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Prospective Studies Of Cardiovascular Risk Factors And Mild Cognitive Impairment, Kevin Sullivan 2017 University of Maine

Prospective Studies Of Cardiovascular Risk Factors And Mild Cognitive Impairment, Kevin Sullivan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The association of cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, kidney function, and arterial stiffness with cognitive impairment in older adults is a well-studied phenomenon. However, there is considerably less evidence relating cardiovascular health specifically to a diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). As a precursor state of dementia, MCI is characterized by a decline in cognitive function from previous level, but not to the degree that activities of daily living are impaired. Not everyone who is diagnosed with MCI will eventually transition to dementia, but the transition rates are much higher compared to the general population (5-15% per year ...


Review Of Training Principles For Flight Training In Aircraft Or Simulator, Stefan Kleinke 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Review Of Training Principles For Flight Training In Aircraft Or Simulator, Stefan Kleinke

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

In human-performance-driven fields such as the social and behavioral sciences and education, there is a particular risk for a disconnect between current research and applied practice. Often, new findings require policy changes and workforce re-education before being applied in a meaningful way. Therefore, a continuous need for practitioner professional development and continuation training exists to ensure informed practices. This presentation is motivated by these needs and aims to help flight training professionals to make informed decisions when designing and conducting flight training events. Based on a conceptual framework of cognitive and behavioral theories in learning, a variety of common training ...


Abstract And Concrete Concepts According To Word Association, Daniel Nedjadrasul 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Abstract And Concrete Concepts According To Word Association, Daniel Nedjadrasul

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In psychology, the abstract/concrete distinction refers to a distinction among concepts, which is typically characterized as follows. Concrete concepts are those whose referents can be experienced through sensation/perception, such as dog or pond, whereas abstract concepts are those whose referents lack this attribute, such as truth (Wiemer-Hastings & Xu, 2005; Connell & Lynott, 2012; Brysbaert, Warriner, & Kuperman, 2014). This thesis describes and, using word association, tests several theories of conceptual representation motivated by the abstract/concrete distinction (or, where not motivated by it, with potential implications related to it). These include Dual Coding Theory (Paivio, 1986, 2007), Perceptual Symbol Systems (Barsalou, 1999, 2008), Language ...


An Investigation Of Propranolol As An Agent For The Experimental Manipulation Of Interoception., Jane Evguenia Kouptsova 2017 The University of Western Ontario

An Investigation Of Propranolol As An Agent For The Experimental Manipulation Of Interoception., Jane Evguenia Kouptsova

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Interoception has recently come under research focus as a potential influence on emotional and epistemic feelings. However, existing means to manipulate it experimentally have conceptual or logistical drawbacks. We investigated whether 20 mg of propranolol is a viable agent for experimentally manipulating interoception. Thirteen participants completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, performing two heartbeat perception tasks, control tasks and measures of anxiety and alertness. All measures were obtained at the beginning and end of both sessions. Propranolol significantly decreased heart rate and systolic blood pressure. Heartbeat detection performance numerically decreased under propranolol, although this effect failed to reach statistical significance ...


What Are The Cognitive Mechanisms That Underlie Our Theory Of Mind? Potential Insights From Information Theory, Nellie Kamkar 2017 The University of Western Ontario

What Are The Cognitive Mechanisms That Underlie Our Theory Of Mind? Potential Insights From Information Theory, Nellie Kamkar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to infer mental states. The purpose of Study 1 was to reduce performance demands on a ToM test for forty (22 females) children (M age = 4.604; SD age = 1.128). Here, a low-uncertainty condition included a behaviour repetition manipulation, intended to increase success rate—but results did not confirm our hypothesis. Potential reasons for the results of Study 1 are discussed and tested in Study 2. The purpose of Study 2 was to determine the mechanism by which ToM operates in fifty-seven (26 females) adult participants (M age = 20.632; SD age ...


Popular Music-Evoked Autobiographical Memories - Developing A Database Of Songs And Studying The Role Of Cue Emotionality And Relevance On Recalled Memories, Krysten Zator 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Popular Music-Evoked Autobiographical Memories - Developing A Database Of Songs And Studying The Role Of Cue Emotionality And Relevance On Recalled Memories, Krysten Zator

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In Study 1, undergraduate students rated popular music songs on several factors. A database of knowledge was created for popular music autobiographical memory (AM) cueing research. Study 2 examined the role of emotional experience and relevance associated with a popular music AM cue on recalled AMs. In Phase 1, undergraduate participants described AMs to short music clips or a blank computer screen (control). In Phase 2, participants answered questions about these AMs. In Phase 3, participants rated musical clips (including Phase 1 stimuli). Unexpectedly, music-cued memories were less salient and did not differ emotionally from control-cued, but contained more perceptual ...


