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Using Classification Images To Understand Models Of Lightness Perception, Minjung Kim, Jason M. Gold, Richard F. Murray 2017 York University

Using Classification Images To Understand Models Of Lightness Perception, Minjung Kim, Jason M. Gold, Richard F. Murray

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Modeling Distribution Learning In Visual Search, Andrey Chetverikov 2017 University of Iceland

Modeling Distribution Learning In Visual Search, Andrey Chetverikov

MODVIS Workshop

Chetverikov, Campana, and Kristjansson (2017) used visual search to demonstrate that human observers are able to extract statistical distributions of visual features. Observers searched for an odd-one-out target with distractors randomly drawn from the same distribution over the course of several “prime” trials. Then, on test trials parameters of the target and distractors changed and response times (RT) were analyzed as a function of the distance between the target position in feature space and the mean of distractor features during prime trials. The resulting RT curves followed the probability density of prime distractor distributions. This approach provides a detailed estimation ...


Down Syndrome, The Image Of God, And Personhood, Paris Webb 2017 Abilene Christian University

Down Syndrome, The Image Of God, And Personhood, Paris Webb

Dialogue & Nexus

People with Down syndrome help Christians understand what being made in the image of God truly means. After describing Down syndrome, we will examine the different views of the image of God and how these relate to people with Down syndrome. Another approach will be to define personhood in light of God’s image and relate it to Down syndrome. We will use the principles held by the L’Arche community as an exemplar in this discussion to demonstrate that those with Down syndrome encourage us to expand our understanding of the image of God. Consequently, Down’s persons allow ...


Modeling The Neural Circuitry Underlying The Behavioral And Eeg Correlates Of Attentional Capture, Chloe Callahan-Flintoft, Brad Wyble 2017 The Pennsylvania State University

Modeling The Neural Circuitry Underlying The Behavioral And Eeg Correlates Of Attentional Capture, Chloe Callahan-Flintoft, Brad Wyble

MODVIS Workshop

The Reactive-Convergent Gradient Field model (R-CGF) is a unique approach to modeling spatial attention in that it links neural mechanisms to event related potentials (ERPs) from scalp EEG. This model was developed with the aim of explaining different, sometimes conflicting, findings in the attention literature. Specifically, this model address conflicting findings showing both simultaneous and serial deployment of attention. Another argument addressed by the model is whether attention to a location invokes a suppression of the spatial surround, or the selective inhibition of distractors. With the R-CGF, we have found that these results are not as incompatible as they appear ...


Effects Of Positive Regard And Induced Social Stress On Cognitive Function: A Psychophysiological Perspective, Sherief Eldeeb, Kate Romero, Kymberlee O'Brien 2017 Clark University

Effects Of Positive Regard And Induced Social Stress On Cognitive Function: A Psychophysiological Perspective, Sherief Eldeeb, Kate Romero, Kymberlee O'Brien

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: Stress has repeatedly been shown to have detrimental effects on cognitive ability. This has specific implications within the medical field given findings that physicians with a biomedical epistemology face greater stress than their biopsychosocial counterparts in the face of uncertainty.

Objective: The current study examined how induced stress affected participants’ cognitive abilities when prompted with positive or stoic regard, as well as observing possible intersecting factors that could affect this relationship. It was hypothesized that participants receiving positive regard during the stressor would have less impaired cognitive ability compared to participants receiving stoic regard. Furthermore, it was expected that ...


Age-Related Changes In Visual Spatial Performance, Samantha Farrell 2017 Seton Hall University

Age-Related Changes In Visual Spatial Performance, Samantha Farrell

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Visual spatial skills allow individuals to understand the relationship between objects, people, and the environment for their everyday activities. Visual spatial abilities incorporate visual, motor, and cognitive components, each of which changes across the lifespan. The current study examined the effects of age-related changes and practice type on visual spatial performance. Participants between 40 and 79 years of age were asked to complete the Block Design Task (BDT) by using nine blocks to recreate various designs. Both accuracy and latency were measured to examine these changes. Task difficulty and practice type were varied and cognitive abilities were measured via MMSE ...


Individual And Group Differences In Sound Category Learning, Ben Carlstrom 2017 Portland State University

Individual And Group Differences In Sound Category Learning, Ben Carlstrom

Student Research Symposium

Abstract: We examined the role of procedural-, declarative-, and working-memory systems in adults learning novel sound categories. Adults have fully developed declarative-memory skills that sometimes inhibit their ability to learn implicitly/procedurally (Filoteo, Lauritzen, & Maddox, 2010). Models of impaired language like the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis suggest that procedural-memory deficits are predictive of language-learning outcomes (Lum, Conti-Ramsden, Page, & Ullman, 2011). This study tested the hypothesis that language structure is best learned implicitly/procedurally, which has implications for L2 learning and language impairment. The novel sound categories presented to participants varied along a phonologically non-native dimension, pitch, and a native dimension, vowel ...


