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Factors Associated With Viral Non-Suppression Among Adolescents Living With Hiv In Cambodia: A Cross-Sectional Study, Kolab Chhim, Gitau Mburu, Sovannary Tuot, Ratana Sopha, Vohith Khol, Pheak Chhoun, Siyan Yi 2018 Touro University California

Factors Associated With Viral Non-Suppression Among Adolescents Living With Hiv In Cambodia: A Cross-Sectional Study, Kolab Chhim, Gitau Mburu, Sovannary Tuot, Ratana Sopha, Vohith Khol, Pheak Chhoun, Siyan Yi

College of Education & Health Sciences (TUC) Publications and Research

Background

Adolescents living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have worse treatment adherence, viral suppression, and mortality rates compared to adults. This study investigated factors associated with viral non-suppression among adolescents living with HIV in Cambodia.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2016 among 328 adolescents living with HIV aged 15–17 years who were randomly selected from 11 ART clinics in the capital city of Phnom Penh and 10 other provinces. Clinical and immunological data, including CD4 count and viral load, were obtained from medical records at ART clinics. Adolescents were categorized as having achieved viral suppression ...


Interleukin-6 And Exercise; Early Evidence Of A Novel Myokine, Brendan Hogg Mr. 2018 University of Montana, Missoula

Interleukin-6 And Exercise; Early Evidence Of A Novel Myokine, Brendan Hogg Mr.

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was first identified as a pleiotropic cytokine, with a host of body-wide functions. Cytokine functions are characterized by chronically elevated levels within various inflammatory states. In this regard, IL-6 is largely associated with the acute phase response to many stimuli and performs specific actions when produced from certain cell types. Accrued evidence indicates IL-6 release from skeletal muscle often includes myokine functions. Novel myokine functions are adaptive in nature, and as compared to inflammatory/cytokine roles, exhibit a transient time course. Following exercise plasma IL-6 peaks and returns to resting levels within 1-2 hours. In contrast, IL-6 is ...


Identifying A Novel Role For Fractalkine (Cx3cl1) In Memory Cd8(+) T Cell Accumulation In The Omentum Of Obesity-Associated Cancer Patients, Melissa J. Conroy, Stephen G. Maher, Ashanty M. Ashanty, Suzanne L. Doyle, Emma K. Foley, John V. Reynolds, Aideen Long, Joanne Lysaght 2018 Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Identifying A Novel Role For Fractalkine (Cx3cl1) In Memory Cd8(+) T Cell Accumulation In The Omentum Of Obesity-Associated Cancer Patients, Melissa J. Conroy, Stephen G. Maher, Ashanty M. Ashanty, Suzanne L. Doyle, Emma K. Foley, John V. Reynolds, Aideen Long, Joanne Lysaght

Articles

The omentum is enriched with pro-inflammatory effector memory CD8+ T cells in patients with the obesity-associated malignancy, esophagogastric adenocarcinoma (EAC) and we have identified the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha as a key player in their active migration to this inflamed tissue. More recently, others have established that subsets of memory CD8+ T cells can be classified based on their surface expression of CX3CR1; the specific receptor for the inflammatory chemokine fractalkine. CD8+ T cells expressing intermediate levels (CX3CR1INT) are defined as peripheral memory, those expressing the highest levels (CX3CR1HI) are effector memory/terminally differentiated and those lacking CX3CR1 (CX3CR1NEG) are ...


Counterregulatory Effects Of Ptx3 On Inflammation And Cellular Aging, Aaron L. Slusher 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Counterregulatory Effects Of Ptx3 On Inflammation And Cellular Aging, Aaron L. Slusher

Theses and Dissertations

Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a vital regulator of innate immune function that has been shown to counterregulate pro-inflammatory signaling and protect against the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Less is known about how PTX3 may mitigate against CVD risk by regulating the pro-inflammatory response at the cellular level. Therefore, this dissertation details four manuscripts which aimed to examine the capacity of PTX3 to regulate the innate immune response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy adults. Manuscript 1 examined the capacity of PTX3 to alter the inflammatory milieu following in vitro stimulation of isolated PBMCs with the pro-inflammatory ...


