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The Relationship Between Mood And Implicit Learning, Kathleen Larson 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Relationship Between Mood And Implicit Learning, Kathleen Larson

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This dissertation investigates whether a person’s current mood state influences their ability to learn implicitly. Implicit learning refers to learning about regularities in the environment without having conscious access to the information (e.g., Reber, 1967). According to the affect-as-information hypothesis, a positive mood increases global processing of incoming information and negative mood leads to local processing (e.g., Clore & Storbeck, 2006); however, most previous studies that investigated mood and cognition have focused on more explicit types of learning and decision making, but few have examined implicit processes. Thus, the current experiments examined how varying levels of mood and arousal affect ...


Resilience Training For The Bethesda Project: The Abc's Of Flexible, Accurate Thinking, Tajender Luthra, Kathi Norman, Scott Riddel 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Resilience Training For The Bethesda Project: The Abc's Of Flexible, Accurate Thinking, Tajender Luthra, Kathi Norman, Scott Riddel

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

Abstract

Bethesda Project (BP), a nonprofit organization located in Philadelphia, PA, provides shelter, housing, and programs to 2,000 chronically homeless men and women. Many of BP’s clients struggle with addiction and mental health issues that prohibit them from living self-sufficient lives. Challenges originating from fighting an under resourced battle with chronic homelessness make employees vulnerable to unrecovered stress and concurrent pessimistic thinking habits. In response to this, we recommend that BP adopt resilience training to support staff well-being. As a first initiative, we propose introducing the optimistic explanatory style and the ABC model of cognitive thinking to allow ...


Neural Processes Underlying Auditory Context Effects, Breanne Yerkes 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Neural Processes Underlying Auditory Context Effects, Breanne Yerkes

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Auditory information within our natural environments is disorganized and often ambiguous, leaving our auditory systems with a complex task: organizing sound into coherent objects. The auditory system uses both current and prior information to assist in completing this task. The influences of previous context on current perception have been referred to as context effects. A contrastive context effect results in a current perception that is opposite of what is expected based on the physical stimulus properties presented during an immediate context. A facilitative context effect results in a current perception that is the same as the perception during the immediate ...


Reconsolidating: The Effect Of Spatial Context And Expectations, Chris R. Kiley 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Reconsolidating: The Effect Of Spatial Context And Expectations, Chris R. Kiley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Consolidation is the process by which memories become stable over time. Accessing a previously consolidated memory trace brings it back into a labile state where it must then undergo a re-stabilization process known as reconsolidation. During this process memories are again susceptible to interference and may be updated with new information. Reconsolidation has been demonstrated in animals as well as in the procedural and episodic human memory systems. The exact boundary conditions for reconsolidation are not yet known. Some studies suggest that reconsolidation is only necessary when new information is presented in a spatial context that is indistinguishable from the ...


An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Examination Of Empathy And Multiple Intelligences Among Youth Involved In Bullying, Heather Schwartz 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Examination Of Empathy And Multiple Intelligences Among Youth Involved In Bullying, Heather Schwartz

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Bullying is a significant issue among school-aged youth, and it is important to examine the underlying mechanisms of these behaviors. Studies have shown that one characteristic found among some children who bully is a lack of empathy. Previous literature examining empathy and bullying has typically relied on the use of self-report data. Few studies have included other ways of evaluating empathy. Self-report data can be limiting, particularly for individuals who possess strengths other than verbal/linguistic. Drawings have been found to reveal insight into children’s emotions and may be more suited to assessing empathy. Studying children’s drawings of ...


Literacy Revolution: How The New Tools Of Communication Change The Stories We Tell, Molly Gamble 2017 Dominican University of California

Literacy Revolution: How The New Tools Of Communication Change The Stories We Tell, Molly Gamble

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

The transmission of culture depends upon every generation reconsidering what it means to be literate. The way we consider ourselves to be a literate species is changing, which puts us at a unique turning point in human history. Verbal literacy, or the ability to read and write, is slowly being replaced by visual literacy as a primary tool for human communication. As a culture, we tend to underestimate the creative ferment of our increasingly visual world. The linear, structured pathways of traditional literacy are shifting towards a creative and participatory pursuit of unstructured information that emphasize dimensional thinking. The acceleration ...


