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Inducing Cognitive Reflection And Its Impact On Contradictory Beliefs., Margaret Powers 2022 University of Louisville

Inducing Cognitive Reflection And Its Impact On Contradictory Beliefs., Margaret Powers

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Currently, there is extensive research within psychology about two distinct processing models where one is fast, automatic, and relatively effortless and the other is slow, systematic, and effortful. One mechanism of effortful processing is cognitive reflection which is one’s ability to reflect on their intuition. While there is research on explicit instructions of certain cognitive mechanisms and implicit induction of cognitive reflection, there is a lack of research on the explicit induction of cognitive reflection specifically. In this study, two techniques were investigated to see if cognitive reflection could be explicitly induced. Participants either read a prompt before beginning the …


The Interaction Of Spaced Retrieval Practice And Element Interactivity., Cameron K. Mattingly 2022 University of Louisville

The Interaction Of Spaced Retrieval Practice And Element Interactivity., Cameron K. Mattingly

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Our study investigates the interaction of retrieval practice and element interactivity. Spaced practice is the process of breaking up the retrieval of information into smaller chunks across a longer period of time as opposed to learning everything in one time block. Retrieval practice is the process of testing yourself on previously learned material. Spaced retrieval practice is the merger of these two ideas. This style of learning is well-suited for learning many items that must be retained indefinitely (Lyle et al., 2019). Element interactivity describes the amount of learned items (elements) that are interrelated and must be processed together in …


Differential Neural Correlates Underlying Different Cognitive Control Strategies And Their Relationship With The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Carroll Bentley 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Differential Neural Correlates Underlying Different Cognitive Control Strategies And Their Relationship With The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Carroll Bentley

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Impulsivity is defined as a rapid unplanned action to a stimulus, where the person does not consider the consequences of their actions (Moeller et al., 2001). Various measurement techniques exist in the study of impulsivity and include self-report, behavioral and physiological measures. This breadth of measurement techniques affords researchers the opportunity to understand what is likely a multifaceted nature of this construct. Previous literature shows mixed results between the relationship of the three measures. The present study seeks to add clarity between the three different modalities of measuring impulsivity. To address this relationship, an undergraduate sample (n = 171) completed …


Effectiveness Of Affective Based Intervention Depending On Personal Relevance To A Conspiracy Belief, Mallory MacDonald 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effectiveness Of Affective Based Intervention Depending On Personal Relevance To A Conspiracy Belief, Mallory Macdonald

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

With the increase in conspiracy theory beliefs, there is a need for intervention techniques. Do some intervention techniques work better when taking into account the personal relevance a person has towards a topic? One hundred and sixty undergraduate students first read an article that introduced the conspiracy theory and established personal relevance. To manipulate personal relevance, participants were told that a new vaccine mandate would be put into place either July 2023 or July 2031. Then, they considered an article that worked to intervene the conspiracy belief. Participants either read an article that was focused on affective or cognitive intervention …


Examining The Effects Of Different Coping Styles On Dependent Stress Generation, Whitney Skaggs 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining The Effects Of Different Coping Styles On Dependent Stress Generation, Whitney Skaggs

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this study, I prospectively examined the associations between different coping styles and stress. Stress can be classified as independent, which is stress that an individual has no control over, or dependent stress, which is stress that occurs because of the individuals’ actions. Coping is how individuals deal with that stress. With the role that coping plays in stress, I expected that it would relate to stress generation. I hypothesized that some forms of coping would prospectively predict the occurrence of less dependent stress but not independent stress. To test this hypothesis, I had college students (N=73) complete …


Diagnostic Featural Detection Or Filler Siphoning: A Red Box Study, Brynn Schuetter 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Diagnostic Featural Detection Or Filler Siphoning: A Red Box Study, Brynn Schuetter

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The current study is a replication and extension of previous research by Colloff and Wixted (2020). In their study, they created a novel identification procedure called the simultaneous showup. They found support for the diagnostic feature detection theory over the filler siphoning theory. The current study was interested in seeing if covert filler siphoning was still occurring in their novel procedure by asking participants how photos of fillers influenced their identification decision. Participants of the study viewed two crime videos and completed an identification task. If they were assigned to the simultaneous showup task, they were asked if and how …


The Influence Of Facial Exposure On Confidence In Eyewitness Identification, Madelynn Fancher 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Influence Of Facial Exposure On Confidence In Eyewitness Identification, Madelynn Fancher

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

In crimes in which there is an eyewitness identification, confidence is usually a good predictor of accuracy. However, in some cases, estimator variables might affect the relationship between eyewitness confidence and accuracy. This study analyzes the effect of exposure duration on confidence during an eyewitness identification. According to the pristine conditions hypothesis (Wixed & Wells, 2017), if the system variables are optimal, confidence and accuracy will be strongly related, even if the viewing conditions are suboptimal. Participants in this online study viewed a mock crime in one of two conditions: brief exposure or long exposure. Following viewing the crime, participants …


