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Disability-Related Factors And Perceived Stigma: A Closer Examination Of Suicidality In Individuals With Physical Disabilities, Lauren Khazem 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Disability-Related Factors And Perceived Stigma: A Closer Examination Of Suicidality In Individuals With Physical Disabilities, Lauren Khazem

Dissertations

Previous research has indicated an association between physical disability and suicidal ideation. However, the mechanisms contributing to the development of suicidal ideation in this population have remained largely unstudied within an empirically supported theoretical framework. The current study expands upon previous research by examining the relationship between different facets of physical disability and suicidal ideation intensity through the indirect effect of perceived stigmatization and interactions with mental states described within the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide, namely perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Furthermore, this research aims to examine these potential relationships in a nonclinical sample of adults with physical disabilities ranging ...


Gendered Racism And Risky Sexual Behavior Among African American College Women: A Moderated Mediation Study Of Psychological Distress, Alcohol Use, Safe Sex Practices, And Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies, Danielle P. Cottonham 2018 University of Southern Mississippi

Gendered Racism And Risky Sexual Behavior Among African American College Women: A Moderated Mediation Study Of Psychological Distress, Alcohol Use, Safe Sex Practices, And Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies, Danielle P. Cottonham

Dissertations

Investigation of the effects of gender racism (i.e., discrimination based on race and gender) among African American college women is limited, which is concerning considering the impact this specific type of discrimination may have on mental health and coping behaviors among African American college women. African American students who have experienced racial discrimination and college women who have experienced sexual discrimination experience increased levels of psychological distress (i.e., symptoms of depression and anxiety). Further, harmful alcohol use is a common coping strategy for psychological distress among college students and has been linked to increased risky sexual behavior among ...


Explicit, Implicit, And Behavioral Stigmatization Of Mental Illness, Jessica S. James 2018 University of Southern Mississippi

Explicit, Implicit, And Behavioral Stigmatization Of Mental Illness, Jessica S. James

Dissertations

Mental health concern is a public health concern that continues to be stigmatized. While the dual process model has been applied to other areas of social cognition (e.g., racism), this framework has not previously been frequently used to examine the stigmatization of mental illness. The current study sought to examine the stigmatization of mental illness within a dual process model to determine the relationship between explicit and implicit stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors. A total of 104 undergraduate students from the University of Southern Mississippi participated in this study. Participants completed multiple implicit and explicit measures of stigmatizing attitudes and ...


Enabling Behaviors, Stigmatization, And Attitudes Towards Substance Abuse And Bulimia, Melissa Mattice 2018 SUNY Plattsburgh

Enabling Behaviors, Stigmatization, And Attitudes Towards Substance Abuse And Bulimia, Melissa Mattice

Psychology Master's Theses

Enabling behaviors may impair the recovery of individuals with substance use and eating disorders. Participants read one of six vignettes portraying a character with either a substance use disorder or bulimia and were asked how they would react. The effects of several factors, such as gender, knowledge of disorder, disorder type, and enabling behaviors, on the likelihood of specific responses were examined for the most common responses. Some notable results included that females were more likely to intend to provide support. Participants who had higher enabling scores were less likely to tell a professional and were more likely to do ...


The Prospective Influence Of Religiousness On Alcohol Use: What Role Do Perceived Norms Play?, Corey Todd Brawner 2018 University of Southern Mississippi

The Prospective Influence Of Religiousness On Alcohol Use: What Role Do Perceived Norms Play?, Corey Todd Brawner

Dissertations

Alcohol misuse is recognized as one of the most pressing health hazards for college students. Previous research has supported a protective relationship between religiousness and problematic alcohol use, but it is less clear what aspects of religiousness are protective and through what mechanisms its effect is exerted. The current study utilized a prospective design to accomplish three primary goals: (1) Delineate the protective effects of religious motivation and public participation on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in a sample of undergraduates at a large public university in the southeastern United States, (2) determine whether effects were maintained long-term, and (3 ...


