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Full-Text Articles in Cognition and Perception

Pan Negro: En Pos De Una Pedagogía De Liberación, Lizely M. López Apr 2019

Pan Negro: En Pos De Una Pedagogía De Liberación, Lizely M. López

Vernacular: New Connections in Language, Literature, & Culture

La producción literaria del escritor y pedagogo catalán Emili Teixidor es reconocida por su misión pedagógica. Su labor consistía en la creación de una literatura dirigida al público lector infantil y juvenil con objetivos pedagógicos específicos para formar lectores ágiles. Teixidor no se limitó a la población lectora infantil y juvenil, también produjo literatura dirigida a adultos. De su producción literaria para adultos, destaca Pan negro (2003), novela galardonada con varios premios, entre estos el premio Joan Crexells al mejor libro en 2003 y llevada a la pantalla grande en 2011 por el director Agustín Villaronga.

En Pan negro (2010 ...


Eyewitness Identification: A System Handbook, Gary L. Wells Apr 2019

Eyewitness Identification: A System Handbook, Gary L. Wells

Gary L. Wells

There is no debate about the fact that eyewitness identifications can be unreliable. False eyewitness identifications resulting in false convictions have been documented by various authors. This book is based primarily on a premise that I proposed in a 1978 article ("Applied Eyewitness Testimony Research: System Variables and Estimator Variables"): a significant proportion of the errors that occur in eyewitness identification can be prevented by the use of proper procedures. There has been an explosion of scientific research in psychology since the mid-1970s on eyewitness testimony and this book is a culmination of that knowledge plus a strong dose of ...


Eyewitness Identification: 'I Noticed You Paused On Number Three.', Bill Nettles, Zoe Sanders, Gary L. Wells Apr 2019

Eyewitness Identification: 'I Noticed You Paused On Number Three.', Bill Nettles, Zoe Sanders, Gary L. Wells

Gary L. Wells

An eyewitness to a crime is the most damaging evidence the government can present in a criminal trial. The impact on the jury of a witness pointing to the defense table and saying “that is the man right there – I will never forget his face” is overwhelming. The prosecutor can often support the veracity of the identification by providing testimony that the witness previously identified the accused in some sort of a photo spread. If the witness is a victim, police officer or some other witness sympathetic to the government, the testimony usually goes something like this: “The officer showed ...


The Generalization Of Fear Condition Between Viewed And Imagined Percepts, Lauryn Michelle Burleigh Mar 2019

The Generalization Of Fear Condition Between Viewed And Imagined Percepts, Lauryn Michelle Burleigh

LSU Master's Theses

Mental images can provoke intense emotional states (Holmes & Matthews, 2010). Imagery and perception have common neural and physiological mechanisms, including activation of the early visual areas (Albers et al., 2013). We tested the prediction that individuals can acquire fear to imagined percepts and if this fear transfers to viewing percepts, using fMRI and self-reported measures to determine participants’ fear. The participants completed a task in which they viewed and imagined two stimuli, and were fear conditioned when imagining the CS+. Participants are only told that mild electrical stimulation will be paired with one of the stimuli, but not which stimulus, viewed or imagined. Participants completed 6 runs of each task after completing 6 runs of a habituation form of each task. Behaviorally, participants report greater fear when imagining the CS+ than imagining the CS-. When acquiring fear to an imagined stimulus, we found significant activation in the right insula. These findings are consistent with previous literature indicating that this regions are involved in processes related to emotional memory, autonomic arousal, and emotion-related motivation. Behaviorally, participants also report greater fear when viewing the CS+ than when viewing the CS-, though neither is ever paired with shock. When fear is generalized from an imagined precept to a viewed one (i.e., CS+ view > CS- view), we found no significant activation. We can conclude that participants generalize the fear acquired when imagining the stimulus to viewing the stimulus. Finally, participants also show a similar level of self-reported fear to fear conditioning acquired to imagining a stimulus as to when fear is acquired to viewing a stimulus. We found insular cortex and precentral gyrus activation when investigating the similarities between these processes. These results indicate: that humans can fear condition to imagined percepts, which involves activation of anterior insula; that this fear conditioning generalizes to instances of viewing the conditioned percept; and that differential conditioning to both imagined and viewed percepts produced a similar magnitude of subjective fear along with activation of the right anterior insula.


