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Improving The Assessment Of Practical Judgment Ability In Older Adults, Crystal G. Quinn 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Improving The Assessment Of Practical Judgment Ability In Older Adults, Crystal G. Quinn

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Judgment is an important aspect of executive functioning and critical to many aspects of real-world behavior. As the older adult population and incidence of dementia rises, the assessment of judgment during neuropsychological evaluations is important for informing diagnosis, understanding functional and cognitive competence, and designing effective treatment plans. The Test of Practical Judgment (TOP-J) is an objective verbal measure with two versions (i.e., 9 items and 15 items) that is increasingly used by neuropsychologists; however, initial validation research was conducted with a small, highly-educated non-Hispanic White sample. As a result, normative data and content may not be appropriate for individuals …


Examining Student Well-Being: The Development And Initial Validation Of The Psychological Vulnerability And Hardiness Scale, Kimberly D. Gomes 2021 Kennesaw State University

Examining Student Well-Being: The Development And Initial Validation Of The Psychological Vulnerability And Hardiness Scale, Kimberly D. Gomes

Symposium of Student Scholars

Background: Stress is a significant concern for undergraduate students, with some experiencing clinical levels of distress. Psychological vulnerability and hardiness are constructs that evaluate an individual’s sensitivity to stressors and protective factors related to maladaptive responses to distress. However, no measure has been developed to assess their combined effect.

Method: The present study examined the factor structure and correlates of the Psychological Vulnerability and Hardiness Scale (PVHS) in two samples (i.e., traditional university students and student veterans). Items were created through focus groups with occupational therapists who have experience assessing both constructs in university students. Factor structure and model …


Investigating The Self In Self-Report, Samantha L. Boddy 2021 James Madison University

Investigating The Self In Self-Report, Samantha L. Boddy

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Self-report items are ubiquitous in social sciences and services and medical centers. However, there is some concern about whether people are able to accurately report about themselves. One well-known source of concern is social desirability bias (SDB) or socially desirable responding (SDR), which involves people providing overly-positive responses about themselves that better align with social norms than might their actual attitudes or behaviors. However, several researchers (e.g., Brenner & DeLamater, 2016; Hadaway et al., 1998) suggest that a person’s identity in the area of interest may bias their responding. Specifically, that people interpret and respond to items in terms of …


Visual Perception In Hearing Sign Language Users, Jessica M. Lammert 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Visual Perception In Hearing Sign Language Users, Jessica M. Lammert

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Deaf signers exhibit superior visual perception compared to hearing controls in several domains, including the perception of faces and peripheral motion. These visual enhancements are thought to compensate for an absence of auditory input. However, it is also possible that they reflect experience using a visual-manual language, where signers must process complex moving hand signs and facial cues simultaneously. Thus, the current study sought to isolate the effects of sign language experience by examining how visual perception is altered as a function of American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency in hearing individuals. Hearing signers completed an online test of ASL proficiency …


Investigating The Fit Of The Generalized Graded Unfolding Model (Ggum) When Calibrated To Irt Generated Data From Dominance And Ideal Point Models, Abdulla Alzarouni 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Investigating The Fit Of The Generalized Graded Unfolding Model (Ggum) When Calibrated To Irt Generated Data From Dominance And Ideal Point Models, Abdulla Alzarouni

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

The assessment of model fit in latent trait modelling, better known as item response theory (IRT), is an integral part of model testing if one is to make valid inferences about the estimated parameters and their properties based on the selected IRT model. Though important, the assessment of model fit has been less utilized in IRT research than it should. For example, there have been less research investigating fit for polytomous dominance models such the Graded Response Model (GRM), and to a lesser extent ideal point models such as the Generalized Graded Unfolding Models (GGUM), both in its dichotomous and …


Conditional Standard Error Of Measurement: Classical Test Theory, Generalizability Theory And Many-Facet Rasch Measurement With Applications To Writing Assessment, Alan Huebner, Gustaf B. Skar 2021 University of Notre Dame

Conditional Standard Error Of Measurement: Classical Test Theory, Generalizability Theory And Many-Facet Rasch Measurement With Applications To Writing Assessment, Alan Huebner, Gustaf B. Skar

