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Applied Statistics, Alina Shevorykin 2020 CUNY City College

Applied Statistics, Alina Shevorykin

Open Educational Resources

No abstract provided.


Development And Validation Of A Multidimensional Scale For Measuring Public Confidence In The Criminal Justice System, Jimin Pyo 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Development And Validation Of A Multidimensional Scale For Measuring Public Confidence In The Criminal Justice System, Jimin Pyo

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Two studies were conducted with an aim of developing multidimensional measures of public confidence that are conceptually integrated, psychometrically sound, and useful in predicting individuals’ law related behaviors. Study 1 involves two-phased construction of scale in which a preliminary inventory was generated (Phase 1) and then finalized after evaluating psychometric properties based on 304 US adults recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) (Phase 2). As a result, six multidimensional scales were constructed respectively for measuring efficiency-, finality-, fairness-, strictness-, accuracy-, and transparency-oriented confidence. Despite more complexity of factor structures than originally expected, results of psychometric evaluation six scales of confidence …


Predictors Of Social Distancing And Mask-Wearing Behavior: Panel Survey In Seven U.S. States, Plamen Nikolov, Andreas Pape, Ozlem Tonguc, Charlotte Williams 2020 Harvard Institute for Quantitative Social Science

Predictors Of Social Distancing And Mask-Wearing Behavior: Panel Survey In Seven U.S. States, Plamen Nikolov, Andreas Pape, Ozlem Tonguc, Charlotte Williams

Economics Faculty Scholarship

This paper presents preliminary summary results from a longitudinal study of participants in seven U.S. states during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to standard socio-economic characteristics, we collect data on various economic preference parameters: time, risk, and social preferences, and risk perception biases. We pay special attention to predictors that are both important drivers of social distancing and are potentially malleable and susceptible to policy levers. We note three important findings: (1) demographic characteristics exert the largest influence on social distancing measures and mask-wearing, (2) we show that individual risk perception and cognitive biases exert a critical role in influencing …


Implicit Bias And Voluntarily Childfree Adults, Virginia Elizabeth Powell 2020 Abilene Christian University

Implicit Bias And Voluntarily Childfree Adults, Virginia Elizabeth Powell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This quantitative study aimed to determine if there is a negative bias towards voluntarily childfree adults or an association of negative views and attitudes with voluntarily childfree adults, controlling for other participant characteristics such as race, religion, or sexual orientation. At this stage in the research, voluntarily childfree adults are generally defined as legal adults who have the intention to remain childfree for the rest of their lives, due to reasons other than fertility issues. A negative view or bias is defined as any attitude which is not a desirable interpretation of behavior or lifestyle. A negative bias against voluntarily …


Jangle Fallacy: Is Grit Distinct From Other Psychological Constructs?, Natasha Godkin 2020 East Tennessee State University

Jangle Fallacy: Is Grit Distinct From Other Psychological Constructs?, Natasha Godkin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This paper assessed the redundancy of the construct of grit (Crede, Tynan, Harms, 2017) compared to other similar constructs using structural equation modeling to remove the effect of measurement error. A series of models regressed grit and its subdomains (passion and perseverance of effort) on self-control, conscientiousness, achievement striving, and resilience. The R-squared values for these models ranged from 0.62 to 0.89. It is concluded that the concept of grit is mostly redundant with other constructs and is therefore an example of a Jangle fallacy (Kelley, 1927). The unique aspect of grit is mostly related to its passion …


Intersectionality Between Sex/Gender And Race/Ethnicity On Cognitive Trajectories And Development Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Justina Frances Avila-Rieger 2020 University of New Mexico

Intersectionality Between Sex/Gender And Race/Ethnicity On Cognitive Trajectories And Development Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Justina Frances Avila-Rieger

Psychology ETDs

The current study examined the interactive effects of race/ethnicity and sex/gender on cognitive trajectories of older adults. Participants were a total of 5258 non-Hispanic White (NHW), Black, and Hispanic men and women in the Washington/Hamilton Heights/Inwood Columbia Aging Project. Multiple-group latent growth curve modeling was used to examine trajectories across sex/gender by racial/ethnic groups and to determine the relationship between specific socio-cultural/health indicators and cognitive decline, including childhood socioeconomic position, years of education, adult income and occupation, cardiovascular risk factors, and marital status. Sex/gender differences in baseline cognitive test performance varied as a function of race/ethnicity and racial/ethnic differences in …


