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Simian Varicella Virus Antibody Response In Recombinant Svv-Siv Immunized Primates, Kiser Horne 2021 University of Mississippi

Simian Varicella Virus Antibody Response In Recombinant Svv-Siv Immunized Primates, Kiser Horne

Honors Theses

Since its emergence in the early 1980’s HIV has killed approximately 32 million people, and continues to kill over half a million people every year. Significant research into potential vaccines and cures for HIV has been ongoing for decades but has been largely unsuccessful. One of the more promising technologies that is being investigated to develop an HIV vaccine is recombinant vaccine technology. The study presented in this thesis aims to use simian varicella virus (SVV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) to act as a model for recombinant vaccine development. If a recombinant SVV-SIV vaccine can be proven safe and …


Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis, and Crohn’s disease are increasingly common conditions that places a high physical and financial burden on individuals and global healthcare systems. Though many treatments exist for these conditions, their unpredictable nature and causation make them difficult to manage across the variety of IBD patients. Additionally, many of these treatments come with undesirable side effects or modes of delivery. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore the use of Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate whose affects in the human gut include decreased inflammation and decreased risk of colorectal cancer. As …


430— Ifnγ And 5-Aza Drug Effects On Hla Expression In Human Leukemia And Epidermoid Carcinoma, Nick Turnquist 2021 SUNY Geneseo

430— Ifnγ And 5-Aza Drug Effects On Hla Expression In Human Leukemia And Epidermoid Carcinoma, Nick Turnquist

GREAT Day

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) is a gene that codes for cell-surface proteins that are the basis of our bodies’ immune response, and are crucial for the combatting of pathogens or infections. For our experiment we observed two cell lines, a human Leukemia cell line (HL-60), and an epidermoid carcinoma cell line A-431. Our purpose for this experiment was to observe the effects of two drugs as well as the combination of them on the expression of HLA antigens in these cancerous cell lines. The drugs being used in this experiment are Gamma interferon, which is known to increase antigen presentation …


Therapeutic Potential Of Trp Channels In The Targeting Of Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts, Brittany Isabella Schwam 2021 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Therapeutic Potential Of Trp Channels In The Targeting Of Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts, Brittany Isabella Schwam

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the synovium, articular cartilage, and bone within a joint, but it is a unique form of arthritis wherein effects are systemic. The cause of this autoimmune disease remains unknown, but there are many environmental and genetic factors that play into susceptibility. Research is still far from drug-free remission despite great advancements over the past few decades. The majority of therapies developed rely on immunosuppressant or immunomodulator molecules and come with risk of infection, high costs, and toxic, uncontrolled side effects. Those diagnosed maintain a significant unmet need for targeted therapies.

There …


“It Really Proves To Us That We Are Still Valuable”: Qualitative Research To Inform A Safer Conception Intervention For Men Living With Hiv In South Africa, Lynn T. Matthews, Letitia Greener, Hazar Khidir, Christina Psaros, Abigail Harrison, F. Nzwakie Mosery, Mxolisi Mathenjwa, Kasey O'Neil, Cecilia Milford, Steven A. Safren, David R. Bangsberg, Jennifer A. Smit 2021 University of Alabama, Birmingham

“It Really Proves To Us That We Are Still Valuable”: Qualitative Research To Inform A Safer Conception Intervention For Men Living With Hiv In South Africa, Lynn T. Matthews, Letitia Greener, Hazar Khidir, Christina Psaros, Abigail Harrison, F. Nzwakie Mosery, Mxolisi Mathenjwa, Kasey O'Neil, Cecilia Milford, Steven A. Safren, David R. Bangsberg, Jennifer A. Smit

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Objective: Many men living with HIV want to have children. Opportunities to reduce periconception HIV transmission include antiretroviral therapy as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis, limiting condomless sex to peak fertility, and sperm processing. Whether men have knowledge of or want to adopt these strategies remains unknown.

