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Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie 2023 University of South Dakota

Mitochondrial Roles In Developmentally Programmed Heart Disease, Eli John Louwagie

Dissertations and Theses

Offspring of diabetic and obese mothers (ODOM) have greater risks of heart disease at birth and later in life. However, prevention is hindered because underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Mounting studies in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease field suggest that mitochondria play key roles in developmentally programmed heart disease similar to the roles they play in cardiomyopathy in adults with diabetes and obesity. However, whether mitochondria are responsible for the short[1]and long-term cardiac disease seen in ODOM remains unknown. Here, we sought to delineate the roles of mitochondria in the hearts of ODOM, determine whether mitochondria ...


Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Determining The Full-Length Structure Of Collagenase H Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering, Josie Carson

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Known to cause gas gangrene, Hathewaya histolytica secretes two sister collagenases, collagenase G (Col G) and collagenase H (Col H), to degrade the triple helical structure of collagen to further infection in a host. Individual domains of Col H have been crystalized in previous studies, but methods in x-ray crystallization of full-length Col H have been unsuccessful. Using Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) data, atomistic modeling was used to generate multiple conformations of Col H while accounting for flexibility between domains. Full-length Col H was found to adopt a two-state conformational model exhibiting a majority compact and a minority elongated ...


Cdc6 Is Sequentially Regulated By Pp2a-Cdc55, Cdc14, And Sic1 For Origin Licensing In S. Cerevisiae, Jasmin Philip 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cdc6 Is Sequentially Regulated By Pp2a-Cdc55, Cdc14, And Sic1 For Origin Licensing In S. Cerevisiae, Jasmin Philip

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Control of DNA replication is critical for progression of the cell cycle and genomic stability. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) coordinate numerous phosphorylation events to accomplish two biological tasks for all living organisms: DNA replication and cell division. One CDK, Cyclin-Cdc28, is responsible for cell cycle progression in budding yeast. DNA replication requires a stepwise assembly of the pre-replicative complex on DNA, including Orc1-6, Cdc6, Cdt1 and Mcm2-7, during M-G1 phase. Cdc6 contains eight Cdc28 consensus sites, SP or TP motifs. Clb5-Cdc28 phosphorylates Cdc6-T7 to recruit Cks1, the Cdc28 phospho-adaptor, for subsequent multisite phosphorylation during S phase. There are two phospho-degrons at ...


Elucidating Mechanisms Of Biofluorescence And Bioluminescence In Marine Organisms, Andrew M. Guarnaccia 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Elucidating Mechanisms Of Biofluorescence And Bioluminescence In Marine Organisms, Andrew M. Guarnaccia

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Biofluorescence and bioluminescence are two methods of light emission that entail separate mechanisms of action but end at the same process: a colorful display that have tremendous ecological and behavioral benefits, whether it be used to communicate with conspecifics, camouflage into a multicolored background, attract unsuspecting prey, or alert others to a predator. In biofluorescence, higher-energy, shorter wavelength light is absorbed then re-emitted as lower-energy, longer-wavelength light. Bioluminescence on the other hand entails a chemical reaction in which a small molecule is oxidized by an enzyme, creating a high-energy intermediate that sheds the excess energy in the form of visible ...


Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer 2022 Seton Hall University

Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Drug resistant microbes are a considerable challenge for modern medicine to overcome. The research described in this dissertation involved development of lipid flippase inhibitors and investigating their potential as antimicrobial agents against various drug resistant microbes. The microbes primarily investigated were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) & Cryptococcus neoformans. Chapter 1 reviews the historical perspective and summarizes the current state of the field of research. In Chapter 2, the design space of an antimicrobial peptide known as humimycin was explored and the effects of modifications on its structure were observed against MRSA. Several key observations resulted. Most notably, the nanoparticles formed ...


