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Unexpected Arousal Suppresses Memory And Metamemory Predictions During Associative Face-Name Recognition Task, Sameer Sabharwal-Siddiqi 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Unexpected Arousal Suppresses Memory And Metamemory Predictions During Associative Face-Name Recognition Task, Sameer Sabharwal-Siddiqi

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Successful recognition often depends on probabilistic estimation of memory-signal. Arousal has been shown to offset the influence of heuristic evidence on memory prediction. We conducted three experiments that tested whether arousal also suppresses predictions relevant to memory confidence. Experiments employed associative face-name memory tasks that included retrospective (Experiments 1 and 2) or concurrent (Experiment 3) judgements of confidence. During test, subjects were presented with a masked-affective face on a subset of trials. By timing the masked-affective face to precede a recognition judgement (Experiment 1), we replicated the finding that unexpected arousal offsets the influence of heuristic evidence on expectations of …


Linguistic Abstractions In Children’S Very Early Utterances, Qihui Xu 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Linguistic Abstractions In Children’S Very Early Utterances, Qihui Xu

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

How early do children produce multiword utterances? Do children's early utterances reflect abstract syntactic knowledge or are they the result of data-driven learning? We examine this issue through corpus analysis, computational modeling, and adult simulation experiments. Chapter 1 investigates when children start producing multiword utterances; we use corpora to establish the development of multiword utterances and a probabilistic computational model to account for the quantitative change of early multiword utterances. We find that multiword utterances of different lengths appear early in acquisition and increase together, and the length growth pattern can be viewed as a probabilistic and dynamic process.

Chapter …


Retrieval Practice Promotes Learning Of Turkish As A Foreign Language: A Computer-Assisted Language Learning Study, Maya C. Rose 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Retrieval Practice Promotes Learning Of Turkish As A Foreign Language: A Computer-Assisted Language Learning Study, Maya C. Rose

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Adults generally find it difficult to learn a new language, yet exhibit remarkable individual differences in outcomes. Variation in second language (L2) learning is associated with input conditions (Morgan-Short et al., 2010) as well as learners’ aptitude (Dörnyei, 2005). Recent work has demonstrated benefits of retrieval practice in promoting L2 learning of grammatical patterns and vocabulary in both artificial and natural languages (Hopman & MacDonald, 2018; Keppenne et al., 2021). With that said, when retrieval practice is based on oral recall as opposed to a recognition test, it confounds potential benefits of repeated testing (Rowland, 2014) with those associated with …


Transformation Based Digital Technology: The Effectivity Of Psychosocial Intervention Method, I Kadek Agus Hendriawan Putra, Pande Putu Narisya Ardhaneswari, Ni Wayan Devi Ariasih, I Komang Krisnata Kanaya 2022 Udayana University

Transformation Based Digital Technology: The Effectivity Of Psychosocial Intervention Method, I Kadek Agus Hendriawan Putra, Pande Putu Narisya Ardhaneswari, Ni Wayan Devi Ariasih, I Komang Krisnata Kanaya

Smart City

A multitude of patterns resulting from technological change have an influence on people's mental health. People in the digital era need strong mental health in order to prevent mental disease. Coupled with the pandemic condition that happened around two years ago, it also took a part of the economic chain stability in the public, which is really important for everyday daily life. From the literature studies that have been read, showed that approximately 20% of the Indonesian population has the potential to have a mental disorder. Based on the various mental health problems that occur, the approach using the psychosocial …


Individual Differences In Categorization, Urooj Anees 2022 Western University

Individual Differences In Categorization, Urooj Anees

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The appearance of individual differences used to be regarded as noise in psychological experiments, but is slowly becoming a tool used to enhance and solidify findings in various fields of cognitive psychology. This presentation aims to very briefly discuss individual differences and categorization and what questions future research could aim to answer.


