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Developing A Technological Garment To Aid Those With Anxiety Disorder, Katherine N. Boedecker 2017 Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Developing A Technological Garment To Aid Those With Anxiety Disorder, Katherine N. Boedecker

ASA Multidisciplinary Research Symposium

The purpose of this research was to develop a technological garment for patients in behavioral health hospitals with anxiety disorder.


Goats Display Audience-Dependent Human-Directed Gazing Behaviour In A Problem-Solving Task, Christian Nawroth, Jemma M. Brett, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Goats Display Audience-Dependent Human-Directed Gazing Behaviour In A Problem-Solving Task, Christian Nawroth, Jemma M. Brett, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Domestication is an important factor driving changes in animal cognition and behaviour. In particular, the capacity of dogs to communicate in a referential and intentional way with humans is considered a key outcome of how domestication as a companion animal shaped the canid brain. However, the lack of comparison with other domestic animals makes general conclusions about how domestication has affected these important cognitive features difficult. We investigated human-directed behaviour in an ‘unsolvable problem’ task in a domestic, but non-companion species: goats. During the test, goats experienced a forward-facing or an away-facing person. They gazed towards the forward-facing person earlier ...


Pediatric Medical Traumatic Stress: An Integrative Literature Review, Cassia Onken 2017 DePaul University

Pediatric Medical Traumatic Stress: An Integrative Literature Review, Cassia Onken

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Pediatric Medical Traumatic Stress (PMTS) is a common occurrence and not well understood by the medical community. Therefore, identifying key concepts is necessary to provide early intervention for children and parents. The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate current research to determine common themes of PMTS. Questions included “What is known about the defining characteristics of PMTS?” and “What variable interactions predispose a child to PMTS development?” Articles were found using CINAHL, PsychInfo, PubMed, ProQuest, and Academic Search Complete using key words like acute stress disorder, post-traumatic stress, medical traumatic stress, pediatric, child, parent, and guardian. Studies had ...


Effects Of Animal-Assisted Therapy Among Children With Mental Health Disorders, Alysa Amelio 2017 DePaul University

Effects Of Animal-Assisted Therapy Among Children With Mental Health Disorders, Alysa Amelio

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Abstract

Background: Mental health illness is on the rise amongst children in the United States. Research is still underway about alternative forms of therapy to provide to this vulnerable population. One of the alternative therapies utilized is Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT).

Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the effects of AAT on children whom have been diagnosed with a mental health disorder.

Method: An integrative literature review was conducted to include primary research that was peer reviewed, and completed within the last ten years. Data synthesis and analysis was completed to identify themes within the literature. The themes ...


The Effects Of Promising To Tell The Truth, The Putative Confession, And Recall And Recognition Questions On Maltreated And Non-Maltreated Children's Disclosure Of A Minor Transgression, Jodi A. Quas, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Thomas D. Lyon 2017 Arizona State University

The Effects Of Promising To Tell The Truth, The Putative Confession, And Recall And Recognition Questions On Maltreated And Non-Maltreated Children's Disclosure Of A Minor Transgression, Jodi A. Quas, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Thomas D. Lyon

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

This study examined the utility of two interview instructions designed to overcome children’s reluctance to disclose transgressions: eliciting a promise from children to tell the truth and the putative confession (telling children that a suspect “told me everything that happened and wants you to tell the truth”). The key questions were whether the instructions increased disclosure in response to recall questions and in response to recognition questions that were less or more explicit about transgressions, and whether instructions were differentially effective with age. Two-hundred and seventeen 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and comparable non-maltreated children played with a stranger. This ...


Child Witnesses, Thomas D. Lyon, Kelly McWilliams, Shanna Williams 2017 University of Southern California

Child Witnesses, Thomas D. Lyon, Kelly Mcwilliams, Shanna Williams

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

In this chapter we provide an overview of psychological issues involving children’s capacities as witnesses. First, we discuss the kinds of cases in which children are usually involved. Across different courts, one most often sees children describing abuse at the hands of familiar adults. Second, we describe the difficulties children encounter in disclosing abuse, particularly when it is perpetrated by adults close to them. These dynamics lead most children to remain silent, and only the most forthcoming children to disclose. Third, we suggest a framework for assessing children’s allegations, in which child-generated and adult-generated information lie on opposite ...


Social Effects On Vocal Ontogeny In An Ungulate, The Goat, Capra Hircus, Elodie F. Briefer, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Social Effects On Vocal Ontogeny In An Ungulate, The Goat, Capra Hircus, Elodie F. Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Vocal plasticity is the ability of an individual to modify its vocalizations according to its environment. Humans benefit from an extreme form of vocal plasticity, allowing us to produce a wide range of sounds. This capacity to modify sounds has been shown in three bird orders and in a few nonhuman mammal species, all characterized by complex vocal communication systems. In other mammals, there is no evidence for a social impact on vocal development. We investigated whether contact calls were affected by social environment and kinship during early ontogeny in goats, a highly vocal and social species. To test the ...