Social Media And Cognition, Ana C. Ruiz Pardo 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Social Media And Cognition, Ana C. Ruiz Pardo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Social media is an inescapable platform for sharing media and connecting with others. This thesis investigated how social media impacts cognition; specifically, attention. Study 1 investigated typical social media usage patterns and helped gauge which SM platform was most popular. Study 1 revealed three main platforms people used most often: Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat. Facebook was reported as the most popular social media platform. Study 2 investigated how a social media post impacts cognition. It was hypothesized that participants who posted, with the intention of provoking a reaction from their followers, on their social media prior to performing a cognitive ...


Ask The Pendulum: Personality Predictors Of Ideomotor Performance, Jay A. Olson, Ewalina Jeyanesan, Amir Raz 2017 McGill University

Ask The Pendulum: Personality Predictors Of Ideomotor Performance, Jay A. Olson, Ewalina Jeyanesan, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

For centuries, people have asked questions to hand-held pendulums and interpreted their movements as responses from the divine. These movements occur due to the ideomotor effect, wherein priming or thinking of a motion causes muscle movements that end up swinging the pendulum. By associating particular swinging movements with “yes” and “no” responses, we investigated whether pendulums can aid decision-making and which personality traits correlate with this performance. Participants (N=80) completed a visual detection task in which they searched for a target letter among rapidly presented characters. In the verbal condition, participants stated whether they saw the target in each ...


Augmented Tutoring, Santosh Mathan, Stephen D. Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich, Patricia M. Ververs 2017 Iowa State University

Augmented Tutoring, Santosh Mathan, Stephen D. Whitlow, Michael C. Dorneich, Patricia M. Ververs

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Patents

An augmented tutoring system is provided that includes a simulation device, at least one sensor and a controller. The simulation device is adapted to provide a simulation that has an objective to accomplish by a student, wherein to achieve the objective a plurality of tasks must be correctly completed. The at least one sensor is adapted to monitor a cognitive state of the student while engaged with the simulation. The controller is adapted to process cognitive state information from the at least one sensor and to process student progress information relating to the completion of each of the tasks. The ...


People Change: Impression Management Influences Autobiographical Memories, Holly Elizabeth Cole 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

People Change: Impression Management Influences Autobiographical Memories, Holly Elizabeth Cole

Theses and Dissertations

This paper presents the results of an experiment that tested a new impression management strategy, termed memory enhancement, and the long-term implications of using memory enhancement. People often share the events that occur in their everyday lives to others in the form of stories. This research was designed to determine if people will alter the way they share previous events to create a specific impression. It is possible that using the impression management strategy of memory enhancement will create long lasting changes to the actual memory of the event. This was tested in an experiment in which participants were put ...


Evaluating The Use Of Self-Relevant Stimuli In Attention Bias Modification Training As A Treatment For Anxiety: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study, Jacob Scott Aday 2017 Graduate Teaching Assistant - NMU Psychology Department

Evaluating The Use Of Self-Relevant Stimuli In Attention Bias Modification Training As A Treatment For Anxiety: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study, Jacob Scott Aday

All NMU Master's Theses

Increased attentional bias to threat has been identified as a causal mechanism in the development of anxiety. As such, attention bias modification (ABM) was conceived as a treatment option where anxiety is alleviated through a computerized cognitive training regimen that reduces an individual’s attentional bias to threat. However, few studies to date have examined how to tailor ABM treatments to unique individuals and how that may facilitate greater generalization of treatment effects in the real world. Additionally, the neural mechanisms underlying ABM are poorly understood. The participants in this study gave a list of the 10 things that caused ...


A Cross-Cultural Examination Of The Conformity Effect When Co-Witnesses Discuss A Crime, Sungil Bang 2017 CUNY John Jay College

A Cross-Cultural Examination Of The Conformity Effect When Co-Witnesses Discuss A Crime, Sungil Bang

Student Theses

Prior research has shown that discussions with a co-witness can lead to the spread of false information, better known as the memory conformity effect. Specifically the effects of independence and interdependence on memory conformity have been examined. People who perceived their selves as a distinctive and unique were related to less memory conformity whereas those who identified themselves within their social relationships were not related to memory conformity. One of the limitations of the previous study is that they only focused on Western populations even though there is a cultural difference between Western European culture and Eastern Asian culture in ...


From Foster Care To College: Student Stories Of Success, Tory Nicole England 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

From Foster Care To College: Student Stories Of Success, Tory Nicole England

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the different factors that empower young adults that were in foster care to be successful in a college environment. It has been documented that foster youth have significant challenges during secondary education (Conger & Rebeck, 2001; Geenen & Powers, 2006). Due to these challenges, foster youth attend and graduate higher education at a lower rate than their peers. The perspectives of foster youth currently enrolled in higher education is critical to determining which factors and programs have helped with their educational success. Five participants completed semi-structured interviews about their secondary education, transition to college, and ...


The Impact Of Working Memory On Response Order Effects And Question Order Effects In Telephone And Web Surveys, Beth Cochran 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Impact Of Working Memory On Response Order Effects And Question Order Effects In Telephone And Web Surveys, Beth Cochran

Survey Research and Methodology program (SRAM) - Dissertations & Theses

It has been theorized that working memory plays a role in survey methodology contributing to response order and question order effects; however, there is little empirical evidence linking working memory and survey context effects. This dissertation examines whether respondents’ working memory influences response order and question order effects through incorporating working memory measures into the survey questionnaire. The subjects were randomly assigned to complete the survey via telephone or web, and respondents completed a series of working memory measures and attitudinal questions.

