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Namibia : Hiv As A National Issue, Elisabeth Vlasak 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Namibia : Hiv As A National Issue, Elisabeth Vlasak

Global Public Health

Namibia is located on the southwestern coast of Africa, bordering Angola, Botswana, Zambia, South Africa, and the Atlantic Ocean. Namibia has a population of 2,265,000, as of 2016. Namibia has many challenges, including food insecurity and malnutrition, access to health services, unequal distribution of wealth, but HIV/AIDS is one of the country’s leading challenges. It is estimated that the overall adult infection rate of HIV/AIDS is 15.4% and it is the leading cause of death in Namibia. Adults ages 18-24 are the most at-risk for the disease. Some of the major risk factors are ...


Transition Into Adult Care: Factors Associated With Level Of Preparedness Among Adolescents Living With Hiv In Cambodia, Siyan Yi, Chanrith Ngin, Khuondyla Pal, Vohith Khol, Sovannary Tuot, Sokunmealiny Sau, Penhsun Ly 2017 Touro University California

Transition Into Adult Care: Factors Associated With Level Of Preparedness Among Adolescents Living With Hiv In Cambodia, Siyan Yi, Chanrith Ngin, Khuondyla Pal, Vohith Khol, Sovannary Tuot, Sokunmealiny Sau, Penhsun Ly

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

Background: Preparing adolescents for transition into adult care and supporting their acquisition of self-health care management skills is a critical determinant of their post-transition HIV care outcomes. However, there is a scarcity of research on effective transition strategies. This study explores factors associated with adolescent preparedness for transition into adult care in Cambodia.

Methods: In August 2016, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 223 adolescents living with HIV aged 15–17, randomly selected from 11 antiretroviral therapy clinics, utilizing a structured questionnaire. The level of preparedness was determined using a pre-existing scale, and adolescents were categorized as having a high- ...


Awareness And Willingness To Use Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex With Men In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Grace W. Mwai, Chanrith Ngin, Kolab Chhim, Khuondyla Pal, Gitau Mburu 2017 Touro University California

Awareness And Willingness To Use Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex With Men In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Grace W. Mwai, Chanrith Ngin, Kolab Chhim, Khuondyla Pal, Gitau Mburu

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

Introduction: To facilitate provision of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), a better understanding of potential demand and user preferences is required. This review assessed awareness and willingness to use oral PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM) in LMIC.

Methods: Electronic literature search of Cochrane library, Embase, PubMed, PsychINFO, CINHAL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar was conducted between July and September 2016. Reference lists of relevant studies were searched, and three authors contacted for additional data. Non-peer reviewed publications were excluded. Studies were screened for inclusion, and relevant data abstracted, assessed for bias ...


High Prevalence Of Non-Communicable Diseases And Associated Risk Factors Amongst Adults Living With Hiv In Cambodia, Pheak Chhoun, Sovannary Tuot, Anthony D. Harries, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Khuondyla Pal, Carinne M. Brody, Siyan Yi 2017 Touro University California

High Prevalence Of Non-Communicable Diseases And Associated Risk Factors Amongst Adults Living With Hiv In Cambodia, Pheak Chhoun, Sovannary Tuot, Anthony D. Harries, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Khuondyla Pal, Carinne M. Brody, Siyan Yi

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

BACKGROUND:

With rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy for HIV, there are rising life expectancies among people living with HIV. As a result, co-morbidity from non-communicable diseases in those living and aging with HIV is increasingly being reported. Published data on this issue have been limited in Cambodia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia and associated risk factors in adults living with HIV in Cambodia.

METHODS:

This cross-sectional study was conducted in five provinces of Cambodia from May-June 2015. Information was obtained on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics through face-to-face interviews using ...


Mast Cell Activation By Diverse Stimuli Can Be Suppressed By Steroid Therapy And Targeting The Fyn-Stat5b Cascade, Anuya Paranjape 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Mast Cell Activation By Diverse Stimuli Can Be Suppressed By Steroid Therapy And Targeting The Fyn-Stat5b Cascade, Anuya Paranjape

Theses and Dissertations

Mast cells are critical effectors of allergic disease that can be activated by numerous stimuli. We have examined mast cell control by the inflammatory cytokine, IL-33, as well as IgG. In the first study reported here, we found that the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, potently and rapidly suppressed IL-33-induced cytokine production from murine bone marrow–derived and peritoneal mast cells, as well as human mast cells. Dexamethasone also antagonized IL-33-mediated enhancement of IgE-induced cytokine production and migration. Although dexamethasone had no effect on IL-33-induced phosphorylation of MAP kinases or NFκB p65 subunit, it antagonized AP-1 and NFκB-mediated transcriptional activity. Finally, intraperitoneal ...