Editorial, Your Null Hypothesis Must Be False: Test It Anyway, Frank Corotto 2020 University of North Georgia

Editorial, Your Null Hypothesis Must Be False: Test It Anyway, Frank Corotto

Georgia Journal of Science

A historical criticism of null hypothesis testing is that a null hypothesis cannot be correct in the first place. The reason that many nulls cannot be correct is that what makes a null hypothesis a null hypothesis is its infinite precision. Only an infinitely precise hypothesis can be used to generate an infinitely precise prediction, such as t will be zero. It is around that infinitely precise prediction that we would construct a probability density function. If you are thinking, I just want to know if the difference is significant, and if you mean important, a null …


The Effects Of Undesirable Distractors On Estimates Of Ability, Kathryn N. Thompson 2020 James Madison University

The Effects Of Undesirable Distractors On Estimates Of Ability, Kathryn N. Thompson

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Distractors, or the incorrect options, are an important part of the multiple-choice item. Previous literature has supported the inclusion of distractors when estimating abilities. While the effects of well-functioning distractors on estimates of ability have been examined, research has neglected to examine the effects of undesirable distractors on estimates of ability. Undesirable distractors are defined as distractors that are opposite of what test-developers expect or want distractors to behave. For instance, an upper lure distractor is one that high ability examinees select rather than selecting the correct answer. A simulation study was employed to determine these effects by varying undesirable …


Propensity Score Matching And Generalized Boosted Modeling In The Context Of Model Misspecification: A Simulation Study, Briana G. Craig 2020 James Madison University

Propensity Score Matching And Generalized Boosted Modeling In The Context Of Model Misspecification: A Simulation Study, Briana G. Craig

Masters Theses, 2020-current

In the absence of random assignment, researchers must consider the impact of selection bias – pre-existing covariate differences between groups due to differences among those entering into treatment and those otherwise unable to participate. Propensity score matching (PSM) and generalized boosted modeling (GBM) are two quasi-experimental pre-processing methods that strive to reduce the impact of selection bias before analyzing a treatment effect. PSM and GBM both examine a treatment and comparison group and either match or weight members of those groups to create new, balanced groups. The new, balanced groups theoretically can then be used as a proxy for the …


Differential Patterns Of Theta Activation Underlying Various Cognitive Control Strategies, Jarrod Eisma 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Differential Patterns Of Theta Activation Underlying Various Cognitive Control Strategies, Jarrod Eisma

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this study, EEG was recorded from 157 participants at the University of Arkansas as they performed three computer tasks that tested inhibitory control (Go/Nogo Task), proactive and reactive control (AX-Continuous Performance Task), and resolving response conflict (Global/Local Task- modified Flanker Task). Time-frequency analysis (ERSP) was the primary focus of this study, in order to take advantage of the temporal and frequential characteristics of EEG recordings. The ERSPs and following statistical analysis showed significantly higher midfrontal theta band (4-8 Hz) power values for target trials (those that required more cognitive control) than control trials, which indicated that the procedure was …


Measuring Intergroup Forgiveness: The Enright Group Forgiveness Inventory, Robert D. Enright, Julie Johnson, Fu Na, Tomaz Erzar, Matthew Hirshberg, Tina Huang, John Klatt, Chansoon (Danielle) Lee, Benjamin Boateng, Preston Boggs, Tung-En Hsiao, Chelsea Olson, Mei Ling Shu, Jacqueline Song, Peiying Wu, Baoyu Zhang 2020 University of Wisconsin-Madison and International Forgiveness Institute, Inc.