Narratives Close The Gap: The Limited Role Of Temporal Distance In Binding Events Into Coherent Memories, Angelique Delarazan 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

Narratives Close The Gap: The Limited Role Of Temporal Distance In Binding Events Into Coherent Memories, Angelique Delarazan

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Temporal information has been identified as a powerful influence on memory retrieval. Much of this arise from studies that tend to focus on associations between items. In contrast, real-life experiences consist of discrete events that encompass more than mere associations. While events can be remembered based on temporal proximity, events that are farther apart in time can also be linked together by forming a coherent narrative. Given that daily experiences are multifaceted, it is unclear to what extent prior work generalizes to real-world memories. Here, we sought to determine the influence of temporal features and narrative coherence on memory for …


Assessing The Impact Of Lipopolysaccharide On Learning And Memory In Rats, Anahat Luthra 2022 Western University

Assessing The Impact Of Lipopolysaccharide On Learning And Memory In Rats, Anahat Luthra

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) have a bi-direction relationship, modulating one another.4 Proinflammatory cytokines released from CNS immune cells have an impact on cognitive processes such as learning and memory.1 Liposaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, which is used to activate proinflammatory cytokine release has been found to impact learning and memory processes, such as in the anticipatory nausea paradigm (ANP).2 Anticipatory nausea and vomiting is that which may occur before a chemotherapy treatment session begins in a patient who has had chemotherapy before. It is caused by triggers like …


Using A Musical Beat To Influence Linguistic Statistical Learning, Aspen Leung 2022 Western University

Using A Musical Beat To Influence Linguistic Statistical Learning, Aspen Leung

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The similarities between music and language continue to provide research questions in the area of psychology. Despite the large amount of research on this area of knowledge, there are still many existing questions in regards to the processing of musical and linguistic stimuli. Statistical learning involves the ability to extract statistical regularities from a stimulus and continues to be studied in both domains due to the similar hierarchical structure of music and language. Recently, neural entrainment (the synchronization of neural oscillations with the rhythm of an external stimulus) has been studied as a mechanism of statistical learning. Music has been …


The Influence Of Personality Trait Variation On Curiosity Seeking Behaviours, Brian Krivoruk 2022 Western University

The Influence Of Personality Trait Variation On Curiosity Seeking Behaviours, Brian Krivoruk

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Curiosity is defined as our desire to acquire new information and leads us to engage in information-seeking behaviours. The present study investigates how personality influences curiosity-based information-seeking behaviours during a state of curiosity induced by unsuccessful memory recall. Specifically, this study assessed the personality traits of deprivation-type (D-type), interest-type (I-type), and intolerance of uncertainty to explore their role in curiosity-based decisions making. Information-seeking choices were examined during unsuccessful recall in a paradigm using face-name pairs. The behaviour was correlated with responses from a series of questionnaires that looked at personality traits associated with curiosity and information-seeking. The findings suggested that …


Auditory Sensory Filtering And Development In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Hiruthika Ravi, Ala Seif, Ryan A. Stevenson 2022 Western University

Auditory Sensory Filtering And Development In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Hiruthika Ravi, Ala Seif, Ryan A. Stevenson

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Sensory filtering is the process of separating and distilling relevant sensory information from irrelevant, which in turn greatly reduces the quantity of sensory information that is fully processed and leads to significant increases in efficiency. Atypical sensory filtering can result in sensory hypo- or hypersensitivity — atypical sensory filtering and hypo/hypersensitivity have been observed in people with autism. Atypical sensory filtering contributes to canonical symptoms in Autism.

Sensory filtering can be measured in a few different ways, one of which is the Acoustic Startle Response (ASR). ASR is a reflexively produced muscular reaction to sudden auditory stimuli.

Our study aims …


The Differences Between Visual And Auditory Pattern Separation, Alvira Khurram 2022 Western University

The Differences Between Visual And Auditory Pattern Separation, Alvira Khurram

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

• There has been limited investigation into pattern separation in modalities other than the visual domain, specifically little study of auditory pattern separation.