Mindfulness Meditation As A Stress Reactivity Intervention: An Event-Related Potential Study, Jessica L. Trottier, Barry S. Oken 2017 Oregon Health and Science University & Portland State University

Mindfulness Meditation As A Stress Reactivity Intervention: An Event-Related Potential Study, Jessica L. Trottier, Barry S. Oken

Student Research Symposium

The biological and neural mechanisms of stress have been extensively studied and supported, but are still unclear. Event-related potentials (ERP’s) emitted by neurons in the brain are a useful tool in measuring stress because they reflect neural response in real-time, to the millisecond, versus typical biological markers, which are typically evaluated before and after a stress test. The neurobiological relationship between ERP’s and stress originates in the anterior cingulate cortex, which in turn activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis; the main physiological cascade fueling the stress response and its chronically harmful symptoms. Malfunctions in the stress response, as ...


Associations Between The Willingness To Exert Cognitive Effort And Smoking Abstinence, Austin A. Phanouvong 2017 Portland State University

Associations Between The Willingness To Exert Cognitive Effort And Smoking Abstinence, Austin A. Phanouvong

Student Research Symposium

In decision-making tasks, individuals who prefer smaller, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards (delay discounting) are less likely to quit smoking. Indeed, decision-making tasks with delayed reward costs are sensitive to many aspects of substance use disorders. However, other reward costs might also be important. Our study focused on one of these other reward costs, which was cognitive effort (CE). 22 current smokers who were anticipating quitting in the near future were recruited to validate if more CE discounting predicted shorter abstinence times in reinforced smoking lapse period. Each participant had to be over the age of 21, and smoke ...


Multilingualism And Ego Depletion In Interference Task Performance – Are Multilingual Brains More Intelligent Than Monolingual Brains?, Dorota B. Botwina 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Multilingualism And Ego Depletion In Interference Task Performance – Are Multilingual Brains More Intelligent Than Monolingual Brains?, Dorota B. Botwina

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Research linking multilingualism with better executive control has produced inconsistent findings. Since definitive empirical evidence is not available, this study seeks to explore whether these advantages really exist. The Flanker Task followed an ego depletion task that was introduced to participants who were monolingual, bilingual and trilingual.


Alcohol Flushing Social Reactions Survey Data 2011, Ian Newman, Lanyan Ding, Duane F. Shell, Lida Lin 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Alcohol Flushing Social Reactions Survey Data 2011, Ian Newman, Lanyan Ding, Duane F. Shell, Lida Lin

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Format: XLSX file

Brief description of the data set:

Tab 1 of the Excel file contains the variable codes.

Tab 2 of the Excel file contains the de-identified survey responses from 2912 undergraduate students attending universities in southwestern, central, and northeastern China (People’s Republic of China). The survey was conducted in the spring university term of 2011.

Spreadsheet data file is attached below as an "Additional file".

(The "Download button retrieves a copy of this metadata.)


Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Ruffed lemur (Varecia spp.) color vision research was conducted using a multidisciplinary approach: psychophysics, genetic analysis, technology, and animal training. The behavioral manifestation of Varecia spp. trichromacy was shown using a touchscreen apparatus (SMARTA). Trichromats performed better than dichromats when discriminating red from green (G2 = 78.10, p < 0.001).


Resilience Training For The Bethesda Project: The Abc's Of Flexible, Accurate Thinking, Tajender Luthra, Kathi Norman, Scott Riddel 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Resilience Training For The Bethesda Project: The Abc's Of Flexible, Accurate Thinking, Tajender Luthra, Kathi Norman, Scott Riddel

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

Abstract

Bethesda Project (BP), a nonprofit organization located in Philadelphia, PA, provides shelter, housing, and programs to 2,000 chronically homeless men and women. Many of BP’s clients struggle with addiction and mental health issues that prohibit them from living self-sufficient lives. Challenges originating from fighting an under resourced battle with chronic homelessness make employees vulnerable to unrecovered stress and concurrent pessimistic thinking habits. In response to this, we recommend that BP adopt resilience training to support staff well-being. As a first initiative, we propose introducing the optimistic explanatory style and the ABC model of cognitive thinking to allow ...


