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Association Of The Bb Genotype Of The Abo Gene With The Risk Of Acute Myocardial Infarction In Hospital-Based Study, Farzana Abubakar Yousuf, Iqbal Azam Syed, Asal Khan Tareen, Khawar A. Kazmi, Jibran Sualeh Muhammad, Mohammad Perwaiz Iqbal 2023 Aga Khan University

Association Of The Bb Genotype Of The Abo Gene With The Risk Of Acute Myocardial Infarction In Hospital-Based Study, Farzana Abubakar Yousuf, Iqbal Azam Syed, Asal Khan Tareen, Khawar A. Kazmi, Jibran Sualeh Muhammad, Mohammad Perwaiz Iqbal

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Objectives: The ABO gene locus has been identified to be associated with myocardial infarction in patients with coronary heart disease. The primary focus of this hospital-based study was to explore the relationship of ABO blood groups and ABO genotypes with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: In a comparative cross-sectional study, an equal number of adult AMI patients and healthy controls (n=275 in each group; age range 30-70 years, both males and females) were recruited from the Aga Khan University and NICVD, Karachi, with informed consent. The blood samples were analyzed for ABO blood groups and other biomarkers. …


Isolation And Characterization Of Cellulose Degrading Microorganisms Generating Electricity Using Microbial Fuel Cell, Lama Fayad, Rania Amer, Ahmad Abd El Nabi, Ali Hammoud, Hoda Yusef 2022 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Beirut Arab University

Isolation And Characterization Of Cellulose Degrading Microorganisms Generating Electricity Using Microbial Fuel Cell, Lama Fayad, Rania Amer, Ahmad Abd El Nabi, Ali Hammoud, Hoda Yusef

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

Global warming and the accumulation of organic waste constitute a serious environmental problem. Therefore, microbial fuel cells (MFC) are an eco-friendly device that have significant capability for the production of electricity using biodegradable waste as fuel. Microorganisms used as catalysts in the anode compartment, execute a principal function in operating MFCs. The present study was conducted to isolate and to screen potential bioelectricity generating microorganisms from dumpsite soil samples and also to construct a domestic dual-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC). Streptomyces fimicarius was found to be the best isolate for the degradation of cellulose and the production of bioelectricity. The …


Natural Selection Of Immune And Metabolic Genes Associated With Health In Two Lowland Bolivian Populations, Amanda J. Lea, Angela Garcia, Jesusa Arevalo, Julien F. Ayroles, Kenneth Buetow, Steve W. Cole, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, Maguin Gutierrez, Heather M. Highland, Paul L. Hooper, Anne Justice, Thomas Kraft, Kari E. North, Jonathan Stieglitz, Hillard Kaplan, Benjamin C. Trumble, Michael Gurven 2022 Vanderbilt University

Natural Selection Of Immune And Metabolic Genes Associated With Health In Two Lowland Bolivian Populations, Amanda J. Lea, Angela Garcia, Jesusa Arevalo, Julien F. Ayroles, Kenneth Buetow, Steve W. Cole, Daniel Eid Rodriguez, Maguin Gutierrez, Heather M. Highland, Paul L. Hooper, Anne Justice, Thomas Kraft, Kari E. North, Jonathan Stieglitz, Hillard Kaplan, Benjamin C. Trumble, Michael Gurven

ESI Publications

A growing body of work has addressed human adaptations to diverse environments using genomic data, but few studies have connected putatively selected alleles to phenotypes, much less among underrepresented populations such as Amerindians. Studies of natural selection and genotype–phenotype relationships in underrepresented populations hold potential to uncover previously undescribed loci underlying evolutionarily and biomedically relevant traits. Here, we worked with the Tsimane and the Moseten, two Amerindian populations inhabiting the Bolivian lowlands. We focused most intensively on the Tsimane, because long-term anthropological work with this group has shown that they have a high burden of both macro and microparasites, as …


Dissecting Interactions Across Gene Regulatory Layers In C. Elegans, Morgan Taylor 2022 Southern Methodist University

Dissecting Interactions Across Gene Regulatory Layers In C. Elegans, Morgan Taylor

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful tool for studying nervous system genetics. Though relatively simple compared to mammals, C. elegans boasts a remarkably well-conserved neuronal genome and proteome, and its utility in the characterization of neuronal genes has been well-established. However, gene expression is often controlled by complex interactions between multiple genes, and teasing apart the functions of individual genes within such networks remains a challenge. Dissecting these interaction networks is crucial in determining the multifaceted functions of important, conserved regulatory genes. Here we explore interactions between gene regulatory layers in the C. elegans nervous system, employing a synthetic …


