Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Psychology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

40581 Full-Text Articles 44375 Authors 17033962 Downloads 336 Institutions

All Articles in Psychology

Faceted Search

40581 full-text articles. Page 4 of 1249.

Slave To The Rhythm: Variation In The Acoustic Signaling Of Picoides Woodpeckers, Alex Baer 2018 City University of New York (CUNY)

Slave To The Rhythm: Variation In The Acoustic Signaling Of Picoides Woodpeckers, Alex Baer

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

We explored rhythmic variation in acoustic signals by geography across four species of Picoides woodpeckers. We hypothesized that there would be an effect of geographic location on the cadence of drums and rattle-type calls. No significant effect was observed. However, drum cadence was observed to significantly impact conspecific recognition in playbacks.


Singing And Stress, Joseline Lopez 2018 CUNY Hunter College

Singing And Stress, Joseline Lopez

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

College students use various methods to cope with stress. The effects of singing on stress, have been scarcely examined in students with little to no singing experience while in their natural environments. College students' stress levels were examined before and after singing. A significant decrease in stress levels was found.


Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. McElligott 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...


A Note On Pigs’ Knowledge Of Hidden Objects, Christian Nawroth, Mirjam Ebersbach, Eberhard von Borell 2018 Martin Luther University

A Note On Pigs’ Knowledge Of Hidden Objects, Christian Nawroth, Mirjam Ebersbach, Eberhard Von Borell

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Object permanence is the notion that objects continue to exist even when they are out of observer’s sight. This ability is adaptive for free ranging animals who have to cope with a dangerous and highly changeable environment and allows them to be aware of predators sneaking in their proximity or to keep track of conspecifics or food sources, even when out of sight. Farm animals might also benefit from object permanence because the ability to follow the trajectory of hidden food or objects may lead to a higher predictability of subjects’ environment, which in turn might affect the level ...


Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. McElligott 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...


An Exploration Of The Perceived Usefulness Of The Introductory Statistics Course And Students’ Intentions To Further Engage In Statistics, Rossi A. Hassad 2018 Mercy College, New York, USA

An Exploration Of The Perceived Usefulness Of The Introductory Statistics Course And Students’ Intentions To Further Engage In Statistics, Rossi A. Hassad

Numeracy

Students’ attitude, including perceived usefulness, is generally associated with academic success. The related research in statistics education has focused almost exclusively on the role of attitude in explaining and predicting academic learning outcomes, hence there is a paucity of research evidence on how attitude (particularly perceived usefulness) impacts students’ intentions to use and stay engaged in statistics beyond the introductory course. This study explored the relationship between college students’ perception of the usefulness of an introductory statistics course, their beliefs about where statistics will be most useful, and their intentions to take another statistics course. A cross-sectional study of 106 ...


Facilitating Collaboration Among School And Community Providers In Children's Mental Health, Holly J. Curran 2018 Walden University

Facilitating Collaboration Among School And Community Providers In Children's Mental Health, Holly J. Curran

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Interprofessional collaboration among school-based and community-based mental health providers in children's mental has been studied in relation to specific providers and as part of program evaluation; however, limited information exists as to how to overcome barriers to collaborative relationships. This study describes the experiences of school and community mental health service providers and those who supervise them. Using phenomenological methodology, three focus-group interview transcripts were analyzed by identifying recurrent themes relevant to the experience of collaboration from school and community providers' perspectives. Although participants viewed aspects of collaboration positively, barriers frequently interfered with collaborative relationships. Support for collaboration from ...


A Qualitative Look At How Sibling Bereavement From Unnatural Causes Of Death Affects Surviving Siblings, Michael David Gilvin 2018 Walden University

A Qualitative Look At How Sibling Bereavement From Unnatural Causes Of Death Affects Surviving Siblings, Michael David Gilvin

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The purpose of the study is to fill the gap in the literature regarding sibling bereavement. This study explored how sibling bereavement from unnatural causes of death affects surviving siblings. Bereavement affects millions of Americans every year. Most grieve naturally, but some experience complicated grief or depression. Many studies address parental and spousal bereavement, but few focus on sibling bereavement. This study fills that gap in the literature so that mental health care professionals and the general public understand what bereaved siblings experience after the death of a sibling. The study was a phenomenological study using social constructivism as a ...


Problem Behavior Of A Child With Autism And Problem Behavior Of A Typically-Developing Sibling Moderated By Maternal Parenting Stress, Jennifer Torchetti 2018 Walden University

Problem Behavior Of A Child With Autism And Problem Behavior Of A Typically-Developing Sibling Moderated By Maternal Parenting Stress, Jennifer Torchetti

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Drawing on Bowen's family systems theory, this study was designed to fill a gap in research regarding how raising a child with autism impacts the systemic functioning of a family unit, and provide evidence of the need for more comprehensive resources and support for families of children with autism. In this study, families of children with autism were invited to complete the Parenting Stress Index and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. These measures were used to determine the relationship between the level of problem behavior of a child with autism and the level of problem behavior of a typically-developing ...