A Negative Effect Of A Contractive Pose Is Not Evidence For The Positive Effect Of An Expansivepose: Comment On Cuddy, Schultz, And Fosse (2018), Marcus Crede Mar 2019

A Negative Effect Of A Contractive Pose Is Not Evidence For The Positive Effect Of An Expansivepose: Comment On Cuddy, Schultz, And Fosse (2018), Marcus Crede

Psychology Publications

Cuddy,Schultz and Fosse (2018) present the results of p-curve analyses that are interpreted as providing "clear evidential value for power posing effects”. This commentary highlights that the vast majority of the studies included in the p-curve analyses were not designed in a way that could speak to the efficacy of power poses relative to a normal or neutral pose. Further, I discuss how the few studies that were designed to shed light on this issue indicate that any overall effect of physical pose on feelings of power, emotions, affect, and self-evaluations is almost entirely due to the negative effect ...


Painting Intimacy: Art-Based Research Of Intimacy, Michal Lev Mar 2019

Painting Intimacy: Art-Based Research Of Intimacy, Michal Lev

Expressive Therapies Dissertations

This art-based research explores whether — and, if so, how — the process of painting, together with witnessing and reflection on the process and imagery, further an understanding of intimacy. The research also examines the conditions that favor intimacy, the obstacles to intimacy, and the particular features of artistic media, processes and reflection, through the editing of video footage, that can further the intimate experience. The participants in the study were five adults (including the researcher) between the ages of thirty and eighty who were familiar with the creation of visual art. Among them were three women and two men who vary ...


Adhd And The Deficit Of Knowing: What?, Katie N. Schenk Mar 2019

Adhd And The Deficit Of Knowing: What?, Katie N. Schenk

Crossing Borders: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

This research-based essay explores the author’s experience with ADHD, as the essay’s formatting and usage of space evolves into a visual representation of the ADHD mind and questions the human capacity to identify, label, and differentiate inaccessible experiences. The common, often misinformed understanding of ADHD is disputed through in depth analyses of various brain functions. In particular, the atypical development of the executive functions housed in the ADHD person’s frontal lobe are explored through both contemporary research and personal experience, which are variously compared and contrasted to the supposed neurotypical experience. Consideration of ADHD’s lifelong stigma ...


Multicompetence, Multiple Intelligences And First-Year Composition Students, Patricia Rice'-Daniels Mar 2019

Multicompetence, Multiple Intelligences And First-Year Composition Students, Patricia Rice'-Daniels

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to examine, gain, and ultimately share an understanding of certain cognitive differences, similarities, intelligence patterns, and preferences between competent monolingual (English) and multicompetent bilingual/multilingual first-year composition (FYC) college students. Within this project is an attempt to address the following questions: Do monolingual and bilingual/multilingual FYC students show different strengths and weaknesses in their cognitive abilities? Are there learning preferences and literacy differences or similarities between monolingual and bilingual/multilingual FYC students?

Primarily, two cognitive concepts were used in this examination to provide perspectives and quantitative data in response to the above questions ...


Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. Lapaglia, Jason C.K. Chan Feb 2019

Telling A Good Story: The Effects Of Memory Retrieval And Context Processing On Eyewitness Suggestibility, Jessica A. Lapaglia, Jason C.K. Chan

Psychology Publications

Witnesses are likely to describe a crime many times before testifying or encountering misinformation about that crime. Research examining the effect of retrieval on later suggestibility has yielded mixed results. LaPaglia and Chan manipulated whether misinformation was presented in a narrative or misleading questions, and they found that retrieval increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented in a narrative, but reduced suggestibility when the same misinformation was presented in questions. In the current study, we aimed to address why these differences occurred. Specifically, we examined whether contextual detail and narrative coherence during misinformation exposure influenced the relation between retrieval and suggestibility ...


Person Perception, Bruce D. Bartholow, Cheryl L. Dickter Feb 2019

Person Perception, Bruce D. Bartholow, Cheryl L. Dickter

Cheryl Dickter

The complexities of the brain and nervous system make neuroscience an inherently interdisciplinary pursuit, one that comprises disparate basic, clinical, and applied disciplines. Behavioral neuroscientists approach the brain and nervous system as instruments of sensation and response; cognitive neuroscientists view the same systems as a solitary computer with a focus on representations and processes. The Oxford Handbook of Social Neuroscience marks the emergence of a third broad perspective in this field. Social neuroscience emphasizes the functions that emerge through the coaction and interaction of conspecifics, the neural mechanisms that underlie these functions, and the commonality and differences across social species ...


