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All Articles in Cognitive Psychology

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Hindsight Bias In Clinical Decision Making, Amanda Beltrani 2017 City University of New York (CUNY)

Hindsight Bias In Clinical Decision Making, Amanda Beltrani

Student Theses

The tendency for an individual to believe that a specific event, in hindsight, was more predictable than it was in foresight is known as hindsight bias. This phenomenon has been demonstrated in the psychological literature across a variety of samples, methodologies, and predictions for decades. The current study used a sample of 95 mental health professionals to explore the impact of advanced outcome knowledge on the decision making process. Participants reviewed a hypothetical risk assessment in the form of a hospital chart and then responded to a series of questions, using only their clinical judgment. Analyses revealed that evaluators who ...


Details In Testimony: How Hedge Words Influence People’S Perceptions Of Victim Testimony Credibility, Justine B. Rayborn 2017 CUNY John Jay College

Details In Testimony: How Hedge Words Influence People’S Perceptions Of Victim Testimony Credibility, Justine B. Rayborn

Student Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine whether hedge words and the age of a memory can influence the way participants (mock jurors) perceive an alleged sexual assault victim’s credibility. Prior research has demonstrated many issues that can affect the accuracy of memory for childhood events such as childhood amnesia, fragmented and distorted memories, false memories and source monitoring errors and the way in which jurors’ decisions can be swayed based on verbal cues to confidence. Here, we further investigated whether jurors' decisions are sensitive to the age of the memory—an event that happened in the recent ...


Can Implicit Post-Event Information Influence Explicit Eyewitness Memory?, Hang Sze Chau 2017 CUNY John Jay College

Can Implicit Post-Event Information Influence Explicit Eyewitness Memory?, Hang Sze Chau

Student Theses

This study examines whether unconscious processing of misleading post-event information can influence explicit and implicit eyewitness memory. Using the existing misinformation paradigm, false post-event information was presented to participants either under full or divided attention. Eyewitness memory was tested with both explicit (free recall and cued recall tests) and implicit memory tests (truth rating test). Participants who were misinformed under full attention recalled significantly more misinformation than their counterparts who were misinformed under divided attention and the control group. However, results from the truth rating test showed that both explicit and implicit forms of misinformation had no impact on implicit ...


The Effectiveness Of Narrative Transportation Varies By Product Type And Gender, Junwen Su 2017 Union College - Schenectady, NY

The Effectiveness Of Narrative Transportation Varies By Product Type And Gender, Junwen Su

Honors Theses and Student Projects

Previous studies had explored that narrative transportation increases affectivity and decreases cognitive responses. Specifically in the context of advertisement narrative transportation was found to increase product and brand evaluation and therefore was considered as an effective promotional strategy for marketers. In the current study we examined the direct impacts of narrative advertisement on people's positive affectivity critical thinking ability and brand evaluation and how the impacts differed between females and males and also between people assigned to read ad of spontaneous product and deliberative product. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of four types of radio transcript: narrative ...


Using Classification Images To Understand Models Of Lightness Perception, Minjung Kim, Jason M. Gold, Richard F. Murray 2017 York University

Using Classification Images To Understand Models Of Lightness Perception, Minjung Kim, Jason M. Gold, Richard F. Murray

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Modeling Distribution Learning In Visual Search, Andrey Chetverikov 2017 University of Iceland

Modeling Distribution Learning In Visual Search, Andrey Chetverikov

MODVIS Workshop

Chetverikov, Campana, and Kristjansson (2017) used visual search to demonstrate that human observers are able to extract statistical distributions of visual features. Observers searched for an odd-one-out target with distractors randomly drawn from the same distribution over the course of several “prime” trials. Then, on test trials parameters of the target and distractors changed and response times (RT) were analyzed as a function of the distance between the target position in feature space and the mean of distractor features during prime trials. The resulting RT curves followed the probability density of prime distractor distributions. This approach provides a detailed estimation ...


Down Syndrome, The Image Of God, And Personhood, Paris Webb 2017 Abilene Christian University

Down Syndrome, The Image Of God, And Personhood, Paris Webb

Dialogue & Nexus

People with Down syndrome help Christians understand what being made in the image of God truly means. After describing Down syndrome, we will examine the different views of the image of God and how these relate to people with Down syndrome. Another approach will be to define personhood in light of God’s image and relate it to Down syndrome. We will use the principles held by the L’Arche community as an exemplar in this discussion to demonstrate that those with Down syndrome encourage us to expand our understanding of the image of God. Consequently, Down’s persons allow ...


