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Understanding Caribou Population Cycles, Jack R. St. John 2022 University of Montana

Understanding Caribou Population Cycles, Jack R. St. John

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

The complex population dynamics of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) were studied to determine the patterns of their population cycles and the processes driving them. It is well established, via previous archaeological research and Indigenous knowledge, that large migrating caribou herds found in and around the tundra at northern latitudes experience population boom and busts roughly every several decades. However, the processes driving the dynamics of these cycles are relatively unknown, which makes managing caribou herds for recreational and subsistence harvests difficult. It has been hypothesized that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors shape these cycles, with density-dependence, predation, harvest, climate ...


A Narrative Review On The Unexplored Potential Of Colostrum As A Preventative Treatment And Therapy For Diarrhea In Neonatal Dairy Calves, Havelah S. M. Carter, David L. Renaud, Michael A. Steele, Amanda J. Fischer-Tlustos, Joao H. C. Costa 2021 University of Guelph, Canada

A Narrative Review On The Unexplored Potential Of Colostrum As A Preventative Treatment And Therapy For Diarrhea In Neonatal Dairy Calves, Havelah S. M. Carter, David L. Renaud, Michael A. Steele, Amanda J. Fischer-Tlustos, Joao H. C. Costa

Animal and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Diarrhea is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in pre-weaned dairy calves and, as such, represents a significant animal health and welfare concern. Furthermore, digestive disease early in life is associated with several long-term consequences such as reduced growth rate and decreased milk yield during the first lactation, thus generating severe economic losses. The majority of diarrheic cases in young calves are treated with antimicrobials; however, it is necessary to develop alternative treatments, as excessive antimicrobial usage can lead to antimicrobial resistance and can negatively impact the gut microflora of a calf. Bovine colostrum is abundant in immune and ...


Intensive Hunting Pressure Changes Local Distribution Of Wild Boar, Jakub Drimaj, Jiří Kamler, Radim Plhal, Přemysl Janata, Zdeněk Adamec, Miloslav Homolka 2021 Mendel University in Brno, Czech Republic

Intensive Hunting Pressure Changes Local Distribution Of Wild Boar, Jakub Drimaj, Jiří Kamler, Radim Plhal, Přemysl Janata, Zdeněk Adamec, Miloslav Homolka

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is now an important species of wild ungulates in Central Europe. Next to conflicts of wild boar with agriculture, the main threat of wild boar presence lies in the expansion of African swine fever across Europe. The regulation of the wild boar population is complicated by the high reproduction rate and intelligent behavior of the species, which limits hunting effectiveness. We analyzed the spatial behavior of wild boar in an environment with a lack of natural food resources. The study area consisted of a forest complex (1,283 ha) with 2 areas. In the “risk” area ...


Бадхызские Архивы. Том 1, Р. И. Горелова, В. Фет 2021 Marshall University

Бадхызские Архивы. Том 1, Р. И. Горелова, В. Фет

Books Published by MU Libraries in MDS

Gorelova, RI, Fet V, editors. The Badkhyz Archives, Vol. 1. Huntington, WV: Marshall University Libraries; 2021. 444 p.

This volume compiles memoirs and research information about the unique Badkhyz Natural Reserve, now in Turkmenistan, formerly at the southernmost point of the USSR. Established in 1941, the Reserve—nicknamed a Serengeti of Central Asia— housed many unique and endangered species, with an iconic wild ass, or kulan, preserved only there. The book is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of the Reserve and the 90th birthday of Yuri Gorelov (1931—2018), an extraordinary naturalist who worked in Badkhyz in 1956—1978. His ...


Effect Of Biochanin A On The Rumen Microbial Community Of Holstein Steers Consuming A High Fiber Diet And Subjected To A Subacute Acidosis Challenge, Brittany E. Harlow, Michael D. Flythe, James L. Klotz, David L. Harmon, Glen E. Aiken 2021 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Effect Of Biochanin A On The Rumen Microbial Community Of Holstein Steers Consuming A High Fiber Diet And Subjected To A Subacute Acidosis Challenge, Brittany E. Harlow, Michael D. Flythe, James L. Klotz, David L. Harmon, Glen E. Aiken

Animal and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) occurs when highly fermentable carbohydrates are introduced into the diet, decreasing pH and disturbing the microbial ecology of the rumen. Rumen amylolytic bacteria rapidly catabolize starch, fermentation acids accumulate in the rumen and reduce environmental pH. Historically, antibiotics (e.g., monensin, MON) have been used in the prevention and treatment of SARA. Biochanin A (BCA), an isoflavone produced by red clover (Trifolium pratense), mitigates changes associated with starch fermentation ex vivo. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of BCA on amylolytic bacteria and rumen pH during a SARA challenge. Twelve rumen fistulated ...


