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It's Just A Toy, Lauren Strauss 2018 Bowling Green State University - Main Campus

It's Just A Toy, Lauren Strauss

Ray Browne Conference on Cultural and Critical Studies

Each and every one of us experiences gender stereotyping, whether we realize it or not. It is such a simple concept and something people don't tend to think about. Although, from a young age, we are exposed to our parents' and societies' views on gender and the toys we should play with, which then stick around for generations. The color pink and dolls are for girls and trucks and the color blue are for boys, right? Well, not necessarily. Toys are also expressed through the idea that women have to be the stay at home mom and take care ...


Investigating The Effects Of Sensory Learning In Rats Using Intra And Extra Stimulus Modalities, Ariel M. Kershner 2018 Arcadia University

Investigating The Effects Of Sensory Learning In Rats Using Intra And Extra Stimulus Modalities, Ariel M. Kershner

Faculty Curated Undergraduate Works

The purpose of this study was to see what rats learn about the elements of a compound stimulus (a stimulus composed of two different stimuli), and whether their learning differs if the compound is from the same modality (intra-modal), i.e. both visual, or from different modalities (inter-modal), i.e. visual and auditory. We hypothesized that the rats would respond more to the compound stimuli than to the single stimuli (Pearce and Wilson, 1990), more to the compound modality of inter-modal elements than to the compound modality of intra-modal elements (Miller, 1971 and Gingras, 2009), equally to the intra-modal elements ...


Are Approach-Avoidance Emotions Represented In The Brain As Approach-Avoidance Actions?, Channing Everidge 2018 College of William and Mary

Are Approach-Avoidance Emotions Represented In The Brain As Approach-Avoidance Actions?, Channing Everidge

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Spreading activation theory describes semantic memory as a network of connected nodes, in which activation of a concept triggers the subsequent activation of semantically related concepts, and has often been tested using a semantic priming methodology. Spreading activation is assumed when a target word is preceded by a semantically congruent prime word (congruent priming) that results in a quicker response time to the target word. This finding has been utilized by embodied cognition theorists, who posit that all semantic memory is deeply engrained within the perceptual-motor system by which it was encoded. But are abstract words also represented in this ...


Emotion Discrimination In Peripheral Vision, Hayley M. Lambert 2018 Western Kentucky University

Emotion Discrimination In Peripheral Vision, Hayley M. Lambert

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The recognition accuracy of emotion in faces varies depending on the discrete emotion being expressed and the location of the stimulus. More specifically, emotion detection performance declines as facial stimuli are presented further out in the periphery. Interestingly, this is not always true for faces depicting happy emotional expressions, which can be associated with maintained levels of detection. The current study examined neurophysiological responses to emotional face discrimination in the periphery. Two event-related potentials (ERPs) that can be sensitive to the perception of emotion in faces, P1 and N170, were examined using EEG data recorded from electrodes at occipitotemporal sites ...


Gender And Subject Area Differences In Academic Metacognition And Motivation, Adelaide Jenkins 2018 Trinity College, Hartford Connecticut

Gender And Subject Area Differences In Academic Metacognition And Motivation, Adelaide Jenkins

Senior Theses and Projects

This study was a continuation of the ongoing Trinity metacognition project investigating the metacognitive awareness and skills of middle school students. The present study examined whether there were gender differences in the ways metacognition is used in two different subject areas: social studies and math. It also investigated whether gender has an effect on how students use metacognition in these two school subjects. Students in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grade were surveyed about their metacognitive and motivational awareness in math and social studies. Results showed that female students used metacognition more than male students in both math and social ...


Characterization Of Swine Production Using Measurements Collected Via Indoor Positioning System, Shaun Perisho 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Characterization Of Swine Production Using Measurements Collected Via Indoor Positioning System, Shaun Perisho

Dissertations

Legislative and market initiatives are requiring that gestating sows move from individual housing to group settings. Little information is known about coping styles of individual sows in these more socially complex environments and thus the impact of different behavioral strategies on sow reproductive success and efficiency was investigated. The movements of 70 sows during periods of reintroduction into large pen gestational housing following insemination was measured with a commercially available system that tracked animal location and accelerations. Principle component analysis (PCA) was used to establish composite variables characterizing each animal’s behavioral response to social reintroduction and revealed the presence ...


A Study Of Flight Simulation Training Time, Aircraft Training Time, And Pilot Competence As Measured By The Naval Standard Score, Aaron D. Judy 2018 Southeastern University - Lakeland

A Study Of Flight Simulation Training Time, Aircraft Training Time, And Pilot Competence As Measured By The Naval Standard Score, Aaron D. Judy

College of Education

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between US Navy T-45C flight simulation training time, actual aircraft training time, and intermediate and advanced jet pilot competence as measured by the Naval Standard Score (NSS). Examining the relationships between US Navy T-45C flight simulation time and actual aircraft flight time may provide further information on flight simulation training versus actual aircraft training to aviation authorities, flight instructors, the military aviation community, the commercial aviation community, and academia. The study was non-experimental, correlational, causal-comparative with an emphasis upon the establishment of mathematic and predictive relationships using archival data from ...