Assessing The Relationship Between Change Blindness And The Anchoring Effect, Melissa Schoenlein 2017 Bowling Green State University

Assessing The Relationship Between Change Blindness And The Anchoring Effect, Melissa Schoenlein

Honors Projects

A lack of consideration for all aspects of a question prompts fragmented decision making. These decisions, as they leave out fundamental information, repeatedly then lead to a potentially problematic reaction to the target question or stimuli. The anchoring heuristic propels one to make a decision, usually an estimate, based on a presented “fact”, often ignoring additional background and environmental clues. Reducing the rate of occurrence of the anchoring bias is thought to lead to an increase in holistic decision making. To promote this reduction, the purpose of this research was to affirmexamine the relationship between the susceptibility to change blindness ...


The Effects Of Meditation On Brain Organization And The Implications For Treating Adhd, Talia Gibson 2017 Bowling Green State University

The Effects Of Meditation On Brain Organization And The Implications For Treating Adhd, Talia Gibson

Honors Projects

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has recently become increasingly diagnosed for children and adolescents. As of now, the most common treatment method is medication, with the purpose of changing brain organization. Recently, however, there has been increasing interest in the use of mindfulness meditation to treat the symptoms associated with ADHD. In this paper, eleven different studies, which have introduced mindfulness meditation as a treatment method for ADHD, are analyzed. The studies measure the degree to which mindfulness meditation improves common symptoms associated with ADHD. These symptoms include attentional problems, reduced mindful awareness, externalizing and internalizing problems, reduced self-control, impaired social ...


The Social Progression Of Post -Traumatic Stress Disorder: Post Vietnam And September 11th Attacks, Ellie McDonald 2017 California State University, Monterey Bay

The Social Progression Of Post -Traumatic Stress Disorder: Post Vietnam And September 11th Attacks, Ellie Mcdonald

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

The Social Progression of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-Vietnam and September 11th Attacks is an examination on the infrastructure of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs’and of the Department of Defense’s lack of clarity and misinformation of the challenges and effects of mental illness within military ranks. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) made the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM) after Vietnam. Since then, PTSD has been reevaluate numerous times, to properly define it. This research is a comparative analysis of the misconceptions of PTSD as experienced by Vietnam veterans and the first responders of the September 11th tragedy ...


The Effect Of Incentives On Pupil Dilation During Recognition Memory: An Attentional Saliency Account Of The Pupil Old/New Effect, Lisa A. Solinger 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

The Effect Of Incentives On Pupil Dilation During Recognition Memory: An Attentional Saliency Account Of The Pupil Old/New Effect, Lisa A. Solinger

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Another interesting feature of this OMS circuit is the strong surround suppression occurring in the inner retina, which enables both VG3-ACs and W3-RGCs to remain silent to the global image motion. Pharmacological evidence suggested wide-field and/or spiking ACs are the source of the inhibition. The specific AC types, however, have not been identified. To address this question, in chapter 3, I explored candidate cell types using transgenic mouse lines expressing Cre recombinase, mainly tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre transgenic mice. In 2-photon guided patch clamp recordings, response patterns of TH2-ACs to object motion visual stimuli corresponded to inhibitory inputs of ...


The Role Of Stereotype Threat In Mental Rotation, Bridget A. Parler 2017 Northern Michigan University

The Role Of Stereotype Threat In Mental Rotation, Bridget A. Parler

All NMU Master's Theses

Numerous studies have been conducted on mental rotation ability in both males and females. A lot of the literature discusses male superiority in mental rotation task as opposed to females. This paper examined the role of stereotype threat in a mental rotation task. Particularly, the research study focused on gender stereotype threat in female college students. The study was completed in a two part design with students completing two mental rotation task in a group setting. The low numbers in the sample make it impossible to reliably say that the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Task (VMRT) and the Purdue Mental Rotation ...


The New Theory Of Disuse Predicts Retrieval Enhanced Suggestibility (Res), Victoria Bartek 2017 Seton Hall University

The New Theory Of Disuse Predicts Retrieval Enhanced Suggestibility (Res), Victoria Bartek

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Retrieval enhanced suggestibility (RES) refers to an effect where initial testing of an event leads to better learning of and higher production of misinformation regarding that event. This paper proposes the New Theory of Disuse (Bjork & Bjork, 1992) as a supplement to the retrieval fluency account for RES (Thomas et al., 2010). The amount of interference presented between the misinforming narrative and final test was manipulated in order to investigate how decays in retrieval strength (how easily a memory is recalled) affect misinformation reporting. Results suggested that the learning of interfering information may decrease RES, but that this effect may ...