Do You Salt Your Soup: Investigating The Effect Of Interference Control On The Cognitive Reflection Test, Matthew Lowrie 2022 William & Mary

Do You Salt Your Soup: Investigating The Effect Of Interference Control On The Cognitive Reflection Test, Matthew Lowrie

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The present study seeks to examine the role of interference control in solving the Cognitive Reflection Test (Frederick, 2005). Participants were given the CRT, CRT-2, and completed a novel adaptation of the Stop-Signal Task called the Change-Signal Task. The Change-Signal Task is similar to a stop-signal paradigm except that the participant must switch their response when a change-signal is present in the Change-Signal Task instead of withholding a response. This study found that interference control as assessed by the Change-Signal Task was important for determining performance on the CRT-2 but not for the CRT. Implications of these findings and interpretations …


The Cognitive & Educational Implications Of Color Use In Drawing To Learn, Juliana F.M. Cantarutti 2022 William & Mary

The Cognitive & Educational Implications Of Color Use In Drawing To Learn, Juliana F.M. Cantarutti

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Drawing to Learn (D2L) is a learning aid that encourages STEM students to interact with abstract concepts in STEM by sketching. D2L is not an intuitive skill, and researchers strive to provide students with guidelines on how to master this method. One potential way to enhance the D2L method for students is by incorporation of visual cues, specifically color. While many students choose to incorporate color into their models without explicit instruction to do so, we have found no research on: a) why students use color in sketching, b) its effects on D2L. This study used interviews, surveys, and course …


Implementing An Online, Integrative, Multi-Component, Group-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (Cbt) For The Reduction Of Caregiver Burden In Primary Familial Caregivers Of Persons With Dementia: A Preliminary Test Of Feasibility, Daniel Robert Schaffer 2022 Old Dominion University

Implementing An Online, Integrative, Multi-Component, Group-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (Cbt) For The Reduction Of Caregiver Burden In Primary Familial Caregivers Of Persons With Dementia: A Preliminary Test Of Feasibility, Daniel Robert Schaffer

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the preliminary feasibility of an online, manualized, group-based, multi-component, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment approach for the reduction of caregiver burden among family caregivers of persons with dementia. This study had five primary hypotheses: (1) the recruitment plan, as outlined within this study, would yield the target number of participants within a 12-month period; (2) the proposed group therapy protocol would produce a positive therapeutic climate, as operationalized by increased levels of perceived social support, perceived group cohesion, positive therapeutic alliance, and positive engagement; (3) this study would maintain adequate participant retention, …


So I Was, 'Like', Totally Buggin’ – Evidence For The Role Of Attention On Entrainment From Discourse Particles, Rachel L. Williams 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

So I Was, 'Like', Totally Buggin’ – Evidence For The Role Of Attention On Entrainment From Discourse Particles, Rachel L. Williams

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In this study, we investigated the role of attention for entrainment during production and comprehension using the discourse particle like. We tested two main hypotheses – that entrainment to discourse particles, even if relatively implicit, requires some attentional resources, versus that it requires little (if any) attention. In two experiments, participants read a short story and retold it (baseline retelling phase), then read another short story and listened to a recording of it (priming phase), and then read and retold a third story (target retelling phase). In Experiment 1, half of the participants simultaneously navigated a busy pedestrian zone in …


Combating Recidivism, Shaylin Daley 2022 University of Rhode Island

Combating Recidivism, Shaylin Daley

Senior Honors Projects

SHAYLIN DALEY (Psychology) Combating Recidivism Sponsor: Lisa Holley (Political Science) Many people believe that criminals cannot be helped. It is evident that at least some of society shuns people who break laws and have negative views about the amount of money spent on detaining inmates. Thousands of individuals are released from United States prisons a day. Many of these individuals have no plan in place for their return home and are sent into the streets with nothing except for a jail ID. Most of these people will end up returning to prison. A good sum of these people face problems …


Falling For Moses: The Role Of Stroop Inhibition And Language Expertise, Isabella Holmgren 2022 University of Richmond

Falling For Moses: The Role Of Stroop Inhibition And Language Expertise, Isabella Holmgren

Honors Theses

When presented with the question, “How many animals of each kind did Moses take on the Ark?”, people often respond “2”, despite knowing that Noah is the Biblical figure who is said to have taken animals on the ark. This phenomenon where people fail to detect inaccuracies in text has come to be known as the Moses Illusion (Erickson & Mattson, 1981). The current study was designed to investigate Moses illusion rates in a multiple-choice format. Further, participants were assessed on two cognitive constructs: language experience and cognitive inhibition. Results showed robust rates of the Moses illusion using the multiple-choice …


Does Chronic Risperidone Administration Affect Food Reinforcement In Adulthood In Mice?, Francis Torres, Paul Soto 2022 Louisiana State Univ, Dept Psychol, 236 Audubon Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA

Does Chronic Risperidone Administration Affect Food Reinforcement In Adulthood In Mice?, Francis Torres, Paul Soto