Disease Resistance And Productivity In Genetically Improved Loblolly Pine: Results From A Resistance Screening Trial And A Midrotation Comparison Of Genetic Improvement Levels, Stephen W. Goodfellow 2022 Mississippi State University

Disease Resistance And Productivity In Genetically Improved Loblolly Pine: Results From A Resistance Screening Trial And A Midrotation Comparison Of Genetic Improvement Levels, Stephen W. Goodfellow

Theses and Dissertations

Decades of tree improvement has resulted in genetic gains in loblolly pine productivity, form, and resistance to fusiform rust. The goal of this study was to advance the understanding and applied use of genetic improvement by analyzing inter- and intra-provenances hybrids’ rust resistance and evaluating midrotation performance of varying levels of genetically improved stock types. The first study compares 16 seedlots at the USDA Resistance Screening Center and evaluates rust resistance of controlled-pollinated inter- and intra-provenances crosses, and openpollinated seedlots from three provenances: Western Gulf, Atlantic Coastal, and Interior Piedmont. Post inoculation, one Coastal OP seedlot was resistant and ten …


Selection Pressure On Surface Exposed Virus Proteins, Sareh Bagherichimeh 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Selection Pressure On Surface Exposed Virus Proteins, Sareh Bagherichimeh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Viral infection requires the interaction between virus surface-exposed (SE) proteins and host cell receptors. This can result in an “arms race” that is assumed to drive accelerated rates of evolution, and some well known examples of diversifying selection involve surface pro- teins (HIV-1 env, influenza hemagglutinin). We conducted a systematic analysis to determine whether this is truly a distinctive feature of SE virus proteins, in comparison to non-SE proteins encoded by the same genomes.

We obtained reference and all neighbour genomes of 52 human viruses from the NCBI Viral Genomes database. The coding sequences (CDS) of each genome extracted by …


The Role Of Long Non-Coding Rna (Lncrna) In The Organization Of Nuclear Bodies, SooBin An 2022 Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA, United States.

The Role Of Long Non-Coding Rna (Lncrna) In The Organization Of Nuclear Bodies, Soobin An

Symposium of Student Scholars

Nuclear bodies (NBs) (e.g., the nucleolus, nuclear speckles, and others) are membraneless compartments within the eukaryotic cell nucleus that selectively accumulate and retain specific nuclear proteins. NBs have become a new interest in recent discoveries because of their potential involvement in cancer and neurological disorders. However, the regulation and function of NBs are still enigmatic. Our laboratory studies a specific type of NBs, called B-bodies, to understand how NBs are formed and regulated in the nucleus. We hypothesized that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) functions as a structural scaffold of NBs.

The B-body is a recently discovered NB expressed in the …


Detecting Bacterial Species From Ancient Human Skeletal Samples, Ariel Owens, Daisy McGrath, Tsai-Tien Tseng 2022 Kennesaw State University

Detecting Bacterial Species From Ancient Human Skeletal Samples, Ariel Owens, Daisy Mcgrath, Tsai-Tien Tseng

Symposium of Student Scholars

Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) via morphological analysis is difficult and often inconsistent. With next-generation sequencing (NGS), ancient host microbiomes can be subjected to metagenomic analyses for the detection of TB in silico. Suitable bioinformatic workflows are needed for reliable ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis of causative agents. This study aims to enhance available bioinformatic screening methods to create more suitable bioinformatic processes and generate insights in relation to TB.

This research utilizes publicly available NGS data accessed through the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Initial quality control steps included adapter trimming with Trim …


Caribbean Reef-Building Coral-Symbiodiniaceae Network: Identifying Symbioses Critical For System Stability In A Changing Climate, Shaman Patel 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Caribbean Reef-Building Coral-Symbiodiniaceae Network: Identifying Symbioses Critical For System Stability In A Changing Climate, Shaman Patel

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Increasing global ocean temperatures and frequency of marine heatwaves pose dire consequences for coral reefs. High temperatures often lead to disruptions in coral symbiosis resulting in coral bleaching, increasing the mortality of corals. However, corals can potentially avoid bleaching peril by associating with thermally tolerant symbionts. Here we provide a tool for understanding symbiosis network stability of Caribbean reef-building corals. We created a network of Caribbean hermatypic corals and their associated Symbiodiniaceae phylotypes. A bleaching model was applied to this network to test for resilience and robustness (R50) to thermal stress. It was also layered with trait data for coral …


