Studying Planarian Regeneration Aboard The International Space Station Within The Student Space Flight Experimental Program, Vista Ssep Mission 11 Team, D. Hagstrom, C. Bartee, Eva-Maria S. Collins
Biology Faculty Works
The growing possibilities of space travel are quickly moving from science fiction to reality. However, to realize the dream of long-term space travel, we must understand how these conditions affect biological and physiological processes. Planarians are master regenerators, famous for their ability to regenerate from very small parts of the original animal. Understanding how this self-repair works may inspire regenerative therapies in humans. Two studies conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS) showed that planarian regeneration is possible in microgravity. One study reported no regenerative defects, whereas the other study reported behavioral and microbiome alterations post-space travel and found that ...
Modeling And Analyzing An Optogenetic System For Photoactivatable Protein Dissociation, 2018 University of Connecticut
Modeling And Analyzing An Optogenetic System For Photoactivatable Protein Dissociation, Anvin Thomas, James Schaff
Honors Scholar Theses
Computational modeling of cell-cell interactions can grant clues and can answer questions about an experiment, especially for observations about binding interactions and kinetics. This approach was used to investigate an interaction between a light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain and an engineered protein called Zdark (Zdk). The LOV domain is membrane-bound while Zdk is cytosolic. The LOV domain and Zdk bind strongly in dark (Kd 26.2 nM), and weakly upon exposure to blue light (Kd > 4 μM). Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) images are acquired of Zdk, the fluorescent species bound to a mCherry tag, and the loss of fluorescence ...
Self-Organized Structures: Modeling Polistes Dominula Nest Construction With Simple Rules, 2018 East Tennessee State University
Self-Organized Structures: Modeling Polistes Dominula Nest Construction With Simple Rules, Matthew Harrison
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The self-organized nest construction behaviors of European paper wasps (Polistes dominula) show potential for adoption in artificial intelligence and robotic systems where centralized control proves challenging. However, P. dominula nest construction mechanisms are not fully understood. This research investigated how nest structures stimulate P. dominula worker action at different stages of nest construction. A novel stochastic site selection model, weighted by simple rules for cell age, height, and wall count, was implemented in a three-dimensional, step-by-step nest construction simulation. The simulation was built on top of a hexagonal coordinate system to improve precision and performance. Real and idealized nest data ...
Exploiting Glycan Topography For Computational Design Of Env Glycoprotein Antigenicity, 2018 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Exploiting Glycan Topography For Computational Design Of Env Glycoprotein Antigenicity, Wen-Han Yu, Peng Zhao, Monia Draghi, Claudia Arevalo, Christina B. Karsten, Todd J. Suscovich, Bronwyn Gunn, Hendrik Streeck, Abraham L. Brass, Michael Tiemeyer, Michael Seaman, John R. Mascola, Lance Wells, Douglas A. Lauffenburger, Galit Alter
Open Access Articles
Mounting evidence suggests that glycans, rather than merely serving as a "shield", contribute critically to antigenicity of the HIV envelope (Env) glycoprotein, representing critical antigenic determinants for many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). While many studies have focused on defining the role of individual glycans or groups of proximal glycans in bNAb binding, little is known about the effects of changes in the overall glycan landscape in modulating antibody access and Env antigenicity. Here we developed a systems glycobiology approach to reverse engineer the complexity of HIV glycan heterogeneity to guide antigenicity-based de novo glycoprotein design. bNAb binding was assessed against ...
Skeletal, Cardiac, And Respiratory Muscle Function And Histopathology In The P448lneo- Mouse Model Of Fkrp-Deficient Muscular Dystrophy., 2018 George Washington University
Skeletal, Cardiac, And Respiratory Muscle Function And Histopathology In The P448lneo- Mouse Model Of Fkrp-Deficient Muscular Dystrophy., Qing Yu, Melissa Morales, Ning Li, Alexander G Fritz, Ren Ruobing, Anthony Blaeser, Ershia Francois, Qi-Long Lu, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Christopher F Spurney
Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications
BACKGROUND: Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) mutations are the most common cause of dystroglycanopathies known to cause both limb girdle and congenital muscular dystrophy. The P448Lneo- mouse model has a knock-in mutation in the FKRP gene and develops skeletal, respiratory, and cardiac muscle disease.