Ikkuma: An Artistic Vr Storytelling Experience, Yangli Liu 2021 Me, Myself

Ikkuma: An Artistic Vr Storytelling Experience, Yangli Liu

Frameless

Ikkuma is an interactive storytelling experience utilizing Tilt Brush and Unity. It is about a land being swallowed by the sea, where conflict cracks ice and fire tears families apart. Ikkuma is the Inuvialuit word for fire, a central element to the work. The fundamental theme of Ikkuma is global warming and its impact on the Arctic ecosystem. The players must learn to tame the fire in their hearts and the Inuit traditional knowledge if they hope to survive the harsh yet fragile Arctic tundra.


Alteration Of The Canine Metabolome After A 3-Week Supplementation Of Cannabidiol (Cbd) Containing Treats: An Exploratory Study Of Healthy Animals, Elizabeth M. Morris, Susanna E. Kitts-Morgan, Dawn M. Spangler, Ibukun M. Ogunade, Kyle R. McLeod, David L. Harmon 2021 University of Kentucky

Alteration Of The Canine Metabolome After A 3-Week Supplementation Of Cannabidiol (Cbd) Containing Treats: An Exploratory Study Of Healthy Animals, Elizabeth M. Morris, Susanna E. Kitts-Morgan, Dawn M. Spangler, Ibukun M. Ogunade, Kyle R. Mcleod, David L. Harmon

Animal and Food Sciences Faculty Publications

Despite the increased interest and widespread use of cannabidiol (CBD) in humans and companion animals, much remains to be learned about its effects on health and physiology. Metabolomics is a useful tool to evaluate changes in the health status of animals and to analyze metabolic alterations caused by diet, disease, or other factors. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of CBD supplementation on the canine plasma metabolome. Sixteen dogs (18.2 ± 3.4 kg BW) were utilized in a completely randomized design with treatments consisting of control and 4.5 mg CBD/kg BW/d ...


Self-Injurious Behavior In A Captive, Malimprinted Coragyps Atratus, Brittany Swartout 2021 University of Central Florida, Orlando

Self-Injurious Behavior In A Captive, Malimprinted Coragyps Atratus, Brittany Swartout

The Pegasus Review: UCF Undergraduate Research Journal

Lurch is a Coragyps atratus who was raised in captivity and imprinted on humans. He was an education animal at the Silver Springs Zoo until its closure. Lurch was moved to the Central Florida Zoo and has been feather picking and self-mutilating since then. Self-injury is not well documented in raptors and few treatments have been explored. It is often caused by stress of some sort and is not seen in the wild. These observations were conducted in order to observe the environmental factors that influenced these behaviors in Lurch. In an attempt to curb his feather picking, Lurch was ...


Temporal Trends And Drivers Of Mountain Lion Depredation In California, Usa, Justin A. Dellinger, Daniel K. Macon, Jaime L. Rudd, Deana L. Clifford, Steven G. Torres 2021 California Department of Fish and Wildlife, Rancho Cordova, CA

Temporal Trends And Drivers Of Mountain Lion Depredation In California, Usa, Justin A. Dellinger, Daniel K. Macon, Jaime L. Rudd, Deana L. Clifford, Steven G. Torres

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Increasing human populations and expanding development across the globe necessitate continual progress in understanding and mitigating human–wildlife conflict. California, USA has the largest human population and at least half of the state is suitable mountain lion (Puma concolor) habitat. The juxtaposition of high human abundance within and adjacent to mountain lion habitat make California relevant for understanding human–large carnivore conflict. We compiled 7,719 confirmed incidents of mountain lions depredating domestic animals over a 48-year period (1972–2019) to examine temporal trends in mountain lion depredations as well as factors influencing annual depredation rates at the county level ...


Characterization Of The Effects Of Heat Stress On Autophagy Induction In The Pig Oocyte, Benjamin J. Hale, Yunsheng Li, Malavika K. Adur, Aileen F. Keating, Lance H. Baumgard, Jason W. Ross 2021 Iowa State University

Characterization Of The Effects Of Heat Stress On Autophagy Induction In The Pig Oocyte, Benjamin J. Hale, Yunsheng Li, Malavika K. Adur, Aileen F. Keating, Lance H. Baumgard, Jason W. Ross

Animal Science Publications

Background: Heat stress (HS) occurs when body heat accumulation exceeds heat dissipation and is associated with swine seasonal infertility. HS contributes to compromised oocyte integrity and reduced embryo development. Autophagy is a potential mechanism for the oocyte to mitigate the detrimental effects of HS by recycling damaged cellular components.