Inferring Dynamics Of Biological Systems, Tracey G. Oellerich 2022 George Mason University

Inferring Dynamics Of Biological Systems, Tracey G. Oellerich

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne 2022 Technological University Dublin

Contributions Of Vibrational Spectroscopy To Virology: A Review, Iqra Chaudhary, Naomi Jackson, Denise Denning, Luke O'Neill, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, both infrared absorption and Raman scattering, are high precision, label free analytical techniques which have found applications in fields as diverse as analytical chemistry, pharmacology, forensics and archeometrics and, in recent times, have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications. As analytical techniques, they have been applied to the characterisation of viruses as early as the 1970s, and, in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, have been explored in response to the World Health Organisation as novel methodologies to aid in the global efforts to implement and improve rapid screening of viral infection. This review ...


Isolation And Characterization Of Α-Hcd7 Scfv Expressing Exosomes And Synthesis Of Hybrid Exosome-Liposome For Analyses, Sahil Patel 2022 University of Texas at Tyler

Isolation And Characterization Of Α-Hcd7 Scfv Expressing Exosomes And Synthesis Of Hybrid Exosome-Liposome For Analyses, Sahil Patel

Biotechnology Theses

The goal of this thesis project is to isolate and characterize exosomes that express anti-human CD7 (α-hCD7) single chain variable fragment (scFv), which will be further utilized for T celltargeted gene editing. To reach this goal, exosomes from HEK 293 cells and Jurkat cells were isolated and characterized with different methodologies. To obtain α-hCD7 scFv-expressing exosomes, the HEK 293 cells were subjected to transfection of custom-plasmid pDisplay-αhCD7 scFv, and the expression of α-hCD7 scFv on the HEK 293-derived exosomes were then confirmed by immunogold staining, western blotting, and flow cytometry. To transfect 293 cells, calcium phosphate transfection was utilized, and ...


Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill 2022 San Jose State University

Science, Physiology, And Nutrition For The Nonscientist, Judi S. Morrill

Open Educational Resources

A wonderful blend of physiology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, biology, evolution, chemistry--what we all need to know as informed citizens. A basic knowledge of the life sciences and how our bodies work--to promote our own good health, especially as we're bombarded with misleading advertisements, soundbites, and the like. DNA fingerprinting, calorie requirements, dietary advice, genetic engineering (including gene editing with CRISPR cas9)--all in an easy-to understand book.


G Protein–Coupled Receptor 21 In Macrophages: An In Vitro Study, Valentina Bordano, Gemma K. Kinsella, Stefania Cannito, Chiara Dianzani, Casimiro Luca Gigliotti, John C. Stephens, Chiara Monge, Claudia Bocca, Arianna C. Rosa, Gianluca Miglio, Umberto Dianzani, John B.C. Findlay, Elisa Benetti 2022 University of Turin

G Protein–Coupled Receptor 21 In Macrophages: An In Vitro Study, Valentina Bordano, Gemma K. Kinsella, Stefania Cannito, Chiara Dianzani, Casimiro Luca Gigliotti, John C. Stephens, Chiara Monge, Claudia Bocca, Arianna C. Rosa, Gianluca Miglio, Umberto Dianzani, John B.C. Findlay, Elisa Benetti

Articles

GPR21 is an orphan and constitutively active receptor belonging to the superfamily of G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). GPR21 couples to the Gq family of G proteins and is markedly expressed in macrophages. Studies of GPR21 knock-out mice indicated that GPR21 may be involved in promoting macrophage migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of GPR21 in human macrophages, analyzing (i) its involvement in cell migration and cytokine release and (ii) the consequence of its pharmacological inhibition by using the inverse agonist GRA2. THP-1 cells were activated and differentiated into either M1 or M2 macrophages. GPR21 expression ...


