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Humans: Uniquely Responsible For Causing Conservation Problems, Uniquely Capable Of Solving Them, Michael L. Wilson, Clarence L. Lehman 2019 University of Minnesota

Humans: Uniquely Responsible For Causing Conservation Problems, Uniquely Capable Of Solving Them, Michael L. Wilson, Clarence L. Lehman

Animal Sentience

We share Chapman & Huffman’s views on the importance of promoting animal welfare and conservation. We disagree with their implication, however, that reverence for life and concern for the wellbeing of global ecosystems depend on a belief that other living things are similar to humans in any of their capacities. Humans exhibit special traits — language, cumulative culture, extraordinary capacity for cooperation when we are at our best, and ever-advancing technological developments — that enabled them to dominate the planet, resulting in the current conservation crisis. It is precisely the fact that humans have become unique that provides hope for finding conservation ...


Anthropocentrism: Practical Remedies Needed, Helen Kopnina 2019 The Hague University of Applied Sciences

Anthropocentrism: Practical Remedies Needed, Helen Kopnina

Animal Sentience

It is true that one of the harmful consequences of creating categories where one group is unique and superior to others is that it justifies discriminating against the inferior groups. And outright abuse of nonhuman animals is indeed morally unjustifiable. But what is to be done about it?


Animal Cognition: Quantity Has A Quality Of Its Own, Ivaylo Borislavov Iotchev, Kauê Machado Costa 2019 Department of Ethology Eötvös Loránd University

Animal Cognition: Quantity Has A Quality Of Its Own, Ivaylo Borislavov Iotchev, Kauê Machado Costa

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman’s moral analysis fails to prove that the exploitation of animals or the environment is causally connected to beliefs about human capacities. Their exposition of the philosophical interpretations of animal cognition ignores historical context and confounds different levels of analysis. Their analysis of the scientific literature, from which they conclude that humans should not be considered as different from other animals, does not take into account many recent psychological and neuroscientific developments and rests upon a flawed understanding of the relationship between gradual and categorical differences, misrepresenting the two as mutually exclusive concepts.


Intelligence, Complexity, And Individuality In Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin 2019 Kimmela Center

Intelligence, Complexity, And Individuality In Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin

Animal Sentience

Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are among the earliest animals domesticated for human use. They are consumed worldwide as mutton, hogget, and lamb, kept as wool and milk producers, and used extensively in scientific research. The popular stereotype is that sheep are docile, passive, unintelligent, and timid, but a review of the research on their behavior, affect, cognition, and personality reveals that they are complex, individualistic, and social.


A Sociopolitical View Of Mental Health: An Exploration Of The Lived Experiences Of Policymakers Regarding Their Perspectives Surrounding Mental Health Policy Construction, KATIE C. FETZER 2018 University of New Orleans

A Sociopolitical View Of Mental Health: An Exploration Of The Lived Experiences Of Policymakers Regarding Their Perspectives Surrounding Mental Health Policy Construction, Katie C. Fetzer

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

A substantial gap exists between those who are considered experts on mental health (e.g., academics, mental health professionals) and those in charge of constructing mental health policies (e.g., legislators, Senators). This gap is in areas of both knowledge and professional relations. Mental health professionals are not adequately trained to engage in policy advocacy and reform efforts and have little to no policy advocacy training (Smith, Reynolds, & Rovnak, 2009). Policymakers lack necessary knowledge related to mental health for effective mental health policy construction (Corrigan, Druss, & Perlick, 2014; Lee, Smith, & Henry, 2013). As a result of this gap, mental health policies are ineffective, and many mental health professionals lack understanding and experience in the area of policy advocacy (Smith et al., 2009; Tanenbaum, 2005). This qualitative study aimed to contribute to filling this gap by exploring the perspectives of policymakers with the purpose of gaining a better understanding of the mental health ...


