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Geology, Soils And Climate Of Western Australia's Wine Regions, Peter J. Tille, Angela Stuart-Street, Peter S. Gardiner 2022 Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia

Geology, Soils And Climate Of Western Australia's Wine Regions, Peter J. Tille, Angela Stuart-Street, Peter S. Gardiner

Bulletins 4000 -

This bulletin details what is special and unique about the geology, soil and climate of the south-west of Western Australia (WA), an area that encompasses the state’s 9 wine regions.

We have arranged the information into 2 parts:

  • In Part 1, we broadly describe the special geological, soil and climate features of the south-west of WA to provide context for the wine regions.
  • In Part 2, we describe the geology, soil and climate of the regions and subregions of the Geographical Indications (GI) scheme (administered by Wine Australia) for WA.

Through this work we have found that the wine ...


Effects Of Sowing Date And Phosphorus Fertiliser Application On Winter Survival Of Lucerne Cv. Aohan In The Northern Semi-Arid Region Of China, Z. L. Wang, Q. Zh. Sun, Y. W. Wang, Zh. Y. Li, Sh. F. Zhao 2022 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Effects Of Sowing Date And Phosphorus Fertiliser Application On Winter Survival Of Lucerne Cv. Aohan In The Northern Semi-Arid Region Of China, Z. L. Wang, Q. Zh. Sun, Y. W. Wang, Zh. Y. Li, Sh. F. Zhao

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In the northern semi-arid region of China, winter survival is always a limiting factor for lucerne production, because low temperatures and a dry climate in winter (Zhou et al., 1993; Ma, 2000; Sun & Gui, 2001; Sun et al., 2003). An experiment was conducted to find an appropriate sowing date and P application rate in order to improve lucerne winter survival.


Ear Emergence Of Different Grass Species Under Finnish Growing Conditions, M. Niskanen, O. Niemeläinen, L. Jauhiainen 2022 MTT Agrifood Research, Finland

Ear Emergence Of Different Grass Species Under Finnish Growing Conditions, M. Niskanen, O. Niemeläinen, L. Jauhiainen

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Timothy is the most commonly cultivated grass species in Finland. Swards cultivated for silage of hay are of pure timothy or timothy is the dominant species of the mixture. Successful timing of harvesting of the primary growth is very critical in Northern latitudes where the stand develops very rapidly at daylengths of above 18 hours with a daily mean temperature close to 20 °C. The primary growth has to be harvested within a very short period to obtain a yield of high and uniform quality. Short harvesting periods require high capacity harvest machinery which lead to high costs. If it ...


Reasons For The Premature Decline In Astragalus Adsurgens Stands In Kerqin Sandy Land, Q. Zh. Sun, Z. L. Wang, J. G. Han, Y. W. Wang, G. R. Liu 2022 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Reasons For The Premature Decline In Astragalus Adsurgens Stands In Kerqin Sandy Land, Q. Zh. Sun, Z. L. Wang, J. G. Han, Y. W. Wang, G. R. Liu

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Diseases partly account for reductions in Astragalus adsurgens, stand longevity. The effect of some cultural practices on the control of pests and diseases have been reported (Hou, 1986; Nan, 1996), but few reports have detailed the relationship among soil fertiliser status, diseases and premature stand decline. This study was conducted to investigate these relationships in order to extend the longevity of Astragalus adsurgens stands.


Range-Based Livestock Production In Turkmenistan, R. H. Behnke, G. Davidson 2022 Macaulay Institute, UK

Range-Based Livestock Production In Turkmenistan, R. H. Behnke, G. Davidson

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Turkmenistan retains a centralized system of livestock production in which many critical assets are owned by the state. Though technically in the temperate zone, the country's climate is harsh and unstable. Groundwater resources are unevenly distributed, leaving many potential grazing areas seasonally inaccessible due to lack of drinking water for livestock. This paper summarizes the results of a three-year study of rangelands, livestock production, flock economics and land tenure at two study sites, one in central and the other in eastern Turkmenistan. The results of this study suggest that pastoral communities in Turkmenistan have coped remarkably well with the ...