Problem Behavior Of A Child With Autism And Problem Behavior Of A Typically-Developing Sibling Moderated By Maternal Parenting Stress, Jennifer Torchetti 2018 Walden University

Problem Behavior Of A Child With Autism And Problem Behavior Of A Typically-Developing Sibling Moderated By Maternal Parenting Stress, Jennifer Torchetti

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Drawing on Bowen's family systems theory, this study was designed to fill a gap in research regarding how raising a child with autism impacts the systemic functioning of a family unit, and provide evidence of the need for more comprehensive resources and support for families of children with autism. In this study, families of children with autism were invited to complete the Parenting Stress Index and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. These measures were used to determine the relationship between the level of problem behavior of a child with autism and the level of problem behavior of a typically-developing ...


Influence Of Poverty, Parental Substance Use, Ethnicity, And Employment On Reactivation Following Family Reunification, Judith Anne Cornell 2018 Walden University

Influence Of Poverty, Parental Substance Use, Ethnicity, And Employment On Reactivation Following Family Reunification, Judith Anne Cornell

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The maltreatment of children impacts individuals, communities, states, and societies. One response to the problem is the removal of children from their families, which can cause significant trauma for all involved. Moreover, the financial, legal, and emotional costs increase exponentially when subsequent re-removal, known as reactivation, occurs. Nationwide, the rate of reactivation averages just over 6%; in Arizona, the rate is significantly higher, with 11% of children being reactivated within 2 years of initial reunification. The purpose of this quantitative, non-experimental study was to determine whether poverty, ethnicity, parental substance use, parental employment, marital status, and number of children in ...


Children’S Emotion Regulation And Attachment To Parents: Parental Emotion Socialization As Moderator, Emine Ahmetoglu, Gökçen Ilhan Ildiz, Ibrahim H. Acar, Amy J. Encinger 2018 Trakya University

Children’S Emotion Regulation And Attachment To Parents: Parental Emotion Socialization As Moderator, Emine Ahmetoglu, Gökçen Ilhan Ildiz, Ibrahim H. Acar, Amy J. Encinger

Faculty Publications, Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies

We examined the associations among parental emotion socialization, and children’s emotion regulation and attachment to parents. In particular, we examined the moderating role of parental emotion socialization in the relationship between children’s emotion regulation and attachment to parents. Participants were 78 Turkish children (49 boys) aged from 60 to 77 months and their parents. Parents reported on the socialization strategies they used for their children’s emotions and on their children’s emotion regulation, and we assessed children’s attachment to parents via the Doll Story Completion Task. Results revealed that parents’ minimization reaction to children’s emotions ...


The Association Between Distress And Both Social Support And Social Constraint In Recently Diagnosed Cancer Survivors: A Daily Assessment Study, Jessica Rivera-Rivera 2018 University of Kentucky

The Association Between Distress And Both Social Support And Social Constraint In Recently Diagnosed Cancer Survivors: A Daily Assessment Study, Jessica Rivera-Rivera

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

This study evaluated two distinct aspects of social functioning (specifically, social support and social constraint) in an attempt to increase understanding of its bidirectional relationship with distress after cancer diagnosis. Participants in this intensive longitudinal study were all recently diagnosed, first primary cervical or head/neck cancer survivors (n=47). Data collection involved a comprehensive baseline assessment and 30-day period of daily assessment (n=37) of key variables (i.e., social support, social constraint, and distress). Data were analyzed using unconditional and conditional multilevel linear models. None of the variables changed significantly over the 30-day period. On a typical day ...


Preference For Internet Therapy Versus Traditional Therapy To Treat Postpartum Depression, Megan E. Ford 2018 Walden University

Preference For Internet Therapy Versus Traditional Therapy To Treat Postpartum Depression, Megan E. Ford

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

A growing body of research has emerged about effective treatments for postpartum depression, specifically how the internet could become a pivotal and vital option for women with postpartum symptoms. With that in mind, the purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate whether women suffering from postpartum depression preferred traditional therapy treatment or internet therapy treatment. The nonexperimental survey design was used to assess differences between groups related to stigma, satisfaction with treatment, and perceived quality of treatment received. Data collected from a sample of 78 adult females, who had previously received postpartum depression therapy treatment, indicated there was no ...