From The Lab To The Classroom: Research At The Interface Between Cognitive Science And Education, Ludmila Nunes 2017 Purdue University

From The Lab To The Classroom: Research At The Interface Between Cognitive Science And Education, Ludmila Nunes

IMPACT Presentations

Presented at the 29th Association for Psychological Science (APS) Annual Convention in Boston, MA.


Case Study Examining The Treatment Effect Of Trainee Psychologists In Schools, Elliot Broch 2017 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Case Study Examining The Treatment Effect Of Trainee Psychologists In Schools, Elliot Broch

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

CASE STUDY EXAMINING THE TREATMENT EFFECT OF TRAINEE PSYCHOLOGISTS IN SCHOOLS

The effects of school- based therapy carried out by trainee psychologists were examined in four urban schools (k4-8th grade) in socio economically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Additionally, the treatment effects were compared between students serviced by trainees compared to those receiving treatment from licensed professionals. Trainee psychologists obtained moderate effect sizes (equivalent to that procured by licensed professionals) on measures of social emotional functioning. Discipline problems did not increase or decrease at a different rate for those receiving counselling from trainees and licensed professionals compared to their same age counterparts ...


An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Examination Of Empathy And Multiple Intelligences Among Youth Involved In Bullying, Heather Schwartz 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Examination Of Empathy And Multiple Intelligences Among Youth Involved In Bullying, Heather Schwartz

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Bullying is a significant issue among school-aged youth, and it is important to examine the underlying mechanisms of these behaviors. Studies have shown that one characteristic found among some children who bully is a lack of empathy. Previous literature examining empathy and bullying has typically relied on the use of self-report data. Few studies have included other ways of evaluating empathy. Self-report data can be limiting, particularly for individuals who possess strengths other than verbal/linguistic. Drawings have been found to reveal insight into children’s emotions and may be more suited to assessing empathy. Studying children’s drawings of ...


Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley

Master's Theses

Non-scientific literature consistently describes dolphins as “curious animals,” but there has been little systematic research on curiosity in dolphins. Curiosity in humans and certain non-human animal species, including birds and non-human primates, has been studied by examining individual differences in exploration and reactions to novel stimuli. Additionally, research has explored how human infants and non-human animals react when an event violates their expectations. The present study explored dolphins’ reactions to spontaneously surprising and expectation-violating stimuli. The reactions of dolphins, 15 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and 6 rough-toothed (Steno bredanensis), at Gulf World Marine Park were analyzed in response to events that ...


The Role Of Stereotype Threat In Mental Rotation, Bridget A. Parler 2017 Northern Michigan University

The Role Of Stereotype Threat In Mental Rotation, Bridget A. Parler

All NMU Master's Theses

Numerous studies have been conducted on mental rotation ability in both males and females. A lot of the literature discusses male superiority in mental rotation task as opposed to females. This paper examined the role of stereotype threat in a mental rotation task. Particularly, the research study focused on gender stereotype threat in female college students. The study was completed in a two part design with students completing two mental rotation task in a group setting. The low numbers in the sample make it impossible to reliably say that the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Task (VMRT) and the Purdue Mental Rotation ...


The Effect Of Incentives On Pupil Dilation During Recognition Memory: An Attentional Saliency Account Of The Pupil Old/New Effect, Lisa A. Solinger 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

The Effect Of Incentives On Pupil Dilation During Recognition Memory: An Attentional Saliency Account Of The Pupil Old/New Effect, Lisa A. Solinger

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Another interesting feature of this OMS circuit is the strong surround suppression occurring in the inner retina, which enables both VG3-ACs and W3-RGCs to remain silent to the global image motion. Pharmacological evidence suggested wide-field and/or spiking ACs are the source of the inhibition. The specific AC types, however, have not been identified. To address this question, in chapter 3, I explored candidate cell types using transgenic mouse lines expressing Cre recombinase, mainly tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre transgenic mice. In 2-photon guided patch clamp recordings, response patterns of TH2-ACs to object motion visual stimuli corresponded to inhibitory inputs of ...


The Social Progression Of Post -Traumatic Stress Disorder: Post Vietnam And September 11th Attacks, Ellie McDonald 2017 California State University, Monterey Bay

The Social Progression Of Post -Traumatic Stress Disorder: Post Vietnam And September 11th Attacks, Ellie Mcdonald

Capstone Projects and Theses

The Social Progression of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-Vietnam and September 11th Attacks is an examination on the infrastructure of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs’and of the Department of Defense’s lack of clarity and misinformation of the challenges and effects of mental illness within military ranks. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) made the Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM) after Vietnam. Since then, PTSD has been reevaluate numerous times, to properly define it. This research is a comparative analysis of the misconceptions of PTSD as experienced by Vietnam veterans and the first responders of the September 11th tragedy ...


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