The Use Of Nebulizer Medications As A Possible Treatment For Covid-19, Jacob Kaufman 2022 Murray State University

The Use Of Nebulizer Medications As A Possible Treatment For Covid-19, Jacob Kaufman

Honors College Theses

For the past few years, the COVID-19 pandemic has been the focal point in healthcare and research. This disease has permanently changed daily life and left a historic impact on the world. Most people have felt the effects of this pandemic either directly, via infection, or indirectly, via change in workflow, financial impact, etc. The main question for this virus still remains today; how do we treat this illness effectively? While many ideas are being tested and suggested, a definite answer has yet to be procured. Vaccine rates are climbing on a daily basis, serving as the first and most ...


Restoration Of Β-Hexosaminidase A Deficiency Through The Use Of Protein Chaperones, Anthony J. Fund 2022 Olivet Nazarene University

Restoration Of Β-Hexosaminidase A Deficiency Through The Use Of Protein Chaperones, Anthony J. Fund

ELAIA

Tay-Sachs disease (TSD, also known as GM2-gangliosidosis) is an incurable autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation in the HEX A gene that codes for the lysosomal enzyme β-hexosaminidase A (Hex A). For patients with TSD, GM2-gangliosides cannot be properly broken down, and, as a result, accumulate in their neurons, causing severe neurological complications. Although all past treatment options have been ineffective, this study set out to reduce the number of GM2-gangliosides in cells by increasing Hex A activity using novel pharmacological chaperone therapy.

Four factors, DMSO, glutamic acid, Pyrimethamine, and a decrease in temperature, were assessed for ...


Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammation during bacterial infection. However, few studies have investigated the in vivo immune response to LTA, and none of the in vivo studies done have been performed in birds. For this project, the pulp (a skin-derivative) of growing feathers (GFs) of chickens were used as a test site to investigate the in vivo effects of intradermally injected LTA. In Study 1, the pulp of 12 GFs of 11-week-old Light-brown Leghorn (LBL) males were injected with 10 μL of differing concentrations of LTA (0.1, 1.0 ...


Synthesis, Structural Characterization, And In Vitro Biological Assessment Of Trans- Platinum (Ii) Thionate Complexes As Potent Anticancer Agents, Mia Alshami 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Synthesis, Structural Characterization, And In Vitro Biological Assessment Of Trans- Platinum (Ii) Thionate Complexes As Potent Anticancer Agents, Mia Alshami

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

The content of this thesis has been originally reported in our published paper, “trans-Platinum (II) Thionate Complexes: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and in vitro Biological Assessment as Potent Anticancer Agents” ChemPlusChem 2019 84, 1525-1535, DOI: 10.1002/cplu.201900394, in which I served as coauthor. Cancer caused 9.6 million deaths in 2018 worldwide, with 18.1 million new diagnoses during that same year.The most widely used metal in anticancer drugs is platinum (Pt), and these drugs are used to treat almost 50% of cancer patients. To optimize drug effectiveness, trans-configured Pt(II) complexes have been introduced as ...


Study Of Adaptive Radiation Effects On Sprint Performance In Anolis Ecomorphs, Alexander J. Bergeson 2022 University of South Dakota

Study Of Adaptive Radiation Effects On Sprint Performance In Anolis Ecomorphs, Alexander J. Bergeson

Honors Thesis

Anolis lizards have become model organisms for the study of adaptive radiation and convergent evolution due to repeated patterns of specialization that allow them to live in different environmental niches within the habitats they occur. As part of a suite of adaptations for living in specific habitats, many species have repeatedly evolved specific changes in anatomy and physiology that make them better able to perform and survive in their surroundings. These specialized forms are referred to as “ecomorphs” based on their preferred habitats and have been well documented among Caribbean anoles. Mainland species, on the other hand, are less studied ...


