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Universelle, Schulbasierte Prävention Der Depression Im Jugendalter : Ergebnisse Einer Follow-Up-Studie (Universal, School-Based Prevention Of Depression In Adolescence : Results Of A Follow-Up Study)., Gunter Groen, Patrick Pössel, Susanne Al-Wiswasi, Franz Petermann 2017 University of Louisville

Universelle, Schulbasierte Prävention Der Depression Im Jugendalter : Ergebnisse Einer Follow-Up-Studie (Universal, School-Based Prevention Of Depression In Adolescence : Results Of A Follow-Up Study)., Gunter Groen, Patrick Pössel, Susanne Al-Wiswasi, Franz Petermann

Patrick Pössel

Zahlreiche internationale empirische Befunde belegen heute, dass depressive Symptome und Störungen im Jugendalter ein weit verbreitetes, oftmals folgenreiches und ernst zu nehmendes Gesundheitsproblem darstellen. Depressive Jugendliche zeigen in vielen Fällen erhebliche Alltagsbeeinträchtigungen und verschiedene komorbide psychische Probleme. Sie tragen ein deutliches Risiko, auch in ihrer weiteren Entwicklung – bis in das Erwachsenenalter – unter anhaltenden oder wiederkehrenden depressiven Episoden, anderen psychischen Störungen und psychosozialen Beeinträchtigungen zu leiden (vgl. Groen & Petermann, 2002). Neben der persönlichen Leidensgeschichte der Betroffenen ist davon auszugehen, dass bereits depressive Störungen im Jugendalter mit hohen und längerfristigen öffentlichen Kosten zusammenhängen, die etwa durch notwendige Behandlungsmaßnahmen oder spätere finanzielle Aufwendungen (z.B. durch Arbeitszeitausfälle, Frühberentungen) entstehen können (vgl. Cicchetti & Toth, 1998; Greenberg, Domitrovich & Bumbarger, 2001; Harrington & Clark, 1998). This paper presents results of an evaluation of an universal, school-based prevention program aimed at preventing depression in adolescence. This training named "Lust an realistischer Sicht & Leichtigkeit im sozialen Alltag" (LARS & LISA; Pössel, Horn, Seemann & Hautzinger, in press) was developed in Tübingen and constitutes a cognitive-behavioral group-training. The evaluated version consisted of nine 90-minute sessions and was carried out with 179 students ...


Integrating Beck’S Cognitive Model And The Response Style Theory In An Adolescent Sample., Stephanie Winkeljohn Black, Patrick Pössel 2017 University of Louisville

Integrating Beck’S Cognitive Model And The Response Style Theory In An Adolescent Sample., Stephanie Winkeljohn Black, Patrick Pössel

Patrick Pössel

Depression becomes more prevalent as individuals progress from childhood to adulthood. Thus, empirically supported and popular cognitive vulnerability theories to explain depression in adulthood have begun to be tested in younger age groups, particularly adolescence, a time of significant cognitive development. Beck’s cognitive theory and the response style theory are well known, empirically supported theories of depression. The current, two-wave longitudinal study (N = 462; mean age = 16.01 years; SD = 0.69; 63.9 % female) tested various proposed integrative models of Beck’s cognitive theory and the response style theory, as well as the original theories themselves, to determine ...


Testing Three Different Sequential Mediational Interpretations Of Beck's Cognitive Model For The Development Of Depression., Patrick Pössel, Stephanie Winkeljohn Black 2017 University of Louisville

Testing Three Different Sequential Mediational Interpretations Of Beck's Cognitive Model For The Development Of Depression., Patrick Pössel, Stephanie Winkeljohn Black

Patrick Pössel

Objectives: This study tested and compared three sequential interpretations of Beck’s cognitive model of the development of depression (1996). The causal mediational interpretation identifies dysfunctional attitudes as most distal to depressive symptoms, followed by cognitive distortions, cognitive triad, and negative automatic thoughts, with each construct successively more proximal to depressive symptoms. By contrast, the symptom model reverses the causal chain with negative automatic thoughts as the most proximal consequence and dysfunctional attitudes as the most distal consequence of depression. The bidirectional model merges both interpretations into one model. Previous studies on sequential interpretations of Beck’s model have not ...