Methods: We conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with men accessing HIV care in South Africa in 2014 to inform a safer conception intervention for men. Eligible men were 25–45 years old, living with HIV, not yet accessing treatment, and wanting to have a child with an HIV-negative or unknown serostatus female partner (referred …


Association Of Vitamin D Deficiency And Disease Activity In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients: Two-Year Follow-Up Study, Ainan Arshad, Saad Bin Zafar Mahmood, Ahmed Ayaz, Adil A. Manji, Akash Kumar Ahuja 2021 Aga Khan University

Association Of Vitamin D Deficiency And Disease Activity In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients: Two-Year Follow-Up Study, Ainan Arshad, Saad Bin Zafar Mahmood, Ahmed Ayaz, Adil A. Manji, Akash Kumar Ahuja

Section of Internal Medicine

Objectives: This study aims to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Pakistani systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and the effect of vitamin D deficiency on the severity and outcomes of SLE.
Patients and methods: This retrospective study evaluated SLE patients presenting to our hospital between January 2009 and December 2018. A total of 98 patients (13 males, 85 females; mean age 39.8±14.9 years; range, 16 to 73 years) with vitamin D levels available at the time of diagnosis were included in the study. Disease activity was measured using SLE disease activity score at the time of diagnosis and …


Environmentally Marginalized Populations: The "Perfect Storm" For Infectious Disease Pandemics, Including Covid-19, Gabriella Y. Meltzer, Oyemwenosa Avenbuan, Christina Awada, Oluwakemi B. Oyetade, Tricia Blackman, Simona Kwon DrPH, MPH, Esther Erdei PhD, Judith T. Zelikoff PhD 2021 New York University School of Global Public Health

Environmentally Marginalized Populations: The "Perfect Storm" For Infectious Disease Pandemics, Including Covid-19, Gabriella Y. Meltzer, Oyemwenosa Avenbuan, Christina Awada, Oluwakemi B. Oyetade, Tricia Blackman, Simona Kwon Drph, Mph, Esther Erdei Phd, Judith T. Zelikoff Phd

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

COVID-19 has exacted a severe toll on the United States population’s physical and mental health and its effects have been felt most severely among people of color and low socioeconomic status. Using illustrative case studies, this commentary argues that in addition to COVID-19 health disparities created by psychosocial stressors such as the inability to socially distance and access quality healthcare, environmental justice communities have the additional burden of disproportionate exposure to toxic contaminants that contribute to their higher risk of COVID-19. Environmental contaminants including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants found contaminating their nearby environments can alter the immune response, …


Counselors-In-Training Reactions To Clients Living With And Without Hiv, Melissa Zeligman, J. Richelle Joe 2021 University of Central Florida

Counselors-In-Training Reactions To Clients Living With And Without Hiv, Melissa Zeligman, J. Richelle Joe

Journal of Counseling Sexology & Sexual Wellness: Research, Practice, and Education

An estimated one million people are currently living with HIV in the United States. Therefore, an important question remains pertaining to professional helpers’ preparedness in working with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study (N = 165) utilized an analogue design, with participants receiving one of four possible clinical case vignettes, to determine the relationship of client HIV status and race with counselor-in-training self-efficacy, multicultural competency, and empathy. Results revealed that client HIV status was predictive of counselor self-efficacy, and that self-efficacy held relationships with multicultural counseling competency and empathy. Findings suggest multicultural skills training may be particularly important to …


Acute Fish Oil Supplementation And Aspirin Treatment Modulates Lipid Profile In Platelet Rich Plasma: A Randomized Pilot Trial, Joshua M. Morriss, Lisa A. Turner, Danielle M. McCormack, Daniel Contaifer, Naren Gajenthra Kumar, Saidheeraj Paravataneni, Monther Alsultan, Suad Alshammari, Silas Contaifer, Parthasarathy Madurantakam, Dayanjan Wijesinghe 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Pharmacy

Acute Fish Oil Supplementation And Aspirin Treatment Modulates Lipid Profile In Platelet Rich Plasma: A Randomized Pilot Trial, Joshua M. Morriss, Lisa A. Turner, Danielle M. Mccormack, Daniel Contaifer, Naren Gajenthra Kumar, Saidheeraj Paravataneni, Monther Alsultan, Suad Alshammari, Silas Contaifer, Parthasarathy Madurantakam, Dayanjan Wijesinghe

Pharmacotherapy and Outcomes Science Publications

Aims: Platelet rich plasma (PRP) has been used in tissue repair to treat numerous inflammatory pathophysiologies. Recent studies have elucidated that the bioactive lipid fraction of PRP significantly contributes towards the resolution of inflammation. There has been great interest in how therapeutics could modulate the PRP lipidome to formulate a more pro-resolving matrix. Many of the pathways used to produce either pro-resolving or pro-inflammatory lipids are shared between ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Here, we explored the separate and interacting effects acute exogenous ω-3 PUFA supplementation and aspirin had on the lipidome of PRP within 6 hours.