Categorization Of Exam Questions To Improve Metacognition, Tiffany Barrett Feb 2019

Categorization Of Exam Questions To Improve Metacognition, Tiffany Barrett

UNLV Best Teaching Practices Expo

This practice addresses UNLV students’ need for greater metacognitive awareness. Students often employ memorization as a study strategy when preparing for an exam. This can create an inability to apply the knowledge in a complex or different scenario. We know that “practice retrieving” study activities produce greater gains in meaningful learning (Karpicke 2011) but often students don’t identify a need for a change in study habits and a deeper level of understanding, especially if their exam score is considered passing.


Individual Differences In Sensitivity To Visuomotor Discrepancies, John Dewey, Shane Mueller Feb 2019

Individual Differences In Sensitivity To Visuomotor Discrepancies, John Dewey, Shane Mueller

Department of Cognitive and Learning Sciences Publications

This study explored whether sensitivity to visuomotor discrepancies, specifically the ability to detect and respond to loss of control over a moving object, is associated with other psychological traits and abilities. College-aged adults performed a computerized tracking task which involved keeping a cursor centered on a moving target using keyboard controls. On some trials, the cursor became unresponsive to participants’ keypresses. Participants were instructed to immediately press the space bar if they noticed a loss of control. Response times (RTs) were measured. Additionally, participants completed a battery of behavioral and questionnaire-based tests with hypothesized relationships to the phenomenology of control ...


Recognition By Flickering Components: The Effect Of Temporal Modulation On Image Recognition, Alla Chavarga Feb 2019

Recognition By Flickering Components: The Effect Of Temporal Modulation On Image Recognition, Alla Chavarga

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A primary goal of vision is to identify objects rapidly and efficiently. Successful object and scene recognition results from the integration of both feed-forward and feedback processes that correspond a two-dimensional retinal image to a representation of its content stored in memory (Bar, 2003). One general organizing principle may be that the visual system analyzes images and scenes according to their spatial components in a coarse- (low spatial frequency) to-fine (high spatial frequency) sequence (Bullier, 2001; Hegde, 2008). An individual’s sensitivity to these spatial components is described by contrast sensitivity function (CSF), which indicates the minimum contrast required for ...


The Critical Thinking Component Regarding How Mass Media Increases Our Stress Levels, David B. Ross, Melissa Tara Sasso Jan 2019

The Critical Thinking Component Regarding How Mass Media Increases Our Stress Levels, David B. Ross, Melissa Tara Sasso

Dr. Melissa Tara Sasso

No abstract provided.


Limitations Of Sensory Systems (Loss) Assessment, Clarissa E. Steffen Ed.D. Jan 2019

Limitations Of Sensory Systems (Loss) Assessment, Clarissa E. Steffen Ed.D.

Faculty Scholarship

This checklist is designed to assess the degree of loss in families with children who experience sensory system impairments and in specific issues with limitations to insight and awareness of self and others. There are 100 items in the checklist and the lower the score the higher degree of loss experienced. This is a pilot paper for this assessment of losses experienced within families who have children with sensory limitations, and it is designed to gather input on the following factors.

Construct, Trait, Skills or Competency

Primary Factor

  • Integrative Reason

Insight, awareness, clarity of thought

  • Eco-System Development

Individuation, environmental ...


Consumers’ Preference Leading Purchase Intention Toward Manipulation Of Form And Transparency For Juice Packaging Design, Swati Pal, Abhishek Yevalkar, Amrita Bhattacharjee, Shivani Holkar Jan 2019

Consumers’ Preference Leading Purchase Intention Toward Manipulation Of Form And Transparency For Juice Packaging Design, Swati Pal, Abhishek Yevalkar, Amrita Bhattacharjee, Shivani Holkar

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Packaging plays a fundamental role on consumer’s intention to purchase, as it may be the first contact between the consumer and the product. The product packaging has a crucial role to attract consumer, force them to choose the product and act as a brand communication vehicle. The point of focus is how the elements of the package design affect consumer’s perceptions about products and brand. In this study, to understand the effect of package form and transparency on consumers’ pre-purchase preference of juice packaging, the participants (N=60) are asked to assess six designs against a 5-point Likert ...