The Effects Of Semantic Priming On Lexical Processing, Alexander Taikh 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Semantic Priming On Lexical Processing, Alexander Taikh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The present experiments were designed to investigate the locus of the semantic priming effect, a phenomenon that has received much research attention. Semantically related primes (e.g., cat) might activate the lexical representations of their targets (e.g., DOG) through automatic spreading activation at short stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the prime and target, or through generation of words expected to follow the prime at long SOAs. Alternately, semantically related primes might be used strategically to aid responding after target identification. The effects of masked orthographic primes (e.g., judpe-JUDGE), in contrast, are assumed to be strictly lexical and automatic ...


The Effects Of Emotionally Salient Unimodal And Multimodal Stimuli On Low-Level Visual Perception, Stephen Raymond Pierzchajlo 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Emotionally Salient Unimodal And Multimodal Stimuli On Low-Level Visual Perception, Stephen Raymond Pierzchajlo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Sensory information can both impair and enhance low-level visual feature processing, and this can be significantly modulated depending on the whether this information matches the visual sensory modality. Emotionally significant visual and auditory stimuli can have opposing effects on attention. While task-irrelevant emotionally salient visual stimuli can often impair task attention, task-irrelevant emotionally salient auditory stimuli have been shown to enhance aspects of attention. To date, no study has directly compared how emotionally salient information presented to different sensory modalities can affect low-level vision. Using Gabor patches of differing contrasts to measure the threshold of visual perception, we hypothesized that ...


Circumventing Spatio-Numeric Biases Through Non-Numeric Assessments Of Perceived Causal Strength, Daniel William Czarnowski 2018 Seton Hall University

Circumventing Spatio-Numeric Biases Through Non-Numeric Assessments Of Perceived Causal Strength, Daniel William Czarnowski

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Knowledge of cause and effect allows individuals to meaningfully interpret the events they perceive in the world, and the understanding of causality is thought to be grounded in the understanding of forces (Wolf, Ritter, & Holmes, 2014). Previous research has linked handedness with both the ability to exert force (e.g., Linkenauger et al., 2005) and causal learning (e.g., Goedert & Czarnowski, 2017). Historically, number lines have been used to assess causality, but because handedness has a strong spatial element, SNARC effects may influence judgments (Fias, 1996). The current experiment replicates previous work by Goedert and Czarnowski (2017) but changes the ...


Rethinking Metacognitive Intervention: A Scaffolded Exam Wrapper Strategy, Aaron Ridall 2018 The College at Brockport

Rethinking Metacognitive Intervention: A Scaffolded Exam Wrapper Strategy, Aaron Ridall

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

Students lack the behaviors and strategies that support success in postsecondary environments, which has led one-third of all college students to enroll in remedial courses (Bowen, Chingos, & McPherson, 2009). One particular executive function that low-achieving students are often without is metacognition, or thinking about thinking. Traditional models of education in the United States do not teach students how to analyze their performance even though metacognition is linked to improved academic performance (Young & Fry, 2008). This work presents a scaffolded metacognitive strategy to help low-achieving students improve their metacognitive skillfulness and examination performance.


The False Hope Of Deliberate Forgetting: A Critical Response To Proponents Of Limited-Use Memory Manipulation, Peter A. DePergola II 2018 Sacred Heart University

The False Hope Of Deliberate Forgetting: A Critical Response To Proponents Of Limited-Use Memory Manipulation, Peter A. Depergola Ii

Philosophy, Theology and Religious Studies Faculty Publications

The emergence of manipulation techniques that dampen, disassociate, erase, and replace unsavory episodic memories have given pause to even the most ardent proponents of the practice. Supporters of memory manipulation have since clarified that the interventions should be made available exclusively in extreme and limited-use cases. In light of the narrowing of this approach, the present essay examines the arguments in favor of limited-use memory manipulation (LUMM) for the two most commonly-cited circumstances in which the practice is claimed to be justified: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance addiction. After examining the neuroscience of PTSD and substance addition, the critical ...