METHODS: We studied the natural history of the P448Lneo- mouse model over 9 months and the effects of twice weekly treadmill running. Forelimb and hindlimb grip strength (Columbus Instruments) and overall activity (Omnitech Electronics) assessed skeletal muscle function. Echocardiography was performed using VisualSonics Vevo 770 (FujiFilm VisualSonics). Plethysmography was performed using whole body system (ADInstruments). Histological evaluations included ...
Data-Driven Computational Approach To Study Bio-Molecular Interactions, 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College
Data-Driven Computational Approach To Study Bio-Molecular Interactions, Misagh Naderi
LSU Doctoral Dissertations
Proteins commonly convey their functions in coordination with other proteins, small molecules and/or other biological assemblies such as sugars, lipids, DNA or RNA. Understanding the nature of these interactions is therefore central to improving our knowledge of biological systems. This body of work is a consolidation of three different computational approaches to study bio-molecular interactions: large-scale protein-ligand modeling, fragment-based cheminformatics, and computational analysis of interactions in single proteins.
The first issue that is addressed in this study is the scarcity of atomic crystal structures of protein-drug complexes. In general, a drug molecule’s affinity for multiple protein targets may ...
Classification As Narrative: A Renewed Perspective On A Longstanding Topic In Ethnobiology, 2018 University of Puget Sound
Classification As Narrative: A Renewed Perspective On A Longstanding Topic In Ethnobiology, Denise M. Glover
All Faculty Scholarship
The present work offers a renewed perspective on natural-kind classification in the field of ethnobiology, one that focuses on analyzing higher-order classifications as a form of narrative. By examining changes in classification of materia medica in three main medical/pharmacological texts from three time periods of the Tibetan medicine tradition, we see an overarching shift in classification from a focus on medical efficacy to one on material substance and morphology, thus suggesting influence from pre-twenty-first century western, Linnaean science. The work then links this historical narrative to the complexities of classification of materia medica among contemporary doctors of Tibetan medicine ...
C. Elegans Mrp-5 Exports Vitamin B12 From Mother To Offspring To Support Embryonic Development, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
C. Elegans Mrp-5 Exports Vitamin B12 From Mother To Offspring To Support Embryonic Development, Huimin Na, Olga Ponomarova, Gabrielle E. Giese, Albertha J. M. Walhout
Program in Systems Biology Publications
Vitamin B12 functions as a cofactor for methionine synthase to produce the anabolic methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase to catabolize the short-chain fatty acid propionate. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, maternally supplied vitamin B12 is required for the development of offspring. However, the mechanism for exporting vitamin B12 from the mother to the offspring is not yet known. Here, we use RNAi of more than 200 transporters with a vitamin B12-sensor transgene to identify the ABC transporter MRP-5 as a candidate vitamin B12 exporter. We show that the injection of vitamin B12 into the gonad of mrp-5 ...
Dynamic Modeling And Stochastic Simulation Of Metabolic Networks, 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha
Dynamic Modeling And Stochastic Simulation Of Metabolic Networks, Emalie Clement
Student Research and Creative Activity Fair
Throughout our current generation, scientific studies, with the help of increased technological methods, have enabled the investigation of biology at nanoscale levels. Nevertheless, such systems necessitate the use of computational methods to comprehend the complex interactions occurring. Traditionally, dynamics of metabolic systems are described by ordinary differential equations producing a deterministic result which negates the intrinsic heterogeneity of intracellular systems. More recently, stochastic modeling approaches have gained popularity with the capability of providing more realistic outcomes. Yet, solving stochastic algorithms tend to be computationally intensive processes. Employing the queueing theory, an approach commonly used to evaluate telecommunication networks, reduces the ...
Herbivory And Drought Generate Short‐Term Stochasticity And Long‐Term Stability In A Savanna Understory Community, Corinna Riginos, Lauren M. Porensky, Kari E. Veblen, Truman P. Young
Wildland Resources Faculty Publications
Rainfall and herbivory are fundamental drivers of grassland plant dynamics, yet few studies have examined long‐term interactions between these factors in an experimental setting. Understanding such interactions is important, as rainfall is becoming increasingly erratic and native wild herbivores are being replaced by livestock. Livestock grazing and episodic low rainfall are thought to interact, leading to greater community change than either factor alone. We examined patterns of change and stability in herbaceous community composition through four dry periods, or droughts, over 15 years of the Kenya Long‐term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE), which consists of six different combinations of cattle ...