Influence Of General Self-Efficacy On The Effects Of A School-Based Universal Primary Prevention Program Of Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents : A Randomized And Controlled Follow-Up Study., Patrick Pössel, Christiane Baldus, Andrea B. Horn, Gunter Groen, Martin Hautzinger 2017 University of Louisville

Influence Of General Self-Efficacy On The Effects Of A School-Based Universal Primary Prevention Program Of Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents : A Randomized And Controlled Follow-Up Study., Patrick Pössel, Christiane Baldus, Andrea B. Horn, Gunter Groen, Martin Hautzinger

Patrick Pössel

Background:  Depressive disorders in adolescents are a widespread and increasing problem. Prevention seems a promising and feasible approach.

Methods:  We designed a cognitive-behavioral school-based universal primary prevention program and followed 347 eighth-grade students participating in a randomized controlled trial for three months.

Results:  In line with our hypothesis, participants in the prevention program remained on a low level of depressive symptoms, having strong social networks. The control group showed increasing depressive symptoms and a reduced social network. Contrary to our expectations, students low in self-efficacy benefited more from the program than high self-efficient students. Social network did not mediate the ...


Evaluation Eines Deutschsprachigen Instrumentes Zur Erfassung Positiver Und Negativer Automatischer Gedanken Bei Kindern Und Jugendlichen (Evaluation Of A German-Language Tool For Measuring Positive And Negative Automatic Thoughts In Children And Adolescents)., Silke Huffziger, Thomas D. Meyer, Simone Seemann, Andrea B. Horn, Gunter Groen, Patrick Pössel 2017 Zentralinstitut fur Seelische Gesundheit, Mannheim

Evaluation Eines Deutschsprachigen Instrumentes Zur Erfassung Positiver Und Negativer Automatischer Gedanken Bei Kindern Und Jugendlichen (Evaluation Of A German-Language Tool For Measuring Positive And Negative Automatic Thoughts In Children And Adolescents)., Silke Huffziger, Thomas D. Meyer, Simone Seemann, Andrea B. Horn, Gunter Groen, Patrick Pössel

Patrick Pössel

Theoretischer Hintergrund: Negative automatische Gedanken stellen nach Beck eine wichtige Ursache für depressive Störungen dar. Fragestellung: Überprüfung der psychometrischen Gütekriterien des deutschen „Fragebogens für negative und positive automatische Gedanken” (FAG) bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Methode: Der Fragebogen wurde an einer unselektierten Stichprobe aus der Allgemeinbevölkerung (n = 952) zwischen 11 und 16 Jahren untersucht. Die Stichprobe wurde in die beiden Gruppen ≤ 13 Jahre und > 13 Jahre aufgeteilt. Ergebnisse: In der Gruppe ≤ 13 Jahre wurden die Skalen „negative Selbstaussagen” und „positive Selbstaussagen”, in der Gruppe > 13 Jahre die Skalen „negative Selbstaussagen”, „Selbstvertrauen” und „Wohlbefinden” faktorenanalytisch extrahiert. Die internen Konsistenzen der FAG-Skalen lagen ...


Bidirectional Relations Of Religious Orientation And Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents : A Short-Term Longitudinal Study., Patrick Pössel, Nina C. Martin, Judy Garber, Aaron W. Banister, Natalie K. Pickering, Martin Hautzinger 2017 University of Louisville

Bidirectional Relations Of Religious Orientation And Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents : A Short-Term Longitudinal Study., Patrick Pössel, Nina C. Martin, Judy Garber, Aaron W. Banister, Natalie K. Pickering, Martin Hautzinger

Patrick Pössel

Religious orientation can be divided into intrinsic and extrinsic: intrinsically oriented individuals “live their religion,” whereas extrinsically oriented individuals practice religion mainly to gain external benefits. In adults, depression has been found to correlate negatively with intrinsic religious orientation and positively with extrinsic orientation. Studies of the relation between religiosity and depression typically have not been longitudinal, conducted with adolescents, controlled for the influence of other factors associated with depression (i.e., negative cognitions), or examined the reverse relation of depression predicting religious orientation. Our four-month longitudinal study of 273 ninth-grade students addressed these issues. Results showed that higher intrinsic ...