LSU Master's Theses

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) increase weight gain and food consumption in humans and non-human animals. It has been speculated that SGAs increase the reinforcing effects of food, which increases food consumption and drives weight gain. The current study evaluated the effects of risperidone on sucrose reinforcement in male and female C57BL/6J mice using economic demand assessments. Demand for sucrose was measured by varying the fixed ratio (FR) value required to produce sucrose delivery across experimental sessions using five FR values: 1, 5, 15, 30, and 45. The effects of acute risperidone administration on demand for sucrose were first assessed by orally …


Classical Conditioning Of Cognitive States, Arthur Burns 2022 Ursinus College

Classical Conditioning Of Cognitive States, Arthur Burns

Neuroscience Honors Papers

Classical conditioning has been a fundamental concept and practice throughout the history of psychology. While classical conditioning traditionally seeks to elicit target behaviors in correlation to specific stimuli, we sought to do the same with cognitive states in place of behaviors. Specifically, we wanted to determine the effectiveness of conditioning states of cognitive arousal in human participants in conjunction with cues presented in a designed learning task. We designed a cognitive task specifically for this research, referred to as “the Tone Pitching Task”, which utilized a combination of working memory and mental processing in order to elicit cognitive arousal and …


Seeing Thro The Musical Eye: Santo Daime, Fuke-Shū, 1960s Psychedelia, And The Antipodes Of Musical Experience, Forest Anthony-Muran 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Seeing Thro The Musical Eye: Santo Daime, Fuke-Shū, 1960s Psychedelia, And The Antipodes Of Musical Experience, Forest Anthony-Muran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis investigates the relationships between altered states of consciousness and the musical experience in religious tradition and practice. A common accompaniment to religious worship and ceremony, music is often used as a way of attempting to capture something of the ineffable and to help bring about a mystical experience. In this thesis, I make use of three contrasting case studies – the Brazilian syncretic religion Santo Daime, the historical branch of Zen Buddhism Fuke-shū, and the psychedelic rock of 1960s counterculture – to paint a portrait of the variety of ways that music has been used in different musical …


The Influence Of Clutter On Target Prevalence And Decision Making During Visual Search, Brandon Eich 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Influence Of Clutter On Target Prevalence And Decision Making During Visual Search, Brandon Eich

LSU Master's Theses

Participants are sensitive to target prevalence effects in visual search. Low prevalence of targets leads to increased miss rates and shorter response times, and high prevalence of targets leads to increased false alarm rates and longer response times. These effects have been explained using the Multiple-Decision Model (MDM), in which two decisions impact performance during serial visual search. The first decision is whether an inspected item is a target. The second decision is whether the search should be ended with a target-absent response. Target prevalence influences these decisions, evidenced by changes in miss rate, false alarm rate, and response time. …


Sensory Integration For Survivors Of Intimate Partner Violence (Ipv), Nadien Albanna 2022 University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences

Sensory Integration For Survivors Of Intimate Partner Violence (Ipv), Nadien Albanna

Virtual OTD Capstone Symposium, Spring 2022

Since the start of the global pandemic, stay-at-home orders forced IPV survivors to stay in the home with abusers, increasing the risk of abuse, and the impact of psychological trauma. (Bright et al., 2020). Occupational therapists are trained professionals in incorporating sensory-based strategies to focus on the somatic manifestations experienced by the body from trauma and can help to regulate physiological and psychological responses through sensory stimuli (Mcgreevy & Boland et al., 2020). The development of this project sparked an opportunity to publish a new framework to introduce the role of sensory integration in treating survivors of intimate partner violence …


Optimizing Music Learning: The Effects Of Contextual Interference On Memorization, Carmen Andrea Wong 2022 Western University

Optimizing Music Learning: The Effects Of Contextual Interference On Memorization, Carmen Andrea Wong

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to assess if blocked or interleaved practice learning was more effective for memorizing music, and to assess if metacognitive judgements aligned with performance. The study included 21 proficient pianists who regularly engage in piano practice. Participants learnt two excerpts and two technical studies, and played them from memory on both day 1 and day 2 of testing. Performances were recorded and rated by an expert in the field on a percentage scale. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA analysis revealed no significant main effect of day on practice schedule, (F(1,20) = .15, p = 0.70, …


Does Spirituality Affect Your Amount Of Regret?, Justine Asas, Marley Hawkins 2022 Governors State University

Does Spirituality Affect Your Amount Of Regret?, Justine Asas, Marley Hawkins

GSU Research Day

Life is full of choices—what to eat for breakfast, whom to marry or whether one should enlist in the army. Every decision, no matter how significant or important it is, may lead to an experience of regret (Kahneman & Tversky, 1982). Regret is a common emotion that people experience when they reflect on their past decisions and realize that the outcomes could have been different had they made a different choice (Beike, Markman & Karadogan, 2009). There are many factors that intensify the amount of regret experiences. Prior research suggests failed actions (e.g., changing an initially correct answer on a …


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