Emergence Of The Erythroid Lineage From Multipotent Hematopoiesis, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Emergence Of The Erythroid Lineage From Multipotent Hematopoiesis, Betsabeh K. Tusi, Samuel L. Wolock, Caleb Weinreb, Yung Hwang, Daniel Hidalgo, Rapolas Zilionis, Ari Waisman, Jun R. Huh, Allon M. Klein, Merav Socolovsky
University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications
Red cell formation begins with the hematopoietic stem cell, but the manner by which it gives rise to erythroid progenitors, and their subsequent developmental path, remain unclear. Here we combined single-cell transcriptomics of murine hematopoietic tissues with fate potential assays to infer a continuous yet hierarchical structure for the hematopoietic network. We define the erythroid differentiation trajectory as it emerges from multipotency and diverges from 6 other blood lineages. With the aid of a new flow-cytometric sorting strategy, we validated predicted cell fate potentials at the single cell level, revealing a coupling between erythroid and basophil/mast cell fates. We ...
The Mayfly Newsletter, 2018 The Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera
The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson
The Mayfly Newsletter
No abstract provided.
Rest Upregulates Gremlin To Modulate Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Vasculature, 2018 George Washington University
Rest Upregulates Gremlin To Modulate Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Vasculature, Shavali Shaik, Bridget Kennis, Shinji Maegawa, Keri Schadler, Yang Yanwen, Javad Nazarian, +Several Additional Authors
Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a highly aggressive glial tumor that occurs in children. The extremely poor median and 5-year survival in children afflicted with DIPG highlights the need for novel biology-driven therapeutics. Here, we have implicated the chromatin remodeler and regulator of brain development called RE1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST), in DIPG pathology. We show that REST protein is aberrantly elevated in at least 21% of DIPG tumors compared to normal controls. Its knockdown in DIPG cell lines diminished cell growth and decreased their tumorigenicity in mouse intracranial models. DIPGs are vascularized tumors and interestingly, REST loss in ...
Mass Action Modeling Of Catalysis Through Reaction Flux Estimation, 2018 University of Iowa
Mass Action Modeling Of Catalysis Through Reaction Flux Estimation, Ethan Stancliffe
Honors Theses at the University of Iowa
The complexity of biochemical networks necessitates the use of computational and mathematical frameworks to accurately characterize and study these systems. However, modern frameworks developed for this task have inadequacies that limit their accuracy or scalability. In this report, a mathematical model of the canonical enzyme substrate binding network is developed, and, using estimated true and maximal reaction rates, a methodology utilizing principles of flux balance analysis is developed to deduce the individual reaction rate constants in the network. It is then shown that these two reaction rates are not sufficient to unambiguously define a mass action kinetic model of this ...
Decoding Calcium Encoding Through Bi-Directional Optogenetic Control Over Gq-Protein Signaling, 2018 University of Pennsylvania
Decoding Calcium Encoding Through Bi-Directional Optogenetic Control Over Gq-Protein Signaling, Pimkhuan Hannanta-Anan
Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations
Calcium is a fundamental secondary messenger responsible for relaying information from the extracellular space to the cell interior. Extracellular cues are temporally encoded through calcium signals, which often arise in the form of oscillations. These oscillations are then decoded to inform cellular decisions and regulate cellular functions. Despite its crucial role in cell signaling, the encoding and decoding of calcium oscillations is poorly understood. The current biological tools and methods used to study calcium signaling lack the temporal precision and specificity necessary to precisely manipulate, perturb, and dissect calcium signaling circuits. To address this need, we developed a new set ...
Investigating Smoke Exposure And Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Copd) With A Calibrated Agent Based Model (Abm) Of In Vitro Fibroblast Wound Healing., James A. Ratti
Theses and Dissertations
COPD is characterized by tissue inflammation and impaired remodeling that suggests fibroblast maintenance of structural homeostasis is dysregulated. Thus, we performed in vitro wound healing experiments on normal and diseased human lung fibroblasts and developed an ABM of fibroblasts closing a scratched monolayer using NetLogo to evaluate differences due to COPD or cigarette smoke condensate exposure. This ABM consists of a rule-set governing the healing response, accounting for cell migration, proliferation, death, activation and senescence rates; along with the effects of heterogeneous activation, phenotypic changes, serum deprivation and exposure to cigarette smoke condensate or bFGF. Simulations were performed to calibrate ...