Avoiding Miscommunication May Be Problematic For Conversation, Jennifer Roche, Nicole Craycraft, Thimberley Morgan 2017 Kent State University

Avoiding Miscommunication May Be Problematic For Conversation, Jennifer Roche, Nicole Craycraft, Thimberley Morgan

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Miscommunication is often seen as something that should be avoided when communicating. When individuals perceive the conversation to be filled with communication errors, there is often a feeling of disappointment because effective communication is essential to social interaction. However, the current project seeks to argue that miscommunication is not always problematic for conversation. Specifically, we used eye-tracking and psycho-linguistic methods to show that miscommunication beneficially impacts our automatic cognitive processes, by recruiting attentional resources when information is not clearly communicated. It was found that when someone miscommunicates in a way that may seem ambiguous or confounding, the individual pays more ...


Substance Abuse Influenced By Gender And Interpersonal Trauma, Rebecca Jordan 2017 Kent State University

Substance Abuse Influenced By Gender And Interpersonal Trauma, Rebecca Jordan

Undergraduate Research Symposium

There is an association that can be observed between PTSD and the severity of substance abuse disorders in those individuals who experience a traumatic event (Peirce et al., 2008). However, we aim to investigate if there is a relationship between gender and substance abuse when an individual experiences an interpersonal trauma. Prior research does suggest that women are more susceptible than men to develop PTSD (Peirce et al., 2008). In presence of interpersonal trauma history (sexual assault, physical assault, physical assault with a weapon), does gender influence frequency substance abuse?

This sample was collected through an inpatient detox center for ...


Measures Matter: Reading Comprehension May Not Be The Best Measure Of Reading Ability, Rachel A. Suter, Ashley N. Abraham, Jocelyn R. Folk 2017 Kent State University

Measures Matter: Reading Comprehension May Not Be The Best Measure Of Reading Ability, Rachel A. Suter, Ashley N. Abraham, Jocelyn R. Folk

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Recent attention to individual differences in reading behavior has driven new research studies. However, how individual differences are measured could have serious impacts on the conclusions drawn from those research studies. The current study examines the differences in reading behavior along two skill dimensions: reading comprehension and spelling ability. Reading comprehension is frequently included in studies of individual differences in reading ability. Spelling ability has only recently been considered as a measure of reading skill, however, some studies have concluded that it is a more precise measure (Andrews & Bond, 2009). According to the lexical quality hypothesis (Perfetti, 2007), high-skill spellers ...


Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2017 University of California, Los Angeles

Diet And Cognition: Data, Theory, And Some Solutions From The Playbook Of Psychology, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Animal Cognition, The Importance Of Touch, And The Cit, Deirdre Yeater 2017 Sacred Heart University

Animal Cognition, The Importance Of Touch, And The Cit, Deirdre Yeater

Deirdre Yeater

A presentation of Professor Yeater's incorporation in her class PSCC103 of 5 in- class discussions comparing human and non-human species, particularly dolphins, with an emphasis on the Catholic Intellectual Tradition and the importance of touch. PSCC-103, The Human Community: The Individual and Society, is a 3 credit course which engages students in a study of the relationship between psychology – the science of human behavior and mental processes, and the Catholic intellectual tradition – which is characterized by rigorous intellectual inquiry and an openness to scientific ideas. This course aims to help us understand ourselves as human persons, as well as ...


