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Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie 2023 University of South Dakota

Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie

Dissertations and Theses

Offspring of diabetic and obese mothers (ODOM) have greater risks of heart disease at birth and later in life. However, prevention is hindered because underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Mounting studies in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease field suggest that mitochondria play key roles in developmentally programmed heart disease similar to the roles they play in cardiomyopathy in adults with diabetes and obesity. However, whether mitochondria are responsible for the short[1]and long-term cardiac disease seen in ODOM remains unknown. Here, we sought to delineate the roles of mitochondria in the hearts of ODOM, determine whether mitochondria ...


Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Known to cause gas gangrene, Hathewaya histolytica secretes two sister collagenases, collagenase G (Col G) and collagenase H (Col H), to degrade the triple helical structure of collagen to further infection in a host. Individual domains of Col H have been crystalized in previous studies, but methods in x-ray crystallization of full-length Col H have been unsuccessful. Using Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) data, atomistic modeling was used to generate multiple conformations of Col H while accounting for flexibility between domains. Full-length Col H was found to adopt a two-state conformational model exhibiting a majority compact and a minority elongated ...


17Β-Estradiol Treatment Improves Acetylcholine-Induced Relaxation Of Mesenteric Arteries In Ovariectomized Uc Davis Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Rats In Prediabetic State, Md Rahatullah Razan, Farjana Akther, Rifat Ara Islam, James L. Graham, Kimber L. Stanhope, Peter J. Havel, Roshanak Rahimian 2022 University of the Pacific

17Β-Estradiol Treatment Improves Acetylcholine-Induced Relaxation Of Mesenteric Arteries In Ovariectomized Uc Davis Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Rats In Prediabetic State, Md Rahatullah Razan, Farjana Akther, Rifat Ara Islam, James L. Graham, Kimber L. Stanhope, Peter J. Havel, Roshanak Rahimian

School of Pharmacy Faculty Articles

We recently reported sex differences in mesenteric arterial function of the UC Davis type-2 diabetes mellitus (UCD-T2DM) rats as early as the prediabetic state. We reported that mesenteric arteries (MA) from prediabetic male rats exhibited a greater impairment compared to that in prediabetic females. However, when females became diabetic, they exhibited a greater vascular dysfunction than males. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the female sex hormone, estrogen preserves mesenteric arterial vasorelaxation in UCD-T2DM female rats at an early prediabetic state. Age-matched female Sprague Dawley and prediabetic (PD) UCD-T2DM rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and subcutaneously implanted ...


Tracking And Modulating Circadian Rhythms In Cell Culture Models, Sujeewa Sampath Lellupitiyage Don 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Tracking And Modulating Circadian Rhythms In Cell Culture Models, Sujeewa Sampath Lellupitiyage Don

Doctoral Dissertations

Circadian rhythms are 24–hour activity cycles that exist for all organisms, from yeast and bacteria to mammals. Epidemiological data has shown that disruptions to circadian rhythms are associated with various diseases, including cancers. Circadian rhythms are regulated at the cellular level by a "molecular clock,” whose oscillations in protein transcription and translation control a range of downstream pathways. However, the connections between altered rhythms and diseases at the molecular level is unclear. Therefore, in this project, I tracked circadian rhythms in a high-resolution manner and thoroughly analyzed them to more completely reflect circadian behaviors and clock functioning at the ...


Expression And Purification Of E. Coli Yoaa, A Putative Helicase, Mark Gregory, Vincent Sutera Mr., Susan Lovett Dr. 2022 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Expression And Purification Of E. Coli Yoaa, A Putative Helicase, Mark Gregory, Vincent Sutera Mr., Susan Lovett Dr.

Medical Student Research Symposium

All cells must maintain their genomic integrity to survive, which they achieve through several repair mechanisms that necessitate unwinding the damaged DNA by helicases. In Escherichia coli (E. coli), YoaA has been genetically shown to be involved in DNA repair and shares conserved sequences with helicase DinG. The goal of our study was to purify YoaA for further biochemical characterization. For expression, YoaA was fused to a His tag and overexpressed in MG1655 E.coli under the lacZ or T7 promoters for 2 hours, 4 hours, or overnight at 24oC, 30oC or 37oC. For purification, crude lysate was applied to ...