The Influence Of Fertiliser Application To Strip-Sown Grasslands On Herbage Production And Quality, A. Kohoutek, P. Komárek, V. Odstrčilová, P. Nerušil 2022 Research Institute of Crop Production, Czech Republic

The Influence Of Fertiliser Application To Strip-Sown Grasslands On Herbage Production And Quality, A. Kohoutek, P. Komárek, V. Odstrčilová, P. Nerušil

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

To increase the productivity of dairy cattle in the Czech Republic requires an improvement in herbage quality and an increase in the net energy of herbage. The decrease in cattle numbers by 50 % and the expansion of the grassland area both result in a surplus of feedstuffs of low quality. Introduction of strip-seeding of legumes and grasses into grasslands in interaction with fertilisation provides a possible solution to this problem.


Green Dairy, A Project For Environmental Friendly And Sustainable Dairy Systems In The Atlantic Area, H. Chambaut, A. Pflimlin, C. Raison 2022 Institut de l’Elevage, France

Green Dairy, A Project For Environmental Friendly And Sustainable Dairy Systems In The Atlantic Area, H. Chambaut, A. Pflimlin, C. Raison

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Green Dairy is an European Interreg III B project which runs over 3 years. It brings together 10 research and development partners from 5 countries and 11 regions of the Atlantic Area which range from Scotland to Portugal. It aims to provide a better understanding of the impact of intensive dairy systems on the quality of the environment in order to develop ways of improving practices in the different regions. This is expected to encourage more rapid responses to the problems of deteriorating water and air quality and a more appropriate response within or between regional contexts that could be ...


Management Options To Reduce N-Losses From Ploughed Grass-Clover, J. de Wit, G. J. van der Burgt, N. van Eekeren 2022 Louis Bolk Institute, The Netherlands

Management Options To Reduce N-Losses From Ploughed Grass-Clover, J. De Wit, G. J. Van Der Burgt, N. Van Eekeren

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Nitrate (NO3 -) leaching from grassland can be kept at acceptable levels, but is often high after ploughing for grassland renewal or for silage maize/grain production. In on-farm research with several organic farmers, management options are being explored to save scarce organic manure and to reduce N-losses.


Rangeland Ecological Management Counter-Measures Study Of Xinjiang, H. X. Cui, J. Li, S. Asiya, J. L. Zhang, Jialin 2022 Grassland Research Institute of Xinjiang Animal Science Academy, China

Rangeland Ecological Management Counter-Measures Study Of Xinjiang, H. X. Cui, J. Li, S. Asiya, J. L. Zhang, Jialin

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Xinjiang is located in the hinterland of the Asian-Euro continental area and far from the ocean. It is surrounded by mountains and forms a physiognomic landscape of two basins located in three mountains. This results in an extremely droughty continental climate and a harsh environment in the Temperate Zone. However, the geographical environment is diverse in the Xinjiang Autonomous region, the three high mountains and complicated geographical structure results in changes in ecological conditions with altitude and a diverse ecological environment. Because of the drought characteristics the desert area has developed different types of vegetation, and the complexity of the ...


Mechanical Aeration And Liquid Dairy Manure: Application Impacts On Grassland Runoff Water Quality And Yield, T. J. Basden, S. B. Shah, J. L. Miller 2022 West Virginia University Extension Service

Mechanical Aeration And Liquid Dairy Manure: Application Impacts On Grassland Runoff Water Quality And Yield, T. J. Basden, S. B. Shah, J. L. Miller

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Wet weather on heavy soils reduces oxygen availability in the root zone and reduces forage yields. Mechanical aeration can improve forage yield in these soil conditions. Research has shown that under certain conditions, mechanical aeration can increase yield by improving drainage and aeration (Davies et al., 1989); aeration can also increase depression, storage and infiltration thus reducing surface runoff and improving nutrient distribution in the root zone. Aeration on sloping, fertilised grassland can provide environmental (Douglas et al., 1995) and agronomic benefits. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the runoff water quality and agronomic impacts of mechanical aeration ...