The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, L. Baciadonna, A. G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, L. Baciadonna, A. G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

The development of accurate measures of animal emotions is important for improving and promoting animal welfare. Cognitive bias indicates the effect of emotional states on cognitive processes, such as memory, attention, and judgement. Cognitive bias tests complement existing behavioural and physiological measures for assessing the valence of animal emotions indirectly. The judgement bias test has been used to assess emotional states in non-human animals; mainly in laboratory settings. The aim of this review is to summarise the findings on the use of the judgement bias test approach in assessing emotions in non-human animals, focusing in particular on farm livestock. The ...


19. Child Witnesses., Thomas D. Lyon, Kelly McWilliams, Shanna Williams 2017 John Jay College of Criminal Justice

19. Child Witnesses., Thomas D. Lyon, Kelly Mcwilliams, Shanna Williams

Thomas D. Lyon

In this chapter we provide an overview of psychological issues involving children’s capacities as witnesses. First, we discuss the kinds of cases in which children are usually involved. Across different courts, one most often sees children describing abuse at the hands of familiar adults. Second, we describe the difficulties children encounter in disclosing abuse, particularly when it is perpetrated by adults close to them. These dynamics lead most children to remain silent, and only the most forthcoming children to disclose. Third, we suggest a framework for assessing children’s allegations, in which child-generated and adult-generated information lie on opposite ...


Technology, Power, And Leadership: Recommendations For Preserving Faculty Autonomy In The 21st Century, Leslie Pourreau 2017 Kennesaw State University

Technology, Power, And Leadership: Recommendations For Preserving Faculty Autonomy In The 21st Century, Leslie Pourreau

The Siegel Institute Journal of Applied Ethics

Today’s institutions of higher education dedicate significant time and effort to outfitting facilities with the latest technology equipment and packages and to providing faculty with training and support. Conversely, literature on technology implementation in higher educational settings typically focuses on procedures and timelines and makes little mention of how faculty perceive technology as a challenge or threat to their autonomy and professional identity. This literature review uses the terms “power”, “empowerment” and “technology” according to Foucault, Kanter, Rowlands, and others as the lens to examine connections between technology and faculty’s real or perceived loss of identity and autonomy ...


Human Head Orientation And Eye Visibility As Indicators Of Attention For Goats (Capra Hircus), Christian Nawroth, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Human Head Orientation And Eye Visibility As Indicators Of Attention For Goats (Capra Hircus), Christian Nawroth, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Animals domesticated for working closely with humans (e.g. dogs) have been shown to be remarkable in adjusting their behaviour to human attentional stance. However, there is little evidence for this form of information perception in species domesticated for production rather than companionship. We tested domestic ungulates (goats) for their ability to differentiate attentional states of humans. In the first experiment, we investigated the effect of body and head orientation of one human experimenter on approach behaviour by goats. Test subjects (N = 24) significantly changed their behaviour when the experimenter turned its back to the subjects, but did not take ...


Goats Excel At Learning And Remembering A Highly Novel Cognitive Task, Elodie F. Briefer, Samaah Haque, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Goats Excel At Learning And Remembering A Highly Novel Cognitive Task, Elodie F. Briefer, Samaah Haque, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Introduction: The computational demands of sociality (maintaining group cohesion, reducing conflict) and ecological problems (extractive foraging, memorizing resource locations) are the main drivers proposed to explain the evolution cognition. Different predictions follow, about whether animals would preferentially learn new tasks socially or not, but the prevalent view today is that intelligent species should excel at social learning. However, the predictions were originally used to explain primate cognition, and studies of species with relatively smaller brains are rare. By contrast, domestication has often led to a decrease in brain size, which could affect cognition. In domestic animals, the relaxed selection pressures ...


Quality Prevails Over Identity In The Sexually Selected Vocalisations Of An Ageing Mammal, Elodie Briefer, Elisabetta Vannoni, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Quality Prevails Over Identity In The Sexually Selected Vocalisations Of An Ageing Mammal, Elodie Briefer, Elisabetta Vannoni, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Background: Male sexually selected vocalisations generally contain both individuality and quality cues that are crucial in intra- as well as inter-sexual communication. As individuality is a fixed feature whereas male phenotypic quality changes with age, individuality and quality cues may be subjected to different selection pressures over time. Individuality (for example, morphology of the vocal apparatus) and quality (for example, body size and dominance status) can both affect the vocal production mechanism, inducing the same components of vocalisations to convey both kinds of information. In this case, do quality-related changes to the acoustic structure of calls induce a modification of ...


Mother--Offspring Recognition Via Contact Calls In Cattle, Bos Taurus, Mónica Padilla de la Torre, Elodie F. Briefer, Brad M. Ochocki, Alan G. McElligott, Tom Reader 2017 University of Nottingham

Mother--Offspring Recognition Via Contact Calls In Cattle, Bos Taurus, Mónica Padilla De La Torre, Elodie F. Briefer, Brad M. Ochocki, Alan G. Mcelligott, Tom Reader

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Individual recognition in gregarious species is fundamental in order to avoid misdirected parental investment. In ungulates, two very different parental care strategies have been identified: ‘hider’ offspring usually lie concealed in vegetation whereas offspring of ‘follower’ species remain with their mothers while they forage. These two strategies have been suggested to impact on mother--offspring vocal recognition, with unidirectional recognition of the mother by offspring occurring in hiders and bidirectional recognition in followers. In domestic cattle, Bos taurus, a facultative hider species, vocal communication and recognition have not been studied in detail under free-ranging conditions, where cows and calves can graze ...


