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Investigating Optimal Laboratory Growth Conditions Of Gracilibacillus Halotolerans In Media Supplemented With Salt, Isaac Young 2024 Roseman University of Health Sciences

Investigating Optimal Laboratory Growth Conditions Of Gracilibacillus Halotolerans In Media Supplemented With Salt, Isaac Young

Annual Research Symposium

As interest continues to grow in the field of persister cells and their morphology, there arises an ever-evolving desire to further understand specific strains of bacteria that exemplify the qualities of seemingly anomalous survival regardless of anti-bacterial treatment. In the case of the Gracilibacillus halotolerans, a halotolerant extremophile extracted from the Great Salt Lake with known persistent characteristics, uncovering its optimal growth conditions was essential for future investigations. Identifying the optimal salinity for the growth of G. halotolerans will allow us to standardize our growth methods, uncover several mechanisms of saline tolerance, and add to future investigations of persistence with …


The Development Of A Rabies Virus-Vectored Vaccine Against Borrelia Burgdorferi, Targeting Bbi39, Shantel Rios, Bibek Bhattachan, Kruthi Vavilikolanu, Chrysoula Kitsou, Utpal Pal, Matthias J. Schnell 2024 Thomas Jefferson University

The Development Of A Rabies Virus-Vectored Vaccine Against Borrelia Burgdorferi, Targeting Bbi39, Shantel Rios, Bibek Bhattachan, Kruthi Vavilikolanu, Chrysoula Kitsou, Utpal Pal, Matthias J. Schnell

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Lyme disease (LD) is the most common tick-borne illness in the United States (U.S.), Europe, and Asia. Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete bacterium transmitted by the tick vector Ixodes scapularis, causes LD in the U.S. If untreated, Lyme arthritis, heart block, and meningitis can occur. Given the absence of a human Lyme disease vaccine, we developed a vaccine using the rabies virus (RABV) vaccine vector BNSP333 and an outer surface borrelial protein, BBI39. BBI39 was previously utilized as a recombinant protein vaccine and was protective in challenge experiments; therefore, we decided to utilize this protective antigen in a rabies virus-vectored vaccine …


Computational Analysis Of Cas Proteins Unlocks New Potential In Hiv-1 Targeted Gene Therapy, Will Dampier, Rachel Berman, Michael Nonnemacher, Brian Wigdahl 2024 Thomas Jefferson University

Computational Analysis Of Cas Proteins Unlocks New Potential In Hiv-1 Targeted Gene Therapy, Will Dampier, Rachel Berman, Michael Nonnemacher, Brian Wigdahl

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

Introduction: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pandemic has been slowed with the advent of anti-retroviral therapy (ART). However, ART is not a cure and as such has pushed the disease into a chronic infection. One potential cure strategy that has shown promise is the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas gene editing system. It has recently been shown to successfully edit and/or excise the integrated provirus from infected cells and inhibit HIV-1 in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. These studies have primarily been conducted with SpCas9 or SaCas9. However, additional Cas proteins are …


Gut Dysbiosis Correlates With Covid-19 Severity, Ednita Escobar 2024 Claremont Colleges

Gut Dysbiosis Correlates With Covid-19 Severity, Ednita Escobar

CMC Senior Theses

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) impacts not only respiratory but also gut and oral microbiomes, influencing the manifestations of COVID-19. Each person’s unique microbiome consists of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, some of which are symbiotic and others potentially harmful. Alterations in the gut microbiome, specifically, can affect the severity and symptoms of COVID-19. A review of studies indicate a pattern of gut dysbiosis in COVID-19 patients characterized by a decrease in beneficial microbiota and/or an increase in opportunistic pathogens. This gut imbalance correlates with disease severity, suggesting that the gut microbiome plays a significant role …


The Characterization Of Vig-1’S Expression Patterns In Ipnv-Infected, Or Dsrna-Treated, Rainbow Trout Cells, Samantha Lum 2024 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Characterization Of Vig-1’S Expression Patterns In Ipnv-Infected, Or Dsrna-Treated, Rainbow Trout Cells, Samantha Lum

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In Canada, annual trout production is valued at over $60M with approximately 10,000 tonnes of trout produced per year. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are one of the most commonly farmed fresh-water fish in Canada. The high-density farming practices involved in aquaculture increase rainbow trout susceptibility to aquatic viruses such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The innate antiviral immune response in rainbow trout is poorly characterized, and the functions of numerous interferon stimulated genes (ISG) in rainbow trout remain unclear. One such gene, virus-induced gene 1 (vig-1) has been poorly studied; however, the human orthologue for vig-1 …


Distribution And Prevalence Of Antibodies To Trichinella Spp. And Toxoplasma Gondii In Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In The United States, Christopher A. Cleveland, Ellen Haynes, Katherine C. Callaghan, Alinde Fojtik, Sarah Coker, Emily Doub, Vienna R. Brown, Ania A. Majewska, Michael J. Yabsley 2024 University of Georgia

