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Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol 2021 American University in Cairo

Insights Into Halophilic Microbial Adaptation: Analysis Of Integrons And Associated Genomic Structures And Characterization Of A Nitrilase In Hypersaline Environments, Sarah Sonbol

Theses and Dissertations

Hypersaline environments are extreme habitats that can be exploited as biotechnological resources. Here, we characterized a nitrilase (NitraS-ATII) isolated from Atlantis II Deep brine pool. It showed higher thermal stability and heavy metal tolerance compared to a closely related nitrilase.

We also studied integrons in halophiles and hypersaline environments. Integrons are genetic platforms in which an integron integrase (IntI) mediates the excision and integration of gene cassettes at specific recombination sites. In order to search for integrons in halophiles and hypersaline metagenomes, we used a PCR-based approach, in addition to different bioinformatics tools, mainly IntegronFinder.

We found that integrons and ...


Algebraic Graph-Assisted Bidirectional Transformers For Molecular Property Prediction, Dong Chen, Kaifu Gao, Duc Duy Nguyen, Xin Chen, Yi Jiang, Guo-Wei Wei, Feng Pan 2021 Peking University, China

Algebraic Graph-Assisted Bidirectional Transformers For Molecular Property Prediction, Dong Chen, Kaifu Gao, Duc Duy Nguyen, Xin Chen, Yi Jiang, Guo-Wei Wei, Feng Pan

Mathematics Faculty Publications

The ability of molecular property prediction is of great significance to drug discovery, human health, and environmental protection. Despite considerable efforts, quantitative prediction of various molecular properties remains a challenge. Although some machine learning models, such as bidirectional encoder from transformer, can incorporate massive unlabeled molecular data into molecular representations via a self-supervised learning strategy, it neglects three-dimensional (3D) stereochemical information. Algebraic graph, specifically, element-specific multiscale weighted colored algebraic graph, embeds complementary 3D molecular information into graph invariants. We propose an algebraic graph-assisted bidirectional transformer (AGBT) framework by fusing representations generated by algebraic graph and bidirectional transformer, as well as ...


Rapid Warming Events In A Small Coastal Upwelling Embayment, Tatjana E. Ellis 2021 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Rapid Warming Events In A Small Coastal Upwelling Embayment, Tatjana E. Ellis

Physics

Temperature variability in the nearshore coastal ocean influences various biological processes and can drive changes in biodiversity and habitat range. Despite recent progress, there are still significant gaps in the understanding of drivers of temperature variability in upwelling bays, particularly at higher frequencies. In this study, we analyzed a decade of nearshore temperature measurements both inside and outside a small coastal embayment located in central California [San Luis Obispo (SLO) bay], as well as temperature data from satellites, to characterize rapid warming events. We found that rapid warming events, defined using rates of temperature change across different thresholds, occurred more ...


Synthesis And Evaluation Of C-10 Nitrogenated Aporphine Alkaloids At Serotonin And Dopamine Receptors, Anupam Karki 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Synthesis And Evaluation Of C-10 Nitrogenated Aporphine Alkaloids At Serotonin And Dopamine Receptors, Anupam Karki

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Aporphine alkaloids, belonging to the isoquinoline class of compounds, have been investigated as a potential source of ligands for Central Nervous System (CNS) receptors. Previous research indicates that the aporphine scaffold may be manipulated to synthesize selective ligands for serotonin and dopamine receptors. Novel aporphine alkaloids containing C10 nitrogen substitutions were synthesized, and their affinities were evaluated at serotonin (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT7A) receptors and dopamine (D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5) receptors. Two series of racemic aporphine compounds with C10 nitrogenous functionalities were synthesized and analyzed at the aforementioned receptors. The first series of aporphine alkaloids contain C10 nitro ...