Approaching Stressful Situations With Purpose: Strategies For Emotional Regulation In Sensitive People, Amy D. Nagley 2017 Seattle Pacific University

Approaching Stressful Situations With Purpose: Strategies For Emotional Regulation In Sensitive People, Amy D. Nagley

Industrial-Organizational Psychology Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to evaluate strategies for emotional self-regulation (EMSR) in highly sensitive people (HSPs) under pressure. Specifically, a model of EMSR was evaluated through a moderated-mediation design with two manipulations across two experiments. A total of 445 individuals participated in the current study (52% female), all of which were US citizens. Results suggested that the relationship between sense of purpose (SoP) and EMSR was moderated by focus on potential (FoP). Specifically, SoP significantly impacted FoP, b = .89, t = 5.23, p < .01, FoP significantly impacted EMSR, b = 1.11, t = 5.88, p < .01, and the Sobel test suggested a significant indirect effect, z = 3.91, p < .01.

The hypothesis that sensory-processing ...


Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good 2017 Providence College

Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good

Christopher J. Lyddy

Mindfulness at work has drawn growing interest as empirical evidence increasingly supports its positive workplace impacts. Yet theory also suggests that mindfulness is a cognitive mode of “Being” that may be incompatible with the cognitive mode of “Doing” that undergirds workplace functioning. Therefore, mindfulness at work has been theorized as “being while doing,” but little is known regarding how people experience these two modes in combination, nor the influences or outcomes of this interaction. Drawing on a sample of 39 semi-structured interviews, this study explores how professionals experience being mindful at work. The relationship between Being and Doing modes demonstrated ...


Contemplating Mindfulness At Work: An Integrative Review, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good, Theresa M. Glomb, Joyce E. Bono, Kirk W. Brown, Michelle K. Duffy, Ruth A. Baer, Judson A. Brewer, Sara W. Lazar 2017 Providence College

Contemplating Mindfulness At Work: An Integrative Review, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good, Theresa M. Glomb, Joyce E. Bono, Kirk W. Brown, Michelle K. Duffy, Ruth A. Baer, Judson A. Brewer, Sara W. Lazar

Christopher J. Lyddy

Mindfulness research activity is surging within organizational science. Emerging evidence across multiple fields suggests that mindfulness is fundamentally connected to many aspects of workplace functioning, but this knowledge base has not been systematically integrated to date. This review coalesces the burgeoning body of mindfulness scholarship into a framework to guide mainstream management research investigating a broad range of constructs. The framework identifies how mindfulness influences attention, with downstream effects on functional domains of cognition, emotion, behavior, and physiology. Ultimately, these domains impact key workplace outcomes, including performance, relationships, and well-being. Consideration of the evidence on mindfulness at work stimulates important ...


Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good 2017 Providence College

Being While Doing: An Inductive Model Of Mindfulness At Work, Christopher Lyddy, Darren J. Good

School of Business Faculty Publications

Mindfulness at work has drawn growing interest as empirical evidence increasingly supports its positive workplace impacts. Yet theory also suggests that mindfulness is a cognitive mode of “Being” that may be incompatible with the cognitive mode of “Doing” that undergirds workplace functioning. Therefore, mindfulness at work has been theorized as “being while doing,” but little is known regarding how people experience these two modes in combination, nor the influences or outcomes of this interaction. Drawing on a sample of 39 semi-structured interviews, this study explores how professionals experience being mindful at work. The relationship between Being and Doing modes demonstrated ...


Examining Different Reasons Why People Accept Or Reject Scientific Claims, Emilio J. C. Lobato 2017 Illinois State University

Examining Different Reasons Why People Accept Or Reject Scientific Claims, Emilio J. C. Lobato

Theses and Dissertations

The current project was designed to examine how cognitive style, cultural worldview, and conspiracy ideation correspond to various levels of agreement with scientific claims. Additionally, the kinds of justifications people provide for their position on scientific issues and the kinds of possible refutations of their scientific beliefs people are able to generate were qualitatively coded and analyzed. Participants were presented with a short survey asking about their level of agreement with scientific claims about biological evolution, anthropogenic climate change, pediatric vaccines, and genetically modified foods. Participants were asked two open-ended questions about each topic, one prompting participants to justify their ...