Nitrogen Dynamics Following The Break-Up Of Grassland On Three Different Sandy Soils, Manfred Kayser, K. Seidel, J. Müller 2022 University of Göttingen, Germany

Nitrogen Dynamics Following The Break-Up Of Grassland On Three Different Sandy Soils, Manfred Kayser, K. Seidel, J. Müller

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Nitrogen (N) is accumulated under grassland depending on factors such as soil type, management, and fertiliser input. Break-up of grassland stimulates mineralisation of organic N and may lead to increased soil mineral N and leaching losses (Lloyd, 1992). The objective of this study was to find out how site factors, e.g. soil, previous management and sward age, the following crop and the new level of N fertiliser affect the amount of inorganic N in autumn and the preceding mineralisation processes when grassland is ploughed in spring.


Fine Colloids ‘Carry’ Diffuse Water Contaminants From Grasslands, P. M. Haygarth, A. L. Heathwaite 2022 Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research Station, UK

Fine Colloids ‘Carry’ Diffuse Water Contaminants From Grasslands, P. M. Haygarth, A. L. Heathwaite

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The transport of diffuse pollutants from grassland has traditionally been described by the operationally defined threshold of greater, or smaller than a nominated membrane filter size. Most commonly this has been a 0.45 μm threshold to define ‘solute’ and ‘particulate’ transport. In this paper we shall use phosphorus (P) to help provide an example of the importance of colloid-facilitated transport.


Leaching Losses Of N, P And K From Grazed Legume Based Swards: Some Preliminary Results, E. R. Dixon, A. C. Stone, D. Scholefield, D. J. Hatch 2022 Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, UK

Leaching Losses Of N, P And K From Grazed Legume Based Swards: Some Preliminary Results, E. R. Dixon, A. C. Stone, D. Scholefield, D. J. Hatch

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

There is increasing interest in sustainable agricultural systems because of environmental concerns. Animal production which utilises mixed grass and legume swards could be an effective measure in increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilisation, and investigation into different legume species is necessary. Leaching losses of N, P and K from 3 legume species under grazing by sheep were measured using Teflon-coated suction cups. The experiment took place on the UK site of the EU-funded, multi-site experiment – LEGGRAZE.


Soil Aggregate Dynamics, Particulate Organic Matter And Phosphate Under Dryland And Irrigated Pasture, J. T. Scott, L. M. Condron, R. W. McDowell 2022 AgResearch, New Zealand

Soil Aggregate Dynamics, Particulate Organic Matter And Phosphate Under Dryland And Irrigated Pasture, J. T. Scott, L. M. Condron, R. W. Mcdowell

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Soil aggregate formation and turnover affects the rate of occlusion or release of soil organic matter and therefore the availability for mineralisation or stabilisation of soil carbon (C) and phosphorus (P). Furthermore, differences in soil type, management and the quantity and quality of organic inputs can affect aggregate turnover rates (Six et al., 2000). Under pastoral farming the ratio of coarse particulate organic matter (inter-POM) inside macroaggregates but outside microaggregates to fine POM (intra-POM) within microaggregates may provide an indication of physical processes influencing mineralisation and stabilisation of soil C and organic P (Po). Our aim was to determine the ...


Fire And Nutrient Cycling In Shortgrass Steppe Of The Southern Great Plains, Usa, P. L. Ford, C. S. White 2022 USDA Forest Service

Fire And Nutrient Cycling In Shortgrass Steppe Of The Southern Great Plains, Usa, P. L. Ford, C. S. White

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Fire in semi-arid grasslands releases nutrients bound up in organic matter and accelerates the rate of decomposition in the soil. This research experimentally tested effects of season and frequency of fire on nutrient cycling dynamics in shortgrass steppe. The objective was to identify if fire treatments have the ability to increase potential grassland productivity relative to untreated ‘reference condition’ grassland. Many such studies focus on short-term, direct effects of fire. However, this study is part of a long-term, 18-year study examining both direct, and indirect effects of fire in the growing vs. dormant season at return intervals of 3, 6 ...