Deciphering The Genetic Architecture Of Key Female Floral Traits For Hybrid Wheat Seed Production, Juan Jimenez 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Deciphering The Genetic Architecture Of Key Female Floral Traits For Hybrid Wheat Seed Production, Juan Jimenez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple cereal that provides 20% of the calories and proteins in human intake (Ray et al., 2013). Global population is projected to increase to 9.7 billion by 2050. Food production must increase by 70% to feed this future population. Wheat production is in crisis due to political and environmental challenges and is projected to decline by 0.8% in 2022 (FAO, 2022). To ensure food security yield genetic gain must increase by around 1.4% annually. Taking advantage of heterosis, hybrid wheat has the potential to boost grain yield. However, hybrid wheat seed production systems …


Redox Sensing By Yeast Hsp70 Facilitates Modulation Of Protein Quality Control And The Cytoprotective Response, Alec Santiago 2022 University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

Redox Sensing By Yeast Hsp70 Facilitates Modulation Of Protein Quality Control And The Cytoprotective Response, Alec Santiago

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Neurodegenerative disease affects millions of Americans every year, through diagnoses such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. One factor linked to formation of these aggregates is damage sustained to proteins by oxidative stress. Cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis) relies on the ubiquitous Hsp70 chaperone family. Hsp70 activity has been previously shown to be modulated by modification of two key cysteines in the ATPase domain by oxidizing or thiol-modifying compounds. To investigate the biological consequences of cysteine modification on the Hsp70 Ssa1 in budding yeast, I generated cysteine null (cysteine to serine) and oxidomimetic (cysteine to aspartic acid) mutant variants of both …


Role Of Parp1 And Nad+ Bioavailability In Base Excision And Single-Strand Break Repair, Kate M. Saville 2022 University of South Alabama

Role Of Parp1 And Nad+ Bioavailability In Base Excision And Single-Strand Break Repair, Kate M. Saville

Theses and Dissertations

High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are malignant, highly metabolically active brain tumors. HGGs are associated with poor patient outcome, attributed to resistance to current therapies, with a survival rate between 12 to 15 months. Gliomas are highly complex tumors, making targeted therapy difficult, highlighting the need for novel approaches and new treatment options. In addition, a large percentage of HGGs are comprised of glioma stem cells (GSCs) that further contribute to therapeutic resistance. Notable characteristics of GSCs are a heightened DNA damage response (DDR) and elevated replication stress that could provide opportunities for therapeutic targeting. A notable feature of many glioma tumors …


Novel Regulators Of Human Gene Expression, Alexander Coley 2022 University of South Alabama

Novel Regulators Of Human Gene Expression, Alexander Coley

Theses and Dissertations

The human genome is rife with regulatory elements that control whether genes are expressed or silenced. While regulatory elements such as epigenomic modifications, transcription factors, promoters, and enhancers are well established, there still remain regulatory elements that are poorly characterized or even undiscovered. In recent years, noncoding RNAs derived from small nucleolar RNAs were identified and linked to gene regulation in a variety of human cancers. Adding to the growing understanding of these sdRNAs, we performed a computational analysis of castration-resistant prostate cancer patient data and identified 38 sdRNAs as significantly overexpressed in CRPC. Two of these, sdRNA-D19B and sdRNA-A24, …


Sequence-Based Bioinformatics Approaches To Predict Virus-Host Relationships In Archaea And Eukaryotes, Yingshan Li 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Sequence-Based Bioinformatics Approaches To Predict Virus-Host Relationships In Archaea And Eukaryotes, Yingshan Li

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Viral metagenomics is independent of lab culturing and capable of investigating viromes of virtually any given environmental niches. While numerous sequences of viral genomes have been assembled from metagenomic studies over the past years, the natural hosts for the majority of these viral contigs have not been determined. Different computational approaches have been developed to predict hosts of bacteria phages. Nevertheless, little progress has been made in the virus-host prediction, especially for viruses that infect eukaryotes and archaea. In this study, by analyzing all documented viruses with known eukaryotic and archaeal hosts, we assessed the predictive power of four computational …


Potential Fitness Trade-Offs Of Elevated Esterase Activity Associated With Insecticide Resistance In The Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus, Timothy Schulte 2022 California State University, San Bernardino

Potential Fitness Trade-Offs Of Elevated Esterase Activity Associated With Insecticide Resistance In The Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus, Timothy Schulte

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

One of the current major issues in the control of vector-borne disease is resistance to insecticides. Resistance to one or more insecticides has appeared in over 580 different arthropod species. Widespread resistance has led to the field of Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM). The goal of IRM is to develop insecticide-use strategies that prevent or slow down the evolution of resistance. Computer models have shown that more effective IRM strategies rely on the assumption that resistance carries a fitness cost in the absence of insecticide use.