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

Writing assessments often consist of students responding to multiple prompts, which are judged by more than one rater. To establish the reliability of these assessments, there exist different methods to disentangle variation due to prompts and raters, including classical test theory, Many Facet Rasch Measurement (MFRM), and Generalizability Theory (G-Theory). Each of these methods defines a standard error of measurement (SEM), which is a quantity that summarizes the overall variability of student scores. However, less attention has been given to conditional SEMs (CSEM), which expresses the variability for scores of individual students. This tutorial summarizes how to obtain CSEMs for …


Exploring The Perceived Barriers And Benefits Of Physical Activity Among Wounded, Injured, And/Or Sick Military Veterans, Robert Walker, Caroline Limbert, Paul M. Smith 2021 Cardiff Metropolitan University

Exploring The Perceived Barriers And Benefits Of Physical Activity Among Wounded, Injured, And/Or Sick Military Veterans, Robert Walker, Caroline Limbert, Paul M. Smith

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

Wounded, injured, and/or sick (WIS) military veterans face significant physical and psychosocial challenges following discharge from service. Physical activity can have many positive effects on the holistic wellbeing of such individuals. However, little knowledge exists regarding the perceived barriers and benefits of physical activity within this population, creating challenges surrounding physical activity promotion. Therefore, this study was designed to identify key barriers and benefits among this population, so that informed approaches to encourage participation in physical activity can be developed. A questionnaire related to the perceived barriers and benefits of physical activity was completed by 105 WIS British military veterans. …


Perceptions Of Covid-19 Among Religious Leaders, Anna Anderson 2021 Kennesaw State University

Perceptions Of Covid-19 Among Religious Leaders, Anna Anderson

Symposium of Student Scholars

The research shows how religious leaders have been affected and have attempted to adapt to COVID-19. The research was compiled of responses from religious leaders and affiliates to get a better understanding of their opinions. The data we are collecting is being analyzed so that we, the researchers, can determine if religious leaders are using their title to lead the community that follows them on the safest path or not, as well as if they are spreading an accurate message to their community about the COVID-19 Pandemic. The purpose of being able to identify how religious leaders are responding to …


Reporting Of Eating Disorder Deaths, Katherine Mobley, Amy Hord 2021 Kennesaw State University

Reporting Of Eating Disorder Deaths, Katherine Mobley, Amy Hord

Symposium of Student Scholars

Those affected by eating disorders experience disturbances in eating behaviors which are often related to underlying psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, or obsessive-compulsive disorder (Parekh, 2017, Drieberg et al., 1998 p.53). The duplicitous nature of the disorder makes it difficult to diagnose, and the tole it takes on an individual’s physical health makes its mortality rate the second highest among psychiatric disorders (Guinhut et al., 2021 p.130). Even if the correct education and resources are accessible to certain individuals, negative stigmatization about the disorder can make sufferers unlikely to seek help (Becker et al., 2010). Findings from analysis of …


Rasch Measurement V. Item Response Theory: Knowing When To Cross The Line, Steven E. Stemler, Adam Naples 2021 Wesleyan University

Rasch Measurement V. Item Response Theory: Knowing When To Cross The Line, Steven E. Stemler, Adam Naples

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

When students receive the same score on a test, does that mean they know the same amount about the topic? The answer to this question is more complex than it may first appear. This paper compares classical and modern test theories in terms of how they estimate student ability. Crucial distinctions between the aims of Rasch Measurement and IRT are highlighted. By modeling a second parameter (item discrimination) and allowing item characteristic curves to cross, as IRT models do, more information is incorporated into the estimate of person ability, but the measurement scale is no longer guaranteed to have the …


Does Coding Method Matter? An Examination Of Propensity Score Methods When The Treatment Group Is Larger Than The Comparison Group, Beth A. Perkins 2021 James Madison University

Does Coding Method Matter? An Examination Of Propensity Score Methods When The Treatment Group Is Larger Than The Comparison Group, Beth A. Perkins