It was hypothesized that as working memory capacity improved there would be a decrease in the likelihood of ...


More Than Mere Synonyms: Examining The Differences Between Criminogenic Thinking And Criminogenic Attitudes, David W. Gavel 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

More Than Mere Synonyms: Examining The Differences Between Criminogenic Thinking And Criminogenic Attitudes, David W. Gavel

Dissertations

More than 75% of prison inmates are arrested for a new crime within five years of being released from prison. Known as recidivism, this trend of repeated criminal activity accounts for more than half of annual prison admissions, and rehabilitative programs demonstrate varying degrees of success in reducing recidivism. Andrews, Bonta, and Hoge (1990) demonstrated that offenders are less likely to recidivate when they receive services that match their assessed level of risk factors (e.g., history of violence), intervention needs (e.g., mental health diagnosis), and responsivity (e.g., ideal learning environment). Criminogenic cognition, mental events (e.g., thoughts ...


Cognitive Demand And The Outcome Density Effect, Ciara Louise Willett 2017 Seton Hall University

Cognitive Demand And The Outcome Density Effect, Ciara Louise Willett

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Judgments regarding the strength of a cause to produce an outcome do not always follow predictions of normative causal reasoning models (Kao & Wasserman, 1993). In the case of the outcome density effect, individuals’ ratings of the strength of a putative cause tend to be greater when the number of observed outcomes is high than when it is low (e.g. Jenkins & Ward, 1965). In the current experiment, I investigated the outcome density effect as a possible heuristic. Participants made causal judgments based on information about the prevalence of headaches in a sample of individuals who did or did not receive ...


What You Know Makes A Difference: Physical Activity Maintenance And Adherence Of Collegiate Students, Vista Beasley, Brooke Thompson, Patrick R. Young, Itay Basevitch 2017 University of Stirling

What You Know Makes A Difference: Physical Activity Maintenance And Adherence Of Collegiate Students, Vista Beasley, Brooke Thompson, Patrick R. Young, Itay Basevitch

Journal of Counseling and Psychology

For decades, exercise psychology researchers dismissed health/exercise knowledge as a determinant of physical activity (PA). We sought to overturn this misconception, showing that psychological theory may serve as a basis for informing physical education curriculum. Based on social cognitive and self-determined motivation theories, we examined health/exercise knowledge as a determinant of collegiate students’ PA maintenance (i.e., ≥ 6 months of regular PA involvement); adherence to United States Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) 2008 PA guidelines; and PA types (i.e., aerobic, weight training). Collegiate students (n = 231) provided data via online survey. ANOVA analyses revealed that ...


Attentional Preference After A Brief Mindfulness Meditation Intervention, Joshua John Hatherley 2017 The University of Western University

Attentional Preference After A Brief Mindfulness Meditation Intervention, Joshua John Hatherley

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

It has been suggested that as a cognitive exercise, mindfulness meditation has the ability to significantly affect attention in its practitioners. This may help explain why mindfulness meditation has found success in clinical practices. This thesis sought to extend this line of research by investigating the influence of mindfulness meditation on attentional preference. In the context of this paper, attentional preference was seen to be the ability of the viewer to be biased to either detecting local components or the global whole. Study 1 investigated how a 10- minute breathing-oriented mindfulness intervention affects attentional preference on the Navon, Flanker and ...


Individual Differences In The Allocation Of Visual Attention During Navigation, Mikayla Keller 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Individual Differences In The Allocation Of Visual Attention During Navigation, Mikayla Keller

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There are large individual differences in the ability to create an accurate mental representation (i.e., a cognitive map) of a novel environment, yet the factors underlying cognitive map accuracy remain unclear. Given the roles that landmarks and cognitive map accuracy play in successful navigation, the current study examined whether differences in the landmarks that individuals look at while navigating are related to differences in cognitive map accuracy. Participants completed a battery of spatial tests: some that assessed spatial skills prior to a navigation task, and others that tested memory for the environment following exploration of a virtual world. Results ...


Investigating The Influence Of Grammatical Aspect On Eye-Movements, Kelly A. Nisbet 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Investigating The Influence Of Grammatical Aspect On Eye-Movements, Kelly A. Nisbet

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

People’s ability to understand language is influenced by numerous factors, one of which is grammatical aspect. The present study focused on whether hearing the imperfective aspect (“The man was slicing the vegetables”; ongoing action) versus the perfective aspect (“The man had sliced the vegetables”; completed action) affects the activation of the mental representation of an outcome (e.g., a sliced carrot) and of the instrument used for a specific action (e.g., a knife for slicing). We conducted a visual-world paradigm eye-tracking study to investigate moment-by-moment language understanding (Heuttig et al., 2011). Participants listened to sentences such as those ...


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