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Detecting Language Impairments In Autism: A Computational Analysis Of Semi-Structured Conversations With Vector Semantics, Adam Goodkind, Michelle Lee, Gary E. Martin, Molly Losh, Klinton Bicknell 2018 Northwestern University

Detecting Language Impairments In Autism: A Computational Analysis Of Semi-Structured Conversations With Vector Semantics, Adam Goodkind, Michelle Lee, Gary E. Martin, Molly Losh, Klinton Bicknell

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Many of the most significant impairments faced by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) relate to pragmatic (i.e. social) language. There is also evidence that pragmatic language differences may map to ASD-related genes. Therefore, quantifying the social-linguistic features of ASD has the potential to both improve clinical treatment and help identify gene-behavior relationships in ASD. Here, we apply vector semantics to transcripts of semi-structured interactions with children with both idiopathic and syndromic ASD. We find that children with ASD are less semantically similar to a gold standard derived from typically developing participants, and are more semantically variable. We show ...


Word Learning As Category Formation, Spencer Caplan 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Word Learning As Category Formation, Spencer Caplan

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

A fundamental question in word learning is how, given only evidence about what objects a word has previously referred to, children are able to generalize the total class (Smith, 1979; Xu and Tenenbaum, 2007). E.g. how a child ends up knowing that \textit{`poodle'} only picks out a specific subset of dogs rather than the whole class and vice versa. Here we present a computational model of word learning which accounts for a wide range of previously conflicting experimental findings.


A Graph Theoretic Approach For Generating Hypotheses About Phonetic Cues In Speech, Anne Marie Crinnion, Beth Malmskog, Joe Toscano 2018 Harvard University

A Graph Theoretic Approach For Generating Hypotheses About Phonetic Cues In Speech, Anne Marie Crinnion, Beth Malmskog, Joe Toscano

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Current models of speech perception suggest that combining acoustic cues and factoring out contextual variability allows listeners to recognize speech across different talkers. However, it remains unclear which specific cues are necessary and how their use varies between individual talkers. We use graph theoretic techniques to address these problems by constructing networks connecting talkers and possible cues. We identify subgraphs (Steiner trees) that connect talkers via cues consistently used to indicate specific phonemes. Classifiers trained on these cues match listeners' data better than those trained on all cues, suggesting that Steiner trees can identify the cues necessary for speech recognition.


The Effect Of Fast Food Restaurants On Type 2 Diabetes Rates, Grace Bailey 2018 Claremont McKenna College

The Effect Of Fast Food Restaurants On Type 2 Diabetes Rates, Grace Bailey

CMC Senior Theses

This paper conducts an analysis of county level data to determine the effect of fast food restaurants on type 2 diabetes rates. Due to endogeneity concerns with respect to the location of fast food restaurants, this paper follows the work of Dunn (2010) and uses the number of interstate exits in a given county to serve as an instrument for fast food restaurants. The strength of the instrument, which is theoretically and empirically tested in this paper, imposes some restraints on the interpretation of the findings. Using the Two-Stage Least Squares estimation method, I find that the presence of fast ...


Beauty Is In The Eye Of The Beer Holder: An Initial Investigation Of The Effects Of Alcohol, Attractiveness, Warmth, And Competence On The Objectifying Gaze In Men, Abigail R. Riemer, Michelle Haikalis, Molly R. Franz, Michael Dodd, David DiLillo, Sarah Gervais 2018 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Beauty Is In The Eye Of The Beer Holder: An Initial Investigation Of The Effects Of Alcohol, Attractiveness, Warmth, And Competence On The Objectifying Gaze In Men, Abigail R. Riemer, Michelle Haikalis, Molly R. Franz, Michael Dodd, David Dilillo, Sarah Gervais

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Despite literature revealing the adverse consequences of objectifying gazes for women, little work has empirically examined origins of objectifying gazes by perceivers. Integrating alcohol myopia and objectification theories, we examined the effects of alcohol as well as perceived female attractiveness, warmth, and competence on objectifying gazes. Specifically, male undergraduates (n = 49) from a large U.S. Midwestern university were administered either an alcoholic or placebo beverage. After consumption, participants were asked to focus on the appearance or personality (counterbalanced) of pictured women who were previously rated as high, average, or low in attractiveness, warmth, and competence. Replicating previous work, appearance ...