Dissertations, 2020-current

In educational contexts, students often self-select into specific interventions (e.g., courses, majors, extracurricular programming). When students self-select into an intervention, systematic group differences may impact the validity of inferences made regarding the effect of the intervention. Propensity score methods are commonly used to reduce selection bias in estimates of treatment effects. In educational contexts, often a larger number of students receive a treatment than not. However, recommendations regarding the application of propensity score methods when the treatment group is larger than the comparison group have not been empirically examined. The current study examined the recommendation to recode the treatment and …


Getting Caught-Up In The Process: Does It Really Matter?, Nikole Gregg 2021 James Madison University

Getting Caught-Up In The Process: Does It Really Matter?, Nikole Gregg

Dissertations, 2020-current

Likert items are the most commonly used item-type for measuring attitudes and beliefs. However, responses from Likert items are often plagued with construct-irrelevant variance due to response style behavior. In other words, variability from Likert-item scores can be parsed into: 1) variance pertinent to the construct or trait of interest, and 2) variance irrelevant to the construct or trait of interest. Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) is an increasingly common modeling approach to parse out information regarding the response style traits and the trait of interest. These MIRT approaches are categorized into threshold-based approaches and response process approaches. An increasingly …


Identifying Rater Effects For Writing And Critical Thinking: Applying The Many-Facets Rasch Model To The Value Institute, Yelisey A. Shapovalov 2021 James Madison University

Identifying Rater Effects For Writing And Critical Thinking: Applying The Many-Facets Rasch Model To The Value Institute, Yelisey A. Shapovalov

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Performance assessments require examinees to carry out a process or produce a product and can be designed to have high fidelity to real-world application of higher-order skills. As such, performance assessments are highly valued in higher education settings. However, performance assessment is vulnerable to psychometric challenges that threaten the validity of scores due to the subjective nature of the scoring process. Specifically, raters must exercise judgement to provide scores to examinee work, which may be impacted by rater effects, or systematic differences in how raters evaluate performance assessment artifacts. Research has indicated that performance assessment may never be fully free …


Understanding Motivations To Attend Various Sized Churches: A Study Using Family Communication Patterns, Expectancy Violations, And Anxiety To Predict Church Attendance, Molly Bradshaw 2021 James Madison University

Understanding Motivations To Attend Various Sized Churches: A Study Using Family Communication Patterns, Expectancy Violations, And Anxiety To Predict Church Attendance, Molly Bradshaw

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Two separate studies were conducted to examine whether communication variables impact religious views and church attendance. For the first study, 228 students from a large Southeastern university completed a web survey. The second study was a web survey of 204 adults that was conducted via Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTURK). Both surveys were sent out to determine one’s motivations to attend a small, medium, or large church using family communication, anxiety, expectations, and religion variables as predictors. Family communication, anxiety, and expectancy variables were positively correlated to many aspects of religious views. Hierarchical regression models utilizing demographics, family communication, anxiety, expectancy …


A Qualitative Investigation Into The Trauma Exhibited By First Responders Tackling The Opioid Epidemic In Tennessee, Thalia Sullivan 2021 East Tennessee State University

A Qualitative Investigation Into The Trauma Exhibited By First Responders Tackling The Opioid Epidemic In Tennessee, Thalia Sullivan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recent increases in opioid overdose rates have changed the role of first responders on the front lines of this national crisis. The present study used a semi-structured qualitative interview to investigate how the increase in opioids, opioid-related harm, and opioid-related death within Tennessee has affected the first responder population. Law enforcement officers, firefighters, and paramedics (N = 30) from rural-serving counties in Tennessee completed a semi-structured interview. Eight themes emerged from the interviews: (1) mental health symptoms, including posttraumatic stress disorder and secondary traumatic stress symptoms; (2) coping behaviors; (3) available resources; (4) barriers to accessing resources; (5) recommendations …


Traditional Sexual Script And Double Standard Adherence: Predictors Of Heterosexually Identified Women’S And Men’S Previous Engagement In Consensual Non-Monogamy, Nina Dours, Amy Moors, Amanda N. Gesselman, Justin R. Garcia 2021 Chapman University

Traditional Sexual Script And Double Standard Adherence: Predictors Of Heterosexually Identified Women’S And Men’S Previous Engagement In Consensual Non-Monogamy, Nina Dours, Amy Moors, Amanda N. Gesselman, Justin R. Garcia