Methods: …


Sickle Cell Adhesion To Blood Vessels, Peace Okoko 2021 Bard College

Sickle Cell Adhesion To Blood Vessels, Peace Okoko

Senior Projects Fall 2021

Sickle cell disease is a hemoglobin disorder that occurs when there is a mutation on the hemoglobin gene. This leads to an irregular shape in sickle cells as compared to regular red blood cells. Sickle cells are also stickier than regular red blood cells because they contain higher levels of P-selectin, an adhesive molecule. The stickiness of Sickle cells can lead to them sticking in blood vessels, which in turn blocks oxygenated blood from reaching different parts of the body and eventually leads to a crisis. A crisis event causes extreme pain in the person experiencing it. A recent study …


The Intellectual Property Of Covid-19, Ana Santos Rutschman 2021 Saint Louis University School of Law

The Intellectual Property Of Covid-19, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

The response to COVID-19 is indissolubly tied to intellectual property. In an increasingly globalized world in which infectious disease pathogens travel faster and wider than before, the development of vaccines, treatments and other forms of medical technology has become an integral part of public health preparedness and response frameworks. The development of these technologies, and to a certain extent the allocation and distribution of resulting outputs, is informed by intellectual property regimes. These regimes influence the commitment of R&D resources, shape scientific collaborations and, in some cases, may condition the widespread availability of emerging technologies. As seen throughout this chapter, …


The Relationship Between Insurance And Health Outcomes Of Diabetes Mellitus Patients In Maryland: A Retrospective Archival Study, Soo-Hoon Lee, Samuel L. Brown, Andrew A. Bennett 2021 Old Dominion University

The Relationship Between Insurance And Health Outcomes Of Diabetes Mellitus Patients In Maryland: A Retrospective Archival Study, Soo-Hoon Lee, Samuel L. Brown, Andrew A. Bennett

Management Faculty Publications

Background

Past studies examining the health outcomes of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients found that social determinants of health disparities were associated with variabilities in health outcomes. However, improving access to healthcare, such as health insurance, should mitigate negative health outcomes. The aim of the study was to explore the association between four types of health insurance, namely, Medicare Fee-For-Service (FFS), Medicare Managed Care (MC), Private FFS, and Private MC plans, and the health outcomes of DM patients, controlling for patients’ social determinants of health.

Methods

This is a retrospective cross-sectional archival record study to explore the relationships between types of …


United States Nursing Homes And Health Equity During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Carla Cooper 2021 Georgia Southern University

United States Nursing Homes And Health Equity During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Carla Cooper

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected older populations, with nursing homes impacted early on by the disease. The contribution of race/ethnicity of nursing home residents and facility characteristics on COVID-19 were unknown. The Donabedian model framework was used to study the relationship between the racial/ethnic characteristics of nursing home residents and COVID-19 outcomes and to examine if this relationship was moderated by the racial/ethnic composition of the county of nursing home location.

Method: Cross-sectional research design merging data from five publicly available sources. Laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths were compared by the racial composition of the county and nursing …


Identification And Characterization Of Epitope Specific Immune Responses In Humans And Mice, David Henson 2021 University of Kentucky

Identification And Characterization Of Epitope Specific Immune Responses In Humans And Mice, David Henson

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world causing approximately 14% of total disease burden. A major factor in the progression to major CVD within patients is immune activation, which led to the study of various immune products as potential biomarkers for the prediction of cardiovascular events, including antigen-specific antibodies and immune complexes. One focus of this biomarker research is IgG autoantibodies targeting apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), and several studies of these antibodies have found an association with increased CVD events. Based on the encouraging results from these studies and previous research which has identified …


Efficacy Of Sublingual Immunotherapy In The Treatment Of House-Dust Mite Induced Allergic Rhinitis, Sirena Saleet 2021 Arcadia University

Efficacy Of Sublingual Immunotherapy In The Treatment Of House-Dust Mite Induced Allergic Rhinitis, Sirena Saleet