Modeling The Neural Circuitry Underlying The Behavioral And Eeg Correlates Of Attentional Capture, Chloe Callahan-Flintoft, Brad Wyble 2017 The Pennsylvania State University

Modeling The Neural Circuitry Underlying The Behavioral And Eeg Correlates Of Attentional Capture, Chloe Callahan-Flintoft, Brad Wyble

MODVIS Workshop

The Reactive-Convergent Gradient Field model (R-CGF) is a unique approach to modeling spatial attention in that it links neural mechanisms to event related potentials (ERPs) from scalp EEG. This model was developed with the aim of explaining different, sometimes conflicting, findings in the attention literature. Specifically, this model address conflicting findings showing both simultaneous and serial deployment of attention. Another argument addressed by the model is whether attention to a location invokes a suppression of the spatial surround, or the selective inhibition of distractors. With the R-CGF, we have found that these results are not as incompatible as they appear ...


Effects Of Positive Regard And Induced Social Stress On Cognitive Function: A Psychophysiological Perspective, Sherief Eldeeb, Kate Romero, Kymberlee O'Brien 2017 Clark University

Effects Of Positive Regard And Induced Social Stress On Cognitive Function: A Psychophysiological Perspective, Sherief Eldeeb, Kate Romero, Kymberlee O'Brien

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: Stress has repeatedly been shown to have detrimental effects on cognitive ability. This has specific implications within the medical field given findings that physicians with a biomedical epistemology face greater stress than their biopsychosocial counterparts in the face of uncertainty.

Objective: The current study examined how induced stress affected participants’ cognitive abilities when prompted with positive or stoic regard, as well as observing possible intersecting factors that could affect this relationship. It was hypothesized that participants receiving positive regard during the stressor would have less impaired cognitive ability compared to participants receiving stoic regard. Furthermore, it was expected that ...


Age-Related Changes In Visual Spatial Performance, Samantha Farrell 2017 Seton Hall University

Age-Related Changes In Visual Spatial Performance, Samantha Farrell

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Visual spatial skills allow individuals to understand the relationship between objects, people, and the environment for their everyday activities. Visual spatial abilities incorporate visual, motor, and cognitive components, each of which changes across the lifespan. The current study examined the effects of age-related changes and practice type on visual spatial performance. Participants between 40 and 79 years of age were asked to complete the Block Design Task (BDT) by using nine blocks to recreate various designs. Both accuracy and latency were measured to examine these changes. Task difficulty and practice type were varied and cognitive abilities were measured via MMSE ...


Individual And Group Differences In Sound Category Learning, Ben Carlstrom 2017 Portland State University

Individual And Group Differences In Sound Category Learning, Ben Carlstrom

Student Research Symposium

Abstract: We examined the role of procedural-, declarative-, and working-memory systems in adults learning novel sound categories. Adults have fully developed declarative-memory skills that sometimes inhibit their ability to learn implicitly/procedurally (Filoteo, Lauritzen, & Maddox, 2010). Models of impaired language like the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis suggest that procedural-memory deficits are predictive of language-learning outcomes (Lum, Conti-Ramsden, Page, & Ullman, 2011). This study tested the hypothesis that language structure is best learned implicitly/procedurally, which has implications for L2 learning and language impairment. The novel sound categories presented to participants varied along a phonologically non-native dimension, pitch, and a native dimension, vowel ...


Mindfulness Meditation As A Stress Reactivity Intervention: An Event-Related Potential Study, Jessica L. Trottier, Barry S. Oken 2017 Oregon Health and Science University & Portland State University

Mindfulness Meditation As A Stress Reactivity Intervention: An Event-Related Potential Study, Jessica L. Trottier, Barry S. Oken

Student Research Symposium

The biological and neural mechanisms of stress have been extensively studied and supported, but are still unclear. Event-related potentials (ERP’s) emitted by neurons in the brain are a useful tool in measuring stress because they reflect neural response in real-time, to the millisecond, versus typical biological markers, which are typically evaluated before and after a stress test. The neurobiological relationship between ERP’s and stress originates in the anterior cingulate cortex, which in turn activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis; the main physiological cascade fueling the stress response and its chronically harmful symptoms. Malfunctions in the stress response, as ...


Associations Between The Willingness To Exert Cognitive Effort And Smoking Abstinence, Austin A. Phanouvong 2017 Portland State University

Associations Between The Willingness To Exert Cognitive Effort And Smoking Abstinence, Austin A. Phanouvong

Student Research Symposium

In decision-making tasks, individuals who prefer smaller, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards (delay discounting) are less likely to quit smoking. Indeed, decision-making tasks with delayed reward costs are sensitive to many aspects of substance use disorders. However, other reward costs might also be important. Our study focused on one of these other reward costs, which was cognitive effort (CE). 22 current smokers who were anticipating quitting in the near future were recruited to validate if more CE discounting predicted shorter abstinence times in reinforced smoking lapse period. Each participant had to be over the age of 21, and smoke ...


