Goichot, Guenther Guenther Grill, Julien J. Harou 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Balancing Renewable Energy And River Resources By Moving From Individual Assessments Of Hydropower Projects To Energy System Planning, Jeffrey J. Opperman, Juan Pablo Carvallo, Rafael Kelman, Rafael J. P. Schmitt, Rafael M. Almeida, Emily Chapin, Alexander Flecker, Marc Goichot, Guenther Guenther Grill, Julien J. Harou

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

As governments and non-state actors strive to minimize global warming, a primary strategy is the decarbonization of power systems which will require a massive increase in renewable electricity generation. Leading energy agencies forecast a doubling of global hydropower capacity as part of that necessary expansion of renewables. While hydropower provides generally low-carbon generation and can integrate variable renewables, such as wind and solar, into electrical grids, hydropower dams are one of the primary reasons that only one-third of the world’s major rivers remain free-flowing. This loss of free-flowing rivers has contributed to dramatic declines of migratory fish and sediment delivery …


Comstock Point, Lubec, Maine - A Natural And Photographic History, Willaim H. Schlesinger, Lisa M. Dellwo 2022 The University of Maine

Comstock Point, Lubec, Maine - A Natural And Photographic History, Willaim H. Schlesinger, Lisa M. Dellwo

Documents from Environmental Organizations

A natural and photographic history of our lands compiled by Lisa Dellwo and Bill Schlesinger, with the help of many friends and neighbors.


Effects Of Elevated Temperature On 8-Ohdg Expression In The American Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica): Induction Of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers, Cellular Apoptosis, Dna Damage And Γh2ax Signaling Pathways, Md Faizur Rahman, Mohammad Maruf Billah, Richard J. Kline, Md Saydur Rahman 2022 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Effects Of Elevated Temperature On 8-Ohdg Expression In The American Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica): Induction Of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers, Cellular Apoptosis, Dna Damage And Γh2ax Signaling Pathways, Md Faizur Rahman, Mohammad Maruf Billah, Richard J. Kline, Md Saydur Rahman

Earth, Environmental, and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Global temperature is increasing due to anthropogenic activities and the effects of elevated temperature on DNA lesions are not well documented in marine organisms. The American oyster (Crassostrea virginica, an edible and commercially important marine mollusk) is an ideal shellfish species to study oxidative DNA lesions during heat stress. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated temperatures (24, 28, and 32 °C for one-week exposure) on heat shock protein-70 (HSP70, a biomarker of heat stress), 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a biomarker of pro-mutagenic DNA lesion), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), γ-histone family member X (γH2AX, a molecular biomarker of DNA damage), …


Examining The Relationship Between Stomiiform Fish Morphology And Their Ecological Traits, Mikayla L. Twiss 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Examining The Relationship Between Stomiiform Fish Morphology And Their Ecological Traits, Mikayla L. Twiss

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Trait-based ecology characterizes individuals’ functional attributes to better understand and predict their interactions with other species and their environments. Utilizing morphological traits to describe functional groups has helped group species with similar ecological niches that are not necessarily taxonomically related. Within the deep-pelagic fishes, the Order Stomiiformes exhibits high morphological and species diversity, and many species undertake diel vertical migration (DVM). While the morphology and behavior of stomiiform fishes have been extensively studied and described through taxonomic assessments, the connection between their form and function regarding their DVM types, morphotypes, and daytime depth distributions is not well known. Here, three …


Performance Analysis: Using The Northern Sea Route As An Alternative To Traditional Routes, Liangkun Xu, Qing Yu 2022 Navigation College, Jimei University, Xiamen, China

Performance Analysis: Using The Northern Sea Route As An Alternative To Traditional Routes, Liangkun Xu, Qing Yu

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

The grounding accident of M/V EVER GIVEN in the Suez Canal causes a catastrophic loss on shipping companies. Alternatively, previous studies have presented encouraging findings of the remarkable benefits of time and cost saving in the Northern sea route (NSR) due to extend the ice-free time and shorten the distance. Ships using the NSR could shorten as much as 40% of the sailing distance from China (Shanghai) to Europe (Rotterdam) compared with the traditional route via the Suez Canal. This paper investigates the economic potential of using the NSR as a cost-effective route in comparison with Suez Canal Route (SCR) …


Numerical And Approximate Analytic Solutions Of Second- Order Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems, Chein-Shan Liu, Jian-Hung Shen, Yung-Wei Chen 2022 Center of Excellence for Ocean Engineering, Center of Excellence for the Oceans, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20231, Taiwan

Numerical And Approximate Analytic Solutions Of Second- Order Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems, Chein-Shan Liu, Jian-Hung Shen, Yung-Wei Chen