In the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus resistance to certain organophosphate insecticides is caused by an increased …


Large Genomes Assembly Using Mapreduce Framework, Yuehua Zhang 2022 Clemson University

Large Genomes Assembly Using Mapreduce Framework, Yuehua Zhang

All Dissertations

Knowing the genome sequence of an organism is the essential step toward understanding its genomic and genetic characteristics. Currently, whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing is the most widely used genome sequencing technique to determine the entire DNA sequence of an organism. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques have enabled biologists to generate large DNA sequences in a high-throughput and low-cost way. However, the assembly of NGS reads faces significant challenges due to short reads and an enormously high volume of data. Despite recent progress in genome assembly, current NGS assemblers cannot generate high-quality results or efficiently handle large genomes …


Npgreat: Assembly Of The Human Subtelomere Regions With The Use Of Ultralong Nanopore Reads And Linked Reads, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman 2022 Old Dominion University

Npgreat: Assembly Of The Human Subtelomere Regions With The Use Of Ultralong Nanopore Reads And Linked Reads, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Background: Human subtelomeric DNA regulates the length and stability of adjacent telomeres that are critical for cellular function, and contains many gene/pseudogene families. Large evolutionarily recent segmental duplications and associated structural variation in human subtelomeres has made complete sequencing and assembly of these regions difficult to impossible for many loci, complicating or precluding a wide range of genetic analyses to investigate their function.

Results: We present a hybrid assembly method, NanoPore Guided REgional Assembly Tool (NPGREAT), which combines Linked-Read data with mapped ultralong nanopore reads spanning subtelomeric segmental duplications to potentially overcome these difficulties. Linked-Read sets of DNA sequences identified …


Biology And Ecology Of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert, Adam Joseph Vera 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Biology And Ecology Of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti In The Northern Chihuahuan Desert, Adam Joseph Vera

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Aedes aegypti is a medically important mosquito species that transmits multiple arboviruses, including dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever. This mosquito species has expanded its geographical range into expanded into the Northern Chihuahuan Desert to further increase the risk of infection by these viruses in naïve human populations. Although Ae. aegypti is abundant along the U.S.â??Mexico border, the biology and ecology of this mosquito species in this temperate/arid climate region is not understood. The objective of this study was to understand the environmental factors that influence the invasive species of Ae. aegypti abundance, breeding habitat selection, host feeding behavior, and …


Landscape Genomics Of The Tussock Cottongrass (Eriophorum Vaginatum) And The Dwarf Birch (Betula Nana) In North Central Alaska, Elizabeth Stunz 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Landscape Genomics Of The Tussock Cottongrass (Eriophorum Vaginatum) And The Dwarf Birch (Betula Nana) In North Central Alaska, Elizabeth Stunz

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Global climate change has resulted in geographic range shifts of flora and fauna at a global scale. Extreme environments, like the Arctic, are seeing some of the most pronounced changes. This region covers 14% of the Earthâ??s land area, and while many arctic species are widespread, understanding ecotypic variation at the genomic level will be important for elucidating how range shifts will affect ecological processes. Increase in shrub cover is a major effect of ongoing climate change in arctic tundra ecosystems. The relative increases in abundance and cover of shrub species such as birch, willow, and alder (Betula, Salix, and …


Amplification Of The Plag-Family Genes-Plagl1 And Plagl2-Is A Key Feature Of The Novel Tumor Type Cns Embryonal Tumor With Plagl Amplification, Michaela-Kristina Keck, Martin Sill, Andrea Wittmann, Piyush Joshi, Damian Stichel, Pengbo Beck, Konstantin Okonechnikow, Philipp Sievers, Annika K. Wefers, Nasir uddin 2022 Hopp Children's Cancer Center Heidelberg, Germany

Amplification Of The Plag-Family Genes-Plagl1 And Plagl2-Is A Key Feature Of The Novel Tumor Type Cns Embryonal Tumor With Plagl Amplification, Michaela-Kristina Keck, Martin Sill, Andrea Wittmann, Piyush Joshi, Damian Stichel, Pengbo Beck, Konstantin Okonechnikow, Philipp Sievers, Annika K. Wefers, Nasir Uddin

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors represent the most common cause of cancer-related death in children aged 0-14 years. They differ from their adult counterparts, showing extensive clinical and molecular heterogeneity as well as a challenging histopathological spectrum that often impairs accurate diagnosis. Here, we use DNA methylation-based CNS tumor classification in combination with copy number, RNA-seq, and ChIP-seq analysis to characterize a newly identified CNS tumor type. In addition, we report histology, patient characteristics, and survival data in this tumor type. We describe a biologically distinct pediatric CNS tumor type (n = 31 cases) that is characterized by focal …


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