Objectification In Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: Examining Relationship Satisfaction Of Female Objectification Recipients And Male Objectifying Perpetrators, Gemma Sáez, Abigail R. Riemer, Rebecca L. Brock, Sarah J. Gervais Jan 2019

Objectification In Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: Examining Relationship Satisfaction Of Female Objectification Recipients And Male Objectifying Perpetrators, Gemma Sáez, Abigail R. Riemer, Rebecca L. Brock, Sarah J. Gervais

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Sexual objectification is one of most the common manifestations of discrimination against women in Western societies; however, few studies have examined objectification in the context of romantic relationships. The primary aim of the present research was to bring the study of objectification phenomena into the setting of heterosexual romantic relationships. The present set of studies examined the relation between sexual objectification and relationship satisfaction for both the sexual objectification recipient (Study 1) and the sexual objectification perpetrator (Study 2). The results of the first study with 206 U.S. undergraduate female students in committed romantic relationships replicated a previously identified ...


A Demonstration Of The Collaborative Replication And Education Project: Replication Attempts Of The Red-Romance Effect, Jordan R. Wagge, Cristina Baciu, Kasia Banas, Joel T. Nadler, Sascha Schwarz, Yanna Weisberg, Hans Ijzerman, Nicole Legate, Jon Grahe Jan 2019

A Demonstration Of The Collaborative Replication And Education Project: Replication Attempts Of The Red-Romance Effect, Jordan R. Wagge, Cristina Baciu, Kasia Banas, Joel T. Nadler, Sascha Schwarz, Yanna Weisberg, Hans Ijzerman, Nicole Legate, Jon Grahe

Faculty Publications

The present article reports the results of a meta-analysis of nine student replication projects of Elliot et al.’s (2010) findings from Experiment 3, that women were more attracted to photographs of men with red borders (total n = 640). The eight student projects were part of the Collaborative Replication and Education Project (CREP; https://osf.io/wfc6u/), a research crowdsourcing project for undergraduate students. All replications were reviewed by experts to ensure high quality data, and were pre-registered prior to data collection. Results of this meta-analysis showed no effect of red on attractiveness ratings for either perceived attractiveness (mean ratings ...


Numeracy And Social Justice: A Wide, Deep, And Longstanding Intersection, Kira Hamman, Victor Piercey, Samuel L. Tunstall Jan 2019

Numeracy And Social Justice: A Wide, Deep, And Longstanding Intersection, Kira Hamman, Victor Piercey, Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

We discuss the connection between the numeracy and social justice movements both in historical context and in its modern incarnation. The intersection between numeracy and social justice encompasses a wide variety of disciplines and quantitative topics, but within that variety there are important commonalities. We examine the importance of sound quantitative measures for understanding social issues and the necessity of interdisciplinary collaboration in this work. Particular reference is made to the papers in the first part of the Numeracy special collection on social justice, which appear in this issue.


One Step At A Time: Does Gradualism Build Coordination?, Maoliang Ye, Jie Zheng, Plamen Nikolov, Sam Asher Jan 2019

One Step At A Time: Does Gradualism Build Coordination?, Maoliang Ye, Jie Zheng, Plamen Nikolov, Sam Asher

Economics Faculty Scholarship

This study investigates a potential mechanism to promote coordination. With theoretical guidance using a belief-based learning model, we conduct a multi-period, binary-choice, and weakest-link laboratory coordination experiment to study the effect of gradualism – increasing the required levels (stakes) of contributions slowly over time rather than requiring a high level of contribution immediately – on group coordination performance. We randomly assign subjects to three treatments: starting and continuing at a high stake, starting at a low stake but jumping to a high stake after a few periods, and starting at a low stake while gradually increasing the stakes over time (the Gradualism ...


Sharing Emotions Builds Bridges Between Individuals And Between Species, Elisabetta Palagi Jan 2019

Sharing Emotions Builds Bridges Between Individuals And Between Species, Elisabetta Palagi

Animal Sentience

Many animal species express, perceive and share emotions. These abilities have been favoured by natural selection because they allow subjects to respond to various situations in an appropriate way, thus facilitating survival and increasing fitness. The same-face/same-emotion phenomenon is at the basis of sharing feelings and emotions. Recent studies show that this capacity is not unique to humans and that it plays an important role in creating cohesive societies in many different species.