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

The shooting method consists of guessing unknown initial values, transforming a second-order nonlinear boundary value problem (BVP) to an initial value problem and integrating it to obtain the values at the right end to match the specified boundary condition, which acts as a target equation. In the shooting method, the key issue is accurately solving the target equation to obtain highly precise initial values. Due to the implicit and nonlinear property, we develop a generalized derivative-free Newton method (GDFNM) to solve the target equation, which offers very accurate initial values. Numerical examples are examined to show that the shooting method …


Optimization Of Circular Silencers Internally Hybridized With Multiple Reverse Chambers Using The Ga Method, Min-Chie Chiu, Ying-Chun Chang, Tian-Syung Lan, Ho-Sheng Chen 2022 Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei, 10452, Taiwan, ROC

Optimization Of Circular Silencers Internally Hybridized With Multiple Reverse Chambers Using The Ga Method, Min-Chie Chiu, Ying-Chun Chang, Tian-Syung Lan, Ho-Sheng Chen

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

A noise abatement method using an eigen function in conjunction with an optimizer (Genetic Algorithm) under a space-constrain situation is proposed in this study concerning a high order wave propagation effect. An eigen function is used to describe an acoustical field and shorten the acoustical model in a four-pole transfer matrix form. The system’s four-pole matrix estimates the Transmission Loss (TL) for the silencers by multiplying individual four-pole matrices.

Additionally, a case study of an air compressor’s broadband noise elimination is introduced. Three types of circular reverse silencers (silencers A-C) internally hybridized with multiple straight chambers are adopted to efficiently …


Numerical Investigation Of The Uncertainty Of Typhoon Wave Parameters Retrieval Using Hf Radar, Toan Duy Dao, Hwa Chien 2022 Institute of Hydrological & Oceanic Sciences, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China

Numerical Investigation Of The Uncertainty Of Typhoon Wave Parameters Retrieval Using Hf Radar, Toan Duy Dao, Hwa Chien

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

The aim of this study was to identify the sources of uncertainties of typhoon wave field monitoring using HF radar and to quantitatively assess the bias of the wave parameters, such as significant wave height and mean period, retrieved under various conditions. The strategy was to apply a purely numerical simulation of the Doppler-range spectra and then compare the estimation results to the target. For the quantitative investigation, a numerical test-bed was established. The test-bed was used to simulate the Doppler spectra based on Barrick’s (1972) theory by using the input of the directional wave spectra. The typhoon wave spectra …


A Fused Data Based Real-Time Collision Warning System For Ferries In The Yangtze River, Xiaojia Liu, Ke Zhang, Han Xue, Yingtang Li 2022 School of Navigation, Jimei University, 1 Jiageng Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361021, China

A Fused Data Based Real-Time Collision Warning System For Ferries In The Yangtze River, Xiaojia Liu, Ke Zhang, Han Xue, Yingtang Li

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

The risks for ferries in the Yangtze River are relatively high, as they frequently cross the main traffic flows, leading to more intersections with other upwards and downwards ships. Although some studies have developed many models to assess collision risks in the Yangtze River, collision warning studies on ferries are scant. Meanwhile, most of the current collision studies evaluate risk based on AIS data, which are incapable of providing real-time ship information as they are discrete-time series data. In this work, fused data combining radar and AIS data are applied in a real-time ship collision warning model to assess the …


Experimental Study Of The Effect Of A Solid Wing Conveyor On Marine Debris Collection, Erik Sugianto, Jeng-Horng Chen 2022 Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronic Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan

Experimental Study Of The Effect Of A Solid Wing Conveyor On Marine Debris Collection, Erik Sugianto, Jeng-Horng Chen

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Marine debris is a global problem that has not been resolved. This has encouraged the emergence of marine debris cleaning technologies, one of which is a conveyor ship. However, how effective conveyors are in collecting waste has not been studied. In this paper, experimental research on conveyors as marine debris collectors is investigated. The capability of catamarans with or without solid wing conveyors to collect marine debris is explored. Three kinds of marine debris collection models are used: no-wing conveyor, a 12.5-cm-long wing conveyor, and an 18.75-cm-long wing conveyor. Artificial marine debris (AMD) is spread on the water surface in …


Solving Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems With Nonlinear Integral Boundary Conditions By Local And Nonlocal Boundary Shape Functions Methods, Chein-Shan Liu, Yung-Wei Chen, Jian-Hung Shen 2022 Center of Excellence for Ocean Engineering, Center of Excellence for the Oceans, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20231, Taiwan