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

With respect to consensually non-monogamous (CNM) relationships (e.g., open relationships, polyamory), a consistent gender difference emerges: heterosexual men report greater desire and engagement in CNM than heterosexual women (Haupert et al., 2017; Moors et al., 2015). This gender difference raises the question: Why do women and men differ in their CNM behaviors? In the present study, we suggest that this may be due to women’s stronger adherence to the traditional sexual script, which is rooted in gendered dating norms, punishes women who engage in non-committed sexual behaviors, and glorifies monogamy (Fritz & Kitzinger, 2001). We examined how heterosexual men’s and …


The Impact Of Locus Of Control, Norms, And Social Desirability On Substance Risk Perception, Rachel A. Turner 2021 Brescia University College

The Impact Of Locus Of Control, Norms, And Social Desirability On Substance Risk Perception, Rachel A. Turner

Brescia Psychology Undergraduate Honours Theses

Drug use among college students is common and can be associated with adverse effects. This study sought to identify how drug-related beliefs about risk and descriptive and injunctive social norms vary for a variety of legal, prescription, and illicit drugs. The relationship between these attitudes, locus of control and social desirability was also assessed. A sample of 58 female undergraduate students from a university in Ontario, Canada completed a web-based survey. Findings indicated no association between locus of control and any other measures apart from social desirability and descriptive marijuana norms, which were also associated. Although marijuana was perceived as …


How Multidimensional Is Emotional Intelligence? Bifactor Modeling Of Global And Broad Emotional Abilities Of The Geneva Emotional Competence Test, Daniel Simonet, Katherine E. Miller, Kevin Askew, Kenneth Sumner, Marcello Mortillaro, Katja Schlegel 2021 Montclair State University

How Multidimensional Is Emotional Intelligence? Bifactor Modeling Of Global And Broad Emotional Abilities Of The Geneva Emotional Competence Test, Daniel Simonet, Katherine E. Miller, Kevin Askew, Kenneth Sumner, Marcello Mortillaro, Katja Schlegel

Department of Psychology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Drawing upon multidimensional theories of intelligence, the current paper evaluates if the Geneva Emotional Competence Test (GECo) fits within a higher-order intelligence space and if emotional intelligence (EI) branches predict distinct criteria related to adjustment and motivation. Using a combination of classical and S-1 bifactor models, we find that (a) a first-order oblique and bifactor model provide excellent and comparably fitting representation of an EI structure with self-regulatory skills operating independent of general ability, (b) residualized EI abilities uniquely predict criteria over general cognitive ability as referenced by fluid intelligence, and (c) emotion recognition and regulation incrementally predict grade point …


Personal Technology Use, Social Media, And Daily Affect In Emerging Adults, William Crabtree 2021 Murray State University

Personal Technology Use, Social Media, And Daily Affect In Emerging Adults, William Crabtree

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

Personal social and communication technology has been widely adopted by the world in the 21st century. With this widespread worldwide adoption, significant controversy exists debating the effects these social technologies have. Specifically, there is a strong debate in the scientific literature over the psychological effects of social technologies, smartphones, and social media usage. Some arguments are made that modern technology can help improve psychological well-being, whilst others claim it has destroyed a generation of adolescents and merging adults. The present thesis aims to address this debate by exploring the current research from a variety of methodologies about social technology …


Coping Strategies And Relationship Satisfaction Among Dual-Military Married Army Couples, Leila Powell-DiSola 2021 Walden University

Coping Strategies And Relationship Satisfaction Among Dual-Military Married Army Couples, Leila Powell-Disola

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Since 2001, millions of U.S. military personnel have deployed overseas. Military deployment can be a tremendous stressor on military families and negatively impact the marital relationship. Few previous studies and interventions have considered the effects deployment can have on dual-military married couples. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine what coping strategies dual-military couples used during deployment and whether use of these strategies affected their relationship satisfaction (RS). The theoretical framework for this study consisted of the social exchange theory and the exchange-based dual-military marriage model. A sample of 103 dual-military Army spouses, male or female, was recruited …


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