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Harm And Victim Age As Factors In The Determination Of Intentionality And Culpability, Donal David Barnard Jr. 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Harm And Victim Age As Factors In The Determination Of Intentionality And Culpability, Donal David Barnard Jr.

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In the United States criminal justice system, jurors are directed to determine a defendant’s guilt beyond a reasonable doubt by establishing both the act of committing a crime (actus reus) and the culpable mental state of the defendant (mens rea), that is, the defendant’s intentionality. The role of a juror in a criminal case is that of a factfinder, deciding whether the two elements of the crime have been met. Criminal cases where jurors are asked to decide the facts vary in the harm that resulted. The more severe the harm, the greater the perceived injustice. This research ...


Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow 2017 Yale University

Rumination Is Associated With Diminished Performance Monitoring, Ema Tanovic, Greg Hajack, Charles A. Sanislow

Charles A. Sanislow, Ph.D.

Rumination is a construct that cuts across a variety of disorders, including anxiety and depression. It has been associated with deficits in cognitive control thought to confer risk for psychopathology. One aspect of cognitive control that is especially relevant to the content of ruminative thoughts is error processing. We examined the relation of rumination and 2 electrophysiological indices of error processing, error related negativity (ERN), an early index of error detection, and error positivity (Pe), a later index of error awareness. Consistent with prior work, ERN was negatively correlated with anxiety (i.e., more anxious individuals were characterized by larger ...


A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach To Distinguishing Serial And Parallel Processing, Joseph W. Houpt, Mario Fifić 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach To Distinguishing Serial And Parallel Processing, Joseph W. Houpt, Mario Fifić

Joseph W. Houpt

Research in cognitive psychology often focuses on how people deal with multiple sources of information. One important aspect of this research is whether people use the information in parallel (at the same time) or in series (one at a time). Various approaches to distinguishing parallel and serial processing have been proposed, but many do not satisfactorily address the mimicking dilemma between serial and parallel classes of models. The mean interaction contrast (MIC) is one measure is designed to improve discriminability of serial-parallel model properties. The MIC has been applied in limited settings because the measure required a large number of ...


Augmented Tutoring, Santosh Mathan, Stephen D. Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich, Patricia M. Ververs 2017 Iowa State University

Augmented Tutoring, Santosh Mathan, Stephen D. Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich, Patricia M. Ververs

Michael C. Dorneich

An augmented tutoring system is provided that includes a simulation device, at least one sensor and a controller. The simulation device is adapted to provide a simulation that has an objective to accomplish by a student, wherein to achieve the objective a plurality of tasks must be correctly completed. The at least one sensor is adapted to monitor a cognitive state of the student while engaged with the simulation. The controller is adapted to process cognitive state information from the at least one sensor and to process student progress information relating to the completion of each of the tasks. The ...


Cognitive Aircraft Hazard Advisory System (Cahas), Donald C. Kauffman, Michael C. Dorneich 2017 Iowa State University

Cognitive Aircraft Hazard Advisory System (Cahas), Donald C. Kauffman, Michael C. Dorneich

Michael C. Dorneich

Integrated surveillance systems and methods for processing multiple sensor inputs and determining a best route for avoiding multiple hazards. An example method performed on a first aircraft includes generating a plurality of routes for avoiding a previously determined alert from a first advisory system. Then, probability of success information is generated at other advisory systems for each of the plurality of routes. The best route of the plurality of routes is determined based on the generated probabilities and output to the flight crew or other aircraft. The probability of success information includes a previously defined uncertainty value. The uncertainty value ...


Multiple Two-State Classifier Output Fusion System And Method, Stephen Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich 2017 Iowa State University

Multiple Two-State Classifier Output Fusion System And Method, Stephen Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich

Michael C. Dorneich

A system and method for providing more than two levels of classification distinction of a user state are provided. The first and second general states of a user are sensed. The first general state is classified as either a first state or a second state, and the second general state is classified as either a third state or a fourth state. The user state of the user is then classified as one of at least three different classification states.


Workload Management System And Method, Michael C. Dorneich, William Rogers, Stephen Whitlow, Chris Hamblin, Claudia Keinrath 2017 Iowa State University

Workload Management System And Method, Michael C. Dorneich, William Rogers, Stephen Whitlow, Chris Hamblin, Claudia Keinrath

Michael C. Dorneich

A system and method are provided for facilitating workload management. The system processes first sensor data to estimate the current cognitive state of a first person, and processes second sensor data to estimate the current cognitive state of a second person. Information representative of the estimates of the current cognitive states of the first person and the second person is simultaneously rendered on a display device.