Solving Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems With Nonlinear Integral Boundary Conditions By Local And Nonlocal Boundary Shape Functions Methods, Chein-Shan Liu, Yung-Wei Chen, Jian-Hung Shen

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

The paper considers the second-order nonlinear boundary value problem (NBVP), which is equipped with nonlinear integral boundary conditions (BCs). Two novel iterative algorithms are developed to overcome the difficulty of NBVP with double nonlinearities involved. In the first iterative algorithm, two nonlocal shape functions incorporating the linear integral terms are derived, and a nonlocal boundary shape function (NBSF) is formulated to assist the solution. Let the solution be the NBSF so that the NBVP can be exactly transformed into an initial value problem. The new variable is a free function in the NBSF, and its initial values are given. For …


Integrative Revision Of Five Genera Type Species For Zoanthidea To Bridge The Parataxonomy Gap, Jacob Colbert 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Integrative Revision Of Five Genera Type Species For Zoanthidea To Bridge The Parataxonomy Gap, Jacob Colbert

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Cnidarian order Zoanthidea is a relatively understudied group of invertebrates inhabiting a diverse range of marine habitats. Over/During the last two decades, species descriptions within this order have largely been based on a novel molecular parataxonomic system that relies almost exclusively on DNA barcodes to detect and describe new species. DNA barcodes are short, conserved sequences that are readily compared across taxa and used to detect previously described species. The existing taxonomic system, based on anatomical analysis and the identification of evolutionarily informative characters for phylogenetic inference, has been recently replaced by molecular parataxonomy by some scientists/researchers. While molecular sequence …


Caribbean Reef-Building Coral-Symbiodiniaceae Network: Identifying Symbioses Critical For System Stability In A Changing Climate, Shaman Patel 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Caribbean Reef-Building Coral-Symbiodiniaceae Network: Identifying Symbioses Critical For System Stability In A Changing Climate, Shaman Patel

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Increasing global ocean temperatures and frequency of marine heatwaves pose dire consequences for coral reefs. High temperatures often lead to disruptions in coral symbiosis resulting in coral bleaching, increasing the mortality of corals. However, corals can potentially avoid bleaching peril by associating with thermally tolerant symbionts. Here we provide a tool for understanding symbiosis network stability of Caribbean reef-building corals. We created a network of Caribbean hermatypic corals and their associated Symbiodiniaceae phylotypes. A bleaching model was applied to this network to test for resilience and robustness (R50) to thermal stress. It was also layered with trait data for coral …


Crustacean Assemblage Structure Over The Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone Of The Mid-Atlantic Ridge Collected During The 2009 Henry B. Bigelow Expedition, Kathryn Medina 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Crustacean Assemblage Structure Over The Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone Of The Mid-Atlantic Ridge Collected During The 2009 Henry B. Bigelow Expedition, Kathryn Medina

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

The Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ) consists of two nearly parallel fracture transform faults that intersect the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) axis. This area has high primary productivity and biomass levels due to the topography and water. A predominant hydrographic feature of the MAR is the Sub-Polar Front (SPF) which runs along the southern edge of the CGFZ and is known as a biogeographical boundary for multiple species. As part of The Census of Marine Life project Patterns and Processes of the Ecosystem of the northern Mid-Atlantic (MAR-ECO), this study analyzed the abundance and distribution patterns of the CGFZ crustacean community …


Using Xbeach To Describe The Performance Of An Intertidal Vegetation Shoreline Stabilization Treatment, Elizabeth Winter 2022 University of South Alabama

Using Xbeach To Describe The Performance Of An Intertidal Vegetation Shoreline Stabilization Treatment, Elizabeth Winter

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this project is to predict the hydrodynamic and morphodynamics of an engineered vegetation-only shoreline restoration project in Little Lagoon, Alabama under different storm and sea level rise scenarios. Little Lagoon is a shallow, single-inlet lagoon located in Baldwin County, Alabama that has been experiencing shoreline erosion for the past 28 years. A living shoreline using vegetation only (Spartina alterniflora) was implemented in the southwest corner of the lagoon, located within Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge, to create habitat, improve water quality, and prevent future erosion. This research compares “with-project” and “without-project” hydrodynamics and morphodynamics using XBeach in …


How Low Can You Go? Expanding Oyster Tidal Niche With Predator Induction, Carter Lin 2022 University of South Alabama

How Low Can You Go? Expanding Oyster Tidal Niche With Predator Induction, Carter Lin

