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An Introduction To The Analysis Of Ranked Response Data, Holmes Finch 2022 Ball State University

An Introduction To The Analysis Of Ranked Response Data, Holmes Finch

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

Researchers in many disciplines work with ranking data. This data type is unique in that it is often deterministic in nature (the ranks of items k-1 determine the rank of item k), and the difference in a pair of rank scores separated by k units is equivalent regardless of the actual values of the two ranks in the pair. Given its unique qualities, there are specific statistical analyses and models designed for use with ranking data. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate a strategy for analyzing ranking data from sample description through the modeling of relative …


People Remember Liked Political Policies As Having Been Attributed To Their Own Party, Dalton Thomas Bailey 2022 Western Kentucky University

People Remember Liked Political Policies As Having Been Attributed To Their Own Party, Dalton Thomas Bailey

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A robust finding in psychology shows that people tend to like information more when it supports their existing beliefs, or comes from their own ingroup, a finding known as motivated reasoning. These findings are especially prominent in a political context. Quite consistently, research suggests people increase their liking of political information like political policies when they are attributed to their own party. What is unknown, however, is if people also tend to attribute personally liked information to their own party. These studies were conducted to investigate this question.

Two, within-subjects studies were conducted. In both, participants (undergraduate students) saw various …


Creating A Short, Public-Domain Version Of The Cpai-2: Using An Algorithmic Approach To Develop Public-Domain Measures Of Indigenous Personality Traits, Mukhunth Raghavan 2022 University of South Florida

Creating A Short, Public-Domain Version Of The Cpai-2: Using An Algorithmic Approach To Develop Public-Domain Measures Of Indigenous Personality Traits, Mukhunth Raghavan

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this study we aimed to create a short, public-domain analogue of the Cross-Cultural (Chinese) Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI-2; F. M. Cheung et al., 1996). Emic (culture-specific) traits measured by the CPAI-2 are purportedly specific to the Chinese culture and argued to not be fully captured by the consensus Big Five personality trait taxonomy. Research suggests that CPAI-2 traits may have unique predictive power, especially in non-Western contexts. However, research has been hampered by several limitations of the measure. The inventory is proprietary and long, with 341 items forming 28 scales and four factors. Cross-cultural personality research would benefit from …


Autocorrelation Screening: A Potentially Efficient Method For Detecting Repetitive Response Patterns In Questionnaire Data, Jaroslav Gottfried, Stanislav Ježek, Maria Králová, Tomáš Řiháček 2022 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University

Autocorrelation Screening: A Potentially Efficient Method For Detecting Repetitive Response Patterns In Questionnaire Data, Jaroslav Gottfried, Stanislav Ježek, Maria Králová, Tomáš Řiháček

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

Valid data are essential for making correct theoretical and practical implications. Hence, efficient methods for detecting and excluding data with dubious validity are highly valuable in any field of science. This paper introduces the idea of applying autocorrelation analysis on self-report questionnaires with single-choice numbered, preferably Likert-type, scales in order to screen out potentially invalid data, specifically repetitive response patterns. We explain mathematical principles of autocorrelation in a simple manner and illustrate how to efficiently perform detection of invalid data and how to correctly interpret the results. We conclude that autocorrelation screening could be a valuable screening tool for assessing …


Self-Conscious Emotions And The Right Fronto-Temporal And Right Temporal Parietal Junction, Adriana LaVarco, Nathira Ahmad, Qiana Archer, Matthew Pardillo, Ray Nunez Castaneda, Anthony Minervini, Julian Keenan 2022 Montclair State University

Self-Conscious Emotions And The Right Fronto-Temporal And Right Temporal Parietal Junction, Adriana Lavarco, Nathira Ahmad, Qiana Archer, Matthew Pardillo, Ray Nunez Castaneda, Anthony Minervini, Julian Keenan