Anxiety And Depression During Childhood And Adolescence: Testing Theoretical Models Of Continuity And Discontinuity, Joseph R. Cohen, Arthur R. Andrews, Megan M. Davis, Karen D. Rudolph 2018 University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Anxiety And Depression During Childhood And Adolescence: Testing Theoretical Models Of Continuity And Discontinuity, Joseph R. Cohen, Arthur R. Andrews, Megan M. Davis, Karen D. Rudolph

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

The present study sought to clarify the trajectory (i.e., continuous vs. discontinuous) and expression (i.e., homotypic vs. heterotypic) of anxiety and depressive symptoms across childhood and adolescence. We utilized a state-of-the-science analytic approach to simultaneously test theoretical models that describe the development of internalizing symptoms in youth. In a sample of 636 children (53% female; M age = 7.04; SD age = 0.35) self-report measures of anxiety and depression were completed annually by youth through their freshman year of high school. For both anxiety and depression, a piecewise growth curve model provided the best fit for the data ...


Imaginary Alternatives: The Impact Of Mental Simulation On Powerless Negotiators, Michael SCHAERER, Martin SCHWEINSBERG, Roderick I. SWAAB 2018 Singapore Management University

Imaginary Alternatives: The Impact Of Mental Simulation On Powerless Negotiators, Michael Schaerer, Martin Schweinsberg, Roderick I. Swaab

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

The present research demonstrates that negotiators can act powerfully without having power.Researchers and practitioners advise people to obtain strong alternatives prior to negotiating toenhance their power. However, alternatives are not always readily available, often forcingnegotiators to negotiate without much, or any, power. Building on research suggesting thatsubjective feelings of power and objective outcomes are disconnected and that mental simulationcan increase individuals’ aspirations, we hypothesized that the mental imagery of a strongalternative could provide similar psychological benefits to having an actual alternative. Ourstudies demonstrate that imagining strong alternatives causes individuals to negotiate moreambitiously and provides them with a distributive advantage ...


Domestic Violence And Demographic Variables As Predictors Of Resiliency Among Young Adults, Sylvanus O. Abraham 2018 Walden University

Domestic Violence And Demographic Variables As Predictors Of Resiliency Among Young Adults, Sylvanus O. Abraham

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

An increased understanding of resilience may determine how human psychological development can result in positive outcomes despite adversarial situations. However, current studies have not provided a relevant predictive model that can adequately predict resilience, particularly among young adults exposed to domestic violence. Based on Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, the purpose of this quantitative noncomparative study was to examine whether domestic violence, age, gender, ethnicity, individual emotional and physical abilities, types of domestic violence exposure, and frequency of domestic violence exposure could adequately predict resilience among young adults. Quantitative data were collected from 118 young adults in the Midsouth region ...


Neurodevelopmental Basis Of Autism Spectrum Disorder Based On Age And Gender, Sursatie Chetram 2018 Walden University

Neurodevelopmental Basis Of Autism Spectrum Disorder Based On Age And Gender, Sursatie Chetram

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication, socialization, and restricted/repetitive behaviors. In 2012, one out of every 55 children (1 in 42 boys and 1 in 189 girls) have been diagnosed with ASD in the United States. Only 30-40% of ASD has a known etiology (e.g., genetic predisposition) and the other 60-70% is unknown. Prior to this study, there was no known literature on age and gender differences related to neuro-developmental functioning of ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine how the differences in age and gender of people with ASD were ...


Rediscovery Of Self After Counseling For Female Survivors Of Intimate Partner Violence, Tiffany Crayton 2018 Walden University

Rediscovery Of Self After Counseling For Female Survivors Of Intimate Partner Violence, Tiffany Crayton

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Researchers have indicated that survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) have lost a sense of self while being with their abuser. But little or nothing has been published on the rediscovery of self after counseling among female survivors of IPV. The purpose of this phenomenological studyâ??which helped to guide the research question and the method of the study â??was to help bridge the gap in the professional counseling literature by exploring the rediscovery of self after counseling from the perspective of female survivors of IPV. The research question for this study examined the lived experiences of 7 women ...