Fitting The Fractional Polynomial Model To Non-Gaussian Longitudinal Data, Ji Hoon Ryoo, Jeffrey D. Long, Greg W. Welch, Arthur Reynolds, Susan M. Swearer 2017 University of Virginia

Fitting The Fractional Polynomial Model To Non-Gaussian Longitudinal Data, Ji Hoon Ryoo, Jeffrey D. Long, Greg W. Welch, Arthur Reynolds, Susan M. Swearer

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

As in cross sectional studies, longitudinal studies involve non-Gaussian data such as binomial, Poisson, gamma, and inverse-Gaussian distributions, and multivariate exponential families. A number of statistical tools have thus been developed to deal with non-Gaussian longitudinal data, including analytic techniques to estimate parameters in both fixed and random effects models. However, as yet growth modeling with non-Gaussian data is somewhat limited when considering the transformed expectation of the response via a linear predictor as a functional form of explanatory variables. In this study, we introduce a fractional polynomial model (FPM) that can be applied to model non-linear growth with non-Gaussian ...


Secondary Students’ Writing Achievement Goals: Assessing The Mediating Effects Of Mastery And Performance Goals On Writing Self-Efficacy, Affect, And Writing Achievement, Meryem Yilmaz Soylu, Mary G. Zeleny, Ruomeng Zhao, Michael S. Dempsey, Douglas F. Kauffman 2017 Ankara, Turkey

Secondary Students’ Writing Achievement Goals: Assessing The Mediating Effects Of Mastery And Performance Goals On Writing Self-Efficacy, Affect, And Writing Achievement, Meryem Yilmaz Soylu, Mary G. Zeleny, Ruomeng Zhao, Michael S. Dempsey, Douglas F. Kauffman

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

The two studies reported here explored the factor structure of the newly constructed Writing Achievement Goal Scale (WAGS), and examined relationships among secondary students’ writing achievement goals, writing self-efficacy, affect for writing, and writing achievement. In the first study, 697 middle school students completed the WAGS. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit for this data with a three-factor model that corresponds with mastery, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals. The results of Study 1 were an indication for the researchers to move forward with Study 2, which included 563 high school students. The secondary students completed theWAGS, as ...


Prospective Studies Of Cardiovascular Risk Factors And Mild Cognitive Impairment, Kevin Sullivan 2017 University of Maine

Prospective Studies Of Cardiovascular Risk Factors And Mild Cognitive Impairment, Kevin Sullivan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The association of cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, kidney function, and arterial stiffness with cognitive impairment in older adults is a well-studied phenomenon. However, there is considerably less evidence relating cardiovascular health specifically to a diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). As a precursor state of dementia, MCI is characterized by a decline in cognitive function from previous level, but not to the degree that activities of daily living are impaired. Not everyone who is diagnosed with MCI will eventually transition to dementia, but the transition rates are much higher compared to the general population (5-15% per year ...


Review Of Training Principles For Flight Training In Aircraft Or Simulator, Stefan Kleinke 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Review Of Training Principles For Flight Training In Aircraft Or Simulator, Stefan Kleinke

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

In human-performance-driven fields such as the social and behavioral sciences and education, there is a particular risk for a disconnect between current research and applied practice. Often, new findings require policy changes and workforce re-education before being applied in a meaningful way. Therefore, a continuous need for practitioner professional development and continuation training exists to ensure informed practices. This presentation is motivated by these needs and aims to help flight training professionals to make informed decisions when designing and conducting flight training events. Based on a conceptual framework of cognitive and behavioral theories in learning, a variety of common training ...


Abstract And Concrete Concepts According To Word Association, Daniel Nedjadrasul 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Abstract And Concrete Concepts According To Word Association, Daniel Nedjadrasul

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In psychology, the abstract/concrete distinction refers to a distinction among concepts, which is typically characterized as follows. Concrete concepts are those whose referents can be experienced through sensation/perception, such as dog or pond, whereas abstract concepts are those whose referents lack this attribute, such as truth (Wiemer-Hastings & Xu, 2005; Connell & Lynott, 2012; Brysbaert, Warriner, & Kuperman, 2014). This thesis describes and, using word association, tests several theories of conceptual representation motivated by the abstract/concrete distinction (or, where not motivated by it, with potential implications related to it). These include Dual Coding Theory (Paivio, 1986, 2007), Perceptual Symbol Systems (Barsalou, 1999, 2008), Language ...


An Investigation Of Propranolol As An Agent For The Experimental Manipulation Of Interoception., Jane Evguenia Kouptsova 2017 The University of Western Ontario

An Investigation Of Propranolol As An Agent For The Experimental Manipulation Of Interoception., Jane Evguenia Kouptsova

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Interoception has recently come under research focus as a potential influence on emotional and epistemic feelings. However, existing means to manipulate it experimentally have conceptual or logistical drawbacks. We investigated whether 20 mg of propranolol is a viable agent for experimentally manipulating interoception. Thirteen participants completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, performing two heartbeat perception tasks, control tasks and measures of anxiety and alertness. All measures were obtained at the beginning and end of both sessions. Propranolol significantly decreased heart rate and systolic blood pressure. Heartbeat detection performance numerically decreased under propranolol, although this effect failed to reach statistical significance ...


