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Implications For Global And Local Visual Processing In Individuals With Learning Disabilities, Riya Mody 2022 Chapman University

Implications For Global And Local Visual Processing In Individuals With Learning Disabilities, Riya Mody

Psychology Student Papers and Posters

Visual processing in humans is done by integrating and updating multiple streams of global and local sensory input. When this is not done smoothly, it becomes difficult to see the “big picture”, which has been found to have implications on emotion recognition, social skills, and conversation skills in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other learning disabilities. Previous research in this field has aimed to direct ASD patients toward normative processing of the global features by developing and evaluating a filter which is intended to decrease local interference, or the prioritization of local details. This work attempts to utilize …


Correlation Of The Anterior Salience Network With Attention: A Resting-State Fmri Analysis, Matthew Brooks 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Correlation Of The Anterior Salience Network With Attention: A Resting-State Fmri Analysis, Matthew Brooks

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Background: Some studies have broadened our understanding of attention while other studies have used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses to identify brain regions that are functionally connected and may be associated with salience processing. This thesis sought to examine the relationship between the anterior salience network and attentional control. The current study hypothesized that resting-state functional connectivity between regions of the anterior salience network would be associated with attentional control ability. Methods: Forty-eight college-aged students completed the affective Stroop task to assess attentional regulation ability. Accuracy on trials of the task was examined in correlation with resting-state functional …


Prospective Person Memory In The Case Of Missing Persons: A Coffee Shop Study, Cara Bascom 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Prospective Person Memory In The Case Of Missing Persons: A Coffee Shop Study, Cara Bascom

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Prospective person memory (PPM) is the process of remembering to perform some action after encountering a target individual, such as identifying and reporting a missing person sighting after viewing a missing person alert (Moore et al., 2021). Research has shown that identification rates generally tend to be low in simulated missing person studies (Lampinen & Moore, 2016b). The purpose of the current research is to determine how to improve missing person recognition rates. This project explores the potential effects of using videos in missing person reports as compared to using static images. We also consider differences between rigid and non-rigid …


Relationship Between Pet And Human Separation Anxiety On Owners’ Anxiety And Physical Health, Noah Ross 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Relationship Between Pet And Human Separation Anxiety On Owners’ Anxiety And Physical Health, Noah Ross

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pet ownership has always been thought to be beneficial, but some recent studies have not been consistent with this statement. A possible explanation for this is an unhealthy overdependence that pets and pet owners have developed as a result of the Coronavirus pandemic. In this paper, I examine whether separation anxiety from pets, people, and separation behavior of pets could be predictors of anxiety and physical health. The first prediction was that pet and non pet owners differed demographically. Also, it was hypothesized that separation anxiety from humans, separation anxiety from pets, but not pet separation behaviors predicted anxiety and …


Digital Manipulation Of Human Faces: Effects On Emotional Perception And Brain Activity, Martin Knoll 2022 East Tennessee State University

Digital Manipulation Of Human Faces: Effects On Emotional Perception And Brain Activity, Martin Knoll

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The study of human face-processing has granted insight into key adaptions across various social and biological functions. However, there is an overall lack of consistency regarding digital alteration styles of human-face stimuli. In order to investigate this, two independent studies were conducted examining unique effects of image construction and presentation. In the first study, three primary forms of stimuli presentation styles (color, black and white, cutout) were used across iterations of non-thatcherized/thatcherized and non-inverted/inverted presentations. Outcome measures included subjective reactions measured via ratings of perceived “grotesqueness,” and objective outcomes of N170 event-related potentials (ERPs) measured via encephalography. Results of subjective …


Body Dissatisfaction In Division Iii Collegiate Male Athletes: An Exploratory Study, Andria Merrill 2022 SUNY College Cortland

Body Dissatisfaction In Division Iii Collegiate Male Athletes: An Exploratory Study, Andria Merrill

Master's Theses

Given the paucity of literature investigating body dissatisfaction in collegiate male athletes, more work is necessary to establish the extent and consequences of that phenomenon in this population. The purpose of this study was to explore body dissatisfaction in collegiate male athletes participating in varsity sports at SUNY Cortland. The specific aim was to determine the prevalence of body dissatisfaction in collegiate male athletes and other intra-individual factors that may exist within varsity men's sports. Thirteen participants completed electronic surveys for the Weight Pressures Scale for Male athletes (WPS-M), the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS), and the Body Esteem Scale …


Adjusting For Speaking Rate When Perceiving Speech In Background Noise., Dawson C Stephens 2022 University of Louisville

Adjusting For Speaking Rate When Perceiving Speech In Background Noise., Dawson C Stephens