Autofluorescence Microscopy – Identifying Bacterial Signals On Rock Samples, Noel Case, Lukas Scott-Mendoza 2022 Portland State University

Autofluorescence Microscopy – Identifying Bacterial Signals On Rock Samples, Noel Case, Lukas Scott-Mendoza

University Honors Theses

One common method for identifying microbes present fluid and non-fluid samples is fluorescent dye staining, in which samples are stained with a fluorophore - a molecule excited by an external light source that re-emits energy as higher-wavelength light. The excitation wavelength used greatly impacts the observability of microbes in the resulting fluorescence images, and deep ultraviolet exctitation (200-280 nm) seems to provide the highest signal-to-noise ratio of any excitation range. By inoculating rock samples (gypsum and marble) with B. subtilis, staining with SYTO 9, Acridine Orange and FM 1-43 dyes, and imaging with deep UV (275 nm), near UV (365 nm ...


Analysis Of Soxs In S. Typhimurium By Transposon Mutagenesis, Joel Hanns, Brenda Pratte, Lon Chubiz PhD, Lauren Daugherty 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Analysis Of Soxs In S. Typhimurium By Transposon Mutagenesis, Joel Hanns, Brenda Pratte, Lon Chubiz Phd, Lauren Daugherty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

The mar-sox-rob regulon has been implicated in transcriptional regulation of several stress responses, such efflux of antibiotics, enzymes that break down reactive oxygen species, repression of biofilm formation, or repression of motility through downregulation of flagellar expression. This system is conserved among enteric bacteria and has been studied in species, such as E. coli and S. typhimurium. Some of these mechanisms can be costly and slow cell growth while increasing the probability of survival through tolerance of toxic environments. SoxS works in coordination with SoxR to respond to redox stress encountered by the cell. Interestingly, the overexpression of SoxS in ...


Collaborative Research: Surface-Specific Aerosol Chemistry: Direct Observations, Kinetics, And Environmental Impact, Yi Rao 2022 Utah State University

Collaborative Research: Surface-Specific Aerosol Chemistry: Direct Observations, Kinetics, And Environmental Impact, Yi Rao

Funded Research Records

No abstract provided.


Elucidating Mechanisms Of Biofluorescence And Bioluminescence In Marine Organisms, Andrew M. Guarnaccia 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Elucidating Mechanisms Of Biofluorescence And Bioluminescence In Marine Organisms, Andrew M. Guarnaccia

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Biofluorescence and bioluminescence are two methods of light emission that entail separate mechanisms of action but end at the same process: a colorful display that have tremendous ecological and behavioral benefits, whether it be used to communicate with conspecifics, camouflage into a multicolored background, attract unsuspecting prey, or alert others to a predator. In biofluorescence, higher-energy, shorter wavelength light is absorbed then re-emitted as lower-energy, longer-wavelength light. Bioluminescence on the other hand entails a chemical reaction in which a small molecule is oxidized by an enzyme, creating a high-energy intermediate that sheds the excess energy in the form of visible ...


Molecular Mechanism Of Rapamycin Resistance In Cancer Cells, Sohag Chakraborty 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Molecular Mechanism Of Rapamycin Resistance In Cancer Cells, Sohag Chakraborty

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) acts as the central regulator of multiple cellular processes including cell growth, proliferation, and survival by integrating signals via nutrients, growth factors, hormones, and energy sensing. In cancer cells, the mTOR pathway is highly dysregulated providing survival signals to the cells for their uncontrolled growth. Hence, mTOR has evolved to be a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment for the past two decades. Application of micro-molar doses of Rapamycin in vitro has been found to successfully inhibit mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) by blocking the phosphorylation of its downstream substrates- a) ribosomal protein p70 S6 ...


