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The Climate Crisis: How Communication And Norms Interact With Attitudes And Actions, Kathryn Aldstadt 2022 Butler University

The Climate Crisis: How Communication And Norms Interact With Attitudes And Actions, Kathryn Aldstadt

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

The present study investigated the effect of communication strategies and social norms on peoples’ self-reported environmental attitudes and actions. Communication strategies that cause high-fear levels in viewers can often cause distress, thereby increasing the likelihood that viewers will disregard a message in favor of protecting themselves (Clayton, 2020; Hornsey et al., 2015). Communication strategies that cause low-fear can serve as healthy motivators for action (Nestler & Egloff, 2012). Social norms are powerful, and people are likely to follow the same behavior pattern as others. In the current study, participants (N=71) watched a Public Service Announcement (PSA) video and either had …


A Moody Memory: The Impact Of Affective State On Source Memory And Reality Monitoring, Rebecca Lynn Greenberg 2022 Butler University

A Moody Memory: The Impact Of Affective State On Source Memory And Reality Monitoring, Rebecca Lynn Greenberg

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

Many researchers have studied the impact of mood on various cognitive processes, but few have analyzed how it affects source memory and internal-external reality monitoring processes. Numerous findings indicate that sad moods are likely to yield more accurate memory than happy moods due to different information processing techniques, suggesting that sad mood could improve source memory and reality monitoring as well. After being induced into either a happy or sad mood, participants were presented with a list of 30 noun-verb-noun phrases in which the second noun was either generated for them by the computer or they were asked to fill …


Prospective Person Memory In The Case Of Missing Persons: A Coffee Shop Study, Cara Bascom 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Prospective Person Memory In The Case Of Missing Persons: A Coffee Shop Study, Cara Bascom

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Prospective person memory (PPM) is the process of remembering to perform some action after encountering a target individual, such as identifying and reporting a missing person sighting after viewing a missing person alert (Moore et al., 2021). Research has shown that identification rates generally tend to be low in simulated missing person studies (Lampinen & Moore, 2016b). The purpose of the current research is to determine how to improve missing person recognition rates. This project explores the potential effects of using videos in missing person reports as compared to using static images. We also consider differences between rigid and non-rigid …


Effects Of Recess On Educational Outcomes In Elementary School Children, Katelyn Whitham 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Recess On Educational Outcomes In Elementary School Children, Katelyn Whitham

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Introduction: Because physical activity is beneficial for physical and mental health, the declining opportunities to implement adequate recesses in schools are devastating for children. If educational outcomes are positively affected by increased recess time or quality, schools are more likely to receive funding for programs and resources that support this renovation to recesses, providing research in lacking topics. Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review is to find related, academic articles for cross examination of data collected on the effects that recess has on educational outcomes so that schools may use this as a resource to receive funding to increase …


Art, Race, And The Carceral System: Perceptions Of Criminality In Artful Expression, Abiodun Akinseye 2022 Butler University

Art, Race, And The Carceral System: Perceptions Of Criminality In Artful Expression, Abiodun Akinseye

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

Prior research suggests that rap music is viewed as more “criminal” than other musical genres. Furthermore, juries are likely to attribute criminal stereotypes to rappers, in part due to assumptions of guilt and innocence based on race (Smiley, 2017; Smiley & Fakunle, 2016). Recently courts have used rap lyrics as a form of confessionary evidence against rappers in the courtroom (e.g., McKinley Phipps v. Tim Wilkinson, 2001), but this practice does not extend to other art forms, such as stand-up comedy. This interdisciplinary paper utilizes a mixed-methods approach to research, using both content analysis and experimental methods to develop an …


So I Was, 'Like', Totally Buggin’ – Evidence For The Role Of Attention On Entrainment From Discourse Particles, Rachel L. Williams 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

So I Was, 'Like', Totally Buggin’ – Evidence For The Role Of Attention On Entrainment From Discourse Particles, Rachel L. Williams

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In this study, we investigated the role of attention for entrainment during production and comprehension using the discourse particle like. We tested two main hypotheses – that entrainment to discourse particles, even if relatively implicit, requires some attentional resources, versus that it requires little (if any) attention. In two experiments, participants read a short story and retold it (baseline retelling phase), then read another short story and listened to a recording of it (priming phase), and then read and retold a third story (target retelling phase). In Experiment 1, half of the participants simultaneously navigated a busy pedestrian zone in …


The Effect Of Object Contact On Pre-Reaching Infants' Causal Perception., Mallory L. Thompson 2022 University of Louisville

The Effect Of Object Contact On Pre-Reaching Infants' Causal Perception., Mallory L. Thompson

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

The Sticky Mittens (SM) paradigm is an object manipulation task that provides infants the opportunity to explore objects through active experience before they have the necessary motor skills to do so on their own. Positive cognitive outcomes like increased attention to objects, object engagement, object exploration, and causal perception have been shown to result from active SM experience (Libertus & Needham, 2010; Rakison & Krogh, 2012). Researchers are interested in understanding which aspects of SM training are important for infant learning. Although there have been many SM studies looking at different variables, such as active vs. passive experience and parent …