Multilingualism And Ego Depletion In Interference Task Performance – Are Multilingual Brains More Intelligent Than Monolingual Brains?, Dorota B. Botwina 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Multilingualism And Ego Depletion In Interference Task Performance – Are Multilingual Brains More Intelligent Than Monolingual Brains?, Dorota B. Botwina

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Research linking multilingualism with better executive control has produced inconsistent findings. Since definitive empirical evidence is not available, this study seeks to explore whether these advantages really exist. The Flanker Task followed an ego depletion task that was introduced to participants who were monolingual, bilingual and trilingual.


Alcohol Flushing Social Reactions Survey Data 2011, Ian Newman, Lanyan Ding, Duane F. Shell, Lida Lin 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Alcohol Flushing Social Reactions Survey Data 2011, Ian Newman, Lanyan Ding, Duane F. Shell, Lida Lin

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Format: XLSX file

Brief description of the data set:

Tab 1 of the Excel file contains the variable codes.

Tab 2 of the Excel file contains the de-identified survey responses from 2912 undergraduate students attending universities in southwestern, central, and northeastern China (People’s Republic of China). The survey was conducted in the spring university term of 2011.

Spreadsheet data file is attached below as an "Additional file".

(The "Download button retrieves a copy of this metadata.)


Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Ruffed lemur (Varecia spp.) color vision research was conducted using a multidisciplinary approach: psychophysics, genetic analysis, technology, and animal training. The behavioral manifestation of Varecia spp. trichromacy was shown using a touchscreen apparatus (SMARTA). Trichromats performed better than dichromats when discriminating red from green (G2 = 78.10, p < 0.001).


From The Lab To The Classroom: Research At The Interface Between Cognitive Science And Education, Ludmila Nunes 2017 Purdue University

From The Lab To The Classroom: Research At The Interface Between Cognitive Science And Education, Ludmila Nunes

IMPACT Presentations

Presented at the 29th Association for Psychological Science (APS) Annual Convention in Boston, MA.


Mental Skills Training In Martial Arts, Megan Rinderer, Adam Bernero 2017 University of Denver

Mental Skills Training In Martial Arts, Megan Rinderer, Adam Bernero

Doctoral Papers and Masters Projects

The following case recounts the experiences of two entry-level consultants implementing a 6-week Mental Skills Training program with Brazilian Jiu Jitsu (BJJ) athletes. Both consultants identify with an Acceptance and Commitment (ACT) approach to mental skills training. Each consultant worked with a BJJ athlete for six weeks, integrating mental skills interventions into the athletes’ existing training regimen. Overall, the interventions focused on cognitive defusion techniques, identifying and developing emotional intelligence, self-regulating arousal levels, and managing energy and attention. Consultants relied heavily on mindfulness exercises as well as biofeedback technology in order to identify, develop, and refine the psychological skills crucial ...


Case Study Examining The Treatment Effect Of Trainee Psychologists In Schools, Elliot Broch 2017 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Case Study Examining The Treatment Effect Of Trainee Psychologists In Schools, Elliot Broch

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

CASE STUDY EXAMINING THE TREATMENT EFFECT OF TRAINEE PSYCHOLOGISTS IN SCHOOLS

The effects of school- based therapy carried out by trainee psychologists were examined in four urban schools (k4-8th grade) in socio economically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Additionally, the treatment effects were compared between students serviced by trainees compared to those receiving treatment from licensed professionals. Trainee psychologists obtained moderate effect sizes (equivalent to that procured by licensed professionals) on measures of social emotional functioning. Discipline problems did not increase or decrease at a different rate for those receiving counselling from trainees and licensed professionals compared to their same age counterparts ...


Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley

Master's Theses

Non-scientific literature consistently describes dolphins as “curious animals,” but there has been little systematic research on curiosity in dolphins. Curiosity in humans and certain non-human animal species, including birds and non-human primates, has been studied by examining individual differences in exploration and reactions to novel stimuli. Additionally, research has explored how human infants and non-human animals react when an event violates their expectations. The present study explored dolphins’ reactions to spontaneously surprising and expectation-violating stimuli. The reactions of dolphins, 15 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and 6 rough-toothed (Steno bredanensis), at Gulf World Marine Park were analyzed in response to events that ...


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