Big Data And The Well-Being Nexus: Tracking Google Search Activity By State Iq, Michael A. McDaniel, Bryan J. Pesta, Allison S. Gabriel 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Big Data And The Well-Being Nexus: Tracking Google Search Activity By State Iq, Michael A. Mcdaniel, Bryan J. Pesta, Allison S. Gabriel

Byran J. Pesta

In the era of “big data,” internet search activity can provide interesting insight into human behavior. Here we used the Google Correlate algorithm (a database tracking billions of user searches) to identify search terms that co-varied most strongly with U.S. state-level IQ and wellbeing (see Pesta, McDaniel, & Bertsch, 2010). First, we identified the 100 strongest positive (e.g., crock pot applesauce, custom woodworking) and negative (e.g., ASVAB for Dummies, Hello Kitty) search term covariates for state IQ. We then rationally clustered search terms into composites (e.g., “food,” “job seeking activity”) based on similarity of concept. Thereafter, we ...


Differential Epidemiology: Iq, Neuroticism, And Chronic Disease By The 50 U.S. States, Bryan J. Pesta, Sharon Bertsch, Michael A. McDaniel, Christine B. Mahoney 2017 Cleveland State University

Differential Epidemiology: Iq, Neuroticism, And Chronic Disease By The 50 U.S. States, Bryan J. Pesta, Sharon Bertsch, Michael A. Mcdaniel, Christine B. Mahoney

Byran J. Pesta

Current research shows that geo-political units (e.g., the 50 U.S. states) vary meaningfully on psychological dimensions like intelligence (IQ) and neuroticism (N). A new scientific discipline has also emerged, differential epidemiology, focused on how psychological variables affect health. We integrate these areas by reporting large correlations between aggregate-level IQ and N (measured for the 50 U.S. states) and state differences in rates of chronic disease (e.g., stroke, heart disease). Controlling for health-related behaviors (e.g., smoking, exercise) reduced but did not eliminate these effects. Strong relationships also existed between IQ, N, disease, and a host of ...


We Can't Get No (Life) Satisfaction? Comment On Oswald And Wu (2010), Bryan J. Pesta, Michael A. McDaniel, Sharon Bertsch 2017 Cleveland State University

We Can't Get No (Life) Satisfaction? Comment On Oswald And Wu (2010), Bryan J. Pesta, Michael A. Mcdaniel, Sharon Bertsch

Byran J. Pesta

Oswald and Wu (2010; Science) recently reported life satisfaction ranks for residents of the 50 U.S. states. Their rankings were framed as measures of “well-being,” but were derived from responses to only a single survey item (“In general, how satisfied are you with your life?”). Here we contrast Oswald and Wu's subjective rankings with our (Pesta, McDaniel & Bertsch, 2010) objective measures of state well-being. Strangely, our global index of well-being correlates −.43 with Oswald and Wu's life satisfaction ranks (intelligence, itself, correlates −.33 with these ranks). We argue that Oswald and Wu's rankings are misleading for ...


Putting Spearman's Hypothesis To Work: Job Iq As A Predictor Of Employee Racial Composition, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter Poznanski 2017 Cleveland State University

Putting Spearman's Hypothesis To Work: Job Iq As A Predictor Of Employee Racial Composition, Bryan J. Pesta, Peter Poznanski

Byran J. Pesta

Job complexity and employee intelligence covary strongly. Likewise, race differences exist on mean IQ / g scores. Spearman’s hypothesis predicts that race differences on cognitive tests are mainly g differences, and that the former should covary with how well mental tests measure the latter. Here we use jobs as “mental tests,” and predict that as job IQ increases, the percent of White and Asian workers will increase, while the percent of Black workers will decrease. We found moderate to strong support for Spearman’s hypothesis across these three racial groups. We also found a very large correlation (.86) between job ...


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