Measuring Physiological Responses To Sensation In Typical Adults, Sarah Button, Kristen Christensen, Emily Minor 2018 Dominican University of California

Measuring Physiological Responses To Sensation In Typical Adults, Sarah Button, Kristen Christensen, Emily Minor

Master's Theses and Capstone Projects

Objective: Sensory processing issues can have a large negative impact on the ability to participate in daily occupations such as ADLs, access to work, school and leisure environments, and social interactions (Dunn, 2001). The evidence documenting sensory processing issues in adults is sparse. Physiological information can be used as objective evidence to support the claim that those with over-responsivity to sensations are experiencing their environment differently than the typical population. Understanding more about sensory processing in adults may lead to increased recognition of the problem and more opportunities for intervention to increase occupational participation. The purpose of this quantitative study ...


The Effects Of Acute Stress On The Calibration Of Persistence, Karolina M. Lempert, Joseph T. McGuire, Danielle B. Hazeltine, Elizabeth A. Phelps, Joseph W. Kable 2018 New York University

The Effects Of Acute Stress On The Calibration Of Persistence, Karolina M. Lempert, Joseph T. Mcguire, Danielle B. Hazeltine, Elizabeth A. Phelps, Joseph W. Kable

Departmental Papers (Psychology)

People frequently fail to wait for delayed rewards after choosing them. These preference reversals are sometimes thought to reflect self-control failure. Other times, however, continuing to wait for a delayed reward may be counterproductive (e.g., when reward timing uncertainty is high). Research has demonstrated that people can calibrate how long to wait for rewards in a given environment. Thus, the role of self-control might be to integrate information about the environment to flexibly adapt behavior, not merely to promote waiting. Here we tested effects of acute stress, which has been shown to tax control processes, on persistence, and the ...


Statistical Regularities In Melodic Phrases: Effects On Aesthetic Ratings, Daniel Meredith 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Statistical Regularities In Melodic Phrases: Effects On Aesthetic Ratings, Daniel Meredith

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Universals appear in a number different forms, from naturally occurring mathematical universals like the Fibonacci series, phi, and fractal scaling, to aesthetic universals like the golden ratio in architecture and other facets of human behavior like dance and religious belief. Music is another example of a powerful human universal. Further, within music there are a number of statistical regularities that have been empirically observed nearly universally. One such example would be the division of the octave into 12 equidistant tones. There are also a number of universal regularities that pertain specifically to melodic phrasing. This paper will examine four such ...


Patient Perspectives On Adherence To The New Hepatitis C Antiviral Medications: ‘A New Lease On Life’, Nicole M. Giordano, Anthony J. Brinn, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao, Steve Martino 2018 VA Connecticut Healthcare System

Patient Perspectives On Adherence To The New Hepatitis C Antiviral Medications: ‘A New Lease On Life’, Nicole M. Giordano, Anthony J. Brinn, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao, Steve Martino

The Qualitative Report

This study explored patients’ perspectives about taking the new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the treatment of Hepatitis C (i.e., sofosbuvir, simeprevir, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir, ombitasvir/paritraprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir) to identify facilitators of medication adherence. The project was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 12 Veterans who successfully completed a treatment course on the new DAAs. The Veterans were recruited using purposive sampling. The data collected from the semi-structured interviews was analyzed using an adapted open coding method outlined by Auerbach and Silverstein (2003), with identification of relevant text sub-grouped into repeating ideas, and then creation of overarching themes and constructs ...


High Points, Low Points, Turning Points: Life Stories Of Cambodian American Youth, Allyssa McCabe, Khanh Dinh 2018 University of Massachusetts Lowell

High Points, Low Points, Turning Points: Life Stories Of Cambodian American Youth, Allyssa Mccabe, Khanh Dinh

Journal of Southeast Asian American Education and Advancement

Qualitative methods such as McAdam's Life Story Interview offer a rich means of exploring how culture affects an individual's development. Such a method has seldom been used with Asian Americans. In the present study, 20 Cambodian American teenagers aged 15-18 (half female, half male) narrated the high, low, and turning points of their lives. Those narratives were transcribed and coded with respect to the predominant emotional valence and context of those key events. Half of high point narratives were painful events that the narrator had recast in a positive light, a hallmark of resilience and of a tendency ...