Ovariectomy In Female Rats Increases Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Expression In Whole Hippocampal Tissue And Isolated Microglia, Renata Daniels 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Ovariectomy In Female Rats Increases Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Expression In Whole Hippocampal Tissue And Isolated Microglia, Renata Daniels

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Estrogen’s role in neuroinflammation has been increasingly investigated in recent years, giving rise to evidence of its anti-inflammatory properties. Depletion of estrogen from female rats by ovariectomy had detrimental effects on immune functioning, including an increase in mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1b, TNF-a and IL-6 in whole hippocampal tissue and an increase in expression of IL-1b and TNF-a in isolated microglia cells following treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, estradiol administration following ovariectomy reversed this effect. Ovariectomy did not produce deficits in fear conditioning response, regardless of LPS or saline administration. The precise mechanisms by which estrogen exerts its ...


Medication Education In The Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic, Ashley M. Cooper, Julia G. Harris 2018 Children's Mercy Hospital

Medication Education In The Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic, Ashley M. Cooper, Julia G. Harris

Posters

No abstract provided.


Nanomedicine For Immunosuppressive Therapy: Achievements In Pre-Clinical Research, Hanan Al-Lawati, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Behzad Sharif Makhmalzadeh, Afsaneh Lavasanifar 2017 University of Alberta

Nanomedicine For Immunosuppressive Therapy: Achievements In Pre-Clinical Research, Hanan Al-Lawati, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Behzad Sharif Makhmalzadeh, Afsaneh Lavasanifar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Introduction: Immunosuppression is the mainstay therapy in organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases. The effective clinical application of immunosuppressive agents has suffered from the emergence of systemic immunosuppression and/or individual drug side effects. Nanotechnology approaches may be used to modify the mentioned shortcomings by enhancing the delivery of immunosuppressants to target cells of the immune system, thus reducing the required dose for function, and/or reducing drug distribution to non-target tissues.

Areas covered: We provide an overview on the development of nanotechnology products for the most commonly used immunosuppressive agents. At first, the rationale for the use of nanoparticles as ...


Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo 2017 Bowling Green State University

Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo

Honors Projects

Inflammation and gut microbiota are two areas of study that can be linked to aging in the body. As a person ages, systemic inflammation tends to increase, and changes in microbiota in the gastrointestinal system occur as well.


Vista Deficiency Attenuates Antibody-Induced Arthritis And Alters Macrophage Gene Expression In Response To Simulated Immune Complexes, Sabrina Ceeraz, Susan K. Eszterhas, Petra Sergent, David A. Armstrong, Alix Ashare, Thomas Broughton, Li Wang, Dov Pechenick, Christopher M. Burns, Randolph J. Noelle, Matthew P. Vincenti, Roy A. Fava 2017 Dartmouth College

Vista Deficiency Attenuates Antibody-Induced Arthritis And Alters Macrophage Gene Expression In Response To Simulated Immune Complexes, Sabrina Ceeraz, Susan K. Eszterhas, Petra Sergent, David A. Armstrong, Alix Ashare, Thomas Broughton, Li Wang, Dov Pechenick, Christopher M. Burns, Randolph J. Noelle, Matthew P. Vincenti, Roy A. Fava

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

In addition to activated T cells, the immune checkpoint inhibitor “V domain-containing Ig suppressor of T-cell activation” (VISTA) is expressed by myeloid cell types, including macrophages and neutrophils. The importance of VISTA expression by myeloid cells to antibody-induced arthritis and its potential for relevance in human disease was evaluated. Methods: VISTA was immunolocalized in normal and arthritic human synovial tissue sections and synovial tissue lysates were subjected to western blot analysis. The collagen antibody-induced arthritis model (CAIA) was performed with DBA/1 J mice treated with antibodies against VISTA and with VISTA-deficient mice (V-KO). Total mRNA from arthritic joints, spleens ...


Clinical And Serological Features Of Systemic Sclerosis In A Multicenter African American Cohort: Analysis Of The Genome Research In African American Scleroderma Patients Clinical Database, Nadia Morgan, Ami Shah, Maureen Mayes, Robyn Domsic, Thomas Medsger, Victoria K. Shanmugam, +several additional authors 2017 George Washington University

Clinical And Serological Features Of Systemic Sclerosis In A Multicenter African American Cohort: Analysis Of The Genome Research In African American Scleroderma Patients Clinical Database, Nadia Morgan, Ami Shah, Maureen Mayes, Robyn Domsic, Thomas Medsger, Victoria K. Shanmugam, +Several Additional Authors

Medicine Faculty Publications

Racial differences exist in the severity of systemic sclerosis (SSc). To enhance our knowledge about SSc in African Americans, we established a comprehensive clinical database from the largest multicenter cohort of African American SSc patients assembled to date (the Genome Research in African American Scleroderma Patients (GRASP) cohort).