Maximising Slurry Crop Available Nitrogen Utilisation In Grassland Systems, J. R. Williams, E. Sagoo, B. J. Chambers, J. Laws, D. R. Chadwick 2022 ADAS Boxworth, UK

Maximising Slurry Crop Available Nitrogen Utilisation In Grassland Systems, J. R. Williams, E. Sagoo, B. J. Chambers, J. Laws, D. R. Chadwick

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In the UK, approximately 90 million tonnes of animal manure containing ca 450,000 tonnes of nitrogen (N) are recycled to agricultural land each year. The efficient utilisation of manure N can save farmers money and reduce diffuse air (ammonia) and water (nitrate) pollution. For slurries, bandspreading techniques (e.g. trailing shoe and trailing hose) can improve N utilisation by reducing ammonia volatilisation losses compared with conventional broadcast applications. They also provide increased spreading opportunities in spring/summer as slurry is placed in a band on the soil surface limiting herbage contamination, which can reduce the need to apply slurry ...


Phosphorus Transfer To River Water From Grassland Catchments In Ireland, H. Tunney, P. Jordan, G. Kiely, R. Moles, G. Morgan, P. Byrne, W. Menary, K. Daly 2022 Teagasc, Ireland

Phosphorus Transfer To River Water From Grassland Catchments In Ireland, H. Tunney, P. Jordan, G. Kiely, R. Moles, G. Morgan, P. Byrne, W. Menary, K. Daly

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In Ireland it is estimated that at least half of phosphorus (P) loss to water is from agricultural sources and National and European Union policy and legislation aim at reducing phosphorus (P) loss to water in order to reduce eutrophication. In Ireland, the average soil test P (STP) levels increased ten-fold, from less than 1 to over 8 mg Morgan P per l soil over the past 50 years, reflecting increased P inputs in fertiliser and animal feed. One of the main objectives of this three-year research programme, started in 2001, was to investigate P loss to water in grassland ...


Denitrification Under Pastures On Permeable Soils Helps Protect Ground Water Quality, M. P. Russelle, B. A. Browne, N. B. Turyk, B. Pearson 2022 USDA-Agricultural Research Service

Denitrification Under Pastures On Permeable Soils Helps Protect Ground Water Quality, M. P. Russelle, B. A. Browne, N. B. Turyk, B. Pearson

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Pastures have been implicated in ground water contamination by nitrate, especially in humid regions with thin or sandy soils (Stout et al., 2000). Significant losses can occur even under low N input, because available N from excreta patches often exceeds plant uptake capacity. Lack of evidence that appreciable nitrate leaching was occurring in established Midwestern USA pastures led us to test the hypothesis that denitrification was preventing or remediating nitrate loading. Higher denitrification rates have been found in the relatively limited number of trials since Ball & Ryden (1984) first reported the significance of this process in pastures.


Assessment Of Nitrogen Nutrition Status Of Grasses Under Water Deficit And Recovery, V. G. Dugo, Jean-Louis Durand, F. Gastal 2022 INRA, France

Assessment Of Nitrogen Nutrition Status Of Grasses Under Water Deficit And Recovery, V. G. Dugo, Jean-Louis Durand, F. Gastal

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Grasslands are rarely irrigated. They are therefore systematically submitted to more or less severe water deficits: as well as mineral deficiencies, water scarcity often also results in a reduction of nitrogen (N) status. Although identified some time ago, qualitatively, the interaction with N still remains difficult to take into account in quantitative analyses of crop physiology under water deficits. This paper illustrates how the nitrogen (N) status of the crop changes under water deficits. A N nutrition index (INN) was defined as the ratio of the actual N concentration of forage with the theoretical N concentration under optimal conditions, the ...


Improving Nutrient Supply Of Grassland Soil, G. Füleky, M. Orbán 2022 Szent István University, Hungary

Improving Nutrient Supply Of Grassland Soil, G. Füleky, M. Orbán

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

In the Southern corner of the Eastern Carpathian Mountains is located the hilly region of Barcaság. The total agricultural area is 180 thousand ha of which 90 thousand ha is grassland. The maximum yield of natural grassland does not exceed 1.2 t ha-1 hay. The aim of this work is to find appropriate fertiliser and liming rates to increase the hay yield and improve the soil nutrient supply.


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