Inducing Cognitive Reflection And Its Impact On Contradictory Beliefs., Margaret Powers 2022 University of Louisville

Inducing Cognitive Reflection And Its Impact On Contradictory Beliefs., Margaret Powers

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Currently, there is extensive research within psychology about two distinct processing models where one is fast, automatic, and relatively effortless and the other is slow, systematic, and effortful. One mechanism of effortful processing is cognitive reflection which is one’s ability to reflect on their intuition. While there is research on explicit instructions of certain cognitive mechanisms and implicit induction of cognitive reflection, there is a lack of research on the explicit induction of cognitive reflection specifically. In this study, two techniques were investigated to see if cognitive reflection could be explicitly induced. Participants either read a prompt before beginning the …


The Interaction Of Spaced Retrieval Practice And Element Interactivity., Cameron K. Mattingly 2022 University of Louisville

The Interaction Of Spaced Retrieval Practice And Element Interactivity., Cameron K. Mattingly

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Our study investigates the interaction of retrieval practice and element interactivity. Spaced practice is the process of breaking up the retrieval of information into smaller chunks across a longer period of time as opposed to learning everything in one time block. Retrieval practice is the process of testing yourself on previously learned material. Spaced retrieval practice is the merger of these two ideas. This style of learning is well-suited for learning many items that must be retained indefinitely (Lyle et al., 2019). Element interactivity describes the amount of learned items (elements) that are interrelated and must be processed together in …


Differential Neural Correlates Underlying Different Cognitive Control Strategies And Their Relationship With The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Carroll Bentley 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Differential Neural Correlates Underlying Different Cognitive Control Strategies And Their Relationship With The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Carroll Bentley

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Impulsivity is defined as a rapid unplanned action to a stimulus, where the person does not consider the consequences of their actions (Moeller et al., 2001). Various measurement techniques exist in the study of impulsivity and include self-report, behavioral and physiological measures. This breadth of measurement techniques affords researchers the opportunity to understand what is likely a multifaceted nature of this construct. Previous literature shows mixed results between the relationship of the three measures. The present study seeks to add clarity between the three different modalities of measuring impulsivity. To address this relationship, an undergraduate sample (n = 171) completed …


Effectiveness Of Affective Based Intervention Depending On Personal Relevance To A Conspiracy Belief, Mallory MacDonald 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effectiveness Of Affective Based Intervention Depending On Personal Relevance To A Conspiracy Belief, Mallory Macdonald

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

With the increase in conspiracy theory beliefs, there is a need for intervention techniques. Do some intervention techniques work better when taking into account the personal relevance a person has towards a topic? One hundred and sixty undergraduate students first read an article that introduced the conspiracy theory and established personal relevance. To manipulate personal relevance, participants were told that a new vaccine mandate would be put into place either July 2023 or July 2031. Then, they considered an article that worked to intervene the conspiracy belief. Participants either read an article that was focused on affective or cognitive intervention …


Examining The Effects Of Different Coping Styles On Dependent Stress Generation, Whitney Skaggs 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining The Effects Of Different Coping Styles On Dependent Stress Generation, Whitney Skaggs

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this study, I prospectively examined the associations between different coping styles and stress. Stress can be classified as independent, which is stress that an individual has no control over, or dependent stress, which is stress that occurs because of the individuals’ actions. Coping is how individuals deal with that stress. With the role that coping plays in stress, I expected that it would relate to stress generation. I hypothesized that some forms of coping would prospectively predict the occurrence of less dependent stress but not independent stress. To test this hypothesis, I had college students (N=73) complete …


Diagnostic Featural Detection Or Filler Siphoning: A Red Box Study, Brynn Schuetter 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Diagnostic Featural Detection Or Filler Siphoning: A Red Box Study, Brynn Schuetter

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The current study is a replication and extension of previous research by Colloff and Wixted (2020). In their study, they created a novel identification procedure called the simultaneous showup. They found support for the diagnostic feature detection theory over the filler siphoning theory. The current study was interested in seeing if covert filler siphoning was still occurring in their novel procedure by asking participants how photos of fillers influenced their identification decision. Participants of the study viewed two crime videos and completed an identification task. If they were assigned to the simultaneous showup task, they were asked if and how …


The Influence Of Facial Exposure On Confidence In Eyewitness Identification, Madelynn Fancher 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Influence Of Facial Exposure On Confidence In Eyewitness Identification, Madelynn Fancher

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

In crimes in which there is an eyewitness identification, confidence is usually a good predictor of accuracy. However, in some cases, estimator variables might affect the relationship between eyewitness confidence and accuracy. This study analyzes the effect of exposure duration on confidence during an eyewitness identification. According to the pristine conditions hypothesis (Wixed & Wells, 2017), if the system variables are optimal, confidence and accuracy will be strongly related, even if the viewing conditions are suboptimal. Participants in this online study viewed a mock crime in one of two conditions: brief exposure or long exposure. Following viewing the crime, participants …


