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The Covid-19 Pandemic And The Importance Of Financing The Biotechnology Industry In South Africa, Ramazan Uctu, Karen Eksteen 2022 American University of Iraq-Sulaimani, Iraq; Stellenbosch University, South Africa

The Covid-19 Pandemic And The Importance Of Financing The Biotechnology Industry In South Africa, Ramazan Uctu, Karen Eksteen

The Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance

Whether it is a government research institution, a public-private partnership, or a private enterprise, the South African biotechnology industry requires funding for the biotechnology industry. Our goal with this research is to look into the role of venture capital (VC) in financing biotech enterprises and demonstrate how VC finance could aid in the development of diagnostic kits and vaccines for Covid-19 or future pandemics in South Africa.

The study aims to provide policymakers with a clear image of the importance of funding the biotechnology sector, notably during the Covid-19 period, as recognized by the industry's key players. We employed a …


Mechanism Of Antibiotic Permeability Through The Gram-Negative Bacterial Envelope, Olaniyi Alegun 2022 University of Kentucky

Mechanism Of Antibiotic Permeability Through The Gram-Negative Bacterial Envelope, Olaniyi Alegun

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria (GN) makes them distinct among superbugs that are associated with the development of antibiotic resistance. The outer membrane, and inner membrane, separated by the periplasm, form a double-membrane barrier to the entry of antibiotics into the cell. Several studies have been conducted to examine the role of outer membrane modifications such as porins, lipopolysaccharides, and efflux pumps on antibiotic resistance. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on how antibiotics behave in the periplasm, to gain access into their target region. My thesis focuses on understanding the mechanism of antibiotic permeability through the cellular …


Designing Virtual Reality Headsets To Prevent Myopia, Kyril van Schendel 2022 Claremont Colleges

Designing Virtual Reality Headsets To Prevent Myopia, Kyril Van Schendel

CMC Senior Theses

Virtual reality (VR) headsets are currently being designed and developed for consumer use. Simultaneously, the rate of myopic development is increasing around the world. Little is known about the connection between the proximity viewing in VR headsets and myopic development. The past three decades of research have indicated a probable relationship between near-work activities and the development of myopia. Based on the current research, VR headsets do not appear to induce a strong myopiagenic stimulus on axial elongation. This paper offers a potential explanation and proposes a set of design recommendations for designing future VR headsets that prevent myopia.


Design And Development Of Medical Devices For Multifaceted Applications, Madisyn Messmore 2022 University of Central Florida

Design And Development Of Medical Devices For Multifaceted Applications, Madisyn Messmore

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The fields of biotechnology and biomedical sciences are rapidly evolving and involve the constant growth of knowledge. As a consequence, engineering design has to also remain at the cutting edge in order to not inhibit the growth of these fields. This study focuses on engineering design and analysis as it pertains to the field of biotechnology, at every step of the engineering process. More specifically, how the engineering design and analysis approach can assist in solving medical problems relating to bone diseases and biomaterials. The first part of the study focuses on a project to design and manufacture a novel …


Building Tools For Improved Modulation Of The Human Gabaa Receptor, A Central Nervous System Target For The Treatment Of Anxiety, Garrett Edward Zinck 2022 University of Kentucky

Building Tools For Improved Modulation Of The Human Gabaa Receptor, A Central Nervous System Target For The Treatment Of Anxiety, Garrett Edward Zinck

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

In the U.S., anxiety is recognized as an increasing range of mentally and physically debilitating psychiatric health disorders with significant economic repercussions. Over the last 20 years, several novel anti-anxiety therapies have entered the drug development pipeline, but none have made it to market.

The work in this dissertation focused on structurally modifying valerenic acid (VA), a structurally unique carboxylated sesquiterpene acid found in Valeriana officinalis. VA is putatively reported to have allosteric modulatory activity of the human GABAA receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel responsible for attenuating neurotransmissions. Structural modeling of VA’s GABAA receptor interaction suggests that …


Nanoparticle Conjugated Photosensitizer For Targeted Photodynamic Inactivation Of Cancer Cells, Symone D. Crowder 2022 Georgia Southern University

Nanoparticle Conjugated Photosensitizer For Targeted Photodynamic Inactivation Of Cancer Cells, Symone D. Crowder

Honors College Theses

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered to be a potential replacement for traditional methods of chemotherapy. It includes the administration of photosensitizing agents (PS), which generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon excitation at a specific wavelength. With new outlooks and techniques, cancer research is advancing each day. It has allowed the progress of several theranostic drug delivery systems (DDS) exploring the area of nanomedicine.2 In the present work, a Rhodamine derivative, Rhodamine 6G (R6G) was used as the PS. In general, rhodamine compounds undergo cytotoxic reactions on photoexcitation by electron transfer reactions with folic acid within cells, making them a favorable …