Enhanced Potency Of Bivalent Small Molecule Gp41 Inhibitors, Vladimir Sofiyev, Hardeep Kaur, Beth A. Snyder, Priscilla A. Hogan, Roger G. Ptak, Peter Hwang, Miriam Gochin 2017 Touro University California

Enhanced Potency Of Bivalent Small Molecule Gp41 Inhibitors, Vladimir Sofiyev, Hardeep Kaur, Beth A. Snyder, Priscilla A. Hogan, Roger G. Ptak, Peter Hwang, Miriam Gochin

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUC) Publications and Research

Low molecular weight peptidomimetic inhibitors with hydrophobic pocket binding properties and moderate fusion inhibitory activity against HIV-1 gp41-mediated cell fusion were elaborated by increasing the available surface area for interacting with the heptad repeat-1 (HR1) coiled coil on gp41. Two types of modifications were tested: 1) increasing the overall hydrophobicity of the molecules with an extension that could interact in the HR1 groove, and 2) forming symmetrical dimers with two peptidomimetic motifs that could potentially interact simultaneously in two hydrophobic pockets on the HR1 trimer. The latter approach was more successful, yielding 40–60 times improved potency against HIV fusion ...


Using Risk-Tracing Snowball Approach To Increase Hiv Case Detection Among High-Risk Populations In Cambodia: An Intervention Study, Srean Chhim, John Macom, Chettana Pav, Nirada Nim, Phearun Yun, Sopheap Seng, Siyan Yi 2017 Touro University California

Using Risk-Tracing Snowball Approach To Increase Hiv Case Detection Among High-Risk Populations In Cambodia: An Intervention Study, Srean Chhim, John Macom, Chettana Pav, Nirada Nim, Phearun Yun, Sopheap Seng, Siyan Yi

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

Background: Early HIV diagnosis and initiation onto antiretroviral therapy may prevent ongoing spread of HIV. Risk Tracing Snowball Approach (RTSA) has been shown to be effective in detecting new HIV cases in other settings. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of RTSA in increasing the rate of newly identified HIV cases among high-risk populations. Our second objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of RTSA, as compared to the walk-in group, in increasing the number of HIV tests and early case detection.

Methods: This study was conducted from April 1 to September 30, 2016 at two ...


Analysis Of Humoral Immune Responses In Horses With Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, Catherine-Jane Angwin 2017 University of Kentucky

Analysis Of Humoral Immune Responses In Horses With Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis, Catherine-Jane Angwin

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), caused by the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona, is one of the most important neurological diseases of horses in the Americas. While seroprevalence of S. neurona in horses is high, clinical manifestation of EPM occurs in less than 1% of infected horses. Factors governing the occurrence and severity of EPM are largely unknown, although horse immunity might play an important role in clinical outcome. We hypothesize that EPM occurs due to an aberrant immune response, which will be discernable in the equine IgG subisotypes a, b, and (T) that recognize S. neurona in infected diseased horses versus ...


Biomarkers Of Sepsis: A Retrospective Approach, Jose M. Roberts 2017 The University of Akron

Biomarkers Of Sepsis: A Retrospective Approach, Jose M. Roberts

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Background: Biomarkers are taking the spotlight in becoming the norm for early diagnoses. Sepsis is an inflammatory disease that increases metabolic rate in children. The first biomarker is hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is a frequent electrolyte imbalance in clinical practice, often observed in children with inflammatory disease and infection. Presence of hyponatremia is associated with electrical signaling imbalances, inflammation and renal dysfunction. The clinical value of hyponatremia in pediatric patients is unknown. The C-reactive protein is a second biomarker. Its presence signifies that necrotic cells and inflammation are present.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of biomarkers in children seen in the Emergency ...


The Clinical Utility Of Concominant Pten And Fas Deletion As An Early Indicator For Prostate Adenocarcinoma Subtypes That Lead To Extracapsular Metastasis, Brendan J. Coulter, Brendan J. Coulter, Phillip Harries 2016 Pittsburg State University

The Clinical Utility Of Concominant Pten And Fas Deletion As An Early Indicator For Prostate Adenocarcinoma Subtypes That Lead To Extracapsular Metastasis, Brendan J. Coulter, Brendan J. Coulter, Phillip Harries

Electronic Thesis Collection

The utility of genes PTEN and FAS as prognostic markers for the identification of early and/or aggressive prostatic adenocarcinomas is seemingly validated in the study results we obtained using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) of archived paraffin embedded surgical prostate core biopsy samples obtained from two CLIA and CAP licensed anatomical pathology labs (Bostwick Laboratories, Uniondale, NV and GoPath Laboratories, Buffalo Grove, IL). From early benign subsets of sample cases to aggressive extracapsular invasive tumors, the presence of random deletions evolves into clonal populations of co-deletion of both genes at question. We identify independent research that demonstrates the ability of ...