Investigating The Mechanism Of The Escherichia Coli Atp-Binding Cassette (Abc) Transporter Metni, Matthew Foronda 2021 The University of San Francisco

Investigating The Mechanism Of The Escherichia Coli Atp-Binding Cassette (Abc) Transporter Metni, Matthew Foronda

Master's Theses

Chemical homeostasis is a baseline requirement for any cell to survive. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a vital role in homeostasis by importing nutrients and exporting toxins against their concentration gradients by utilizing the energy of ATP hydrolysis. Malfunctioning ABC transporters cause a variety of health problems, including cystic fibrosis, Stargardt’s disease (vision loss), and the development of drug-resistant tumors. An important step in solving these medical issues is to first understand the structure and mechanism of ABC transporters. Various studies have made great strides in depicting the structure and details of different ABC transporters and their mechanisms, however ...


Heat Shock Proteins: Classification, Functions And Expressions In Plants During Environmental Stresses., Sara Khan, Raheela Jabeen, Farah Deeba, Ummara Waheed, Plosha Khanum, Nadia Iqbal 2021 Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, The Women University, Multan, Pakistan

Heat Shock Proteins: Classification, Functions And Expressions In Plants During Environmental Stresses., Sara Khan, Raheela Jabeen, Farah Deeba, Ummara Waheed, Plosha Khanum, Nadia Iqbal

Journal of Bioresource Management

HSPs proteins are found mostly in every cell from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. HSPs have been comprehensively studied in animals and humans. Recently their role in plants was thoroughly studied. HSPs were described as a result of heat shock conditions, but now get activate by various stresses like Ultraviolet light, cold, wound healing, drought, salinity and pathogenic infections (Lindquist et al., 1988). The term “heat shock protein” is now incorrect because HSPs are not expressed only under high temperature, also expressed under other stresses. HSPs are essential in maintaining balanced cell internal conditions under optimum and damaged growth conditions about in ...


Effect Of Diabetes Mellitus And Anti-Diabetic Drugs On Bone Health-A Review, Farah Deeba, Sidra Younis, Nida Qureshi, Tahmina Mustafa, Nadia Iqbal, Saira Hussain 2021 Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, The Women University Multan, Pakistan

Effect Of Diabetes Mellitus And Anti-Diabetic Drugs On Bone Health-A Review, Farah Deeba, Sidra Younis, Nida Qureshi, Tahmina Mustafa, Nadia Iqbal, Saira Hussain

Journal of Bioresource Management

Osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus (DM) are widespread diseases and have a significant health burden. Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with an increased bone fracture. In T1DM, the increased risk of bone fracture is associated with low bone mass. In patients with T2DM, the risk of fracture of the bone is increased due to low quality of bone, despite increased bone mineral density (BMD). In type 2 diabetic patients, bone fragility depends on the quality of bone instead of a reduction in bone mass. Thiazolidinediones (TZD) cause differentiation of adipocytes and inhibit differentiation of osteoblast ...


Creating A Protein Chimera To Study Regulation Of Muscle Diversity, Shannon Scarboro 2021 Kennesaw State University

Creating A Protein Chimera To Study Regulation Of Muscle Diversity, Shannon Scarboro

Symposium of Student Scholars

Creating a protein chimera to study regulation of muscle diversity.

Body muscles are made of many individual super-cells, called muscle fibers, that have distinct properties and determine every individual’s strength and endurance. Initially all muscle fibers have identical characteristics, but become differentiated into specific types in adults. The mechanism of such transition is not well understood, despite its obvious importance for shaping human physicality.

Remarkable conservation of the muscle tissue enables us to use fruit flies to study the mechanisms of muscle fiber diversity. We hypothesized that the transcription factor Mef2 acts as a molecular switch that activates structural ...