What Are The Cognitive Mechanisms That Underlie Our Theory Of Mind? Potential Insights From Information Theory, Nellie Kamkar 2017 The University of Western Ontario

What Are The Cognitive Mechanisms That Underlie Our Theory Of Mind? Potential Insights From Information Theory, Nellie Kamkar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to infer mental states. The purpose of Study 1 was to reduce performance demands on a ToM test for forty (22 females) children (M age = 4.604; SD age = 1.128). Here, a low-uncertainty condition included a behaviour repetition manipulation, intended to increase success rate—but results did not confirm our hypothesis. Potential reasons for the results of Study 1 are discussed and tested in Study 2. The purpose of Study 2 was to determine the mechanism by which ToM operates in fifty-seven (26 females) adult participants (M age = 20.632; SD age ...


Ask The Pendulum: Personality Predictors Of Ideomotor Performance, Jay A. Olson, Ewalina Jeyanesan, Amir Raz 2017 McGill University

Ask The Pendulum: Personality Predictors Of Ideomotor Performance, Jay A. Olson, Ewalina Jeyanesan, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

For centuries, people have asked questions to hand-held pendulums and interpreted their movements as responses from the divine. These movements occur due to the ideomotor effect, wherein priming or thinking of a motion causes muscle movements that end up swinging the pendulum. By associating particular swinging movements with “yes” and “no” responses, we investigated whether pendulums can aid decision-making and which personality traits correlate with this performance. Participants (N=80) completed a visual detection task in which they searched for a target letter among rapidly presented characters. In the verbal condition, participants stated whether they saw the target in each ...


Popular Music-Evoked Autobiographical Memories - Developing A Database Of Songs And Studying The Role Of Cue Emotionality And Relevance On Recalled Memories, Krysten Zator 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Popular Music-Evoked Autobiographical Memories - Developing A Database Of Songs And Studying The Role Of Cue Emotionality And Relevance On Recalled Memories, Krysten Zator

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In Study 1, undergraduate students rated popular music songs on several factors. A database of knowledge was created for popular music autobiographical memory (AM) cueing research. Study 2 examined the role of emotional experience and relevance associated with a popular music AM cue on recalled AMs. In Phase 1, undergraduate participants described AMs to short music clips or a blank computer screen (control). In Phase 2, participants answered questions about these AMs. In Phase 3, participants rated musical clips (including Phase 1 stimuli). Unexpectedly, music-cued memories were less salient and did not differ emotionally from control-cued, but contained more perceptual ...


Social Media And Cognition, Ana C. Ruiz Pardo 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Social Media And Cognition, Ana C. Ruiz Pardo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Social media is an inescapable platform for sharing media and connecting with others. This thesis investigated how social media impacts cognition; specifically, attention. Study 1 investigated typical social media usage patterns and helped gauge which SM platform was most popular. Study 1 revealed three main platforms people used most often: Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat. Facebook was reported as the most popular social media platform. Study 2 investigated how a social media post impacts cognition. It was hypothesized that participants who posted, with the intention of provoking a reaction from their followers, on their social media prior to performing a cognitive ...


A Cross-Cultural Examination Of The Conformity Effect When Co-Witnesses Discuss A Crime, Sungil Bang 2017 CUNY John Jay College

A Cross-Cultural Examination Of The Conformity Effect When Co-Witnesses Discuss A Crime, Sungil Bang

Student Theses

Prior research has shown that discussions with a co-witness can lead to the spread of false information, better known as the memory conformity effect. Specifically the effects of independence and interdependence on memory conformity have been examined. People who perceived their selves as a distinctive and unique were related to less memory conformity whereas those who identified themselves within their social relationships were not related to memory conformity. One of the limitations of the previous study is that they only focused on Western populations even though there is a cultural difference between Western European culture and Eastern Asian culture in ...


More Than Mere Synonyms: Examining The Differences Between Criminogenic Thinking And Criminogenic Attitudes, David W. Gavel 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

More Than Mere Synonyms: Examining The Differences Between Criminogenic Thinking And Criminogenic Attitudes, David W. Gavel

Dissertations

More than 75% of prison inmates are arrested for a new crime within five years of being released from prison. Known as recidivism, this trend of repeated criminal activity accounts for more than half of annual prison admissions, and rehabilitative programs demonstrate varying degrees of success in reducing recidivism. Andrews, Bonta, and Hoge (1990) demonstrated that offenders are less likely to recidivate when they receive services that match their assessed level of risk factors (e.g., history of violence), intervention needs (e.g., mental health diagnosis), and responsivity (e.g., ideal learning environment). Criminogenic cognition, mental events (e.g., thoughts ...


The Impact Of Working Memory On Response Order Effects And Question Order Effects In Telephone And Web Surveys, Beth Cochran 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Impact Of Working Memory On Response Order Effects And Question Order Effects In Telephone And Web Surveys, Beth Cochran

Survey Research and Methodology program (SRAM) - Dissertations & Theses

It has been theorized that working memory plays a role in survey methodology contributing to response order and question order effects; however, there is little empirical evidence linking working memory and survey context effects. This dissertation examines whether respondents’ working memory influences response order and question order effects through incorporating working memory measures into the survey questionnaire. The subjects were randomly assigned to complete the survey via telephone or web, and respondents completed a series of working memory measures and attitudinal questions.

It was hypothesized that as working memory capacity improved there would be a decrease in the likelihood of ...


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