How Social Reactions To Alcohol-Related Facial Flushing Are Affected By Gender, Relationship, And Drinking Purposes: Implications For Education To Reduce Aerodigestive Cancer Risks, 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
How Social Reactions To Alcohol-Related Facial Flushing Are Affected By Gender, Relationship, And Drinking Purposes: Implications For Education To Reduce Aerodigestive Cancer Risks, Ian Newman, Lanyan Ding, Duane F. Shell, Lida Lin
Educational Psychology Papers and Publications
Alcohol-related facial flushing is a sign of compromised alcohol metabolism and increased risk of certain cancers. This project examined how facial flushing might be used to reduce alcohol use to lower cancer risks. Interviews with Chinese university students identified gender, friendship, and drinking purpose as important variables related to whether someone would encourage a person who flushes when drinking alcohol to stop or reduce their drinking. A questionnaire was developed that incorporated these variables into 24 drinking scenarios in which someone flushed while drinking. Students responded whether they would (a) encourage the flusher to stop or drink less; (b) do ...
Pulse - A Consultation, 2017 University of Central Florida
Pulse - A Consultation, Barry J. Mauer
Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works
On June 12, 2016, Omar Mateen killed 49 people and injured 53 at the Pulse Nightclub in Orlando, Florida. We may never know or understand what was in Mateen’s mind, but we can situate his attack within the history of eliminationism in America. Islamist terrorism is just part of a larger phenomenon: right wing eliminationism. But despite centuries of right wing eliminationist words and deeds in the U.S., there is little or no mainstream recognition of the phenomenon. Instead, we are treated to more denial, more distraction, more obfuscation. Until we look this problem squarely in the face ...
Spatial-Relational Learning And Memory Deficits Associated With Nmdar Autoantibodies In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Spatial-Relational Learning And Memory Deficits Associated With Nmdar Autoantibodies In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Brittany L. Bascetta
All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Individuals with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) experience inflammation that may target any organ within the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems. Additionally, these individuals often demonstrate psychological dysfunctions including emotional and cognitive deficits; however, research is inconsistent as to the nature and cause of these dysfunctions. While there are multiple factors that may increase risk for variability in cognitive function, such as population differences, socioeconomic status (SES), mood disorders (depression and anxiety), medication effects, and disease activity, these factors do not reliably predict the severity and extent of cognitive deficits. A growing body of animal research associates autoantibodies ...
Automatically Guilty: Associations Between Evidence And Guilt, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Automatically Guilty: Associations Between Evidence And Guilt, William E. Crozier Iv
All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Both real-life cases and laboratory research demonstrate that confession evidence is very convincing—even when it should not be. Could this be due to an automatic association between a confession and guilt? We tested this possibility using a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) list, which measures automatic associations by presenting participants with a list of words that are thematically related but, importantly, lack the word describing the theme (“critical lure”). When the association between the list words and the theme is sufficiently strong, participants incorrectly report seeing the critical lure. We hypothesized that participants would show more false recall for seeing “guilty” on ...
Radio Dispatch Cognitive Abilities And Working Memory, 2017 General Experimental Psychology Graduate Student
Radio Dispatch Cognitive Abilities And Working Memory, David A. Buitron
Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations
Public safety radio dispatchers incontrovertibly have to manage multiple tasks at any given time, from relaying lifesaving information to field units, to simultaneously overseeing several monitors and keeping up with the radio transmissions in a timely manner. Interestingly, however, the underlying cognitive abilities necessitated for performing such tasks have not been thoroughly investigated. To begin understanding the cognitive faculties that underlie dispatching tasks, we gauged cognitive ability measures relevant to dispatcher duties and introduced Working Memory Capacity (WMC) as underlying the differentiation on performance. The four general dispatcher cognitive factors identified by Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) literature, were ...
Seeing The Forest And Not The Trees: When Impact Uncertainty Heightens Causal Complexity., 2017 Singapore Management University
Seeing The Forest And Not The Trees: When Impact Uncertainty Heightens Causal Complexity., Evelyn W. M. Au
Research Collection School of Social Sciences
This study attempts to isolate the effects of experiencing uncertainty on people's cognitive processes. I argue that people can believe that their actions affect the outcome (i.e. outcome control), but still face uncertainty regarding the extent to which actions will make a difference (i.e. impact uncertainty). To this end, I introduce a novel experimental paradigm which isolates the effects of impact uncertainty from outcome control. The findings revealed that after experiencing impact uncertainty, participants demonstrated greater causal complexity (i.e. more likely to make situational attributions and judge outcomes as having a “ripple effect”), but did not ...