Correlates Of Functional Capacity Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, Maurice MacDonald, Jennifer Margrett, Ilene C. Siegler, Leonard Poon 2018 Iowa State University

Correlates Of Functional Capacity Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, Maurice Macdonald, Jennifer Margrett, Ilene C. Siegler, Leonard Poon

Peter Martin

This study investigated correlates of functional capacity among participants of the Georgia Centenarian Study. Six domains (demographics and health, positive and negative affect, personality, social and economic support, life events and coping, distal influences) were related to functional capacity for 234 centenarians and near centenarians (i.e., 98 years and older). Data were provided by proxy informants. Domain-specific multiple regression analyses suggested that younger centenarians, those living in the community and rated to be in better health were more likely to have higher functional capacity scores. Higher scores in positive affect, conscientiousness, social provisions, religious coping, and engaged lifestyle were ...


Apoe Ε4, Rated Life Experiences, And Affect Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, S. Michal Jazwinski, Adam Davey, Robert Green, Maurice McDonald, Jennifer Margrett, Ilene C. Siegler, Jonathan Arnold, John Woodard, Mary Ann Johnson, Sangkyu Kim, Jianliang Dai, Li Li, Mark A. Batzer, Leonard W. Poon 2018 Iowa State University

Apoe Ε4, Rated Life Experiences, And Affect Among Centenarians, Peter Martin, S. Michal Jazwinski, Adam Davey, Robert Green, Maurice Mcdonald, Jennifer Margrett, Ilene C. Siegler, Jonathan Arnold, John Woodard, Mary Ann Johnson, Sangkyu Kim, Jianliang Dai, Li Li, Mark A. Batzer, Leonard W. Poon

Peter Martin

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between apolipoprotein E (APOE), life events and engagement, and subjective well-being (as measured by positive and negative affect) among centenarians. Based on the life stress paradigm, we predicted that higher levels of stress would allow APOE to influence positive and negative affect. Method: 196 centenarians and near-centenarians (98 years and older) of the Georgia Centenarian Study participated in this research. The APOE, positive and negative affect, the number of recent (last 2 years) and lifelong (more than 20 years prior to testing) events, as well as a number of ...


Self-Efficacy Matters More Than Interruptions In A Sequential Multitasking Experiment, Maureen A. Conard, Robert F. Marsh 2018 Sacred Heart University

Self-Efficacy Matters More Than Interruptions In A Sequential Multitasking Experiment, Maureen A. Conard, Robert F. Marsh

Maureen A. Conard

Interruptions and multitasking have received a great deal of attention from researchers. The present study is the first to examine task self-efficacy along with interruptions in an experimental multitasking framework. Perceptions of resumption lag times and task rehearsal were also examined. Participants (N= 110) completed a primary task (puzzle) with some being interrupted to pursue a secondary task (a word search) either once or four times. Uninterrupted participants completed the puzzle 26% faster than those interrupted once and 30% faster than those interrupted four times. However, self-efficacy predicted performance much more strongly than did interruptions, and therefore should receive more ...


The Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire: Assessing Moderators Of Basic Social-Cognitive Phenomena Including Spontaneous Trait Inference, The Fundamental Attribution Error, And Moral Blame, Michael J. Gill, Michael Andreychik 2018 Fairfield University

The Social Explanatory Styles Questionnaire: Assessing Moderators Of Basic Social-Cognitive Phenomena Including Spontaneous Trait Inference, The Fundamental Attribution Error, And Moral Blame, Michael J. Gill, Michael Andreychik

Michael Andreychik

Why is he poor? Why is she failing academically? Why is he so generous? Why is she so conscientious? Answers to such everyday questions—social explanations—have powerful effects on relationships at the interpersonal and societal levels. How do people select an explanation in particular cases? We suggest that, often, explanations are selected based on the individual's pre-existing general theories of social causality. More specifically, we suggest that over time individuals develop general beliefs regarding the causes of social events. We refer to these beliefs as social explanatory styles. Our goal in the present article is to offer and ...


Memory And Music, Sean Harty 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Memory And Music, Sean Harty

Music: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

A literature review of sources pertaining to Music and Psychology. Focusing on how the brain reacts to music, and how our brains change as we age. Relates these topics to practicing music therapists. Proposes future studies based on the collected research.