Characterizing Drought Adaptations, Phenotypic Plasticity, And Fixed Gene Expression Patterns Within Quercus, James K. Rauschendorfer 2022 Michigan Technological University

Characterizing Drought Adaptations, Phenotypic Plasticity, And Fixed Gene Expression Patterns Within Quercus, James K. Rauschendorfer

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

This dissertation was written on topics related to the genus Quercus with a primary focus on Quercus ellipsoidalis (northern pin oak) and Quercus rubra (northern red oak). Within this dissertation are chapters related to the setup of experimental common gardens within the Ford and Kellogg experimental forest, a literature review describing drought adaptations of Quercus sect. Lobatae (red oak group), identification of transcription factors within the Q. robur (English oak) and Q. rubra genomes, a study comparing leaf trait phenotypic plasticity of Q. ellipsoidalis and Q. rubra, and an RNA-seq experiment studying ecological speciation between Q. ellipsoidalis and Q. …


Chemogenetic Induced Tinnitus Model, Cara Bunner 2022 The University of Akron

Chemogenetic Induced Tinnitus Model, Cara Bunner

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This project will use chemogenetic drug activation in the inferior colliculus (IC) to formulate a new tinnitus model in animals. Gq-signaling DREADD [AAV8-CaMIIKa-HDM2(Gq)-mCherry] will be used to selectively activate glutamatergic neurons in the mouse, then the brain will be dissected to obtain the IC. The IC will be immunohistochemically stained to visualize the AAV mCherry, the glutamatergic neuron distribution, and the GABAergic neuron distribution within the IC. Thus, the findings of this study will better our understandings of the pathological mechanisms of tinnitus.


Comparison Of Free Versus Encapsulated Drugs On 3t3 Differentiation, Simon H. Friedrich, Gabriel Volpe 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Comparison Of Free Versus Encapsulated Drugs On 3t3 Differentiation, Simon H. Friedrich, Gabriel Volpe

Undergraduate Research Posters

The scope of this project was to design, synthesize and test targeted nanoparticles containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs that promote browning in adipose tissue. For hydrophilic drugs the use of liposomes and their hydrophilic core is more useful than the PLGA nanoparticles which have hydrophobic cores. The inhibition of the FOXO1 pathway and modulation of autophagy in adipose tissue can promote browning of white adipose tissue, or an energy burning state where excess energy is burned as heat instead of stored in the cell. If successful, these drugs would offer an alternative treatment for obesity where changes to the patient's …


Hydroponic Lab Growing Guide Bell Peppers, Zachary N. Russell 2022 Salve Regina University

Hydroponic Lab Growing Guide Bell Peppers, Zachary N. Russell

Hydroponic Center

This is a guide for growing Bell Peppers in the Hydroponic Lab. It states how the plant was grown from propagation, which system the plant was grown in, the plants optimal conditions (PPM, pH), and time frame until fully grown.


Sugar Snap Organic Pea Hydroponic Grow Guide, Levi Mitchell 2022 Salve Regina University

Sugar Snap Organic Pea Hydroponic Grow Guide, Levi Mitchell

Hydroponic Center

Hydroponic Grow Guide for Sugar Snap Organic Peas in a MGS hydroponic system. Hydroponically grown Sugar Snap Peas are a vine-structured plant which require over five feet of overhead height for the vines to grow their structure before fruiting peas. This grow guide covers the optimal nutrient range, optimal pH range, propagation and growing techniques, as well as special considerations for future projects involved with growing sugar snap peas.


Building Digital Twins Of The Human Immune System: Toward A Roadmap, Reinhard Laubenbacher, Anna Niarakis, Tomas Helikar, G. An, B. Shapiro, R. S. Malik-Sheriff, T. J. Sego, P. Macklin, J. A. Glazier 2022 University of Florida

Building Digital Twins Of The Human Immune System: Toward A Roadmap, Reinhard Laubenbacher, Anna Niarakis, Tomas Helikar, G. An, B. Shapiro, R. S. Malik-Sheriff, T. J. Sego, P. Macklin, J. A. Glazier

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Digital twins, customized simulation models pioneered in industry, are beginning to be deployed in medicine and healthcare, with some major successes, for instance in cardiovascular diagnostics and in insulin pump control. Personalized computational models are also assisting in applications ranging from drug development to treatment optimization. More advanced medical digital twins will be essential to making precision medicine a reality. Because the immune system plays an important role in such a wide range of diseases and health conditions, from fighting pathogens to autoimmune disorders, digital twins of the immune system will have an especially high impact. However, their development presents …