Problem Solving, Decision Making, And Kirton Adaption-Innovation Theory In High-Performance Organizations, Miriam Grace Michael 2018 Walden University

Problem Solving, Decision Making, And Kirton Adaption-Innovation Theory In High-Performance Organizations, Miriam Grace Michael

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Research on high-performing nonprofit boards has indicated a positive relationship between a board's strength and an organization's effectiveness; however, how boards achieve success remains relatively unknown. The Kirton adaption-innovation (KAI) theory was used to examine board members' cognitive styles in relationship to facilitating problem solving and decision making. This nonexperimental, quantitative study included archived nonprofit board data from 2 American Society of Association Executives (ASAE) studies that had addressed the high performance of boards and factors associated with organizational success. A total of 102 randomly selected, high-performing nonprofit board members completed the KAI Inventory, which was used to ...


A Comparison Of Social Disconnectedness And Perceived Isolation In Deaf/Hard Of Hearing Women And Hearing Women, Mellissa Perry 2018 Walden University

A Comparison Of Social Disconnectedness And Perceived Isolation In Deaf/Hard Of Hearing Women And Hearing Women, Mellissa Perry

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Previous research has concluded that hearing loss is related to psychological risk factors in a person that could potentially increase feelings of disconnect or isolation. However, the gap in literature and lack of knowledge regarding social disconnectedness and perceived isolation specifically for deaf/hard of hearing women makes it difficult for clinicians to develop appropriate programs to assist this population. The purpose of this study was to contribute information regarding the effects of hearing loss on social disconnectedness and perceived isolation to help clinicians create proper treatment plans to better assist the deaf/hard of hearing with negative feelings (e ...


Kansas City, Missouri, Inner City Schools' Parent Involvement Policy, Practices, And Accreditation Problems, Gena L. Ross 2018 Walden University

Kansas City, Missouri, Inner City Schools' Parent Involvement Policy, Practices, And Accreditation Problems, Gena L. Ross

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In 2012, the Missouri Board of Education took away Kansas City Public Schools (KCPS) accreditation status. For over 40 years, KCPS has struggled with poor academic achievement, decreased enrollment and budget, and numerous leadership turnovers. Although KCPS regained provisional accreditation in 2014 and earned enough points on the annual performance report for consideration to become a fully accredited school system, state education officials first want to ensure that the district can sustain its new performance level before granting full accreditation. The purpose of this phenomenological research study was to explore parents' perceptions about how the KCPS' parent involvement policy and ...


The Lived Experience Of Daughters Who Have Absent Fathers: A Phenomenological Study, Sibhon Jolette Brown 2018 Walden University

The Lived Experience Of Daughters Who Have Absent Fathers: A Phenomenological Study, Sibhon Jolette Brown

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The problem that this study focused on was the difficulties and challenges experienced by daughters who had absent fathers. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of daughters who grew up with absent fathers, and the effects on them as adults at home, in school, in their neighborhoods, and in their decision-making processes. The sample consisted of 20 daughters who grew up with absent fathers. Data were collected using face-to-face semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using 5 phases of Hycner's (1999) phenomenological research. Results indicated that participants' lived experiences of home life were characterized ...


The Impact Of Caseworkers' Educational Background And Placement Outcomes For Foster Children, Katrina Haynes 2018 Walden University

The Impact Of Caseworkers' Educational Background And Placement Outcomes For Foster Children, Katrina Haynes

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Decades of data document that permanent placements of children in the welfare system has been a concern in Mississippi. As foster care rates increase, more children are awaiting placement. Researchers have linked child welfare workers' educational background to placement outcomes for foster care children; however, researchers have not addressed the relationship between child welfare workers' educational backgrounds and foster care placement outcomes in Mississippi. This quantitative study examined the educational backgrounds of social work and nonsocial work child welfare caseworkers and other factors such as children's gender and race as predictors in placement outcomes for children in welfare custody ...