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Speech perception is a very relevant concept occurring every day. Acoustic context effects such as temporal contrast effects (TCEs) influence perception significantly. For instance, when a faster context sentence is spoken, the participant should perceive the following target word as slower and more like /t/ in “tier”; when a slower context sentence is spoken, the participant should perceive the following target sound as faster and more like /d/ in “deer”. Recent work by Bosker et al. (2020) concluded that selective attention (directing attention to a specific stimulus while ignoring surrounding stimuli) had no effect on TCEs, suggesting they were automatic …


The Effect Of Object Contact On Pre-Reaching Infants' Causal Perception., Mallory L. Thompson 2022 University of Louisville

The Effect Of Object Contact On Pre-Reaching Infants' Causal Perception., Mallory L. Thompson

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

The Sticky Mittens (SM) paradigm is an object manipulation task that provides infants the opportunity to explore objects through active experience before they have the necessary motor skills to do so on their own. Positive cognitive outcomes like increased attention to objects, object engagement, object exploration, and causal perception have been shown to result from active SM experience (Libertus & Needham, 2010; Rakison & Krogh, 2012). Researchers are interested in understanding which aspects of SM training are important for infant learning. Although there have been many SM studies looking at different variables, such as active vs. passive experience and parent …


Examining Difference In Social Perceptions Between Women Using Hormonal Contraceptives And Naturally Cycling Women, Caroline B. Johnson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining Difference In Social Perceptions Between Women Using Hormonal Contraceptives And Naturally Cycling Women, Caroline B. Johnson

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The term “stress” refers to a person’s psychological and physiological response to the demands and pressures of the world around them (Farlex, 2021). Past research has shown that stress can have negative side effects on a person’s well-being (Aneshensel et al., 1991; Wunsch et al., 2017; Michie, 2002). Although people experience stress, some people perceive more stress than others. Perceptions are important because the way one understands certain conditions can elicit distinct emotional and physiological responses (Kemeny, 2003). An important factor that has not received a lot of attention is women’s use of hormonal contraceptives. In the United States, 24.4% …


The Trauma Of Premature Exposure To Violence: The Destruction Of Innocence In The Hunger Games, Riley Woody 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Trauma Of Premature Exposure To Violence: The Destruction Of Innocence In The Hunger Games, Riley Woody

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Impact Of Fear On Interpersonal And Economic Decision-Making, John Wilson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Impact Of Fear On Interpersonal And Economic Decision-Making, John Wilson

Economics Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fear is one of the most basic, intrinsic, and powerful emotions an individual may experience when faced with known or unknown threats, imminent pressures, or expectations of approaching doom. Fear may allow an individual to act quickly in a fight-or-flight response. Fear can alter both physiological and psychological frameworks to avoid certain calamity. Fear provides motivation to protect oneself or to effectuate altruistic behavior towards others for the greater good. One lesser explored area of research pertaining to fear and its implications is the influence of fear on interpersonal and economic decision-making. Economic volatility can produce both immediate consequences as …


The Influence Of Facial Exposure On Confidence In Eyewitness Identification, Madelynn Fancher 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Influence Of Facial Exposure On Confidence In Eyewitness Identification, Madelynn Fancher

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

In crimes in which there is an eyewitness identification, confidence is usually a good predictor of accuracy. However, in some cases, estimator variables might affect the relationship between eyewitness confidence and accuracy. This study analyzes the effect of exposure duration on confidence during an eyewitness identification. According to the pristine conditions hypothesis (Wixed & Wells, 2017), if the system variables are optimal, confidence and accuracy will be strongly related, even if the viewing conditions are suboptimal. Participants in this online study viewed a mock crime in one of two conditions: brief exposure or long exposure. Following viewing the crime, participants …


Effectiveness Of Affective Based Intervention Depending On Personal Relevance To A Conspiracy Belief, Mallory MacDonald 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effectiveness Of Affective Based Intervention Depending On Personal Relevance To A Conspiracy Belief, Mallory Macdonald

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

With the increase in conspiracy theory beliefs, there is a need for intervention techniques. Do some intervention techniques work better when taking into account the personal relevance a person has towards a topic? One hundred and sixty undergraduate students first read an article that introduced the conspiracy theory and established personal relevance. To manipulate personal relevance, participants were told that a new vaccine mandate would be put into place either July 2023 or July 2031. Then, they considered an article that worked to intervene the conspiracy belief. Participants either read an article that was focused on affective or cognitive intervention …


Diagnostic Featural Detection Or Filler Siphoning: A Red Box Study, Brynn Schuetter 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Diagnostic Featural Detection Or Filler Siphoning: A Red Box Study, Brynn Schuetter