A Survey Of Addictive Software Design, 2017 California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo
A Survey Of Addictive Software Design, Chauncey J. Neyman
The average smartphone owner checks their phone more than 150 times per day. As of 2015, 62% of smartphone users had used their phone to look up information about a health condition, while 57% had used their phone to do online banking. Mobile platforms have become the dominant medium of human-computer interaction. So how have these devices established themselves as our go to connection to the Internet? The answer lies in addictive design. Software designers have become well versed in creating software that captivates us at a primal level. In this article, we survey addictive software design strategies, their bases ...
The Effectiveness Of Narrative Transportation Varies By Product Type And Gender, 2017 Union College - Schenectady, NY
The Effectiveness Of Narrative Transportation Varies By Product Type And Gender, Junwen Su
Honors Theses and Student Projects
Previous studies had explored that narrative transportation increases affectivity and decreases cognitive responses. Specifically in the context of advertisement narrative transportation was found to increase product and brand evaluation and therefore was considered as an effective promotional strategy for marketers. In the current study we examined the direct impacts of narrative advertisement on people's positive affectivity critical thinking ability and brand evaluation and how the impacts differed between females and males and also between people assigned to read ad of spontaneous product and deliberative product. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of four types of radio transcript: narrative ...
Hindsight Bias In Clinical Decision Making, 2017 City University of New York (CUNY)
Hindsight Bias In Clinical Decision Making, Amanda Beltrani
The tendency for an individual to believe that a specific event, in hindsight, was more predictable than it was in foresight is known as hindsight bias. This phenomenon has been demonstrated in the psychological literature across a variety of samples, methodologies, and predictions for decades. The current study used a sample of 95 mental health professionals to explore the impact of advanced outcome knowledge on the decision making process. Participants reviewed a hypothetical risk assessment in the form of a hospital chart and then responded to a series of questions, using only their clinical judgment. Analyses revealed that evaluators who ...
Details In Testimony: How Hedge Words Influence People’S Perceptions Of Victim Testimony Credibility, 2017 CUNY John Jay College
Details In Testimony: How Hedge Words Influence People’S Perceptions Of Victim Testimony Credibility, Justine B. Rayborn
The purpose of this study was to examine whether hedge words and the age of a memory can influence the way participants (mock jurors) perceive an alleged sexual assault victim’s credibility. Prior research has demonstrated many issues that can affect the accuracy of memory for childhood events such as childhood amnesia, fragmented and distorted memories, false memories and source monitoring errors and the way in which jurors’ decisions can be swayed based on verbal cues to confidence. Here, we further investigated whether jurors' decisions are sensitive to the age of the memory—an event that happened in the recent ...
Can Implicit Post-Event Information Influence Explicit Eyewitness Memory?, 2017 CUNY John Jay College
Can Implicit Post-Event Information Influence Explicit Eyewitness Memory?, Hang Sze Chau
This study examines whether unconscious processing of misleading post-event information can influence explicit and implicit eyewitness memory. Using the existing misinformation paradigm, false post-event information was presented to participants either under full or divided attention. Eyewitness memory was tested with both explicit (free recall and cued recall tests) and implicit memory tests (truth rating test). Participants who were misinformed under full attention recalled significantly more misinformation than their counterparts who were misinformed under divided attention and the control group. However, results from the truth rating test showed that both explicit and implicit forms of misinformation had no impact on implicit ...
Spatial Sampling Strategies With Multiple Scientific Frames Of Reference, 2017 University of Pennsylvania
Spatial Sampling Strategies With Multiple Scientific Frames Of Reference, Paul B. Reverdy, Thomas F. Shipley, D. E. Koditschek
Departmental Papers (ESE)
We study the spatial sampling strategies employed by field scientists studying aeolian processes, which are geophysical interactions between wind and terrain. As in geophysical field science in general, observations of aeolian processes are made and data gathered by carrying instruments to various locations and then deciding when and where to record a measurement. We focus on this decision-making process. Because sampling is physically laborious and time consuming, scientists often develop sampling plans in advance of deployment, i.e., employ an offline decision-making process. However, because of the unpredictable nature of field conditions, sampling strategies generally have to be updated online ...
Using Classification Images To Understand Models Of Lightness Perception, 2017 York University
Using Classification Images To Understand Models Of Lightness Perception, Minjung Kim, Jason M. Gold, Richard F. Murray
No abstract provided.
Modeling Distribution Learning In Visual Search, 2017 University of Iceland
Modeling Distribution Learning In Visual Search, Andrey Chetverikov
Chetverikov, Campana, and Kristjansson (2017) used visual search to demonstrate that human observers are able to extract statistical distributions of visual features. Observers searched for an odd-one-out target with distractors randomly drawn from the same distribution over the course of several “prime” trials. Then, on test trials parameters of the target and distractors changed and response times (RT) were analyzed as a function of the distance between the target position in feature space and the mean of distractor features during prime trials. The resulting RT curves followed the probability density of prime distractor distributions. This approach provides a detailed estimation ...