Evaluating The Attitudes And Practices Of Exercise Prescription Among Psychotherapists, Igor Vasilj 2018 University of Kentucky

Evaluating The Attitudes And Practices Of Exercise Prescription Among Psychotherapists, Igor Vasilj

Theses and Dissertations--Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology

Exercise has been shown to improve mood, anxiety, stress, and promote neuroplasticity (Conn, 2010; Donaghy, 2007; Josefsson, Lindwall, & Archer, 2014; Silveria et al., 2013; Stathopoulou et al., 2006). However, limited research on the topic suggests that many psychologists and mental health providers are not incorporating exercise into psychological treatment, and many lack the confidence to do so (Burton, Pakenham, & Brown, 2010; Weir, 2011). The purpose of this study was to evaluate current exercise prescription trends among practicing psychologists and trainees, including identifying their current beliefs, attitudes, training, and the perceived barriers hindering psychotherapists from recommending and prescribing exercise.

Psychologists and trainees (N = 146), completed ...


What Is Familiar Is Beautiful: A Novel Approach Investigating The Relationship Between Aesthetics And Perceived Use, Travis M. Kent 2018 University of Kentucky

What Is Familiar Is Beautiful: A Novel Approach Investigating The Relationship Between Aesthetics And Perceived Use, Travis M. Kent

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

Objective: This study investigates the application of aesthetic principles to designed objects with which we interact, specifically looking at the impact of perceived function of the objects on perceptions of visual appeal. Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that a product’s judged beauty or visual appeal is related to perceptions of its usability. Arguments have been put forward for both directions of causality leading to “what is beautiful is usable” and “what is usable is beautiful” hypotheses. Explanations for the relationship between usability and beauty judgments include stereotype effects, ecological explanations, and cognitive processing viewpoints. The current studies contribute to ...


The Impacts Of Religious Discrimination Towards Anxiety In Diverse Populations, Sharlaine Marie Ortiz-Diaz 2018 Walden University

The Impacts Of Religious Discrimination Towards Anxiety In Diverse Populations, Sharlaine Marie Ortiz-Diaz

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Previous research has indicated that outcomes of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation could stem from religious discrimination (RLGD). However, there remains an important gap in the current literature regarding RLGD impacts with non-Muslim populations. Further, the moderating effects of sex, race, and national origin (moderating variables [MVs]) have yielded mixed findings concerning anxiety (dependent variable). The intergroup anxiety theory and the integrated threat theory elaborate on perceived threats and potential anxiety of intergroup dynamics. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the role of religious preferences (independent variable), the MVs, and the RLGD-anxiety relationship. The sample consisted of ...


Sexual Violence On Campus: No Evidence That Studies Are Biased Due To Self-Selection, Marina N. Rosenthal, Jennifer J. Freyd 2018 University of Oregon

Sexual Violence On Campus: No Evidence That Studies Are Biased Due To Self-Selection, Marina N. Rosenthal, Jennifer J. Freyd

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Numerous research studies suggest that at least one in five female college students is sexually assaulted while enrolled. However, many studies exploring sexual violence prevalence on campus use methodology permitting students to self-select into the study based on interest in the topic (i.e., students receive an email offering them the opportunity to participate in a study on sexual violence). Self-selection may bias these prevalence estimates of campus sexual violence. To explore this issue, we surveyed two samples of college women on their experiences of sexual assault. We recruited Sample 1 in a typical way: by emailing a randomly selected ...


Detecting Language Impairments In Autism: A Computational Analysis Of Semi-Structured Conversations With Vector Semantics, Adam Goodkind, Michelle Lee, Gary E. Martin, Molly Losh, Klinton Bicknell 2018 Northwestern University

Detecting Language Impairments In Autism: A Computational Analysis Of Semi-Structured Conversations With Vector Semantics, Adam Goodkind, Michelle Lee, Gary E. Martin, Molly Losh, Klinton Bicknell

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Many of the most significant impairments faced by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) relate to pragmatic (i.e. social) language. There is also evidence that pragmatic language differences may map to ASD-related genes. Therefore, quantifying the social-linguistic features of ASD has the potential to both improve clinical treatment and help identify gene-behavior relationships in ASD. Here, we apply vector semantics to transcripts of semi-structured interactions with children with both idiopathic and syndromic ASD. We find that children with ASD are less semantically similar to a gold standard derived from typically developing participants, and are more semantically variable. We show ...


Word Learning As Category Formation, Spencer Caplan 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Word Learning As Category Formation, Spencer Caplan

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

A fundamental question in word learning is how, given only evidence about what objects a word has previously referred to, children are able to generalize the total class (Smith, 1979; Xu and Tenenbaum, 2007). E.g. how a child ends up knowing that \textit{`poodle'} only picks out a specific subset of dogs rather than the whole class and vice versa. Here we present a computational model of word learning which accounts for a wide range of previously conflicting experimental findings.


Digital Commons powered by bepress