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The current study is a replication and extension of previous research by Colloff and Wixted (2020). In their study, they created a novel identification procedure called the simultaneous showup. They found support for the diagnostic feature detection theory over the filler siphoning theory. The current study was interested in seeing if covert filler siphoning was still occurring in their novel procedure by asking participants how photos of fillers influenced their identification decision. Participants of the study viewed two crime videos and completed an identification task. If they were assigned to the simultaneous showup task, they were asked if and how …


Concurrent Load And Construal On Planning, Maximilian Fey 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Concurrent Load And Construal On Planning, Maximilian Fey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Planning for the future is a necessary activity which spans across all aspects of an individual’s life. Concurrent cognitive load has been shown to hinder future planning, whereas concrete construal of events has been shown to increase planning efficacy. Interestingly, a limited literature speaks towards cognitive load inducing concrete construal. However, the two constructs predict differing outcomes on future planning therefore the interaction of cognitive load inducing a concrete construal is particularly interesting. The research study tested whether differing levels of concurrent cognitive load increase or decrease planning efficacy. The intention of the research was to elucidate whether cognitive load …


Combating Recidivism, Shaylin Daley 2022 University of Rhode Island

Combating Recidivism, Shaylin Daley

Senior Honors Projects

SHAYLIN DALEY (Psychology) Combating Recidivism Sponsor: Lisa Holley (Political Science) Many people believe that criminals cannot be helped. It is evident that at least some of society shuns people who break laws and have negative views about the amount of money spent on detaining inmates. Thousands of individuals are released from United States prisons a day. Many of these individuals have no plan in place for their return home and are sent into the streets with nothing except for a jail ID. Most of these people will end up returning to prison. A good sum of these people face problems …


Children’S Social Judgments Of Others On The Basis Of Dialect-Specific Vocabulary, Madison Myers-Burg 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Children’S Social Judgments Of Others On The Basis Of Dialect-Specific Vocabulary, Madison Myers-Burg

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many studies suggest that young children prefer speakers who speak similarly to them. Children demonstrate social preferences for speakers of their own native language over speakers of a non-native language as well as for speakers of a familiar accent over speakers of an unfamiliar accent. Recent research suggests that young children will similarly show preference for speakers who use familiar dialect-specific vocabulary over speakers who use vocabulary specific to an unfamiliar dialect. The current study investigated potential motivations behind young children’s preferences for familiar dialect-specific vocabulary. Fifty participants ages fifty-one months to ninety-five months (Mage =72.6 months) viewed an animated …


The Cognitive & Educational Implications Of Color Use In Drawing To Learn, Juliana F.M. Cantarutti 2022 William & Mary

The Cognitive & Educational Implications Of Color Use In Drawing To Learn, Juliana F.M. Cantarutti

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Drawing to Learn (D2L) is a learning aid that encourages STEM students to interact with abstract concepts in STEM by sketching. D2L is not an intuitive skill, and researchers strive to provide students with guidelines on how to master this method. One potential way to enhance the D2L method for students is by incorporation of visual cues, specifically color. While many students choose to incorporate color into their models without explicit instruction to do so, we have found no research on: a) why students use color in sketching, b) its effects on D2L. This study used interviews, surveys, and course …


Falling For Moses: The Role Of Stroop Inhibition And Language Expertise, Isabella Holmgren 2022 University of Richmond

Falling For Moses: The Role Of Stroop Inhibition And Language Expertise, Isabella Holmgren

Honors Theses

When presented with the question, “How many animals of each kind did Moses take on the Ark?”, people often respond “2”, despite knowing that Noah is the Biblical figure who is said to have taken animals on the ark. This phenomenon where people fail to detect inaccuracies in text has come to be known as the Moses Illusion (Erickson & Mattson, 1981). The current study was designed to investigate Moses illusion rates in a multiple-choice format. Further, participants were assessed on two cognitive constructs: language experience and cognitive inhibition. Results showed robust rates of the Moses illusion using the multiple-choice …


Focus On Hyperfocus: How Adhd Symptoms Impact Difficulty With Disengagement And Inattention, Cameron McKendrick 2022 University of Richmond

Focus On Hyperfocus: How Adhd Symptoms Impact Difficulty With Disengagement And Inattention, Cameron Mckendrick

Honors Theses

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder marked by patterns of inattention and hyperactivity. Hyperfocus (HF) is a concept that has heavily been associated with ADHD; however, it is not part of any diagnostic criteria and the literature pertaining to HF is rather underdeveloped. The present study adds to existing research by examining how HF differentially impacts ADHD populations compared to non-ADHD populations. The three main hypotheses explored in this paper are that ADHD positively predicts HF in the moment, HF in the moment negatively predicts inattention in the moment, and that the correlation between HF and …


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