Combining Pharmacokinetics And Vibrational Spectroscopy: Mcr-Als Hard-And-Soft Modelling Of Drug Uptake In Vitro Using Tailored Kinetic Constraints, David Perez-Guaita, Guillermo Quintas, Zeineb Farhane, Roma Tauler, Hugh Byrne 2022 Technological University Dublin

Combining Pharmacokinetics And Vibrational Spectroscopy: Mcr-Als Hard-And-Soft Modelling Of Drug Uptake In Vitro Using Tailored Kinetic Constraints, David Perez-Guaita, Guillermo Quintas, Zeineb Farhane, Roma Tauler, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Raman microspectroscopy is a label-free technique which is very suited for the investigation of pharmacokinetics of cellular uptake, mechanisms of interaction, and efficacies of drugs in vitro. However, the complexity of the spectra makes the identification of spectral patterns associated with the drug and subsequent cellular responses difficult. Indeed, multivariate methods that relate spectral features to the inoculation time do not normally take into account the kinetics involved, and important theoretical information which could assist in the elucidation of the relevant spectral signatures is excluded. Here, we propose the integration of kinetic equations in the modelling of drug uptake and ...


Characterization Of Fgf1/Fgf2 Heterodimer With Mutation R136e, Brett Haley 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Fgf1/Fgf2 Heterodimer With Mutation R136e, Brett Haley

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fibroblast growth factors are a family of heparin binding proteins that are involved in a broad spectrum of physiological functions, such as angiogenesis, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and wound healing. Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) is a member of the FGF superfamily and can bind universally to fibroblast growth factor receptors. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is similar in structure to FGF-1 but has been shown to have a potent effect on angiogenesis. A physiologically stable dimerization of these two growth factors could prove to induce desirable effects in the instance of wound healing. In this study, we have designed ...


Regulation Of The Reaction Between Cytochrome C And Cytochrome C Oxidase In The Mitochondria, Anders Nowell 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Regulation Of The Reaction Between Cytochrome C And Cytochrome C Oxidase In The Mitochondria, Anders Nowell

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cytochrome c (Cc) is a multifunction protein that has important life and death functions in the cell. In the electron transport chain (ETC), Cc transfers electrons from cytochrome bc1 to cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), which helps build the electrochemical gradient that drives ATP synthase. The reaction of Cc with CcO is very important in ETC regulatory processes. Previous research shows phosphorylation sites in Cc that affect the binding with CcO, with measurable effects on kd, kf, and KD. These effects result in changes in mitochondrial membrane potentials, respiration, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging. This research ...


Spike Protein Structural Dynamics Of Sars-Cov-2 Coronaviruses Studied Using Molecular Dynamics, William Strickland 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Spike Protein Structural Dynamics Of Sars-Cov-2 Coronaviruses Studied Using Molecular Dynamics, William Strickland

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has overwhelmingly impacted the global population, accounting for millions of confirmed infections and deaths over the last year. The virus’s influence on the health and safety of individuals, the economy, and daily life has been disruptive and devastating. While SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1, two closely related members of the SARS coronaviruses, have shown the ability to cross the species barrier and infect humans, SARS-CoV-2 has predominantly been the virus responsible for the number of infections presently known. SARS-CoV-2 has also proven to be volatile, as many variants ...


Severe Hypoxia Up-Regulates Gluconeogenesis In Daphnia, Morad C. Malek 2022 East Tennessee State University

Severe Hypoxia Up-Regulates Gluconeogenesis In Daphnia, Morad C. Malek

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hypoxia is a significant low oxygen state that has complex and diverse impacts on organisms. In aerobes, hypoxia causes numerous physiological changes and adaptive responses that vary depending on the level of oxygen depletion and on previous adaptation, hence its continued attention as an important abiotic stressor. Adaptive responses to hypoxia are primarily governed by the hypoxia-inducible-factors (HIFs), which activate downstream genetic pathways responsible for metabolic adjustments and homeostasis maintenance. In aquatic organisms, hypoxia is an important ecological constraint, as oxygen availability within waterbodies can vary greatly over time and space. Therefore, adaptation to hypoxia is likely pervasive, especially in ...


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