Department of Biology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

For more than two decades, research focusing on both clinical and non-clinical populations has suggested a key role for specific regions in the regulation of self-conscious emotions. It is speculated that both the expression and the interpretation of self-conscious emotions are critical in humans for action planning and response, communication, learning, parenting, and most social encounters. Empathy, Guilt, Jealousy, Shame, and Pride are all categorized as self-conscious emotions, all of which are crucial components to one’s sense of self. There has been an abundance of evidence pointing to the right Fronto-Temporal involvement in the integration of cognitive processes underlying the …


A Monte Carlo Simulation Of Rat Choice Behavior With Interdependent Outcomes, Michelle A. Frankot 2022 West Virginia University

A Monte Carlo Simulation Of Rat Choice Behavior With Interdependent Outcomes, Michelle A. Frankot

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Preclinical behavioral neuroscience often uses choice paradigms to capture psychiatric symptoms. In particular, the subfield of operant research produces nested datasets with many discrete choices in a session. The standard analytic practice is to aggregate choice into a continuous variable and analyze using ANOVA or linear regression. However, choice data often have multiple interdependent outcomes of interest, violating an assumption of general linear models. The aim of the current study was to quantify the accuracy of linear mixed-effects regression (LMER) for analyzing data from a 4-choice operant task called the Rodent Gambling Task (RGT), which measures decision-making in the context …


The Program To Reduce Implicit Bias In Carroll Hospital Center Using The Implicit Association Test, Katherine E. Traynor 2022 Arcadia University

The Program To Reduce Implicit Bias In Carroll Hospital Center Using The Implicit Association Test, Katherine E. Traynor

Capstone Showcase

Natural brain processes make all individuals susceptible to unconscious bias; however, stressful, fearful, or anger-evoking situations as well as the negative influence of media and social surroundings increase the risk of holding obstructive bias, and there is a greater risk of being negatively impacted by this phenomenon when belonging to a minority population (Rose & Flores, 2020). As a result, high rates of infant mortality (10.2 deaths per 1,000 live births for the Non-Hispanic Black population compared to 4.1 in the White population) and cardiovascular related diseases (190.0 cases per 1,000 in the Non-Hispanic Black population compared to 161.3 in …


Characterizing The Patterns, Predictors, And Processes Involved In Recovery From Substance Use Disorders, Rebecca L. Smith 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

Characterizing The Patterns, Predictors, And Processes Involved In Recovery From Substance Use Disorders, Rebecca L. Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol and drug use disorders are associated with significant cost to individuals, families, and society.Approximately 40-75% of affected individuals remit from alcohol use disorders (AUD). Although the development of AUD is well studied, recovery from AUD and factors that contribute to recovery are not as well characterized. With the definition of recovery evolving towards a process rather than an outcome, there is a need to better understand psychosocial functioning and quality of life among individuals at different points in their recovery journeys. Concurrently, additional research is needed to understand the interplay between sources of recovery capital, individual differences in risk …


Comparison Of Schedules, Stress, Sleep Problems, Fatigue, Mental Health And Well-Being Of Low Cost And Network Carrier Pilots, Marion Venus 2022 Universität Bern

Comparison Of Schedules, Stress, Sleep Problems, Fatigue, Mental Health And Well-Being Of Low Cost And Network Carrier Pilots, Marion Venus

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Objective

This research investigates and compares working-conditions, duty rosters, stress, sleep problems, fatigue levels, mental health, and well-being of pilots working for network (NWCs), and low-cost carriers (LCCs). This study extends previous research by investigating working conditions, pilots’ actual rosters, fatigue and mental health of two groups of pilots flying for LCC or NWC.

Method

A comprehensive cross-sectional online survey was completed by N=338 pilots (185 NWC, 153 LCC pilots). All pilots reported their roster data of the last 2 months during peak flight season, psychosocial and work-related stress (e.g., high job insecurity, less total flight-experience, lower income, more time …


Interactions Of International Pilots' Stress, Fatigue, Symptoms Of Depression, Anxiety, Common Mental Disorders And Wellbeing, Marion Venus, Martin grosse Holtforth 2022 Universität Bern

Interactions Of International Pilots' Stress, Fatigue, Symptoms Of Depression, Anxiety, Common Mental Disorders And Wellbeing, Marion Venus, Martin Grosse Holtforth

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Objective

This study Investigates more dimensions than previous studies simultaneously: pilots’ duty rosters, stress, sleep difficulties, fatigue levels, wellbeing, symptoms of depression, anxiety, and common mental disorders (CMD), and how they are interrelated.