Measuring Intergroup Forgiveness: The Enright Group Forgiveness Inventory, Robert D. Enright, Julie Johnson, Fu Na, Tomaz Erzar, Matthew Hirshberg, Tina Huang, John Klatt, Chansoon (Danielle) Lee, Benjamin Boateng, Preston Boggs, Tung-En Hsiao, Chelsea Olson, Mei Ling Shu, Jacqueline Song, Peiying Wu, Baoyu Zhang

Peace and Conflict Studies

Until recently, researchers operationalized and measured the psychological construct of forgiveness at the individual, rather than the group, level. Social psychologists started applying forgiveness to groups and examining the role intergroup forgiveness may have in conflict resolution and peace efforts. Initial attempts to define and measure forgiveness at the group level either assumed individual and group capacities were the same, or insufficiently described what intergroup forgiveness meant. We developed a new measure of intergroup forgiveness, and a novel group administration process, that operationalized the construct in a philosophically coherent way. Our conceptualization of intergroup forgiveness was rooted in what groups, …


The Effectiveness Of Implementing A Collaborative Mental Health Approach On Quality Of Life For Individuals Of Low Socioeconomic Status, Tyler Z. Tooley 2020 Missouri State University

The Effectiveness Of Implementing A Collaborative Mental Health Approach On Quality Of Life For Individuals Of Low Socioeconomic Status, Tyler Z. Tooley

MSU Graduate Theses

The ultimate purpose of this study is to provide insight and education to mental health clinicians, politicians and the general public of the numerous effects poverty has on mental health, in addition to the most beneficial ways to combat those insidious effects. The specific barriers met by individuals of low socioeconomic status severely affect psychological and physical health, as well as social and environmental relationships, which therefore diminish overall quality of life. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of implementing a collaborative mental health approach for low income individuals on length of engagement in services and …


Exploring Differential Effects Of Therapeutic Alliance Across Treatment Therapies, Alexandra T. Tonigan 2020 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Exploring Differential Effects Of Therapeutic Alliance Across Treatment Therapies, Alexandra T. Tonigan

Individual, Family, and Community Education ETDs

Effects of therapeutic alliance has been widely studied for depression, anxiety, and interpersonal problems and been found to have small to moderate positive outcomes. Consistent findings are lacking, however, regarding the relationship between therapeutic alliance, treatment therapy, and client characteristics, in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment.

The current paper utilizes data from Project MATCH to assess the differential effects of therapeutic alliance on 12-month alcohol abstinence across clients receiving Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), and Twelve Step Facilitation (TSF) treatment. Moreover, higher order interactions were explored to determine whether such effects differed across client characteristics. This research …


Effects Of The Imposter Phenomenon, Stress, And Belonging On Perfectionism In Freshmen Undergraduate Students, Taylor M. Pratt 2020 Western University

Effects Of The Imposter Phenomenon, Stress, And Belonging On Perfectionism In Freshmen Undergraduate Students, Taylor M. Pratt

Brescia Psychology Undergraduate Honours Theses

This study investigated whether students who scored high in Perfectionistic Concerns (i.e., unhealthy perfectionists) would have higher Imposter Phenomenon and stress scores, as well as lower self-efficacy, belonging, and social acceptance scores. Additionally, the study sought to clarify how the two dimensions of perfectionism, Concerns and Strivings, are associated with the Imposter Phenomenon. The sample consisted of 48 female undergraduate students at a university in London, Ontario. A Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between Perfectionistic Concerns and the Imposter Phenomenon. A significant positive correlation was also found between stress and the Imposter Phenomenon. Additionally, a significant …


Can Ratings Of Item Location Enhance Statistical Item Parameter Estimation? Extending The Feasibility Of Unfolding Irt Models, Michael McKenna 2020 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Can Ratings Of Item Location Enhance Statistical Item Parameter Estimation? Extending The Feasibility Of Unfolding Irt Models, Michael Mckenna

Dissertations

Research and development of modern psychometric methods such as item response theory have drastically changed the way we understand and carry out the measurement of psychological constructs. Despite this, there has been relatively little adoption by psychological researchers to incorporate these methods into their research. While multiple explanations are surely valid, one oft stated reason is the large sample size requirements of these methods. The sample size requirements of item response theory are needed so that effective estimation of item parameters can be carried out. In an attempt to make these modern measurement methods more accessible and feasible to psychological …