Expression And Purification Of Proteins For A Structural Determination: Orf8, Paivy1, Paivy2, Sarah Fashinasi, Avery Moss 2021 Kennesaw State University

Expression And Purification Of Proteins For A Structural Determination: Orf8, Paivy1, Paivy2, Sarah Fashinasi, Avery Moss

Symposium of Student Scholars

Protein purification is a crucial procedure in order to analyze the behavior, structure, and function of a select protein. The Orf8 protein is an increasingly mutable accessory protein found within the SARS-CoV2 virus, however the complex and unpredictable nature of this protein has been met by its inability to be purified thus far. By purifying the model proteins, PaIVY1 and PaIVY2, we believe that we can denote a sound purification method to apply to the Orf8 protein. In our procedure, we transformed BL21(DE3)pLysS cells and inoculated them in LB media. The cells were then placed into a centrifuge ...


Investigating The Sars-Cov-2 Orf 8 Accessory Protein: Expression, Purification, And Structural Determination, Laney Hedgeman, Caroline Salha 2021 Kennesaw State University

Investigating The Sars-Cov-2 Orf 8 Accessory Protein: Expression, Purification, And Structural Determination, Laney Hedgeman, Caroline Salha

Symposium of Student Scholars

Abstract

In order to provide insight into potential therapeutic breakthroughs for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), more research must be done to understand the structure and function of its proteins. The open reading frame 8 (ORF 8) accessory protein is particularly unstable on its own outside of the viral envelope but can be stabilized when bound to the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) protein. The stable ORF 8-SUMO protein complex can be expressed and purified using familiar techniques and later characterized with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thus allowing us to gain knowledge about the role it plays ...


Bioanalytical Determination Of Glucose Concentration In Sports Drinks Using Uv/Vis Spectroscopy, Laney Hedgeman, Brianna Bond 2021 Kennesaw State University

Bioanalytical Determination Of Glucose Concentration In Sports Drinks Using Uv/Vis Spectroscopy, Laney Hedgeman, Brianna Bond

Symposium of Student Scholars

Abstract

The purpose of our project is to indirectly monitor the enzymatic activity of glucose oxidase as it reacts with the glucose present in sports drinks through the quantitative analysis of the generated ferricyanide. As glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose in the presence of oxygen, D-glucono-1,5-lactone is produced along with hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide is used in a subsequent reaction with ferrocyanide catalyzed by horse radish peroxidase to produce water and the chromophore ferricyanide. This compound absorbs in the ultraviolet/visible spectrum at 420 nm, which can be quickly measured using Ultraviolet/Visible Spectroscopy. Since the ...


Structure Elucidation Of The Elusive Enzyme I Monomer Reveals The Molecular Mechanisms Linking Oligomerization And Enzymatic Activity, Trang T. Nguyen, Rodolfo Ghirlando, Julien F. Roche, Vincenzo Venditti 2021 Iowa State University

Structure Elucidation Of The Elusive Enzyme I Monomer Reveals The Molecular Mechanisms Linking Oligomerization And Enzymatic Activity, Trang T. Nguyen, Rodolfo Ghirlando, Julien F. Roche, Vincenzo Venditti

Chemistry Publications

Enzyme I (EI) is a phosphotransferase enzyme responsible for converting phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) into pyruvate. This reaction initiates a five-step phosphorylation cascade in the bacterial phosphotransferase (PTS) transduction pathway. Under physiological conditions, EI exists in an equilibrium between a functional dimer and an inactive monomer. The monomer–dimer equilibrium is a crucial factor regulating EI activity and the phosphorylation state of the overall PTS. Experimental studies of EI’s monomeric state have yet been hampered by the dimer’s high thermodynamic stability, which prevents its characterization by standard structural techniques. In this study, we modified the dimerization domain of EI (EIC ...