Capstone Showcase

Introduction: House-dust mite (HDM) induced allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic condition associated with rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, nasal pruritus and sneezing. The current mainstay of treatment is intranasal corticosteroids, which have shown variable degrees of symptom control among patients. Chronic use is typically required to achieve continued relief. Immunotherapy works to increase peripheral immune tolerance by administration of the allergen itself. Not only does it have the potential to decrease acute symptoms of allergic rhinitis, but it is also the sole treatment offering disease-modifying potential with long-term use. Immunotherapy is an option which can eliminate both the chronic administration …


A Role For Endothelial Tissue-Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase In Blood-Tissue Barrier Health And Disease, Allison L. Brichacek 2021 West Virginia University

A Role For Endothelial Tissue-Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase In Blood-Tissue Barrier Health And Disease, Allison L. Brichacek

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Sepsis is a disorder that targets the microcirculation with significant effects at blood-tissue barriers such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and gut-vascular barrier (GVB). Intestinal barrier dysfunction is thought to be one of the most important contributors to multi-organ dysfunction in sepsis. As a common site of infection, the impaired gut allows the dissemination of bacteria, which exacerbates the disease pathophysiology, and can lead to long-term morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms that influence altered barrier permeability in the GVB in sepsis and other inflammatory disorders are not well understood. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) enzyme activity, which has been shown to …


Sequence-Independent Assay For Hiv Viral Load Quantitation, Omar El Merhebi 2021 University of Central Florida

Sequence-Independent Assay For Hiv Viral Load Quantitation, Omar El Merhebi

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Although nucleic acid tests (NATs) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exhibit many advantages, such as early detection and viral load quantification, over immunological assays, their widespread use is limited by their demand for high-level infrastructure, sophisticated equipment, and advanced staff competence. Furthermore, when quantifying viral loads of patients, it has been reported that these assays can underestimate viral quantities by 22- to 100-fold due to primer-template mismatches in more divergent HIV subtypes. Therefore, we have developed a cost-effective and sequence-independent assay for the detection and quantification of HIV utilizing a modified nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) protocol coupled to an …


High Rates Of Misdiagnosis Of Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome And How To Reduce Them, Aliya Centner 2021 University of Central Florida

High Rates Of Misdiagnosis Of Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome And How To Reduce Them, Aliya Centner

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) is a clinical diagnosis characterized by sudden onset of obsessive compulsive disorder and is considered a type of Autoimmune Encephalitis. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS) is a subset of PANS characterized by a similar presentation but specifically results from infection by Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential, as PANS can become a chronic condition. PANS and PANDAS are frequently misdiagnosed. There are a variety of differential diagnoses. The intent of this thesis is to evaluate differences in symptoms between PANDAS patients and those with a differential diagnosis …


Another One Bites The Joint: A Case Of Reactive Arthritis In An Otherwise Healthy Hispanic Male, Christine E. Loftis, Emilia C. Dulgheru 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Another One Bites The Joint: A Case Of Reactive Arthritis In An Otherwise Healthy Hispanic Male, Christine E. Loftis, Emilia C. Dulgheru

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Reactive Arthritis is a spondyloarthritis following gastrointestinal or genitourinary infections, traditionally described as a triad of conjunctivitis, urethritis, and arthritis. It is important to identify patients with reactive arthritis as certain disease features portend a poorer prognosis. We present a case of reactive arthritis in a 36-year-old gentleman after a self-limited episode of gastroenteritis.

A 36-year-old man presented to the Rheumatology clinic for a 2-week history of multiple arthralgias. The patient reported that one week before the onset of arthritis he experienced a self-limited episode of gastroenteritis. Succeeding, the patient noticed pain and swelling to right wrist, left elbow, and …


Contribution Of The Human Microbiome And Proteus Mirabilis To Onset And Progression Of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Potential For Targeted Therapy, Jessica Kerpez, Marc Kesselman, Michelle Demory Beckler 2021 Nova Southeastern University

Contribution Of The Human Microbiome And Proteus Mirabilis To Onset And Progression Of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Potential For Targeted Therapy, Jessica Kerpez, Marc Kesselman, Michelle Demory Beckler

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

The human microbiome has been shown to play a role in the regulation of human health, behavior, and disease. Data suggests that microorganisms that co-evolved within humans have an enhanced ability to prevent the development of a large spectrum of immune-related disorders but may also lead to the onset of conditions when homeostasis is disrupted. In many conditions, a link between dysbiosis (microbial imbalance or microbiome upset) has been identified and associated with immune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This review provides insight into how an individual’s unique microbiome, combined with a genetic predisposition and environmental factors may lead …


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