Role-Differentiated Bimanual Manipulations Efficiency: The Difference In Speed For Rdbms Based On Age, Toy-Type, And Infant Hand Preference, Sarai Mikal Cortina 2020 Illinois State University

Role-Differentiated Bimanual Manipulations Efficiency: The Difference In Speed For Rdbms Based On Age, Toy-Type, And Infant Hand Preference, Sarai Mikal Cortina

Theses and Dissertations

Role-differentiated bimanual manipulation (RDBM) is a complex behavior requiring the complementary movement of two hands to achieve a common goal. The current study investigated the relation of RDBM efficiency (speed to complete a successful RDBM) with hand preference, toy type (simple/difficult), age, and hand used to perform the RDBM. This study observed 46 infants between the ages of 9 to 14 months, each with a different hand preference category. Changes in RDBM efficiency across time were examined across different hand preference groups for RDBMs performed on simple toys using the right hand. The analysis revealed that early-right preference infants had …


Testing The Convergent Retrieval Learning Theory Of Testing Effects, William J. Hopper 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Testing The Convergent Retrieval Learning Theory Of Testing Effects, William J. Hopper

Doctoral Dissertations

What is learned from retrieving a memory that is not learned by studying the same information? In response to this question, I have proposed a new theory of retrieval-based learning in which I argue that retrieval strengthens the ability to completely activate all portions of a memory trace from an initial state of partial activation. In effect, retrieval serves to unitize the features of a memory, making the entire memory remain retrievable in the future when cue-related activation may be weaker. This theory, called the Primary and Convergent Retrieval (PCR) model, explains why practice tests produce both better long-term retention …


A New Perspective To Measuring Employee Growth: Developing A Successful Aging At Work Scale, Stanimira K. Taneva, Georgi P. Yankov 2020 University of Nottingham

A New Perspective To Measuring Employee Growth: Developing A Successful Aging At Work Scale, Stanimira K. Taneva, Georgi P. Yankov

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

The aging of the world’s population has become a grand societal challenge, which requires an urgent response from researchers, professionals, and the wider society. One way to respond to this challenge is by supporting individuals in sustaining longer and healthier working lives, that is, age successfully. Although the advantages of promoting and enabling successful aging at work have been widely acknowledged, no single instrument for measuring this construct has been published so far. We develop and test in three consecutive samples a two-dimensional successful aging at work scale. This novel instrument is rooted conceptually in the most recent theoretical developments …


Identifying Construct-Irrelevant Variance And Construct Under-Representation As Support Of External Evidence Of Validity, Jennifer Case 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Identifying Construct-Irrelevant Variance And Construct Under-Representation As Support Of External Evidence Of Validity, Jennifer Case

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Test validity has commonly been defined in terms of a test measuring what it is supposed to measure, however there has been a century of discussion and debate on test validity and what qualifies as evidence of test validity. Some argue in favor of restricting test validity evidence to that which is internal to the test, such as the test items, while others argue that external information, such as the relationships with other variables, also offers evidence toward test validity. Cronbach and Meehl’s groundbreaking paper in 1955 introduced the concept of the nomological net, which is the construct’s lawful relationships …


Phenotype Extraction: Estimation And Biometrical Genetic Analysis Of Individual Dynamics, Kevin L. McKee 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Phenotype Extraction: Estimation And Biometrical Genetic Analysis Of Individual Dynamics, Kevin L. Mckee

Theses and Dissertations

Within-person data can exhibit a virtually limitless variety of statistical patterns, but it can be difficult to distinguish meaningful features from statistical artifacts. Studies of complex traits have previously used genetic signals like twin-based heritability to distinguish between the two. This dissertation is a collection of studies applying state-space modeling to conceptualize and estimate novel phenotypic constructs for use in psychiatric research and further biometrical genetic analysis. The aims are to: (1) relate control theoretic concepts to health-related phenotypes; (2) design statistical models that formally define those phenotypes; (3) estimate individual phenotypic values from time series data; (4) consider hierarchical …


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