Cognitive Behavioral Substance Treatment On Latino Engagement, Motivation, And Drug Use Thinking, Santiago Zepeda 2018 Walden University

Cognitive Behavioral Substance Treatment On Latino Engagement, Motivation, And Drug Use Thinking, Santiago Zepeda

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The U.S. Latino population seeking substance abuse treatment has nearly doubled over the past 10 years, yet ethnic-based research and intervention strategies are lacking. The purpose of this quantitative study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Treatment Readiness Induction Program (TRIP) among the Latino adolescent population. Cognitive behavioral therapy and the integrated judgment and decision making model provided the theoretical framework. Secondary data from 137 Latino/Latina participants were collected on engagement, motivation, and drug use thinking scales and their respective subscales to evaluate differences by gender and by a group of clients who received standard operating practice ...


Adaptive Behavior Assessment Of Ethnically Different Children Referred For Special Education Services, Kelly C. Moynahan 2018 Walden University

Adaptive Behavior Assessment Of Ethnically Different Children Referred For Special Education Services, Kelly C. Moynahan

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 1 in 6 children are diagnosed with a developmental disability or with developmental delays, which are associated with impairments in physical, language, cognitive, and/or adaptive behaviors. To fill a gap in the literature, the adaptive profile of young children initially served as developmentally delayed (DD) were analyzed to explore adaptive differences between different ethnicities and placement settings of children at the time of the initial referral prior to DD assessment. Archival data included 333 preschool aged children. The independent variables of eligibility status (DD or not DD eligible), ethnicity ...


Living Our Parents’ Trauma: Effects Of Child Abuse And Neglect On The Next Generation, Joanna Marta Menger Leeman 2018 Australian Catholic University

Living Our Parents’ Trauma: Effects Of Child Abuse And Neglect On The Next Generation, Joanna Marta Menger Leeman

Theses

Hurt and complex trauma resulting from childhood maltreatment has serious consequences for the lifespan development of the survivor (Kezelman, Hossack, Stavropoulos, & Burley, 2015; van der Kolk, 2014). Child abuse and neglect involves a betrayal of trust, care and protection within the very relationships upon which the child relies upon for care (Courtois & Ford, 2013). Psychological trauma arising from child abuse and neglect is referred to as complex, or developmental, trauma (Ford et al., 2013). This accounts for the impact of the trauma on the ongoing development of the child into adulthood. Intergenerational continuity research suggests parents’ childhood experiences and current psychosocial functioning are expressed in their parenting behaviour (K. Kim, Trickett, & Putnam, 2010). Further to this is the idea that unresolved childhood experiences of loss and trauma are repeated in the next generation (Bowlby, 2005; Egeland & Susman-Stillman, 1996). Childhood maltreatment research into intergenerational functioning and relationship outcomes in adults, however, is lacking. This thesis comprised a pilot and three studies investigating retrospective reports of childhood experiences and self-reports of current adult functioning outcomes. Participants’ categorical responses to four items on childhood sexual and physical abuse ...


How To Have Your Cake And Eat It Too: Embedding Experimental Research In Your Courses To Improve Student Learning And Performance, Sarah Grison 2018 Parkland College

How To Have Your Cake And Eat It Too: Embedding Experimental Research In Your Courses To Improve Student Learning And Performance, Sarah Grison

Psychology Faculty

Are you interested both in psychology research and in using findings to improve student learning? In fact, many psychology teachers view themselves as teacher-scholars. However, many of us also wonder how we can translate research into classroom practices and determine whether they impact student performance and learning. The goal of this interactive workshop is to provide a practical and effective way to support the needs of teacher-scholars. We aim to achieve this goal by using an approach called evidence-based teaching and learning, where teachers explore new research in the field, develop experimental classroom studies, and use the findings to improve ...


Bibliography For Interstices 2018: Beyond Human: Emotion And Ai, Kristin Laughtin-Dunker 2018 Chapman University

Bibliography For Interstices 2018: Beyond Human: Emotion And Ai, Kristin Laughtin-Dunker

Library Displays and Bibliographies

An annotated list of materials in the Leatherby Libraries to accompany the Interstices 2018: Beyond Human: Emotion and AI event held at Chapman University in February 2018. The event featured Lisa Joy, co-creator and executive producer of HBO’s Emmy winning hit series Westworld, Jon Gratch, Director for Virtual Human Research at the University of Southern California’s (USC) Institute for Creative Technologies and Caroline Bainbridge, a Professor of Psychoanalysis and Culture in the Department of Media, Culture and Language at the University of Roehampton London. The Leatherby Libraries also hosted two book club discussions of The Positronic Man by ...


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