• Research on developing a measure of auditory pattern separation can aid in growing our understanding of memory and encourage further research of pattern separation in the auditory domain.

• Using Stark’s visual MST and an auditory MST (created by Helena Wang) the differences in performance of participants across the tasks was compared.

• The performance of the visual MST group was found to be not significantly different from the performance of the auditory MST group, as …


The Aspiring Entrepreneur Model For Flourishing - A Model Designed To Keep Aspiring Entrepreneurs Engaged, Committed, And Flourishing, Aaron Marcum 2022 University of Pennsylvania

The Aspiring Entrepreneur Model For Flourishing - A Model Designed To Keep Aspiring Entrepreneurs Engaged, Committed, And Flourishing, Aaron Marcum

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

The entrepreneurial experience is not for the faint of heart. Due to the stress associated with starting a new business, it can challenge the well-being of even the best intended entrepreneurs, especially those early on in their journey, whom I call aspiring entrepreneurs (AE). It is possible for an AE to flourish, where they thrive and continue to grow through the experience, as long as they invest in certain key well-being dimensions that positive psychology researchers and practitioners have identified as foundational to entrepreneurial flourishing. This paper explores three of these dimensions, (1) purpose in life, (2) autonomy, and (3) …


The Spacing Effect In Remote Information-Integration Category Learning, Anthony Cruz 2022 The University of Western Ontario

The Spacing Effect In Remote Information-Integration Category Learning, Anthony Cruz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present study examined whether the temporal distribution of procedural category learning experiences would impact learning outcomes. Participants completed the remote category learning study on a smartphone in one of two learning conditions: Massed (control) or distributed. Consistent with expectations, distributed learners reached higher accuracy levels. This effect disappeared after accounting for reaction time differences, suggesting that it was driven by attentional mechanisms. Distribution may have made participants more likely discover the optimal categorization strategy and more robust to sensory habituation. Counter to previous findings, participants favored distributed learning. These results suggest that adult category learning is facilitated by temporal …


Toddler Characteristics And Attention, Lani A. Taylor 2022 Seattle Pacific University

Toddler Characteristics And Attention, Lani A. Taylor

Research Psychology Theses

Abstract

Individual differences have become increasingly relevant when addressing variability across child development. Literature bears evidence that these differences may impact a toddler’s ability to respond to Joint Attention (JA). JA refers to a communicative gaze and pointing between a child and another individual. JA has been recognized as being a critical milestone, to the formation and cultivation of shared awareness and attention of an event or object. JA is a skill that is critical to the development of future language acquisition (Vaughan Van Hecke et al., 2007). The aim of this study is to measure whether child characteristics, such …


Does A Sender’S And Recipient’S Relationship Influence Readers’ Interpretation Of Message Tone?, Allison Arp 2022 James Madison University

Does A Sender’S And Recipient’S Relationship Influence Readers’ Interpretation Of Message Tone?, Allison Arp

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Given the importance of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and the uniqueness of the cues that have meaning in this environment, research is warranted to investigate how the relationship between the people communicating via CMC might impact the way the message and cues are interpreted. This study aims to investigate whether different inherent levels of authority and familiarity between a message sender and recipient affect how email tone is interpreted. Previous studies demonstrate that when individuals communicate with authority figures, they employ different strategies than when communicating with peers. Furthermore, individuals adapt their behavior to mimic the interactants behavior, which in turn …


Culture And Classification: Investigating Analytic Vs. Holistic Thinking Styles, Neha Khemani 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Culture And Classification: Investigating Analytic Vs. Holistic Thinking Styles, Neha Khemani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This paper sought to explore cultural preferences for analytic and holistic thinking in classification. Experiment 1 paired the Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (SHJ) tasks with the Analysis-Holism scale (AHS) and a demographics questionnaire. Effects of culture on learning rates, alongside the feasibility of online data collection, were assessed. Learning difficulty differences among the six SHJ category sets were observed. Further, as predicted, higher holistic thinking correlated positively with the family resemblance task. Experiment 2 replicated the Norenzayan et al. (2002) task. Unlike in the original study, the effect of instructional condition was not significant across our full sample. Nevertheless, the …