Down Syndrome, The Image Of God, And Personhood, 2017 Abilene Christian University
Down Syndrome, The Image Of God, And Personhood, Paris Webb
Dialogue & Nexus
People with Down syndrome help Christians understand what being made in the image of God truly means. After describing Down syndrome, we will examine the different views of the image of God and how these relate to people with Down syndrome. Another approach will be to define personhood in light of God’s image and relate it to Down syndrome. We will use the principles held by the L’Arche community as an exemplar in this discussion to demonstrate that those with Down syndrome encourage us to expand our understanding of the image of God. Consequently, Down’s persons allow ...
Modeling The Neural Circuitry Underlying The Behavioral And Eeg Correlates Of Attentional Capture, 2017 The Pennsylvania State University
Modeling The Neural Circuitry Underlying The Behavioral And Eeg Correlates Of Attentional Capture, Chloe Callahan-Flintoft, Brad Wyble
The Reactive-Convergent Gradient Field model (R-CGF) is a unique approach to modeling spatial attention in that it links neural mechanisms to event related potentials (ERPs) from scalp EEG. This model was developed with the aim of explaining different, sometimes conflicting, findings in the attention literature. Specifically, this model address conflicting findings showing both simultaneous and serial deployment of attention. Another argument addressed by the model is whether attention to a location invokes a suppression of the spatial surround, or the selective inhibition of distractors. With the R-CGF, we have found that these results are not as incompatible as they appear ...
Effects Of Positive Regard And Induced Social Stress On Cognitive Function: A Psychophysiological Perspective, Sherief Eldeeb, Kate Romero, Kymberlee O'Brien
UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat
Background: Stress has repeatedly been shown to have detrimental effects on cognitive ability. This has specific implications within the medical field given findings that physicians with a biomedical epistemology face greater stress than their biopsychosocial counterparts in the face of uncertainty.
Objective: The current study examined how induced stress affected participants’ cognitive abilities when prompted with positive or stoic regard, as well as observing possible intersecting factors that could affect this relationship. It was hypothesized that participants receiving positive regard during the stressor would have less impaired cognitive ability compared to participants receiving stoic regard. Furthermore, it was expected that ...
Age-Related Changes In Visual Spatial Performance, 2017 Seton Hall University
Age-Related Changes In Visual Spatial Performance, Samantha Farrell
Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)
Visual spatial skills allow individuals to understand the relationship between objects, people, and the environment for their everyday activities. Visual spatial abilities incorporate visual, motor, and cognitive components, each of which changes across the lifespan. The current study examined the effects of age-related changes and practice type on visual spatial performance. Participants between 40 and 79 years of age were asked to complete the Block Design Task (BDT) by using nine blocks to recreate various designs. Both accuracy and latency were measured to examine these changes. Task difficulty and practice type were varied and cognitive abilities were measured via MMSE ...
Individual And Group Differences In Sound Category Learning, 2017 Portland State University
Individual And Group Differences In Sound Category Learning, Ben Carlstrom
Student Research Symposium
Abstract: We examined the role of procedural-, declarative-, and working-memory systems in adults learning novel sound categories. Adults have fully developed declarative-memory skills that sometimes inhibit their ability to learn implicitly/procedurally (Filoteo, Lauritzen, & Maddox, 2010). Models of impaired language like the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis suggest that procedural-memory deficits are predictive of language-learning outcomes (Lum, Conti-Ramsden, Page, & Ullman, 2011). This study tested the hypothesis that language structure is best learned implicitly/procedurally, which has implications for L2 learning and language impairment. The novel sound categories presented to participants varied along a phonologically non-native dimension, pitch, and a native dimension, vowel ...
Mindfulness Meditation As A Stress Reactivity Intervention: An Event-Related Potential Study, 2017 Oregon Health and Science University & Portland State University
Mindfulness Meditation As A Stress Reactivity Intervention: An Event-Related Potential Study, Jessica L. Trottier, Barry S. Oken
Student Research Symposium
The biological and neural mechanisms of stress have been extensively studied and supported, but are still unclear. Event-related potentials (ERP’s) emitted by neurons in the brain are a useful tool in measuring stress because they reflect neural response in real-time, to the millisecond, versus typical biological markers, which are typically evaluated before and after a stress test. The neurobiological relationship between ERP’s and stress originates in the anterior cingulate cortex, which in turn activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis; the main physiological cascade fueling the stress response and its chronically harmful symptoms. Malfunctions in the stress response, as ...