Theses and Dissertations

An oyster’s realized niche is constrained by different stressors based on tidal elevation, such as desiccation or benthic predators. These factors constrain survival and set the boundary for their realized niche. Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) also harden their shells in response to predation risk which reduces their mortality. We performed an empirical study to investigate if this defense mechanism could be manipulated to expand their realized niche. We raised oysters in the presence of blue crab predators (Callinectes sapidus) or in controls sans predators, then monitored their survival at different tidal elevations. Oyster survival was significantly higher in the highest …


Legacy Metal Contamination Is Reflected In The Fish Gut Microbiome In An Urbanised Estuary, Alessandra L. Suzzi, Michael Stat, Geoff R. MacFarlane, Justin R. Seymour, Nathan L. R. Williams, Troy F. Gaston, Md Rushna Alam, Megan J. Huggett 2022 Edith Cowan University

Legacy Metal Contamination Is Reflected In The Fish Gut Microbiome In An Urbanised Estuary, Alessandra L. Suzzi, Michael Stat, Geoff R. Macfarlane, Justin R. Seymour, Nathan L. R. Williams, Troy F. Gaston, Md Rushna Alam, Megan J. Huggett

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Estuaries are critical habitats subject to a range of stressors requiring effective management. Microbes are gaining recognition as effective environmental indicators, however, the response of host associated communities to stressors remains poorly understood. We examined microbial communities from seawater, sediments and the estuarine fish Pelates sexlineatus, in Australia's largest urbanised estuary, and hypothesised that anthropogenic contamination would be reflected in the microbiology of these sample types. The human faecal markers Lachno3 and HF183 were not detected, indicating negligible influence of sewage, but a gradient in copy numbers of the class 1 integron (intI-1), which is often used as …


Long-Term Patterns Of An Interconnected Core Marine Microbiota, Anders K. Krabberød, Ina M. Deutschmann, Marit F. M. Bjorbækmo, Vanessa Balagué, Caterina R. Giner, Isabel Ferrera, Esther Garcés, Ramon Massana, Josep M. Gasol, Ramiro Logares 2022 Edith Cowan University

Long-Term Patterns Of An Interconnected Core Marine Microbiota, Anders K. Krabberød, Ina M. Deutschmann, Marit F. M. Bjorbækmo, Vanessa Balagué, Caterina R. Giner, Isabel Ferrera, Esther Garcés, Ramon Massana, Josep M. Gasol, Ramiro Logares

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Background Ocean microbes constitute ~ 70% of the marine biomass, are responsible for ~ 50% of the Earth’s primary production and are crucial for global biogeochemical cycles. Marine microbiotas include core taxa that are usually key for ecosystem function. Despite their importance, core marine microbes are relatively unknown, which reflects the lack of consensus on how to identify them. So far, most core microbiotas have been defined based on species occurrence and abundance. Yet, species interactions are also important to identify core microbes, as communities include interacting species. Here, we investigate interconnected bacteria and small protists of the core pelagic …


Wildfires Enhance Phytoplankton Production In Tropical Oceans, Dongyan Liu, Chongran Zhou, John K. Keesing, Oscar Serrano, Axel Werner, Yin Fang, Yingjun Chen, Pere Masque, Janine Kinloch, Aleksey Sadekov, Yan Du 2022 Edith Cowan University

Wildfires Enhance Phytoplankton Production In Tropical Oceans, Dongyan Liu, Chongran Zhou, John K. Keesing, Oscar Serrano, Axel Werner, Yin Fang, Yingjun Chen, Pere Masque, Janine Kinloch, Aleksey Sadekov, Yan Du

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Wildfire magnitude and frequency have greatly escalated on a global scale. Wildfire products rich in biogenic elements can enter the ocean through atmospheric and river inputs, but their contribution to marine phytoplankton production is poorly understood. Here, using geochemical paleo-reconstructions, a century-long relationship between wildfire magnitude and marine phytoplankton production is established in a fire-prone region of Kimberley coast, Australia. A positive correlation is identified between wildfire and phytoplankton production on a decadal scale. The importance of wildfire on marine phytoplankton production is statistically higher than that of tropical cyclones and rainfall, when strong El Niño Southern Oscillation coincides with …


Resource Document On The Nexus Between Animal Welfare, The Environment, And Sustainable Development, WellBeing International 2022 WellBeing International

Resource Document On The Nexus Between Animal Welfare, The Environment, And Sustainable Development, Wellbeing International

Nexus – UNEP – Animal Welfare, Environment, Sustainable Development

This Resource Document has been developed to explore the Nexus (links) between Animal Welfare, the Environment, and Sustainable Development. The document includes relevant citations and reports addressing the topics encompassed by the Nexus. It will be maintained as a “living document” (subject to revision) in the WellBeing International Studies Repository. The original document and subsequent revisions will be kept in the Repository to provide a record of the changes.


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