A Decade Later: Comparing Knowledge Of Testing And Assessing Hiv Awareness Of University Of Wyoming Students, Anna R. Bertani 2016 University of Wyoming

A Decade Later: Comparing Knowledge Of Testing And Assessing Hiv Awareness Of University Of Wyoming Students, Anna R. Bertani

Honors Theses AY 16/17

In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control recommended that all patients aged 13-64 be tested for HIV, regardless of lifestyle risks. This recommendation was implemented because in 2006, it was shown that risk based screening was insufficient and does not successfully identify all HIV cases. Early detection is beneficial both with respect to improving treatment outcomes in HIV patients and decreasing transmission to previously uninfected individuals. This recommendation still holds true in 2016. In 2007, Kristine Young (a University of Wyoming Honors student) administered a survey that sought to assess University of Wyoming student knowledge regarding the previously mentioned CDC ...


Establishing A Clinically Relevant Mouse Model Of Human Aml To Test Novel Transmethylation Inhibitors., Aditya Barve 2016 University of Louisville

Establishing A Clinically Relevant Mouse Model Of Human Aml To Test Novel Transmethylation Inhibitors., Aditya Barve

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly heterogeneous clonal disorder characterized by an accumulation of malignant immature myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow (BM) that hinder normal hematopoiesis. Patient AML exhibits a dramatic heterogeneity in terms of cytogenetics, disease morphology, and associated prognoses and/or chemotherapeutic sensitivity. Thus it becomes clearly evident that the investigation of novel therapeutics for AML will require model systems that are capable of recapitulating this stark heterogeneity in a patient specific manner. Furthermore, it is now understood that the surrounding bone marrow (BM) microenvironment and supporting cells play a critical role in leukemic progression as ...


Tb Screening Guidelines For Transitional Care Unit, Caleb E. Newcomer 2016 Murray State University

Tb Screening Guidelines For Transitional Care Unit, Caleb E. Newcomer

Scholars Week

The basis of this research was the formation of new TB screening and risk assessment guidelines on a Transitional Care Unit within a medical center. Current evidence-based research studies helped to guide the recommendations for the policy changes based on their results and findings. The most pertinent policy changes are the treatment offered for patients suspected with HIV, the rigorous use of the Risk Assessment Tool, and BAMT testing for TB.


Medication Management In Pediatric Chronic Illness: Should Patient Anxiety Be Considered?, Claire J. Hoogendoorn 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Medication Management In Pediatric Chronic Illness: Should Patient Anxiety Be Considered?, Claire J. Hoogendoorn

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Introduction: There is growing support that psychological symptoms can impact various aspects of disease, well-being, and medical treatment for those with a chronic illness like Crohn’s disease (CD). Yet, almost no studies have examined whether psychological symptoms can influence management or efficacy of patient medication regimens. The aims of this project were to examine whether anxiety predicted pediatric patients’ level of medication management, medication prescription changes, and corticosteroid prescription and duration.

Method: A total of 105 pediatric patients ages 8-18 (M=14.5, SD=2.3) completed a validated anxiety questionnaire during a GI office visit (baseline). Prescribed IBD ...


Anticancer Effect Of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract In Human Cancer Cell Lines, María Del Mar Zayas-Viera, Pablo Vivas-Mejia, Ph.D, Jeyshka Reyes, PhD 2016 University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus

Anticancer Effect Of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract In Human Cancer Cell Lines, María Del Mar Zayas-Viera, Pablo Vivas-Mejia, Ph.D, Jeyshka Reyes, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Many medicinal plants are used as chemo preventives and antitumor agents in numerous experimental models of carcinogenesis. Moringa oleifera is a plant that contains several phytochemicals, which have been used for medical purposes including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, metabolism activator, anti-asthmatic, anti-anemia, hormone-producing, liver protector, and detoxifier, among others. Moringa oleifera extracts have also been proposed as potential anticancer agents. Cancer is one of the main causes of deaths worldwide. Although many drugs exist against several types of cancer, more specific agents with lower side effects are necessary. Few reports exist regarding the antitumor activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extract in cancer ...