Goats Learn Socially From Humans In A Spatial Problem-Solving Task, Christian Nawroth, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Goats Learn Socially From Humans In A Spatial Problem-Solving Task, Christian Nawroth, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Domestication drives changes in animal cognition and behaviour. In particular, the capacity of dogs to socially learn from humans is considered a key outcome of how domestication shaped the canid brain. However, systematic evidence for social learning from humans in other domestic species is lacking and makes general conclusions about how domestication has affected cognitive abilities difficult. We assessed spatial and social problem-solving abilities in goats (Capra hircus) using a detour task, in which food was placed behind an inward or outward V-shaped hurdle. Goats performed better in the outward than in the inward detour without human demonstration. Importantly, a ...


Fallow Deer Polyandry Is Related To Fertilization Insurance, Elodie Briefer, Mary E. Farrell, Thomas J. Hayden, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Fallow Deer Polyandry Is Related To Fertilization Insurance, Elodie Briefer, Mary E. Farrell, Thomas J. Hayden, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Polyandry is widespread, but its adaptive significance is not fully understood. The hypotheses used to explain its persistence have rarely been tested in the wild and particularly for large, long-lived mammals. We investigated polyandry in fallow deer, using female mating and reproduction data gathered over 10 years. Females of this species produce a single offspring (monotocous) and can live to 23 years old. Overall, polyandry was evident in 12 % of females and the long-term, consistent proportion of polyandrous females observed, suggests that monandry and polyandry represent alternative mating strategies. Females were more likely to be polyandrous when their first mate ...


Mother-Young Recognition In An Ungulate Hider Species: A Unidirectional Proce, Marco V.G. Torriani, Elisabetta Vannoni, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

Mother-Young Recognition In An Ungulate Hider Species: A Unidirectional Proce, Marco V.G. Torriani, Elisabetta Vannoni, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Parent‐offspring recognition is usually crucial for survival of young. In mammals, olfaction often only permits identification at short range, and vocalizations are important at longer distances. Following and hiding antipredator strategies found in newborn mammals may also affect parental recognition mechanisms. We investigated mother‐offspring recognition in fallow deer, an ungulate hider species. We analyzed the structure of adult female and fawn contact calls to determine whether they are individually distinctive and tested for mother‐offspring recognition. Only females (and not fawns) have individualized vocalizations, with the fundamental frequency as the most distinctive parameter. Playback experiments showed that fawns ...


Mother Goats Do Not Forget Their Kids’ Calls, Elodie F. Briefer, Monica Padilla de la Torre, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Mother Goats Do Not Forget Their Kids’ Calls, Elodie F. Briefer, Monica Padilla De La Torre, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Parent–offspring recognition is crucial for offspring survival. At long distances, this recognition is mainly based on vocalizations. Because of maturation-related changes to the structure of vocalizations, parents have to learn successive call versions produced by their offspring throughout ontogeny in order to maintain recognition. However, because of the difficulties involved in following the same individuals over years, it is not clear how long this vocal memory persists. Here, we investigated long-term vocal recognition in goats. We tested responses of mothers to their kids’ calls 7–13 months after weaning. We then compared mothers’ responses to calls of their previous ...


Low Frequency Groans Indicate Larger And More Dominant Fallow Deer (Dama Dama) Males, Elisabetta Vannoni, Alan G. McElligott 2017 University of Zurich

Low Frequency Groans Indicate Larger And More Dominant Fallow Deer (Dama Dama) Males, Elisabetta Vannoni, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Background: Models of honest advertisement predict that sexually selected calls should signal male quality. In most vertebrates, high quality males have larger body sizes that determine higher social status and in turn higher reproductive success. Previous research has emphasised the importance of vocal tract resonances or formant frequencies of calls as cues to body size in mammals. However, the role of the acoustic features of vocalisations as cues to other quality-related phenotypic characteristics of callers has rarely been investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings: We examined whether the acoustic structure of fallow deer groans provides reliable information on the quality of the ...


Individual Acoustic Variation In Fallow Deer (Dama Dama) Common And Harsh Groans: A Source-Filter Theory Perspective, Elisabetta Vannoni, Alan G. McElligott 2017 University of Zurich

Individual Acoustic Variation In Fallow Deer (Dama Dama) Common And Harsh Groans: A Source-Filter Theory Perspective, Elisabetta Vannoni, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Mammals are able to distinguish conspecifics based on vocal cues, and the acoustic structure of mammal vocalizations is directly affected by the anatomy and action of the vocal apparatus. However, most studies investigating individual patterns in acoustic signals do not consider a vocal production-based perspective. In this study, we used the source-filter model of vocal production as a basis for investigating the acoustic variability of fallow deer groans. Using this approach, we quantified the potential of each acoustic component to carry information about individual identity. We also investigated if cues to individual identity carry over among the two groan types ...


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