Identifying The Cell Composition And Clonal Diversity Of Supratentorial Ependymoma Using Single Cell Rna-Sequencing, James He 2021 University of Connecticut

Identifying The Cell Composition And Clonal Diversity Of Supratentorial Ependymoma Using Single Cell Rna-Sequencing, James He

Honors Scholar Theses

Ependymoma is a primary solid tumor of the central nervous system. Supratentorial ependymoma (ST-EPN), a subtype of ependymomas, is driven by an oncogenic fusion between the ZFTA and RELA genes in 70% of cases. We introduced this fusion into neural progenitor cells of mice embryos via in utero electroporation of a non-viral binary piggyBac transposon system containing ZFTA-RELA. From preliminary data in the LoTurco lab, inducing the expression of ZFTA-RELA into different neural progenitor cells produces tumors of varying lethality and cellular composition. To define the cellular composition and subclonal diversity of ST-EPN tumors, we used single cell RNA-sequencing to ...


Nutritional Effects On The Gut Microbiome & The Brain-Gut Axis: Unlocking The Therapeutic And Preventative Potential Of Nutrition For Gut Dysbiosis Associated Diseases, Sarah Freund, Karin Allenspatch, Jonathan P. Mochel 2021 Iowa State University

Nutritional Effects On The Gut Microbiome & The Brain-Gut Axis: Unlocking The Therapeutic And Preventative Potential Of Nutrition For Gut Dysbiosis Associated Diseases, Sarah Freund, Karin Allenspatch, Jonathan P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Diet plays a pivotal role in the overall health of an individual. Not only does it help carry out and regulate certain physiological functions, but it also can determine the composition of the gut microbiome. While the relative number of microorganisms that make up the gut microbiome vary between individuals and can be dependent on different environmental factors, there is evidence to suggest that composition of the microbiome can correlate with overall health or disease. When the GI microbiome is disturbed or suddenly changes it results in microbiome dysbiosis, a condition that correlates with the presence of certain diseases. Diseases ...


A Screen Of Fda-Approved Drugs Identifies Inhibitors Of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 4a3 (Ptp4a3 Or Prl-3), Dylan R. Rivas, Mark Vincent C. Dela Cerna, Caroline N. Smith, Shilpa Sampathi, Blaine G. Patty, Donghan Lee, Jessica S. Blackburn 2021 University of Kentucky

A Screen Of Fda-Approved Drugs Identifies Inhibitors Of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 4a3 (Ptp4a3 Or Prl-3), Dylan R. Rivas, Mark Vincent C. Dela Cerna, Caroline N. Smith, Shilpa Sampathi, Blaine G. Patty, Donghan Lee, Jessica S. Blackburn

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 4A3 (PTP4A3 or PRL-3) is highly expressed in a variety of cancers, where it promotes tumor cell migration and metastasis leading to poor prognosis. Despite its clinical significance, small molecule inhibitors of PRL-3 are lacking. Here, we screened 1443 FDA-approved drugs for their ability to inhibit the activity of the PRL phosphatase family. We identified five specific inhibitors for PRL-3 as well as one selective inhibitor of PRL-2. Additionally, we found nine drugs that broadly and significantly suppressed PRL activity. Two of these broad-spectrum PRL inhibitors, Salirasib and Candesartan, blocked PRL-3-induced migration in human embryonic kidney cells ...


Reeling In New Antibiotics: Synthesis And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Of Zinc-Binding Clavanins From Styela Clava (Sea Squirt), Eduardo Badillo-Colberg 2021 University of Connecticut

Reeling In New Antibiotics: Synthesis And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Of Zinc-Binding Clavanins From Styela Clava (Sea Squirt), Eduardo Badillo-Colberg

Honors Scholar Theses

Clavanins have been a quite rarely studied antimicrobial peptide (AMP) family. Though the data in the few studies published on the matter and in theoretical experimental data presented by the Wang lab in their peptide library creation [14], in that the members of this family could potentially be quite effective novel antimicrobial candidates. Among those that have been targets of studies, Clavanin A has been at the forefront of this endeavor of finding effective novel antimicrobial peptides[14]. In these aforementioned studies, Clavanin A has been shown to be quite effective against many different bacterial strains, which begs the question ...