Signature Peptide Identification For Body Fluids In Sexual Assault Cases By Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (Lc-Ms/Ms), Kelci Somers 2022 CUNY John Jay College

Signature Peptide Identification For Body Fluids In Sexual Assault Cases By Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (Lc-Ms/Ms), Kelci Somers

Student Theses

Body fluids contain proteins that perform functions specific to different types of body fluids. Therefore, the detection of signature peptides for these proteins can potentially identify a body fluid in a forensic investigation. This project aimed to validate a method to detect signature peptides in body fluids commonly found in sexual assault cases by LC-MS/MS. Signature peptides for semen and saliva fluids were combined with two signature peptides for vaginal fluids. Samples created using two donors each for saliva, semen, and vaginal fluids were extracted using a trypsin digest, with separation of the protein and DNA fractions. The LC-MS ...


Cdc6 Is Sequentially Regulated By Pp2a-Cdc55, Cdc14, And Sic1 For Origin Licensing In S. Cerevisiae, Jasmin Philip 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cdc6 Is Sequentially Regulated By Pp2a-Cdc55, Cdc14, And Sic1 For Origin Licensing In S. Cerevisiae, Jasmin Philip

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Control of DNA replication is critical for progression of the cell cycle and genomic stability. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) coordinate numerous phosphorylation events to accomplish two biological tasks for all living organisms: DNA replication and cell division. One CDK, Cyclin-Cdc28, is responsible for cell cycle progression in budding yeast. DNA replication requires a stepwise assembly of the pre-replicative complex on DNA, including Orc1-6, Cdc6, Cdt1 and Mcm2-7, during M-G1 phase. Cdc6 contains eight Cdc28 consensus sites, SP or TP motifs. Clb5-Cdc28 phosphorylates Cdc6-T7 to recruit Cks1, the Cdc28 phospho-adaptor, for subsequent multisite phosphorylation during S phase. There are two phospho-degrons at ...


In Silico Identification Of Potential Inhibitors Of The Sars‑Cov‑2 Nucleocapsid Through Molecular Docking‑Based Drug Repurposing, Rukhsar Afreen, Saleem Iqbal, Ab Rauf Shah, Heena Afreen, Maitreyi College, Mohd. Shkir 2022 University of Delhi

In Silico Identification Of Potential Inhibitors Of The Sars‑Cov‑2 Nucleocapsid Through Molecular Docking‑Based Drug Repurposing, Rukhsar Afreen, Saleem Iqbal, Ab Rauf Shah, Heena Afreen, Maitreyi College, Mohd. Shkir

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, and its effects on people worldwide continue to grow. Protein-targeted therapeutics are currently unavailable for this virus. As with other coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most conserved RNA-binding structural protein of SARS-CoV-2. The N protein is an appealing target because of its functional role in viral transcription and replication. Therefore, molecular docking method for structure-based drug design was used to investigate the binding energy and binding modes of various anti-N inhibitors in depth. The inhibitors selected were originally developed to target stress granules and other molecules involved in RNA ...


The Effect Of Breathing Patterns Common To Competitive Swimming On Gas Exchange And Muscle Deoxygenation During Heavy-Intensity Fartlek Exercise, Kevin J. Grossman 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Breathing Patterns Common To Competitive Swimming On Gas Exchange And Muscle Deoxygenation During Heavy-Intensity Fartlek Exercise, Kevin J. Grossman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to compare the respiratory and muscle deoxygenation (HHb) responses of regulated breathing versus free-breathing, during continuous exercise (CONLD) and intermittent 5s breath holds (BH) (CONLD-BH), intermittent 5s sprint (FLK) and combined 5s BH and sprint (FLK-BH) followed by 25s of free-breathing. Oxygen uptake(V̇O2)was unchanged between CONLD (2.12±0.35L/min) and CONLD-BH (2.15±0.42L/min; p=0.116), and FLK (2.24±0.40L/min) and FLK-BH (2.20±0.45L/min; p=0.861). Δ[Hbtot]: CONLD (3.3±1.6µM) > CONLD-BH (-2.5±1 ...