The Cognitive & Educational Implications Of Color Use In Drawing To Learn, Juliana F.M. Cantarutti 2022 William & Mary

The Cognitive & Educational Implications Of Color Use In Drawing To Learn, Juliana F.M. Cantarutti

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Drawing to Learn (D2L) is a learning aid that encourages STEM students to interact with abstract concepts in STEM by sketching. D2L is not an intuitive skill, and researchers strive to provide students with guidelines on how to master this method. One potential way to enhance the D2L method for students is by incorporation of visual cues, specifically color. While many students choose to incorporate color into their models without explicit instruction to do so, we have found no research on: a) why students use color in sketching, b) its effects on D2L. This study used interviews, surveys, and course …


Do You Salt Your Soup: Investigating The Effect Of Interference Control On The Cognitive Reflection Test, Matthew Lowrie 2022 William & Mary

Do You Salt Your Soup: Investigating The Effect Of Interference Control On The Cognitive Reflection Test, Matthew Lowrie

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The present study seeks to examine the role of interference control in solving the Cognitive Reflection Test (Frederick, 2005). Participants were given the CRT, CRT-2, and completed a novel adaptation of the Stop-Signal Task called the Change-Signal Task. The Change-Signal Task is similar to a stop-signal paradigm except that the participant must switch their response when a change-signal is present in the Change-Signal Task instead of withholding a response. This study found that interference control as assessed by the Change-Signal Task was important for determining performance on the CRT-2 but not for the CRT. Implications of these findings and interpretations …


Implementing An Online, Integrative, Multi-Component, Group-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (Cbt) For The Reduction Of Caregiver Burden In Primary Familial Caregivers Of Persons With Dementia: A Preliminary Test Of Feasibility, Daniel Robert Schaffer 2022 Old Dominion University

Implementing An Online, Integrative, Multi-Component, Group-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (Cbt) For The Reduction Of Caregiver Burden In Primary Familial Caregivers Of Persons With Dementia: A Preliminary Test Of Feasibility, Daniel Robert Schaffer

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the preliminary feasibility of an online, manualized, group-based, multi-component, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment approach for the reduction of caregiver burden among family caregivers of persons with dementia. This study had five primary hypotheses: (1) the recruitment plan, as outlined within this study, would yield the target number of participants within a 12-month period; (2) the proposed group therapy protocol would produce a positive therapeutic climate, as operationalized by increased levels of perceived social support, perceived group cohesion, positive therapeutic alliance, and positive engagement; (3) this study would maintain adequate participant retention, …


Combating Recidivism, Shaylin Daley 2022 University of Rhode Island

Combating Recidivism, Shaylin Daley

Senior Honors Projects

SHAYLIN DALEY (Psychology) Combating Recidivism Sponsor: Lisa Holley (Political Science) Many people believe that criminals cannot be helped. It is evident that at least some of society shuns people who break laws and have negative views about the amount of money spent on detaining inmates. Thousands of individuals are released from United States prisons a day. Many of these individuals have no plan in place for their return home and are sent into the streets with nothing except for a jail ID. Most of these people will end up returning to prison. A good sum of these people face problems …


Falling For Moses: The Role Of Stroop Inhibition And Language Expertise, Isabella Holmgren 2022 University of Richmond

Falling For Moses: The Role Of Stroop Inhibition And Language Expertise, Isabella Holmgren

Honors Theses

When presented with the question, “How many animals of each kind did Moses take on the Ark?”, people often respond “2”, despite knowing that Noah is the Biblical figure who is said to have taken animals on the ark. This phenomenon where people fail to detect inaccuracies in text has come to be known as the Moses Illusion (Erickson & Mattson, 1981). The current study was designed to investigate Moses illusion rates in a multiple-choice format. Further, participants were assessed on two cognitive constructs: language experience and cognitive inhibition. Results showed robust rates of the Moses illusion using the multiple-choice …


Does Chronic Risperidone Administration Affect Food Reinforcement In Adulthood In Mice?, Francis Torres, Paul Soto 2022 Louisiana State Univ, Dept Psychol, 236 Audubon Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA

Does Chronic Risperidone Administration Affect Food Reinforcement In Adulthood In Mice?, Francis Torres, Paul Soto

LSU Master's Theses

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) increase weight gain and food consumption in humans and non-human animals. It has been speculated that SGAs increase the reinforcing effects of food, which increases food consumption and drives weight gain. The current study evaluated the effects of risperidone on sucrose reinforcement in male and female C57BL/6J mice using economic demand assessments. Demand for sucrose was measured by varying the fixed ratio (FR) value required to produce sucrose delivery across experimental sessions using five FR values: 1, 5, 15, 30, and 45. The effects of acute risperidone administration on demand for sucrose were first assessed by orally …


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