A Tissue Specific Transcriptomic, Proteomic And Phospho-Proteomic Atlas Of The Translational Machinery Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, Abdullah Salim 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Tissue Specific Transcriptomic, Proteomic And Phospho-Proteomic Atlas Of The Translational Machinery Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, Abdullah Salim

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Gene expression encompasses the flow of genetic information from DNA to mRNA (transcription) and from mRNA to protein (translation) along with the regulatory mechanisms underlying these processes. Omics technologies offer a powerful toolset with which to study gene expression at each of these stages. A recently published dataset integrating transcriptomic, proteomic and phospho-proteomic measurements from 30 Arabidopsis thaliana tissues provides a unique resource to explore gene expression.1 The translational machinery (the ribosome, and its initiation, elongation, and termination factors) are a core component in gene expression. Defects in translation can be lethal or lead to major developmental defects and ...


Project Alien, Rebecca McCallin, Madelyn Hoying, Alex Evans, Matthew Nestler, Karli Rae Sutton, Garett Craig, Lucia Secaia Del Cid, Alexander Guy, Rachel Fernandez, Amanda Trusiak, Paige Aley, Ingabire Gakwerere, Nina Dorfner, Maria Mosbacher, Mary Flavin, Selvin Hernandez, Audrey Steen, Benjamin Kazimer 2021 Duquesne University

Project Alien, Rebecca Mccallin, Madelyn Hoying, Alex Evans, Matthew Nestler, Karli Rae Sutton, Garett Craig, Lucia Secaia Del Cid, Alexander Guy, Rachel Fernandez, Amanda Trusiak, Paige Aley, Ingabire Gakwerere, Nina Dorfner, Maria Mosbacher, Mary Flavin, Selvin Hernandez, Audrey Steen, Benjamin Kazimer

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Project ALIEN is a comprehensive plan to send humans to Mars to look for life on the Martian surface while exploring the viability and adaptability of terrestrial microbes in Martian atmospheric conditions. ALIEN will use a ballistic capture trajectory to get to Mars and stay in aerostationary orbit for a 30-day surface mission, during which two surface crewmembers will perform a variety of experiments to achieve the mission’s goals of Martian microbial discovery within brines of the Gale Crater and terrestrial microbe adaptability and viability to Martian conditions. Experimentation is based on the presumption that Martian microbes are metabolically ...


Designing A Reactive Warhead To Bind And Inhibit Pseudomonas Aeruginosa’S Periplasmic Protein, Inhibitor Of Vertebrate Lysozyme, Leah Greinke 2021 Kennesaw State University

Designing A Reactive Warhead To Bind And Inhibit Pseudomonas Aeruginosa’S Periplasmic Protein, Inhibitor Of Vertebrate Lysozyme, Leah Greinke

Master of Science in Chemical Sciences Theses

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium commonly found throughout the environment. It is a significant cause of disease and mortality in immunodeficient patients such as those suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Due to the emerging antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa, it is becoming increasingly more challenging to treat an infection by traditional means. Further complicating treatment, P. aeruginosa secretes a protein known as Inhibitor of Vertebrate Lysozyme (PaIVY) that binds to and inhibits C-type lysozyme, thus preventing the degradation of the bacterium. A reactive chemical warhead was synthesized from a rhenium(I) tricarbonyl derivative inorder to bind to and irreversibly ...


Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell 2021 Bellarmine University

Search For Palladin, An Actin-Associated Protein, In Pig Retinal Pigmented Epithelium And Its Role In Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Katrina Powell

Undergraduate Theses

This study investigates the expression of Palladin, a phosphoprotein product of the PALLD gene, in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Palladin is an actin cross-linking protein and plays a role in cell adhesion and motility. Published reports have demonstrated that a down regulation of Palladin in colon cancer cells results in a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, causing the cells to lose their typical shape, become proliferative and migratory. This process is otherwise known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A similar EMT phenomenon is observed when the RPE is exposed to the vitreous humor in patients with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In ...


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