Methods: To characterize the effect of HS on autophagy in oocyte maturation, we utilized an in vitro maturation (IVM) system where oocytes underwent thermal neutral (TN) conditions throughout the entire maturation period (TN/TN), HS conditions during the first half of IVM (HS/TN), or HS conditions during the second half ...


Effects Of Salinity On Eastern Oysters: Locating Lower-Salinity Tolerant Populations And Defining Resource Zones Suitable To Restoration, Fisheries, And Aquaculture., Lauren Swam 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Effects Of Salinity On Eastern Oysters: Locating Lower-Salinity Tolerant Populations And Defining Resource Zones Suitable To Restoration, Fisheries, And Aquaculture., Lauren Swam

LSU Master's Theses

Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) provide valuable ecosystem services and support a productive commercial industry in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Declining abundance from water quality changes and other factors drives development of management and restoration strategies focused on a comprehensive, metapopulation approach. Identifying oyster resource zones based on water quality combined with selective breeding of oysters adapted to specific conditions provides strategies to support aquaculture development and ensure resilient oyster populations and high production. Using 2015-2019 satellite-derived continuous salinity and temperature data for coastal Louisiana, this work created maps defining oyster resource zones supportive of (1) broodstock sanctuary reefs, (2 ...


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna Giberson 2021 Southwestern Oklahoma State University

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

The Mayfly Newsletter is the official newsletter of the Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera.


A Behavioral Study Of Chacoan Peccaries (Catagonis Wagneri) In A Zoo Environment, Desdemona Kurowski 2021 University of Central Florida, Orlando

A Behavioral Study Of Chacoan Peccaries (Catagonis Wagneri) In A Zoo Environment, Desdemona Kurowski

The Pegasus Review: UCF Undergraduate Research Journal

Found in the highly specialized area of the Gran Chaco, the Chacoan peccary (Catagonis wagneri) is an endangered animal threatened by industrial agriculture. In an attempt to save this species, three C. wagneri were brought to Central Florida Zoo where their health is monitored with great care in an attempt to possibly breed them in the future. While taking care of the other hooved animals, zookeepers are not able to give the peccaries their uninterrupted attention and have turned to help from the University of Central Florida to closely track if their behavior is indicative of a healthy, properly enriched ...


Defining The Role Of Rbbp4 In Oocyte Maturation And Preimplantation Development Using Trim-Away, Holly L. Barletta 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Defining The Role Of Rbbp4 In Oocyte Maturation And Preimplantation Development Using Trim-Away, Holly L. Barletta

Masters Theses

Retinoblastoma-binding protein 4 (RBBP4) is a subunit of chromatin remodeling factor 1 (CAF-1) and is essential for mammalian oocyte maturation, embryo survival, and embryo implantation. RBBP4 also localizes to the chromatin and is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein. Previous methods used to study this protein include short interfacing RNAs (siRNAs) and CRISPR/Cas9. These techniques have limitations such as determining an indirect depletion of proteins, may trigger compensatory mechanisms, and may not be useful in non-dividing primary cells. A new, acute, and rapid endogenous protein depletion technique called Trim-Away, can overcome these limitations. Trim-Away is also widely applicable since it ...


Obesity Alters The Ovarian Proteomic Response To Zearalenone Exposure, M. Estefanía González-Alvarez, Bailey C. McGuire, Aileen F. Keating 2021 Iowa State University

Obesity Alters The Ovarian Proteomic Response To Zearalenone Exposure, M. Estefanía González-Alvarez, Bailey C. Mcguire, Aileen F. Keating

Animal Science Publications

Zearalenone (ZEN), a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin, is detrimental to female reproduction. Altered chemical biotransformation, depleted primordial follicles and a blunted genotoxicant response have been discovered in obese female ovaries, thus, this study investigated the hypothesis that obesity would enhance ovarian sensitivity to ZEN exposure. Seven-week-old female wild-type nonagouti KK.Cg-a/a mice (lean) and agouti lethal yellow KK.Cg-Ay/J mice (obese) received food and water ad libitum, and either saline or ZEN (40 μg/kg) per os for 15 days. Body and organ weights, and estrous cyclicity were recorded, and ovaries collected posteuthanasia for protein analysis. Body and liver ...