Phenotypic Similarity And Moral Consideration, S. Brian Hood, Sophia Giddens Jan 2019

Phenotypic Similarity And Moral Consideration, S. Brian Hood, Sophia Giddens

Animal Sentience

Identifying specific traits to justify according differential moral status to humans and non-human animals may be more challenging than Chapman & Huffman suggest. The reasons for this also go against their recommendation that we ought to attend to how humans and non-humans are similar. The problem lies in identifying the moral relevance of biological characteristics. There are, however, other reasons for treating non-human animals as worthy of moral consideration, such as the Precautionary Principle.


Our Brains Make Us Out To Be Unique In Ways We Are Not, Matthew J. Criscione, Julian Paul Keenan Jan 2019

Our Brains Make Us Out To Be Unique In Ways We Are Not, Matthew J. Criscione, Julian Paul Keenan

Animal Sentience

Humans have long viewed themselves in a favorable light. This bias is consistent with a general pattern of self-enhancement. Neural systems in the medial prefrontal cortex underlie this way of thinking, which, even when false, may be beneficial for survival. It is hence not surprising that we often disregard contrary evidence in believing ourselves superior.


Is Human Uniqueness Fake News?, Sean Hermanson Jan 2019

Is Human Uniqueness Fake News?, Sean Hermanson

Animal Sentience

The world and its troubles don't need unfounded denials of human uniqueness.


“I Am Not An Animal”, Lori Marino Jan 2019

“I Am Not An Animal”, Lori Marino

Animal Sentience

The answer to Chapman & Huffman’s question — “Why do we want to think humans are different?” — lies in the work of Ernest Becker and the social psychology literature known as Terror Management Theory, according to which our deep anxiety about animality and death can drive our need to feel superior to the other animals.


Mobilizing Heads And Hearts For Wildlife Conservation, Valérie A. M. Schoof, Simon L'Allier Jan 2019

Mobilizing Heads And Hearts For Wildlife Conservation, Valérie A. M. Schoof, Simon L'Allier

Animal Sentience

Highlighting the shared evolutionary relationships between humans and animals — and recognizing that all species, including humans, are unique in their own way — may facilitate caring for and conserving animals by tapping into a human emotion: empathy.


Moral Relevance Of Cognitive Complexity, Empathy And Species Differences In Suffering, John Lazarus Jan 2019

Moral Relevance Of Cognitive Complexity, Empathy And Species Differences In Suffering, John Lazarus

Animal Sentience

I qualify two criticisms made by commentators on Chapman & Huffman’s target article. Responding to the view that differences between humans and other animals are irrelevant to deciding how we should treat other species, I point out that differences between any species in their capacity to suffer are morally relevant. And in response to the claim that suffering is the sole criterion for the moral treatment of animals, I argue that cognitive complexity and a capacity for empathy also have moral relevance to the extent that they influence suffering.


Developmental Aspects Of Capacities, Karen Bartsch Jan 2019

Developmental Aspects Of Capacities, Karen Bartsch

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman suggest that judgments of human superiority underlie our cruelty to animals. It might be useful to examine how such judgments operate within the human community. Children arguably have a potential for developing “superior” capacities but are outperformed on many tasks by animals. There is a continuum of development in children’s capacities. Perhaps there are interspecies evolutionary continua too. This highlights the complexity of reasoning about humans, animals, and moral inclusion.


Non-Human Animals Providing Rescue In Medical Emergencies, Rainer Spiegel Jan 2019

Non-Human Animals Providing Rescue In Medical Emergencies, Rainer Spiegel

Animal Sentience

In their target article, Chapman & Huffman challenge the quotation of Sir William Osler that the desire to take medication distinguishes humans from non-human animals. They provide examples of self-medication in non-human animals. Based on these examples, it can be inferred that non-human animals practice at least some form of medicine for symptom control. I would like to extend this view by showing that non-human animals not only provide self-medication, but also rescue others facing emergencies.


Mirror Neurons And Humanity’S Dark Side, Gisela Kaplan Jan 2019

Mirror Neurons And Humanity’S Dark Side, Gisela Kaplan

Animal Sentience

The last two decades have revealed brain mechanisms in birds and primates showing that, contrary to earlier prejudices, some birds can do things (cognitive and affective) on par with or even better than great apes and humans. The old dichotomies are breaking down; but the dark side is that these insights come at a time in the Anthropocene when humans have caused and continue to cause mass extinctions.