Functional Foods: Promising Therapeutics For Nigerian Children With Sickle Cell Diseases, Oladeji John Alabi, Fikayo Noah Adegboyega, Dolapo Samuel Olawoyin, Oluwakemi Arinola Babatunde 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Functional Foods: Promising Therapeutics For Nigerian Children With Sickle Cell Diseases, Oladeji John Alabi, Fikayo Noah Adegboyega, Dolapo Samuel Olawoyin, Oluwakemi Arinola Babatunde

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Sickle cell disease (SCD), also known as sickle cell anemia (SCA) is one of the structural hemoglobinopathies that occurs due to a single nucleotide mutation from GAG to GTG, which changes the amino acid of a β-globin chain of hemoglobin (Hb) from glutamate to valine. This singular mutation results to disorderliness in red blood cells (RBCs) with advent of changes in RBC morphology and other pathological conditions. In the 1980s, intermittent red blood cell transfusions, opioids, and penicillin prophylaxis were the only available therapy for SCA and were commonly reserved for acute, life threatening complications. So far, the US Food …


Fish Oil Intake During Gestation And Lactation Attenuated Stz-Induced Diabetes Inmale Offspring Via Activation Of Brown Fat And Modulating Oxylipin Profile, Rong Fan, Shalom Thomas, Mikyoung You, Zhuoheng Li, Brandt Bessell, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Tomáš Helikar, Zhenhua Liu, Soonkyu Chung 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Fish Oil Intake During Gestation And Lactation Attenuated Stz-Induced Diabetes Inmale Offspring Via Activation Of Brown Fat And Modulating Oxylipin Profile, Rong Fan, Shalom Thomas, Mikyoung You, Zhuoheng Li, Brandt Bessell, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Tomáš Helikar, Zhenhua Liu, Soonkyu Chung

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Fish oil (FO) has been demonstrated to activate brown thermogenesis and attenuate inflammation in the brown adipose tissue (BAT). Previously, we have reported thatmaternal FO supplementation promotes BAT activity of the weaned mice pups. However, whether maternal FO intake could confer sustainable metabolic benefits to offspring remains uncovered. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the differential impact of maternal FO during pregnancy versus lactation on BAT transcriptome and evaluate the role of bioactive lipid metabolites derived from maternal FO supplementation on the extended metabolic benefits of older pups in the context of type 1 diabetes (T1D).

Conclusions: Our results suggested …


Coordination Of Metal Center Biogenesis In Human Cytochrome C Oxidase, Eva Nývltová, Jonathan Dietz, Javier Seravalli, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Antoni Barrientos 2022 University of Miami Miller School of Medicine

Coordination Of Metal Center Biogenesis In Human Cytochrome C Oxidase, Eva Nývltová, Jonathan Dietz, Javier Seravalli, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Antoni Barrientos

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) or respiratory chain complex IV is a heme aa3- copper oxygen reductase containing metal centers essential for holo-complex biogenesis and enzymatic function that are assembled by subunit-specific metallochaperones. The enzyme has two copper sites located in the catalytic core subunits. The COX1 subunit harbors the CuB site that tightly associates with heme a3 while the COX2 subunit contains the binuclear CuA site. Here, we report that in human cells the CcO copper chaperones form macromolecular assemblies and cooperate with several twin CX9C proteins to control heme a biosynthesis and coordinate copper transfer sequentially to the …


Metabolic Synergy Between Human Symbionts Bacteroides And Methanobrevibacter, Jennie L. Catlett, Sean Carr, Mikaela Cashman, Megan D. Smith, Mary Walter, Zahmeeth Sakkaff, Christine A. Kelley, Massimiliano Pierobon, Myra B. Cohen, Nicole R. Buan 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Metabolic Synergy Between Human Symbionts Bacteroides And Methanobrevibacter, Jennie L. Catlett, Sean Carr, Mikaela Cashman, Megan D. Smith, Mary Walter, Zahmeeth Sakkaff, Christine A. Kelley, Massimiliano Pierobon, Myra B. Cohen, Nicole R. Buan

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

ABSTRACT Trophic interactions between microbes are postulated to determine whether a host microbiome is healthy or causes predisposition to disease. Two abundant taxa, the Gram-negative heterotrophic bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and the methanogenic archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii, are proposed to have a synergistic metabolic relationship. Both organisms play vital roles in human gut health; B. thetaiotaomicron assists the host by fermenting dietary polysaccharides, whereas M. smithii consumes end-stage fermentation products and is hypothesized to relieve feedback inhibition of upstream microbes such as B. thetaiotaomicron. To study their metabolic interactions, we defined and optimized a coculture system and used software testing …