Distribution And Prevalence Of Antibodies To Trichinella Spp. And Toxoplasma Gondii In Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) In The United States, Christopher A. Cleveland, Ellen Haynes, Katherine C. Callaghan, Alinde Fojtik, Sarah Coker, Emily Doub, Vienna R. Brown, Ania A. Majewska, Michael J. Yabsley

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are a reservoir for over 100 viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens that are transmissible to humans, livestock, domestic animals, and wildlife in North America. Numerous historical local surveys and results from a nation-wide survey (2006–2010) indicated that wild pigs in the United States act as reservoirs for Trichinella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, two zoonotic pathogens of importance for human and animal health. Since that time, wild pig populations have expanded and increased in density in many areas. Population expansion of wild pigs creates opportunities for the introduction of pathogens to new areas …


Reducing Tick Populations Through Prescribed Burning, Andrea Salazar, Herman Griese, Victoria Pickens, Cassandra Olds 2024 Kansas State University

Reducing Tick Populations Through Prescribed Burning, Andrea Salazar, Herman Griese, Victoria Pickens, Cassandra Olds

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Objective: Explore the effect of prescribed fire on tick population dynamics in the Kansas Flint Hills.

Study Description: Ticks were collected from spring (April), summer (August), or fall (September) burned pastures as well as control, unburned areas. Burning had been carried out for four consecutive years prior to this study. Tick populations were sampled every other week from March to August using material dragging and dry ice bait sampling methods. Tick species, sex, and life stage were identified morphologically and the total numbers for each burn treatment were calculated.

The Bottom Line: Consecutive burning of grazing pasture could be considered …


Hepatoprotective Effect Of Berberis Lycium In Αlpha-Naphthylisothiocyanate Induced Cholestatic Mouse Models, Shamaila Bashir, Hassan Hameed, Nida Irshad, Aqsa Ashraf, Muhammad Faizan, Saiyada Fatima Maida Halim, Hafiz M. Mazhar Asjad, Andleeb Batool, Imran Sohail 2023 Department of Zoology, Government College University Lahore, Pakistan

Hepatoprotective Effect Of Berberis Lycium In Αlpha-Naphthylisothiocyanate Induced Cholestatic Mouse Models, Shamaila Bashir, Hassan Hameed, Nida Irshad, Aqsa Ashraf, Muhammad Faizan, Saiyada Fatima Maida Halim, Hafiz M. Mazhar Asjad, Andleeb Batool, Imran Sohail

Journal of Bioresource Management

Cholestasis is characterized by the obstruction of bile flow from hepatocytes to the intestine. It results in accumulation of bile acids in the liver, which cause oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Till now, the treatment options against cholestasis are limited. Therefore, there is an utmost requirement to develop and evaluate the drugs with potential anti-cholestatic effects. In the current study, the drug-induced cholestasis mouse models were generated via oral administration of α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT). The mice were placed into three groups of six animals each. Group I was the control group and was given saline. The cholestasis model Group …


The Potential Of Stem Cell Therapy In Multiple Sclerosis Treatment: A Review, Sorina Amarculesei, Ava O'Meara Cushen, Cathy Brougham 2023 Athlone Institute of Technology

The Potential Of Stem Cell Therapy In Multiple Sclerosis Treatment: A Review, Sorina Amarculesei, Ava O'Meara Cushen, Cathy Brougham

SURE_J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. There are currently 2.8 million people living with Multiple Sclerosis worldwide, including 9000 people in Ireland, with a prevalence of 193 per 100,000 people. Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis include sensory loss, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, spasticity, depression, optic neuritis, gait ataxia, diplopia, and loss of bladder control. Currently, there is no standardised treatment or cure for Multiple Sclerosis with many strategies focusing on symptoms. Stem cells have emerged as promising approaches for Multiple Sclerosis therapeutics. Clinical trials primarily focus on mesenchymal stem cell-based therapies for Multiple Sclerosis. Furthermore, …


Treatment Response Of Gingival Squamous-Cell Carcinoma To Palliative Intent Immunotherapy, Natalia Trehan, Angelina Debbas, Mykaihla Sternick, Jennifer Johnson, James Gates 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Treatment Response Of Gingival Squamous-Cell Carcinoma To Palliative Intent Immunotherapy, Natalia Trehan, Angelina Debbas, Mykaihla Sternick, Jennifer Johnson, James Gates

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

The use of PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor medications has become a common practice in the treatment of recurrent and metastatic head and neck squamous-cell carcinomas. Success in this setting has led to the investigation of their efficacy in locally advanced cases as a part of first-line therapy. In this report, we detail the treatment response to palliative intent immunotherapy of three geriatric patients with mandibular gingival squamous-cell carcinoma who decided against surgical intervention. Patient #1 was treated with pembrolizumab, a PD-1 inhibitor, and displayed complete clinical and radiologic response of the gingival mass after three months of treatment, which is …