Background

Several scientific studies have confirmed that fatigue can pose a significant risk to flight safety. Other studies reported positive depression screening results for more pilots, compared with the general population.

Method

A cross-sectional online survey was completed by 406 international pilots, who reported their duty rosters of the last two months. Pilots also self-assessed their stress-levels, sleep problems, fatigue, wellbeing, and mental health.

Results

Although pilots …


Development Of An Explainability Scale To Evaluate Explainable Artificial Intelligence (Xai) Methods, Stephen McCarthy 2022 Technological University Dublin

Development Of An Explainability Scale To Evaluate Explainable Artificial Intelligence (Xai) Methods, Stephen Mccarthy

Dissertations

Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) is an area of research that develops methods and techniques to make the results of artificial intelligence understood by humans. In recent years, there has been an increased demand for XAI methods to be developed due to model architectures getting more complicated and government regulations requiring transparency in machine learning models. With this increased demand has come an increased need for instruments to evaluate XAI methods. However, there are few, if none, valid and reliable instruments that take into account human opinion and cover all aspects of explainability. Therefore, this study developed an objective, human-centred questionnaire …


The Effect Of Magnitude And Probability On Plea Bargain Decision-Making, Megan L. Small 2022 Georgia Southern University

The Effect Of Magnitude And Probability On Plea Bargain Decision-Making, Megan L. Small

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Decision-making is studied in various aspects of life and can be especially vital in the context of the criminal justice system, such as plea bargains. Previous research in this area used a less commonly used task (fill-in-the-blank) in addition to a student sample (Falligant & Pence, 2019). The current study uses probability discounting to study the choice between accepting a plea bargain for a shorter incarceration sentence or risking a trial with a longer sentence on a sample of adults with experience in the criminal justice system. Three sentence durations, or magnitudes, were used (1 year, 5 years, and 25 …


Understanding The Comparative Fit Index: It's All About The Base!, Saskia van Laar, Johan Braeken 2021 CEMO: Centre for Educational Measurement at the university of Oslo

Understanding The Comparative Fit Index: It's All About The Base!, Saskia Van Laar, Johan Braeken

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

Despite the sensitivity of fit indices to various model and data characteristics in structural equation modeling, these fit indices are used in a rigid binary fashion as a mere rule of thumb threshold value in a search for model adequacy. Here, we address the behavior and interpretation of the popular Comparative Fit Index (CFI) by stressing that its metric for model assessment is the amount of misspecification in a baseline model and by further decomposition into its fundamental components: sample size, number of variables and the degree of multivariate dependence in the data. Simulation results show how these components influence …


Embedded Accommodation And Accessibility Support Usage On A Computer-Based Statewide Achievement Test, Dukjae Lee, Heather Buzick, Stephen G. Sireci, Mina Lee, Cara Laitusis 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Embedded Accommodation And Accessibility Support Usage On A Computer-Based Statewide Achievement Test, Dukjae Lee, Heather Buzick, Stephen G. Sireci, Mina Lee, Cara Laitusis

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

Although there has been substantial research on the effects of test accommodations on students’ performance, there has been far less research on students’ use of embedded accommodations and other accessibility supports at the item and whole test level in operational testing programs. Data on embedded accessibility supports from digital logs generated by computer-based assessment platforms are complex, and so decisions need to be made to make sense of the data with respect to appropriate and effective accommodation use. In this study we explored different ways of defining students’ use of accessibility supports and how to best summarize such use for …


Statistical Mediation Analysis In Regression Discontinuity Design For Causal Inference, Donna Chen 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Statistical Mediation Analysis In Regression Discontinuity Design For Causal Inference, Donna Chen