Do Clothing Style And Color Affect Our Perceptions Of Others?, Ariel M. Kershner 2018 Arcadia University

Do Clothing Style And Color Affect Our Perceptions Of Others?, Ariel M. Kershner

Faculty Curated Undergraduate Works

Prior research has shown that women who wear red clothing or suggestive clothing are perceived as more attractive, having greater sexual intent, and having more negative qualities than women dressed in different colors or less suggestive clothing. This bias towards perceiving sexual intent may be evolutionary or may be due to people projecting their emotions onto others. The current study builds from this research by performing a 2 (color: white or red) x 2 (clothing type: suggestive or non-suggestive) between-subjects experiment. We hypothesized that women would be perceived as more attractive and as having greater sexual intent while wearing red ...


Lateralization Of Simulated Sources And Echoes On The Basis Of Interaural Differences Of Level, Raymond H. Dye Jr, Jacquelyn P. Hill, Leslie M. Ryan, Alexander E. Cupler, Kevin M. Bannon 2018 Loyola University Chicago

Lateralization Of Simulated Sources And Echoes On The Basis Of Interaural Differences Of Level, Raymond H. Dye Jr, Jacquelyn P. Hill, Leslie M. Ryan, Alexander E. Cupler, Kevin M. Bannon

Raymond Dye

This experiment assessed the relative weights given to source and echo pulses lateralized on the basis of interaural differences of level (IDLs). Separate conditions were run in which the to-be-judged target was the first (source) or second (echo) pulse. Each trial consisted of two intervals; the first presented a 3000-Hz diotic pulse that marked the intracranial midline and the pitch of the target frequency. The second presented the sequence of a source followed by an echo. Target frequency was always 3000 Hz, while the non-target pulse was presented at 1500, 3000, or 5000 Hz. Delays between the source and echo ...


Lateralization Of Simulated Sources And Echoes Differing In Frequency Based On Interaural Temporal Differences, Raymond H. Dye Jr., Joseph Boomer, Joleen Frankel, Jacquelyn P. Hill, Alycia N. Peloquin 2018 Loyola University Chicago

Lateralization Of Simulated Sources And Echoes Differing In Frequency Based On Interaural Temporal Differences, Raymond H. Dye Jr., Joseph Boomer, Joleen Frankel, Jacquelyn P. Hill, Alycia N. Peloquin

Raymond Dye

This study examined listeners’ ability to process interaural temporal differences (ITDs) in one of two sequential sounds when the two differed in spectral content. A correlational analysis assessed weights given to ITDs of simulated source and echo pulses for echo delays of 8–128ms for conditions in which responses were based on the source or echo, a 3000-Hz Gaussian (target) pulse. The other (distractor) pulse was spectrally centered at 1500, 2000, 3000, 4000, or 5000 Hz. Also measured were proportion correct and proportion of responses predicted from the weights. Regardless of whether the echo or source pulse served as the ...


The Effects Of Diegetic And Nondiegetic Music On Viewers’ Interpretations Of A Film Scene, Elizabeth M. Wakefield-Connell, Siu-Lan Tan, Matthew P. Spackman 2018 Loyola University Chicago

The Effects Of Diegetic And Nondiegetic Music On Viewers’ Interpretations Of A Film Scene, Elizabeth M. Wakefield-Connell, Siu-Lan Tan, Matthew P. Spackman

Elizabeth Wakefield-Connell

Previous studies have shown that pairing a film excerpt with different musical soundtracks can change the audience’s interpretation of the scene. This study examined the effects of mixing the same piece of music at different levels of loudness in a film soundtrack to suggest diegetic music (“source music,” presented as if arising from within the fictional world of the film characters) or to suggest nondiegetic music (a “dramatic score” accompanying the scene but not originating from within the fictional world). Adjusting the level of loudness significantly altered viewers’ perceptions of many elements that are fundamental to the storyline, including ...


Pulse - A Consultation, Barry J. Mauer 2018 University of Central Florida

Pulse - A Consultation, Barry J. Mauer

Barry Mauer

On June 12, 2016, Omar Mateen killed 49 people and injured 53 at the Pulse Nightclub in Orlando, Florida. We may never know or understand what was in Mateen’s mind, but we can situate his attack within the history of eliminationism in America. Islamist terrorism is just part of a larger phenomenon: right wing eliminationism. But despite centuries of right wing eliminationist words and deeds in the U.S., there is little or no mainstream recognition of the phenomenon. Instead, we are treated to more denial, more distraction, more obfuscation. Until we look this problem squarely in the face ...


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