African American SSc patients were enrolled retrospectively and prospectively over a 30-year period (1987–2016), from 18 academic centers throughout the United States. The cross-sectional prevalence of sociodemographic, clinical, and serological features was evaluated. Factors associated with clinically significant manifestations of SSc were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses.

The study population ...


Impact Of Tocilizumab Monotherapy On Clinical And Patient-Reported Quality-Of-Life Outcomes In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Leslie R. Harrold, Ani John, George W. Reed, Tmirah Haselkorn, Chitra Karki, YouFu Li, Jennie Best, Steve Zlotnick, Joel M. Kremer, Jeffrey D. Greenberg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Impact Of Tocilizumab Monotherapy On Clinical And Patient-Reported Quality-Of-Life Outcomes In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis, Leslie R. Harrold, Ani John, George W. Reed, Tmirah Haselkorn, Chitra Karki, Youfu Li, Jennie Best, Steve Zlotnick, Joel M. Kremer, Jeffrey D. Greenberg

Open Access Articles

INTRODUCTION: Tocilizumab (TCZ) monotherapy has been proven as an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical trials. However, there are limited data available regarding the effectiveness of TCZ monotherapy in real-world clinical settings in the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of TCZ monotherapy on disease activity and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in a US-based observational cohort of patients with RA seen in routine clinical practice.

METHODS: Eligible patients had active RA, no prior use of TCZ, and initiated TCZ as monotherapy. Changes in disease activity and PROs were assessed 1 year after TCZ ...


Investigating The Peptide-Mhc Specificity Of Alloreactive T Cells And Natural T Regulatory Cells Using A Self-Peptide Display Library, Brian R. Duke 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Investigating The Peptide-Mhc Specificity Of Alloreactive T Cells And Natural T Regulatory Cells Using A Self-Peptide Display Library, Brian R. Duke

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

T cells use their highly variable T cell receptor (TCR) to engage major histocompatibility molecules (MHC) presenting peptides on the surface of antigen presenting cells during an immune response. The TCR repertoire of developing T cells is shaped by thymic selection, resulting in a self-tolerant and foreign peptide specific naïve T cell population. However, naive T cells are alloreactive and generate immune responses towards foreign MHC alleles in clinical settings involving transplantation. While T cell immune responses towards foreign pathogens are peptide specific, the overall specificity of allo-responses is still debated.

Under normal circumstances, immune system homeostasis and self-tolerance is ...


Associations Of Hiv Risk Behaviors Among Older Latinas And Their Adult Daughters, Gira J. Ravelo 2017 Florida International University

Associations Of Hiv Risk Behaviors Among Older Latinas And Their Adult Daughters, Gira J. Ravelo

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the associations between adult Latina daughters’ HIV risk behaviors and that of their older Latina mothers’ HIV risk behaviors. The central hypothesis of the study is that adult Latina daughters’ influence their older mothers’ behaviors and that such behaviors interact with the level of their attachment.

Older Latinas are a vulnerable population that face cultural risk factors, health care provider bias, and engage in low rates of HIV testing. The primary mode of HIV infection for Latinas is through heterosexual contact. Yet, traditional gender norms such as marianismo belief place pressure on Latina women to be submissive ...


Tuberculosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, And The Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome, Alwyn Rapose, S. Karande 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Tuberculosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, And The Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome, Alwyn Rapose, S. Karande

Open Access Articles

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to remain a major health problem in India in spite of achieving nationwide coverage with directly observed therapy since 2006. The estimated incidence of 2.2 million TB cases and a prevalence of 2.5 million in the year 2015 make India the country with the highest burden of TB in the world. In addition, it is estimated that a substantial part of the healthy population (up to 40%) has latent (inactive) TB. India had estimated 2.1 million people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the year 2015...HIV and TB coinfection creates ...


Infection Rates In Patients From Five Rheumatoid Arthritis (Ra) Registries: Contextualising An Ra Clinical Trial Programme, Hisashi Yamanaka, George W. Reed 2017 Tokyo Women's Medical University

Infection Rates In Patients From Five Rheumatoid Arthritis (Ra) Registries: Contextualising An Ra Clinical Trial Programme, Hisashi Yamanaka, George W. Reed

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of serious infections. Comparing infection rates across RA populations is complicated by differences in background infection risk, population composition and study methodology. We measured infection rates from five RA registries globally, with the aim to contextualise infection rates from an RA clinical trials population.