Assessment For Mild Cognitive Impairment: Striving For Best Practice, Julie Leigh Dalmasso 2018 Western Michigan University

Assessment For Mild Cognitive Impairment: Striving For Best Practice, Julie Leigh Dalmasso

Dissertations

This dissertation is a series of three studies aimed at determining the best assessment practices for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) that can employed by speech-language pathologists (SLPs). The first study was non-experimental and descriptive examining whether three commonly used assessment instruments yielded similar categorical results. The data were analyzed to determine whether the Eight-Item Interview to Differentiate Aging and Dementia (AD8), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Cognitive-Linguistic Quick Test (CLQT) identified the same participants from a neurotypical sample as having cognitive deficits. Very little agreement was found amongst the three tools.

Study two was modified to include two ...


Supporting Dynamic And Distributed Decision Making In Acute Care Environments: Insights From A Cognitive Ethnography, Anthony Naimi 2018 The Univeristy of Western Ontario

Supporting Dynamic And Distributed Decision Making In Acute Care Environments: Insights From A Cognitive Ethnography, Anthony Naimi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The way that medical decisions are carried out in hospital environments has undergone radical changes in recent years, in part as a result of the changing landscape of care. To make decisions, physicians are expected to keep abreast of a growing and changing body of medical and patient knowledge, collaborate more with clinical colleagues, and utilize more technologies to inform care than ever before. This dissertation reports on a five month cognitive ethnography in an ICU in Ontario Canada, and utilizes distributed cognition to understand the challenges that physicians face in making decision in modern acute care environments. It also ...


Hemispheric Processing In Conventional Metaphor Comprehension: The Role Of General Knowledge, Stephen W. Briner, Michael C. Schutzenhofer, Sandra M. Virtue 2018 Sacred Heart University

Hemispheric Processing In Conventional Metaphor Comprehension: The Role Of General Knowledge, Stephen W. Briner, Michael C. Schutzenhofer, Sandra M. Virtue

Psychology Faculty Publications

This study explored the relation between general knowledge and the hemispheric processing of metaphoric expressions in college age students. We hypothesized that prior knowledge influences how the hemispheres process metaphors in these individuals. In this study, 97 young (college-aged) adults completed a general knowledge and vocabulary test, and were then divided into high-knowledge/high-vocabulary and low-knowledge/low-vocabulary groups. Next, participants viewed word pairs consisting of conventional metaphors, novel metaphors, word pairs with a literal meaning, and unrelated word pairs. The first word in each pair was presented centrally, and the second was presented to the right visual field-left hemisphere (rvf-LH ...


The Common Thread In Kuyper, Kuhn And Cognitive Psychology: Interpretive Frameworks, Daniel F. A. Hitchcock 2018 Dordt College

The Common Thread In Kuyper, Kuhn And Cognitive Psychology: Interpretive Frameworks, Daniel F. A. Hitchcock

Pro Rege

No abstract provided.


Improving Intervention Decisions To Prevent Genocide: Less Muddle, More Structure, Robin Gregory, Michael Harstone, Paul Slovic 2018 Decision Research & University of British Columbia

Improving Intervention Decisions To Prevent Genocide: Less Muddle, More Structure, Robin Gregory, Michael Harstone, Paul Slovic

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Decisions to intervene in a foreign country to prevent genocide and mass atrocities are among the most challenging and controversial choices facing national leaders. Drawing on techniques from decision analysis, psychology, and negotiation analysis, we propose a structured approach to these difficult choices that can provide policy makers with additional insight, consistency, efficiency, and defensibility. We propose the use of a values-based framework to clarify the key elements of these complex choices and to provide a consistent structure for comparison of the likely benefits, risks, and tradeoffs associated with alternative intervention strategies. Results from a workshop involving Ambassadors and experienced ...


The Influence Of Control Strategy On Event Segmentation, Vanessa Carlos 2018 California State University - San Bernardino

The Influence Of Control Strategy On Event Segmentation, Vanessa Carlos

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The dual mechanism of cognitive control framework (DMC) describes cognitive control via two strategies: proactive and reactive. Individuals using a proactive strategy, focus on actively maintaining goal-relevant information in memory, whereas reactive individuals store goal-relevant information and retrieve it when cues are present. Reimer and colleagues (2015, 2017) added cue-probe location shifts to the typical AX-CPT, as well as, a virtual-reality environment version of the AX-CPT. Through this, they found that the effect of location shifts vary depending on whether a proactive or reactive mode of control is utilized. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test whether ...


Does Ease Mediate The Ease-Of-Retrieval Effect? A Meta-Analysis, Evan Weingarten, J. W. Hutchinson 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Does Ease Mediate The Ease-Of-Retrieval Effect? A Meta-Analysis, Evan Weingarten, J. W. Hutchinson

Marketing Papers

A wealth of literature suggests individuals use feelings in addition to facts as sources of information for judgment. This paper focuses on a manipulation in which participants list either a few or many examples of a given type, and then make a judgment. Instead of using the number of arguments or evidence strength, participants are hypothesized to use the subjective ease of generating examples as the primary input to judgment. This result is commonly called the ease-of-retrieval effect, and the feeling of ease is typically assumed to mediate the effect. We use meta-analytic methods across 142 papers, 263 studies, and ...