Resolution Of The Tetrabothrius Jagerskioeldi Cryptic Species Complex Among Holarctic Alcidae (Charadriiformes): Cestodes Among Fraterculinae—Exploring Marine Diversity, Host Range, And Dynamic Oceanography In The Greater North Pacific, Eric P. Hoberg, Kaylen Marie Soudachanh, Svetlana K. Bondarenko 2023 University of New Mexico

Resolution Of The Tetrabothrius Jagerskioeldi Cryptic Species Complex Among Holarctic Alcidae (Charadriiformes): Cestodes Among Fraterculinae—Exploring Marine Diversity, Host Range, And Dynamic Oceanography In The Greater North Pacific, Eric P. Hoberg, Kaylen Marie Soudachanh, Svetlana K. Bondarenko

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

In the biosphere, limits for diversity among species, communities, and biomes are revealed through intensive and extensive field-based inventory and assembly of voucher specimens and associated informatics examined in a phylogenetic, historical, ecological, and biogeographic arena. Archival resources for specimens and information contribute to a cumulative view of faunal structure and assembly under a comparative umbrella. Ultimately, species definitions, and inclusive partitions among populations and lineages, are fundamental in articulating hypotheses that examine interactions about evolution, the nature of organisms, and the condition of environments across space and time. We conclude our proposals establishing species limits for tapeworms of the …


Effect Of Macrophage Expressed Α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (Α7nachr) On Migration Of Macrophages During Inflammation, Kasey Keever 2023 East Tennessee State University

Effect Of Macrophage Expressed Α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (Α7nachr) On Migration Of Macrophages During Inflammation, Kasey Keever

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition characterized by overwhelming inflammation, resulting in organ system damage, leading to a high mortality rate. Care in the clinical setting is supportive, and there are no approved sepsis-specific treatments. In septic mice, activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway decreases cytokine secretion by leukocytes and improves survival. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is a reflex of the parasympathetic nervous system, converging on the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (α7nAChR) at the surface of macrophages. Signaling through the receptor blocks NF-kB activation, thus cytokine secretion. Receptor activation has other effects on macrophages, including modulating their migration to …


Phylogenomics Reveals The History Of Host Use In Mosquitoes, John Soghigan, Charles Sither, Silvia Andrade Justi, Gen Morinaga, Brian K. Cassel, Christopher J. Vitek, Todd P. Livdahl, Siyang Xia, Andrea Gloria-Soria, Jeffrey R. Powell, Thomas Zavortink, Christopher M. Hardy, Nathan D. Burkett-Cadena, Lawrence E. Reeves, Richard C. Wilkerson, Robert R. Dunn, David K. Yeates, Maria Anice Sallum, Brian D. Byrd, Michelle D. Trautwein, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Michael H. Reiskind, Brian M. Wiegmann 2023 North Carolina State University

Phylogenomics Reveals The History Of Host Use In Mosquitoes, John Soghigan, Charles Sither, Silvia Andrade Justi, Gen Morinaga, Brian K. Cassel, Christopher J. Vitek, Todd P. Livdahl, Siyang Xia, Andrea Gloria-Soria, Jeffrey R. Powell, Thomas Zavortink, Christopher M. Hardy, Nathan D. Burkett-Cadena, Lawrence E. Reeves, Richard C. Wilkerson, Robert R. Dunn, David K. Yeates, Maria Anice Sallum, Brian D. Byrd, Michelle D. Trautwein, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Michael H. Reiskind, Brian M. Wiegmann

Biology

Mosquitoes have profoundly affected human history and continue to threaten human health through the transmission of a diverse array of pathogens. The phylogeny of mosquitoes has remained poorly characterized due to difficulty in taxonomic sampling and limited availability of genomic data beyond the most important vector species. Here, we used phylogenomic analysis of 709 single copy ortholog groups from 256 mosquito species to produce a strongly supported phylogeny that resolves the position of the major disease vector species and the major mosquito lineages. Our analyses support an origin of mosquitoes in the early Triassic (217 MYA [highest posterior density region: …


Behavioral Interactions Between Spotted-Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii) And It's Parasitoid The Samba Wasp (Ganaspis Brasiliensis), Dominic Crowley 2023 University of Maine - Main

Behavioral Interactions Between Spotted-Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii) And It's Parasitoid The Samba Wasp (Ganaspis Brasiliensis), Dominic Crowley