Biochemistry Of Trehalose Accumulation In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Alyssa R. Stephens 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Biochemistry Of Trehalose Accumulation In The Spring Field Cricket, Gryllus Veletis, Alyssa R. Stephens

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The freeze tolerant spring field cricket, Gryllus veletis, accumulates trehalose in the blood and tissues during cold acclimation. Trehalose is the main blood sugar in insects, thus its blood concentration is tightly regulated, and trehalose is readily metabolized. How do crickets modify their metabolism to accumulate trehalose in their hemolymph and tissues? I hypothesized that trehalose production, transport, and consumption were modified during the cold acclimation to facilitate trehalose accumulation. Trehalose and the trehalose-specific transporter, TRET-1, are distributed among all tissues, and trehalose accumulates in the hemolymph, fat body, Malpighian tubules, and gut. Trehalose production increases during cold acclimation via ...


A New Insight Into Fungal Cell Wall Architecture By Functional Genomics And Solid-State Nmr Along With Recent Advancements In Dynamic Nuclear Polarization For Analyzing Biomolecules, Arnab Chakraborty 2022 Louisiana State University

A New Insight Into Fungal Cell Wall Architecture By Functional Genomics And Solid-State Nmr Along With Recent Advancements In Dynamic Nuclear Polarization For Analyzing Biomolecules, Arnab Chakraborty

LSU Master's Theses

This dissertation summarizes the findings related to the way by which supramolecular architecture of fungal cell wall changes with genetic mutation, dispensing genes responsible for biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. This is necessary because without perfect picture of how supramolecular assembly changes with genetic mutation it is hard to assess new anti-fungal targets. Alongside this we have highlighted how recent advancement into Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) methods improved characterization of biomolecules both in case of labeled and unlabeled samples.

First study utilized Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) which is a non-destructive technique hence enabled us for the first time to deduce how ...


Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer 2022 Seton Hall University

Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Drug resistant microbes are a considerable challenge for modern medicine to overcome. The research described in this dissertation involved development of lipid flippase inhibitors and investigating their potential as antimicrobial agents against various drug resistant microbes. The microbes primarily investigated were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) & Cryptococcus neoformans. Chapter 1 reviews the historical perspective and summarizes the current state of the field of research. In Chapter 2, the design space of an antimicrobial peptide known as humimycin was explored and the effects of modifications on its structure were observed against MRSA. Several key observations resulted. Most notably, the nanoparticles formed ...


Inferring Dynamics Of Biological Systems, Tracey G. Oellerich 2022 George Mason University

Inferring Dynamics Of Biological Systems, Tracey G. Oellerich

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Isolation And Characterization Of Α-Hcd7 Scfv Expressing Exosomes And Synthesis Of Hybrid Exosome-Liposome For Analyses, Sahil Patel 2022 University of Texas at Tyler

Isolation And Characterization Of Α-Hcd7 Scfv Expressing Exosomes And Synthesis Of Hybrid Exosome-Liposome For Analyses, Sahil Patel

Biotechnology Theses

The goal of this thesis project is to isolate and characterize exosomes that express anti-human CD7 (α-hCD7) single chain variable fragment (scFv), which will be further utilized for T celltargeted gene editing. To reach this goal, exosomes from HEK 293 cells and Jurkat cells were isolated and characterized with different methodologies. To obtain α-hCD7 scFv-expressing exosomes, the HEK 293 cells were subjected to transfection of custom-plasmid pDisplay-αhCD7 scFv, and the expression of α-hCD7 scFv on the HEK 293-derived exosomes were then confirmed by immunogold staining, western blotting, and flow cytometry. To transfect 293 cells, calcium phosphate transfection was utilized, and ...


Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne 2022 Technological University Dublin

Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, both infrared absorption and Raman scattering, are high precision, label free analytical techniques which have found applications in fields as diverse as analytical chemistry, pharmacology, forensics and archeometrics and, in recent times, have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications. As analytical techniques, they have been applied to the characterisation of viruses as early as the 1970s, and, in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, have been explored in response to the World Health Organisation as novel methodologies to aid in the global efforts to implement and improve rapid screening of viral infection. This review ...


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