Bacterial Communities In The Rumen And Feces Of Lactating Holstein Dairy Cows Are Not Affected When Fed Reduced-Fat Dried Distillers’ Grains With Solubles, Adwoa S. Dankwa, Usha Humagain, Suzanne L. Ishaq, Carl J. Yeoman, Stephanie Clark, Donald C. Beitz, Eric D. Testroet 2021 University of Maine

Bacterial Communities In The Rumen And Feces Of Lactating Holstein Dairy Cows Are Not Affected When Fed Reduced-Fat Dried Distillers’ Grains With Solubles, Adwoa S. Dankwa, Usha Humagain, Suzanne L. Ishaq, Carl J. Yeoman, Stephanie Clark, Donald C. Beitz, Eric D. Testroet

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Reduced-fat dried distillers’ grains with solubles (RF-DDGSs) are co-products of ethanol production and contain less fat than traditional distillers’ grains. The fat in corn is ~91% unsaturated, and it is toxic to rumen microorganisms so it could influence the composition of the rumen microbiome. It has been demonstrated that RF-DDGS is a suitable ration ingredient to support the high-producing dairy cow, and this feedstuff is a promising alternative protein source for lactating dairy cows. The current study aims to better understand the effect of RF-DDGS on the rumen and fecal bacterial composition in lactating dairy cows. Thirty-six multiparous (two or ...


Evaluation Of Increased Fiber, Decreased Amino Acids, Or Decreased Electrolyte Balance As Dietary Approaches To Slow Finishing Pig Growth Rates, Emma T. Helm, John F. Patience, Matthew R. Romoser, Colin D. Johnson, Jason W. Ross, Nicholas K. Gabler 2021 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Increased Fiber, Decreased Amino Acids, Or Decreased Electrolyte Balance As Dietary Approaches To Slow Finishing Pig Growth Rates, Emma T. Helm, John F. Patience, Matthew R. Romoser, Colin D. Johnson, Jason W. Ross, Nicholas K. Gabler

Animal Science Publications

In swine production, pig movement restrictions or packing plant closures may create the need to slow growth rates of finishing pigs to ensure they remain at a marketable body weight when packing plant access is restored. Although dietary formulations can be successful at slowing pig growth, precision is needed regarding how to best formulate diets to achieve growth rate reductions. Thus, the objective was to evaluate three dietary experimental approaches aimed at slowing growth rates in finishing pigs. These approaches consisted of either increasing neutral detergent fiber (NDF), reducing essential amino acids, or reducing the dietary electrolyte balance through the ...


Molecular Phylogeny Of Cave Dwelling Eremogryllodes Crickets (Orthoptera, Myrmecophilidae) Across Zagros Mountains And Southern Iran, Mohadeseh Sadat Tahami, Mina Hojat-Ansari, Anna Namyatova, Saber Sadeghi 2021 Shiraz University, Iran

Molecular Phylogeny Of Cave Dwelling Eremogryllodes Crickets (Orthoptera, Myrmecophilidae) Across Zagros Mountains And Southern Iran, Mohadeseh Sadat Tahami, Mina Hojat-Ansari, Anna Namyatova, Saber Sadeghi

International Journal of Speleology

Recently, several new species and subspecies from the genus Eremogryllodes Chopard, 1929 (Insecta: Orthoptera: Myrmecophilidae) inhabiting caves of Iran, have been described based on morphology. The high variation of genitalia structure along with high similarity of external morphology between populations hamper the precise species identification. Thus, molecular approaches are critical to determine the taxonomic positions of species/subspecies of this genus. Here we provide the molecular phylogeny, based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene, of recently described species of Eremogryllodes along with some unidentified specimens from the same region. The results support the monophyly of the family Myrmecophilidae. The topology ...


A Rare Telson Anomaly In Parabuthus Liosoma (Ehrenberg, 1828) (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Abdulaziz R. Alqahtani, Ahmed Badry 2021 Marshall University

A Rare Telson Anomaly In Parabuthus Liosoma (Ehrenberg, 1828) (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Abdulaziz R. Alqahtani, Ahmed Badry

Euscorpius

A rare anomaly of telson vesicle with two functional aculei is observed and discussed in a Parabuthus liosoma (Ehrenberg, 1828) specimen collected from Jizan, Saudi Arabia.


An Anomaly Of Chelicera In Scorpio Kruglovi Birula, 1910 (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae), Ersen A. Yağmur, Mehmet S. Kılıç, Ömer Yılmaz 2021 Marshall University

An Anomaly Of Chelicera In Scorpio Kruglovi Birula, 1910 (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae), Ersen A. Yağmur, Mehmet S. Kılıç, Ömer Yılmaz

Euscorpius

An anomaly in cheliceral dentition of the fixed finger is recorded in the scorpion Scorpio kruglovi Birula, 1910. This rare teratological anomaly herein is described and illustrated.


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