METHODS: We used data from Consortium of Rheumatology Research of North America (CORRONA) (USA), Swedish Rheumatology Quality of Care Register (Sweden), Norfolk Arthritis Register (UK), CORRONA International (multiple countries) and Institute of Rheumatology Rheumatoid Arthritis (Japan) and an RA clinical trial programme (fostamatinib). Within each registry ...


Dftd Age Structure And Vaccination Modeling, Christopher D. Bruno 2017 University of St. Francis

Dftd Age Structure And Vaccination Modeling, Christopher D. Bruno

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Mathematical Medicine: Modeling Disease And Treatment, Lisette dePillis 2017 Illinois State University

Mathematical Medicine: Modeling Disease And Treatment, Lisette Depillis

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Age-Dependent Human Beta Cell Proliferation Induced By Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 And Calcineurin Signaling, Chunhua Dai, Yan Hang, Alena Shostak, Greg Poffenberger, Nathaniel Hart, Nripesh Prasad, Neil Phillips, Shawn E. Levy, Dale L. Greiner, Leonard D. Shultz, Rita Bottino, Seung K. Kim, Alvin C. Powers 2017 Vanderbilt University

Age-Dependent Human Beta Cell Proliferation Induced By Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 And Calcineurin Signaling, Chunhua Dai, Yan Hang, Alena Shostak, Greg Poffenberger, Nathaniel Hart, Nripesh Prasad, Neil Phillips, Shawn E. Levy, Dale L. Greiner, Leonard D. Shultz, Rita Bottino, Seung K. Kim, Alvin C. Powers

Open Access Articles

Inadequate pancreatic beta cell function underlies type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Strategies to expand functional cells have focused on discovering and controlling mechanisms that limit the proliferation of human beta cells. Here, we developed an engraftment strategy to examine age-associated human islet cell replication competence and reveal mechanisms underlying age-dependent decline of beta cell proliferation in human islets. We found that exendin-4 (Ex-4), an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R), stimulates human beta cell proliferation in juvenile but not adult islets. This age-dependent responsiveness does not reflect loss of GLP-1R signaling in adult islets, since Ex-4 ...


Suppression Of Systemic Autoimmunity By The Innate Immune Adaptor Sting, Shrutie Sharma, Allison M. Campbell, Jennie Chan, Stefan A. Schattgen, Gregory M. Orlowski, Ribhu Nayar, Annie H. Huyler, Kerstin Nundel, Chandra Mohan, Leslie J. Berg, Mark J. Shlomchik, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Katherine A. Fitzgerald 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Suppression Of Systemic Autoimmunity By The Innate Immune Adaptor Sting, Shrutie Sharma, Allison M. Campbell, Jennie Chan, Stefan A. Schattgen, Gregory M. Orlowski, Ribhu Nayar, Annie H. Huyler, Kerstin Nundel, Chandra Mohan, Leslie J. Berg, Mark J. Shlomchik, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathways that signal via Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) mediate immunity to pathogens and also promote autoimmune pathology in DNaseII- and DNaseIII-deficient mice. In contrast, we report here that STING potently suppresses inflammation in a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lymphoid hypertrophy, autoantibody production, serum cytokine levels, and other indicators of immune activation were markedly increased in STING-deficient autoimmune-prone mice compared with STING-sufficient littermates. As a result, STING-deficient autoimmune-prone mice had significantly shorter lifespans than controls. Importantly, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent systemic inflammation during 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD)-mediated peritonitis was similarly aggravated in STING-deficient mice ...


Discovery Of Pf-06928215 As A High Affinity Inhibitor Of Cgas Enabled By A Novel Fluorescence Polarization Assay, Justin Hall, Douglas T. Golenbock, Eicke Latz 2017 Pfizer

Discovery Of Pf-06928215 As A High Affinity Inhibitor Of Cgas Enabled By A Novel Fluorescence Polarization Assay, Justin Hall, Douglas T. Golenbock, Eicke Latz

Open Access Articles

Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) initiates the innate immune system in response to cytosolic dsDNA. After binding and activation from dsDNA, cGAS uses ATP and GTP to synthesize 2', 3' -cGAMP (cGAMP), a cyclic dinucleotide second messenger with mixed 2'-5' and 3'-5' phosphodiester bonds. Inappropriate stimulation of cGAS has been implicated in autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus, thus inhibition of cGAS may be of therapeutic benefit in some diseases; however, the size and polarity of the cGAS active site makes it a challenging target for the development of conventional substrate-competitive inhibitors. We report here the development of ...


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