The Role Of Sumo And Coilin In The Cajal Body, Shanya Whitehorse, Mario Izaguirre-Sierra, PhD 2016 Northern New Mexico College

The Role Of Sumo And Coilin In The Cajal Body, Shanya Whitehorse, Mario Izaguirre-Sierra, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Our lab is solely based on learning about the molecular biology of the cell nucleus using basic model organism such as plants and flies. We focus on the study of the Cajal Body (CB) and specifically, we are interested to know how nuclear bodies can be formed without a membrane. The CB and the nucleolus are conserved nuclear bodies in all eukaryotic cells. CBs contain multiple proteins and RNA species involved in many pathways such as splicing, ribosome biogenesis and telomere maintenance.

Coilin is one of the main proteins in the nucleus and it is known to be required for ...


Addressing Diabetes Prevention At The American Indian Summer Medical Wellness Camp, Mahpiya Vanderbilt, Francine Gachupin, PhD, MPH 2016 University of Arizona

Addressing Diabetes Prevention At The American Indian Summer Medical Wellness Camp, Mahpiya Vanderbilt, Francine Gachupin, Phd, Mph

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

American Indian youth ages 10-19 are nine times more likely of being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes compared to non-Hispanic whites. A family history of diabetes, being overweight, and being inactive are the main risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The American Indian Summer Medical Wellness Camp is a six day camp for American Indian youth where they are taught about nutrition and fitness in an effort to prevent diabetes. What I looked at is if students who have attended the camp in previous years make different choices than the youth who have never attended camp. I hypothesize that if ...


Hiv-1 Vpr Causes Synaptodendritic Damage In Neurons, María A. Torres Rivera, Richard Noel, Jr., PhD, Bethzaly Velázquez-Pérez, Neysha Martínez-Orengo, MS 2016 Ponce Health Sciences University-Ponce Research Institute

Hiv-1 Vpr Causes Synaptodendritic Damage In Neurons, María A. Torres Rivera, Richard Noel, Jr., Phd, Bethzaly Velázquez-Pérez, Neysha Martínez-Orengo, Ms

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

HIV weakens the immune system by infecting and destroying T-cells, leaving the body vulnerable to infection and the development of AIDS. Conventional treatments for HIV, such as combined anti-rectroviral therapy (cART), fail to prevent the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Neurological dysfunction has been directly related to the invasion of HIV in the central nervous system (CNS). HIV produces neurotoxic proteins, such as the Viral Protein R (Vpr), which contribute to HAND. Astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the brain and an important HIV target. We hypothesize that astrocytes expressing Vpr will cause neuronal damage in our co-culture ...


Protein Expression Of Steroid Receptors In Macaca Mulatta Endometriotic Lesions, Héctor Torres, Lynette Ruiz, PhD, Olga Gonzalez, DVM, Luisa Morales, DrPH 2016 Ponce Health Sciences University

Protein Expression Of Steroid Receptors In Macaca Mulatta Endometriotic Lesions, Héctor Torres, Lynette Ruiz, Phd, Olga Gonzalez, Dvm, Luisa Morales, Drph

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Endometriosis is pathologically defined as the presence of endometrial tissue in ectopic locations. Currently, there are no specific, non-invasive biomarkers and no cure for endometriosis. Non-human primates (NHP), including Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaques), have been highlighted as appropriate models to study endometriosis due to genetic, physiological, and anatomical similarities to humans. Research shows endometriosis might be associated with molecular deviations in human peritoneal endometriosis, such as increased levels of estrogen receptors and decreased levels of progesterone receptors.

The aim of this study is to determine protein expression of steroid receptors in five endometriotic lesions of rhesus macaques. We propose that ...


Polymer Antimicrobial Synergy Research, Samuel Smith, Charles V. Rice, PhD 2016 University of Oklahoma

Polymer Antimicrobial Synergy Research, Samuel Smith, Charles V. Rice, Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Recent studies have shown that certain polymers, such as branched polyethylenimine (BPEI), have the potential to be antimicrobial. We have been growing certain strains of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) and adding in concentrations of ampicillin to find the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). This allows us to add in different concentrations of BPEI to test for synergy between our antibiotic and our polymer.

To find the MIC of each antibiotic, we grew an overnight of the bacteria in Lysogeny Broth (LB) and let it inoculate for 20 hours. We then inoculated a 24 well culture cluster ...


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