An Examination Of Accuracy And Elaborations For Character Traits In A Narrative, Michael Palena 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

An Examination Of Accuracy And Elaborations For Character Traits In A Narrative, Michael Palena

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

When people read a story, they often form a highly detailed representation known as a situation model. The event-indexing model (Zwaan, Langston, & Graesser, 1995) proposes that situation models are constructed along several indices, one of which is protagonist or character. While much research has been devoted to the study of tracking and forming trait-based models of fictional characters, little attention has been paid to the representation of characters’ external attributes. In Experiment 1, participants read a short story containing various characters and their attributes. Participants were then asked to recall the characters and their attributes, either according to their memory of the text or their imagined mental representation. Comparisons were also made across several types of cues (i.e., free recall, cued recall, multiple-choice). The results showed that when participants were explicitly probed for certain attributes, they were generally able to follow instructions; the memory group made fewer contradictions and elaborations than the imagination group in both the cued recall and multiple-choice conditions. Moreover, when characters were not well-described – as was the case with the minor characters – participants readily generated elaborations for the missing attributes. In Experiment 2, participants read new versions of the same story, this time with greater experimental control over the distribution of attributes among the characters. Again, comparisons were made across recall instruction condition (i.e., memory ...


Behavioral Finance And Its Impact On Investing, Jordan Fieger 2017 Liberty University

Behavioral Finance And Its Impact On Investing, Jordan Fieger

Senior Honors Theses

The field of behavioral finance has seen incredible growth over the past half century as it has explored the effect that cognitive psychological biases can have on investors’ financial decisions. Behavioral finance stands in stark contrast to the efficient market hypothesis, as it attributes market inefficiencies to investors who are not perfectly rational human beings. It offers a solution to the observed 3.5% gap that active equity investors miss out on in the market compared to passive index funds, which it attributes to their emotions and psychological biases. These common human biases can be grouped into five major categories ...


The Flaws Of Deterrence Theory, Hunter Oneal Cooley 2017 Georgia College

The Flaws Of Deterrence Theory, Hunter Oneal Cooley

Georgia College Student Research Events

In my paper, I discuss the means of the deterrence theory, and argue against its original intent and how in my views it is a failed and flawed theory. I discuss the notion of inherent “evil” in people, and how that the deterrence theory cannot simply go against and correct something that I argue is inherent in humans. I discuss the inherent trait to commit crime, or simply the evil nature that can lead to crime that I think is inherent in people. I give reasons for the failure and the flaws of the theory, I use one prime example ...


How Short Term Mindfulness Training Affects Emotion Regulation On College Students, Holly E. Flatt, Andrea Benadives, Kriston Ramsey 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

How Short Term Mindfulness Training Affects Emotion Regulation On College Students, Holly E. Flatt, Andrea Benadives, Kriston Ramsey

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Emotion regulation (ER) is the experience and expression of emotions which aids in the balancing of positive emotions and emotional processing (Gross, 2001; Hölzel, 2011). An important advancement in the field of psychology is greater understanding of how treatments can positively influence ER. One promising intervention to improve emotion regulation is mindfulness training—the practice of being aware of one’s current internal state and thoughts to provide a greater attentiveness and acknowledgement to one’s current environment (Hoffman et. al., 2010; Langer 2000). The current study examined the effect of brief mindfulness training on emotion regulation after a sad ...


Expanding Eeg Research Into The Clinic And Classroom With Consumer Eeg Systems, Darryl H. Burnet, Matthew D. Turner 2017 Georgia State University

Expanding Eeg Research Into The Clinic And Classroom With Consumer Eeg Systems, Darryl H. Burnet, Matthew D. Turner

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Is Perceptual Learning Caused By Attentional Spotlighting Or Representational Change?, Alexandria Nichole Williams, Gerardo Ernesto Valdez 2017 Georgia State University Department of Psychology

Is Perceptual Learning Caused By Attentional Spotlighting Or Representational Change?, Alexandria Nichole Williams, Gerardo Ernesto Valdez

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Neural Circuits For Source Memory And Imagination, Amber C. Grant, Darryl Burnet 2017 Georgia State University

Neural Circuits For Source Memory And Imagination, Amber C. Grant, Darryl Burnet

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Distancing Metacognitive And Perceptual Responses: Does Separation Improve Judgement, Brooke Jackson 2017 Georgia State University

Distancing Metacognitive And Perceptual Responses: Does Separation Improve Judgement, Brooke Jackson

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


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