Using Spoken Narratives To Measure Listening Engagement In Children, Sarah Bobbitt 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Using Spoken Narratives To Measure Listening Engagement In Children, Sarah Bobbitt

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Despite the rising popularity of audiobooks and podcasts, research on children listening to spoken stories remains in its infancy. In addition, the use of spoken stories could significantly improve studies of listening engagement in children. Thus, the present study sought to 1) explore how children aged 8-13 years engage with these novel media and 2) determine which stories might be most engaging to children in this age group. Fifty-two parents of children aged 8-13 years completed an online survey which asked about their children’s listening habits. Results of the survey then informed the development of four engaging stories (and two …


Validated Question Bank For Assessing Pilot Knowledge Of Aviation Weather Appendix: Weather Product Interpretation Questions, Robert Thomas, Cassandra Dommingo, John Kleber, Jackie McSorely, Amber Cole, Thomas Guinn, Elizabeth Blickensderfer 2022 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Validated Question Bank For Assessing Pilot Knowledge Of Aviation Weather Appendix: Weather Product Interpretation Questions, Robert Thomas, Cassandra Dommingo, John Kleber, Jackie Mcsorely, Amber Cole, Thomas Guinn, Elizabeth Blickensderfer

General Aviation Weather Display Interpretation

This appendix supplements the Thomas et al. (2022) paper titled “Validated Question Bank for Assessing Pilot Knowledge of Aviation Weather ” which validates a set of weather product interpretation questions that can be used to measure a pilot’s understanding of weather. The assessment consists of 15 weather product interpretation topics which can be administered as a single 65-question survey or, as in the Thomas et al. (2022) study, two assessments of 33 and 32 questions each separated by topic. The set of 65 questions can be found in this appendix along with a table which demonstrates how to separate the …


How Valuable Are Clinical Neuropsychological Assessments? A Meta-Analysis Of Neuropsychological Tests With Comparison To Common Medical Tests And Treatments, Murphy N. Harrell 2022 University of South Alabama

How Valuable Are Clinical Neuropsychological Assessments? A Meta-Analysis Of Neuropsychological Tests With Comparison To Common Medical Tests And Treatments, Murphy N. Harrell

Theses and Dissertations

There has been a general decrease in neuropsychological assessments at a time when medical diagnostic technology and treatments have expanded, leading to a faulty assumption that medical tests and healthcare treatments provide more reliable or valid data than psychological assessments. A landmark report from the American Psychological Association’s (APA) Psychological Assessment Work Group (PAWG) found that validity coefficients for many psychological tests were indistinguishable from those of medical tests (Meyer et al., 2001). An updated systematic review of the advancement in neuropsychological testing is essential to the continued advancement of the value of neuropsychological assessment in healthcare. This meta-analysis sought …


Two Essays On The Role Of Empathy In Consumer Response To User-Generated Content, Mohammadali Koorank Beheshti 2022 Old Dominion University

Two Essays On The Role Of Empathy In Consumer Response To User-Generated Content, Mohammadali Koorank Beheshti

Theses and Dissertations in Business Administration

Empathy is known to be the basis of all human interactions and an essential component of human psychology. Empathy includes a cognitive component (perspective-taking) and an affective component (e.g., emotional contagion). The two essays of my dissertation investigate how each of these components of empathy affect consumer responses to user-generated content.

Essay 1: Although both price and online review ratings are important cues in consumers’ product quality judgment, most previous studies have treated price and review ratings as separate inputs into consumer decision-making. The current research shows that the two cues are intertwined, such that consumers’ perception of the same …


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