Values Vs. Self-Interest As Determinants Of Attitudes: Through A Construal Level Theory Lens, (Sometimes) Self-Interest Wins, Austin D. Eubanks 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Values Vs. Self-Interest As Determinants Of Attitudes: Through A Construal Level Theory Lens, (Sometimes) Self-Interest Wins, Austin D. Eubanks

Theses and Dissertations

The present study (n = 335) attempted to conceptually replicate Hunt, Kim, Borgida, and Chaiken (2010) with a high-powered design to investigate whether values and self-interest differentially impact attitudes depending on psychological distance. Participants were assigned to complete a task that made self- or other-focused values more accessible, then indicated their attitudes about a student fee increase at a university to fund scholarships the participants would not be eligible to receive (thus going against their own financial self-interest for the well being of someone else). The memo describing the fee increase was manipulated such that the increase would be occurring at ...


Investigating Affective Pathways For The Influence Of Justification On Self-Control, Morgan Hill 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating Affective Pathways For The Influence Of Justification On Self-Control, Morgan Hill

Theses and Dissertations

People struggle with temptation in their everyday lives. Research often attributes failures in self-regulation to overwhelming and uncontrollable impulses. However, research also supports the idea that cognitive factors (e.g., justification) can license tempting behavior and allow individuals to behave in ways that run counter to their long-term goals. In addition, it is likely that affect plays a role in justification-based self-control failure. The current set of three studies investigated the role of affect in justification-based self-control failure. Study 1 tested the prediction that recall of past successes would result in increased positive affect. Study 2 assessed whether justification results ...


The Cognitive Psychology Of Humour In Written Puns, James Boylan 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Cognitive Psychology Of Humour In Written Puns, James Boylan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The primary purpose of this dissertation was to investigate how humour from written puns is produced. Prior models have emphasized that novel or surprising incongruities should be important to humour appreciation­ (Suls, 1972; Topolinski, 2014). In study 1, a new approach to operationalizing incongruity as semantic dissimilarity was developed and tested using Latent Semantic Analysis (Landauer, Foltz & Laham, 1998). “Latent semantic incongruity” was associated with humour ratings, but only for puns with low ratings of familiarity from a prior occasion or for those with a low level of aggressive content. Overall, there was also an unexpected strong positive association between ...


Semantic Processing Of Nominal Metaphor: Figurative Abstraction And Embodied Simulation, Hamad Al-Azary 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Semantic Processing Of Nominal Metaphor: Figurative Abstraction And Embodied Simulation, Hamad Al-Azary

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In a metaphor such as that lawyer is a shark, the concept lawyer, which is the metaphor topic, and the concept shark, which is the metaphor vehicle, interact to produce a figurative meaning such that lawyers are predatory. Some theorists argue that sensorimotor properties of the vehicle are the basis of metaphor comprehension (Gibbs & Matlock, 2008; Paivio, 1979; Wilson & Gibbs, 2007). As such, that lawyer is a shark is processed by an embodied simulation where sensorimotor imagery associated with sharks is simulated (e.g., sharks hunting in deep water). However, the long-standing assumption is that metaphors are processed abstractly and sensorimotor representations play no role (e.g., Gentner & Bowdle, 2008; Glucksberg, 2008). This thesis examines the role of sensorimotor simulation in processing metaphor. In Studies 1 – 2, participants rated metaphors on comprehensibility. The metaphors contained vehicles that varied on a semantic richness variable known as body-object interaction (BOI), which characterizes the degree to ...


School Of Rock: The Relationship Between Music Training And Academic Academic Achievement, Clayton Hadlock 2018 Brigham Young University

School Of Rock: The Relationship Between Music Training And Academic Academic Achievement, Clayton Hadlock

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal in Psychology

Music education has been a key part of human culture for thousands of years (Cartwright, 2013). As children often begin to receive musical education during grade school, many researchers have begun to investigate whether musical training may benefit other areas of academics. This literature review evaluates the overall effectiveness of musical training on academic performance for three different age groups: pre- and elementary school children under 12 years old; middle and high school-age adolescents between 12 and 18 years old; and college and university students over 18 years old. Musical training here includes instrumental and vocal training, as well as ...