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Regression discontinuity designs (RDDs) are the most robust quasi-experimental design, but current statistical models are limited to estimates for the simple causal relationship between only two variables: the independent and dependent variables. In practice, intervening variables (or mediators) are often observed as part of the causal chain. Mediators explain the why and how a treatment or intervention works. Therefore, mediation and RDD analysis combined can be a useful tool in identifying key components or processes that make intervention programs effective while making causal inferences for improving student achievement, despite natural constraints, limitations, and ethical considerations. Without an integrated framework of …


Student Attitudes Toward Science: Growth Trajectories And Thematic Analysis Of A Project-Based Internship, Robert Donavin McCreary 2021 University of Texas at El Paso

Student Attitudes Toward Science: Growth Trajectories And Thematic Analysis Of A Project-Based Internship, Robert Donavin Mccreary

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In order to increase the number of students pursuing science-related careers, science educators and policymakers have advocated for improving student attitudes toward science (SAS) through inquiry-based instruction, such as project-based learning (PBL). While challenges exist in PBL, research suggests cogenerative dialogue (cogen) can ease the transition for students from traditional learning to PBL. In the present study, a secondary analysis was conducted to examine SAS growth trajectories from participants of the Work With A Scientist Program (WWASP) – a student-scientist internship which integrated cogen with PBL. Additionally, a thematic analysis was conducted to explore student attitudes toward cogen. The growth …


Sentiment Analysis Of Radicalization On Social Media, Anna Singley 2021 Illinois State University

Sentiment Analysis Of Radicalization On Social Media, Anna Singley

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Development Of The Adaptable Self-Disclosure Scale (Asds): A Multidimensional Approach To Disclosure Assessment, Brandon McIntyre 2021 Clemson University

The Development Of The Adaptable Self-Disclosure Scale (Asds): A Multidimensional Approach To Disclosure Assessment, Brandon Mcintyre

All Dissertations

Understanding how individuals share or conceal parts of their identity has long been a topic of research with little consistency of measurement validation. The present study had three main goals: (1) define and conceptualize a multidimensional model of identity disclosure that can apply to any concealable identity, (2) generate a validated and adaptable scale for assessing any concealable identity, and (3) demonstrate the adaptability of this scale for a specific concealable identity. In Study 1, the proposed disclosure model was used to generate 72 items which were narrowed down using factor analysis to form the Adaptable Self-Disclosure Scale (ASDS). The …


Characterizing Human Random-Sequence Generation In Competitive And Non-Competitive Environments Using Lempel-Ziv Complexity, Alice Wong, Garance Merholz, Uri Maoz 2021 University of California, Los Angeles

Characterizing Human Random-Sequence Generation In Competitive And Non-Competitive Environments Using Lempel-Ziv Complexity, Alice Wong, Garance Merholz, Uri Maoz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

The human ability for random-sequence generation (RSG) is limited but improves in a competitive game environment with feedback. However, it remains unclear how random people can be during games and whether RSG during games can improve when explicitly informing people that they must be as random as possible to win the game. Nor is it known whether any such improvement in RSG transfers outside the game environment. To investigate this, we designed a pre/post intervention paradigm around a Rock-Paper-Scissors game followed by a questionnaire. During the game, we manipulated participants’ level of awareness of the computer’s strategy; they were either …


Multiracial Individuals And Educational Testing, Karen Alexander 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Multiracial Individuals And Educational Testing, Karen Alexander

The Nebraska Educator: A Student-Led Journal

A literature review focused on quantitative measures and methods regarding multiracial individuals and educational testing revealed that multiracial individuals are uniquely different than monoracial individuals in terms of their racial identity and these unique identities interact with test scores. Until recently, this uniqueness has been ignored by institutions and within the field of educational testing. The uniqueness of multiracial identity should be taken into consideration when using test measures to make decisions for selection and when comparing group outcomes. The review provides a brief picture regarding the history of categorization of multiracial individuals and current research which connects the multiracial …


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