Online Educational Outcomes Could Exceed Those Of The Traditional Classroom, Elliot King 2018 Loyola University Maryland

Online Educational Outcomes Could Exceed Those Of The Traditional Classroom, Elliot King

The Emerging Learning Design Journal

An axiom of online education is that teachers should not mechanically translate existing courses into an online format. If so, how should new or ongoing courses be reshaped for the online environment and why? The answers come both from the opportunities offered by the structure of online education and from a body of research from cognitive psychology and cognitive science that provides insight into the way people actually learn. Freed from the time and space constraints inherent in face-to-face higher education settings as well as the deeply ingrained expectations of both teachers and students, online education provides a more flexible ...


Assessing The Effects Of Dual Tasking On Spatiotemporal Parameters Of Gait In Older Adults: Exploring Age And Task Demands, Mohammed Issa Alsaeed 2018 Seton Hall University

Assessing The Effects Of Dual Tasking On Spatiotemporal Parameters Of Gait In Older Adults: Exploring Age And Task Demands, Mohammed Issa Alsaeed

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The percentage of the senior citizens is expected to be 20% of the US population by 2030. Falls are considered a global problem due to the increased rate of falls and the costs associated with treating impairments resulting from falls. To date, the effects of performing different types of dual tasks among different age groups of the elderly has received less attention. Therefore, this study sought to assess the impact on spatiotemporal parameters of gait when differing age groups of older adults performer dual tasks that require differing motor and cognitive demands.

Three standard measurements were used in this study ...


Lexical Predictability During Natural Reading: Effects Of Surprisal And Entropy Reduction, Matthew W. Lowder, Wonil Choi, Fernanda Ferreira, John M. Henderson 2018 University of Richmond

Lexical Predictability During Natural Reading: Effects Of Surprisal And Entropy Reduction, Matthew W. Lowder, Wonil Choi, Fernanda Ferreira, John M. Henderson

Psychology Faculty Publications

What are the effects of word‐by‐word predictability on sentence processing times during the natural reading of a text? Although information complexity metrics such as surprisal and entropy reduction have been useful in addressing this question, these metrics tend to be estimated using computational language models, which require some degree of commitment to a particular theory of language processing. Taking a different approach, this study implemented a large‐scale cumulative cloze task to collect word‐by‐word predictability data for 40 passages and compute surprisal and entropy reduction values in a theory‐neutral manner. A separate group of participants ...


The Impact Of Beauty, Body Image, And Health Discourses On Eating Disorder Risk In South Asian-Canadian Women, Nazia Bhatti 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Impact Of Beauty, Body Image, And Health Discourses On Eating Disorder Risk In South Asian-Canadian Women, Nazia Bhatti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study explores socio-cultural influences that impact South Asian women’s self-perceptions and eating behaviours. The findings revealed that cultural gender ideologies played a substantial role in shaping the way women view themselves and their bodies. The analysis of interviews conducted with seven South Asian-Canadian women between the ages of 19-29 years, demonstrate that women’s perceptions of their own physical appearance is framed within the context of their South Asian cultural identity and cultural norms. This study was approached through the lens of post-colonial feminism by examining cultural factors that contribute to South Asian women’s increased risk for ...


Mentalizing, Personal Prayer, The Presence Of God, And Evil, Laird Edman, Chris Sietstra, Molly Townsend, Corey Kundert, Hope DeRuyter, Rebekah Muilenberg, Virginia Kjer, Riley Harder 2018 Northwestern College, Iowa

Mentalizing, Personal Prayer, The Presence Of God, And Evil, Laird Edman, Chris Sietstra, Molly Townsend, Corey Kundert, Hope Deruyter, Rebekah Muilenberg, Virginia Kjer, Riley Harder

Northwestern Review

People who believe in a relational, personal deity, conceptualize god(s) as intentional agents with mental states. Hence it follows that mentalizing or theory of mind may be one of the cognitive foundations of religious belief and behavior. This study examined this relationship as it corresponds to reported prayer experiences, intimacy with god, and experience of agentic evil.


Reasoning With Pseudowords: How Properties Of Novel Verbal Stimuli Influence Item Difficulty And Linguistic-Group Score Differences On Cognitive Ability Assessments, Paul Agnello 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Reasoning With Pseudowords: How Properties Of Novel Verbal Stimuli Influence Item Difficulty And Linguistic-Group Score Differences On Cognitive Ability Assessments, Paul Agnello

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Pseudowords (words that are not real but resemble real words in a language) have been used increasingly as a technique to reduce contamination due to construct-irrelevant variance in assessments of verbal fluid reasoning (Gf). However, despite pseudowords being researched heavily in other psychology sub-disciplines, they have received little attention in cognitive ability testing contexts. Thus, there has been an assumption that all pseudowords work equally and work equally well for all test-takers. The current research examined three objectives with the first being whether changes to the pseudoword properties of length and wordlikeness (how much a pseudoword resembles a typical or ...


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