Honors College

Past research has found that female Drosophila generally decrease their reproductive output in response to exposure to predators, including parasitoid wasps. However, no studies on behavioral changes induced by the endoparasitic wasp Ganaspis brasiliensis have been documented in the literature. G. brasiliensis has been identified as a biocontrol agent candidate against D. suzukii, with field trials currently underway across the contiguous United States. In this thesis, two experiments were performed: a behavioral observation assay measuring reproductive behaviors and an oviposition assay, a measure of reproductive activity. Female D. suzukii exposed to G. brasiliensis were observed to have depressed oviposition, producing …


Cellular Mechanism Of Pentagalloyl Gucose-Mediated Prevention And Reversal Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Greg Halsey 2023 Clemson University

Cellular Mechanism Of Pentagalloyl Gucose-Mediated Prevention And Reversal Of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Greg Halsey

All Dissertations

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has been the 15th leading cause of death in persons older than 55 for the past ten years in several Western countries, with rupture resulting in an almost 100% mortality rate. AAA is a focal dilation of the aorta characterized by progressive loss of elastin and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), as well as persistent inflammatory response [1]. The only treatment for AAA is surgery; however, the mortality post-procedure is still 1-4%, with a 15-30% chance of morbidity [2].

Pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) treatment is effective in the reversal of AAA. While its stabilizing interactions with extracellular …


Evaluation Of The Efficacy Of Synthetic Glycovaccines Against Both Murine Acute Chagas Disease And Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colin D. Knight 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Evaluation Of The Efficacy Of Synthetic Glycovaccines Against Both Murine Acute Chagas Disease And Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Colin D. Knight

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Chagas disease (CD) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are neglected tropical diseases caused by the protozoan trypanosomatids, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., respectively. There are approximately 6-8 million people infected with T. cruzi worldwide and ~300,000 people in the US. Between 700,000 and 1.2 million new cases of CL occur worldwide yearly. The approved chemotherapies for both diseases are partially effective and may cause serious adverse events, resulting in premature treatment interruption. Moreover, no effective vaccine for either disease is available. Therefore, developing a vaccine that would provide effective cross-protection against both diseases would provide a cost-effective alternative to the existing …


Characterization Of The Effects Of The Pyrazolopyrimidine Inhibitor Grassofermata (Nav-2729) In The Eukaryotic Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Kristina Marie Parman 2023 Clemson University

Characterization Of The Effects Of The Pyrazolopyrimidine Inhibitor Grassofermata (Nav-2729) In The Eukaryotic Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Kristina Marie Parman

All Dissertations

The protozoan pathogen, Trypanosoma brucei, is the causative agent of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. T. brucei cycles between tsetse fly and mammalian hosts, and it is adapted to survive in diverse host tissues. Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) plays a key role in immune evasion in the mammalian host. The VSG membrane anchor requires two myristates, 14-carbon saturated fatty acids (FAs) that are scarce in the host. T. brucei can synthesize FAs de novo, but also readily takes up exogenous FAs, despite lacking homologs to fatty acid uptake proteins found in other …


Human-Bat Interactions In A Disease Emergence Hotspot: Implications For Human Health And Bat Conservation, Reilly Tempest Jackson 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Human-Bat Interactions In A Disease Emergence Hotspot: Implications For Human Health And Bat Conservation, Reilly Tempest Jackson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bats are an ecologically important taxon that can host zoonotic pathogens. Globally, many bat species are synanthropic and live closely with humans, often roosting in man-made structures. The spatial overlap between humans and bats creates opportunities for human-bat contact, which can lead to human exposure to bat-borne pathogens and conflicts that cause bat mortality. Despite this risk, little is known about the drivers and characteristics of these human-bat interactions in buildings and work is needed to understand this aspect of the wildlife-urban interface. In Chapter I, I present a literature review that identifies the geographic and taxonomic trends in reported …


Exploration Of The Implementation Of An Integrated Electronic Laboratory Information Management System On Quality Diagnostics Service Indicators At A County Level Public Hospital In Western Kenya., Kelly Allen 2023 SIT Graduate Institute/SIT Study Abroad

Exploration Of The Implementation Of An Integrated Electronic Laboratory Information Management System On Quality Diagnostics Service Indicators At A County Level Public Hospital In Western Kenya., Kelly Allen

Capstone Collection

Underinvestment in pathology and laboratory capacity caused by low visibility in research and in prioritization by public health leaders results in limited effective healthcare coverage and an estimated 1.1 million premature deaths annually in Low-and-Middle-Income Countries. Kenya’s public health laboratories provide a median 41% of the Essential Diagnostic List to their patients and in Kisumu County, as much as 44.2% of the population has little to no access to essential diagnostics. The government of Kisumu implemented the county Health Laboratory Strategic Plan 2018-2022 to address this public health challenge. Little information exists on the effectiveness of these initiatives and the …


Saving The Devils Is In The Details, Megan O. Powell 2023 University of North Carolina at Asheville

Saving The Devils Is In The Details, Megan O. Powell

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


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