Arginine Catabolism And Polyamine Biosynthesis Pathway Disparities Within Francisella Tularensis Subpopulations, Yinshi Yue, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Tomáš Helikar, Benjamin Girardo, Steven H. Hinrichs, Marilyn A. Larson 2022 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Arginine Catabolism And Polyamine Biosynthesis Pathway Disparities Within Francisella Tularensis Subpopulations, Yinshi Yue, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Tomáš Helikar, Benjamin Girardo, Steven H. Hinrichs, Marilyn A. Larson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious zoonotic pathogen with as few as 10 organisms causing tularemia, a disease that is fatal if untreated. Although F. tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A) and subspecies holarctica (type B) share over 99.5% average nucleotide identity, notable differences exist in genomic organization and pathogenicity. The type A clade has been further divided into subtypes A.I and A.II, with A.I strains being recognized as some of the most virulent bacterial pathogens known. In this study, we report on major disparities that exist between the F. tularensis subpopulations in arginine catabolism and subsequent polyamine biosynthesis. The genes …


Addressing Barriers In Comprehensiveness, Accessibility, Reusability, Interoperability And Reproducibility Of Computational Models In Systems Biology, Anna Niarakis, Dagmar Waltemath, James Glazier, Falk Schreiber, Sarah M. Keating, David Nickerson, Claudine Chaouiya, Anne Siegel, Vincent Noël, Henning Hermjakob, Tomáš Helikar, Sylvain Soliman, Laurence Calzone 2022 Univ Evry, University of Paris-Saclay

Addressing Barriers In Comprehensiveness, Accessibility, Reusability, Interoperability And Reproducibility Of Computational Models In Systems Biology, Anna Niarakis, Dagmar Waltemath, James Glazier, Falk Schreiber, Sarah M. Keating, David Nickerson, Claudine Chaouiya, Anne Siegel, Vincent Noël, Henning Hermjakob, Tomáš Helikar, Sylvain Soliman, Laurence Calzone

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Computational models are often employed in systems biology to study the dynamic behaviours of complex systems. With the rise in the number of computational models, finding ways to improve the reusability of these models and their ability to reproduce virtual experiments becomes critical. Correct and effective model annotation in community-supported and standardised formats is necessary for this improvement. Here,we present recent efforts toward a common framework for annotated, accessible, reproducible and interoperable computational models in biology, and discuss key challenges of the field.

Scientists from different systems biology fields have long been developing community-driven guidelines and best practices for annotation, …


Development, Structure, And Mechanism Of Synthetic Antibodies That Target Claudin And Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin Complexes, Benjamin J. Orlando, Pawel K. Dominik, Sourav Roy, Chinemerem P. Ogbu, Satchal K. Erramilli, Anthony A. Kossiakoff, Alex J. Vecchio 2022 Michigan State University

Development, Structure, And Mechanism Of Synthetic Antibodies That Target Claudin And Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin Complexes, Benjamin J. Orlando, Pawel K. Dominik, Sourav Roy, Chinemerem P. Ogbu, Satchal K. Erramilli, Anthony A. Kossiakoff, Alex J. Vecchio

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Strains of Clostridium perfringens produce a two-domain enterotoxin (CpE) that afflicts humans and domesticated animals, causing prevalent gastrointestinal illnesses. CpE’s C-terminal domain (cCpE) binds cell surface receptors, followed by a restructuring of its N-terminal domain to form a membranepenetrating β-barrel pore, which is toxic to epithelial cells of the gut. The claudin family of membrane proteins are known receptors for CpE and also control the architecture and function of cell-cell contacts (tight junctions) that create barriers to intercellular molecular transport. CpE binding and assembly disables claudin barrier function and induces cytotoxicity via β-pore formation, disrupting gut homeostasis; however, a structural …


The Follicular Lymphoma Epigenome Regulates Its Microenvironment, Rada Amin, Mounia S. Braza 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Follicular Lymphoma Epigenome Regulates Its Microenvironment, Rada Amin, Mounia S. Braza

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of germinal center (GC) origin with a distinctive tumor microenvironment (TME) and a unique spectrum of mutations. Despite the important therapeutic advances, FL is still incurable. During B-cell development, the GC reaction is a complex multistep process in which epigenetic regulators dynamically induce or suppress transcriptional programs. In FL, epigenetic gene mutations perturb the regulation of these programs, changing GC B-cell function and skewing differentiation towards tumor cells and altering the microenvironment interactions. FL pathogenesis and malignant transformation are promoted by epigenetic reprogramming of GC B cells that alters the immunological synapse …


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