Apomixis, Hybridization, And Biodiversity In Ferns: Insights From Genera Phegopteris And Polystichum, 2018 University of Vermont
Apomixis, Hybridization, And Biodiversity In Ferns: Insights From Genera Phegopteris And Polystichum, Nikisha Patel
Graduate College Dissertations and Theses
Apomixis is an evolutionarily important phenomenon across plant lineages. The interaction of apomixis with hybridization and polyploidy can lead to complex patterns of reticulation, complicating efforts to reconstruct evolutionary history in groups where apomixis is common. Ferns, in particular, are rich in apomictic species, notably in centers of species diversity like East Asia. Eastern North America too is home to a number of apomictic species. We investigated the East Asian ferns in Polystichum sections Xiphopolystichum and Duropolystichum (Dryopteridaceae) in order to elucidate the evolutionary and biogeraphic history of seven apomictic species in the group: Polystichum tsus-simense, P. xiphophyllum, P. sinotsus-simense ...
Evolutionary History Of Plant Hosts And Fungal Symbionts Predicts The Strength Of Mycorrhizal Mutualism, 2018 Wright State University - Main Campus
Evolutionary History Of Plant Hosts And Fungal Symbionts Predicts The Strength Of Mycorrhizal Mutualism, Jason D. Hoeksema, James D. Beaver, Sounak Chakraborty, V. Bala Chaudhary, Monique Gardes, Catherine A. Gehring, Miranda M. Hart, Elizabeth Ann Housworth, Wittaya Kaonongbua, John N. Klironomos, Marc J. Lajeunesse, James Meadow, Brook G. Milligan, Bridget J. Piculell, Anne Pringle, Megan A. Rúa, James Umbanhowar, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Yen-Wen Wang, Gail W.T. Wilson, Peter C. Zee
Biological Sciences Faculty Publications
Most plants engage in symbioses with mycorrhizal fungi in soils and net consequences for plants vary widely from mutualism to parasitism. However, we lack a synthetic understanding of the evolutionary and ecological forces driving such variation for this or any other nutritional symbiosis. We used meta-analysis across 646 combinations of plants and fungi to show that evolutionary history explains substantially more variation in plant responses to mycorrhizal fungi than the ecological factors included in this study, such as nutrient fertilization and additional microbes. Evolutionary history also has a different influence on outcomes of ectomycorrhizal versus arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses; the former ...
A Closer Look At The Items Within Three Measures Of Evolution Acceptance: Analysis Of The Mate, I-Sea, And Gaene As A Single Corpus Of Items, 2018 Wright State University - Main Campus
A Closer Look At The Items Within Three Measures Of Evolution Acceptance: Analysis Of The Mate, I-Sea, And Gaene As A Single Corpus Of Items, William L. Romine, Amber Todd, Emily M. Walter
Biological Sciences Faculty Publications
Current direct Likert measures for evolution acceptance include the MATE, GAENE, and I-SEA. Pros and cons of each of these instruments have been debated, and yet there is a dearth of research teasing out their similarities and differences when they are used together in a single context beyond the fact that their measures tend to be highly correlated. We administered these to 452 college students in non-major biology classes at two research-intensive universities from the Midwestern and Western United States to investigate the measurement properties of the items within these instruments when combined as a single corpus.
Devonian Origin And Cenozoic Radiation In The Clubmosses (Lycopodiaceae), 2018 University of Vermont
Devonian Origin And Cenozoic Radiation In The Clubmosses (Lycopodiaceae), Weston Testo
Graduate College Dissertations and Theses
Together with the heterosporous lycophytes, the clubmoss family (Lycopodiaceae) is the sister lineage to all other vascular land plants. Given the family’s important position in the land-plant phylogeny, studying the evolutionary history of this group is an important step towards a better understanding of plant evolution. Despite this, little is known about the Lycopodiaceae, and a well-sampled, robust phylogeny of the group is lacking. The goal of this dissertation is to resolve the relationships among evolutionary lineages in the Lycopodiaceae and provide insight into the timing and drivers of diversification in the family.
First, to place the evolution of ...