Exploring The Neural Mechanisms Of Physics Learning, Jessica E. Bartley 2018 Florida International University

Exploring The Neural Mechanisms Of Physics Learning, Jessica E. Bartley

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents a series of neuroimaging investigations and achievements that strive to deepen and broaden our understanding of human problem solving and physics learning. Neuroscience conceives of dynamic relationships between behavior, experience, and brain structure and function, but how neural changes enable human learning across classroom instruction remains an open question. At the same time, physics is a challenging area of study in which introductory students regularly struggle to achieve success across university instruction. Research and initiatives in neuroeducation promise a new understanding into the interactions between biology and education, including the neural mechanisms of learning and development. These ...


The State Of The Video Game Industry And Potential Implications Of Current Business Practices, Stephen Friend 2018 South Georgia State College

The State Of The Video Game Industry And Potential Implications Of Current Business Practices, Stephen Friend

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The State of the Video Game Industry and Potential Implications of Current Business Practices

Stephen J. Friend - Stephenfri89@gmail.com

  • Student at South Georgia State University

Abstract

This study aims to highlight the state of the video game industry by examining “AAA” (triple A) development studios and publishing companies and their business structure along with their implementation of microtransactions and other monetary schemes. The fiscal returnings and statistic quarterly updates provided by GameIndustry.biz, GameRant, and Newzoo show companies such as Ubisoft and Electronic Arts(EA) are making more than 51% of their annual income from microtransactions. In conjunction, the ...


22 - “Make Me A Sandwich” - “Poof, You’Re A Sandwich!”: Ditransitive Syntax In The Brain, Haley Shea J. Barfield 2018 University of North Georgia

22 - “Make Me A Sandwich” - “Poof, You’Re A Sandwich!”: Ditransitive Syntax In The Brain, Haley Shea J. Barfield

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

How does the brain distinguish between sentences with nearly identical structures? Neurolinguists have begun to form a fascinating picture of language in the brain in the decades since the first observation of event-related potentials during language tasks. A deeper understanding of syntactic activity—including pattern recognition, ambiguity resolution, and interpretation of functional constituents during sentence processing—would yield insights beneficial to the fields of language education, brain-computer interface, human-computer interaction, and neurolinguistic programs for language acquisition, speech therapy, and rehabilitation of communicative disorders.

To map the brain’s responses to sentence structures, we will use scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to measure ...


Social Media Representation And Self-Esteem, Charlton Lyons, Sevon Baxley 2018 Fort Valley State University

Social Media Representation And Self-Esteem, Charlton Lyons, Sevon Baxley

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Abstract

Since the latter half of the 20th century, technology or the digital revolution has evolved the way we communicate with others. Social media became a way to express one’s personal opinions on various topics. Individuals may present themselves differently on social media than in real life. This false presentation may be an issue that could affect social relationships. The misrepresentation of oneself is illustrated in the fact that most human beings would like to be viewed in a positive light by others (Green, 2013). In this research, we address the question; does self-esteem influence a person’s self-presentation ...


Questionable Research Practices When Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Marcus Crede 2018 Iowa State University

Questionable Research Practices When Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Marcus Crede

Psychology Publications

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe common questionable research practices (QRPs) engaged in by management researchers who use confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) as part of their analysis.

Design/methodology/approach The authors describe seven questionable analytic practices and then review one year of journal articles published in three top-tier management journals to estimate the base rate of these practices.

Findings The authors find that CFA analyses are characterized by a high base rate of QRPs with one practice occurring for over 90 percent of all assessed articles.

Research limitations/implications The findings of this paper call into ...


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