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Corn Suitability Rating 2 (Csr2) Equation And Component Values, C. L. Burras, G. A. Miller, T. E. Fenton, A. M. Sassman 2017 Iowa State University

Corn Suitability Rating 2 (Csr2) Equation And Component Values, C. L. Burras, G. A. Miller, T. E. Fenton, A. M. Sassman

C. Lee Burras

CSR2 is a corn suitability rating calculated using six parameters. The “perfect corn producing” soil gets a rating of 100. A soil having nearly no potential to grow corn receives a rating of 5. Most soils have ratings somewhere in between. CSR2 is calculated on a map unit (MU) basis using the maps and data of the Iowa Cooperative Soil Survey (ICSS). Since the ICSS includes several agencies with sometimes slightly different data there are two ways it can be calculated. The first is CSR2-ISU, which assumes a MU is the soil series listed in the MU name. The second ...


Simulating Nitrate Drainage Losses From A Walnut Creek Watershed Field, Allah Bakhsh, Jerry L. Hatfield, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Liwang Ma, Lajpat R. Ahuja 2017 Iowa State University

Simulating Nitrate Drainage Losses From A Walnut Creek Watershed Field, Allah Bakhsh, Jerry L. Hatfield, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Liwang Ma, Lajpat R. Ahuja

Rameshwar S. Kanwar

This study was designed to evaluate the improved version of the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) using 6 yr (1992–1997) of field-measured data from a field within Walnut Creek watershed located in central Iowa. Measured data included subsurface drainage flows, NO3–N concentrations and loads in subsurface drainage water, and corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yields. The dominant soil within this field was Webster (fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Endoaquolls) and cropping system was corn–soybean rotation. The model was calibrated with 1992 data and was validated with 1993 to 1997 data. Simulations ...


Determining Threshold Responses Of Plant-Soil Feedbacks To Nitrogen Deposition, Lori A. Biederman, W. Stanley Harpole 2017 Iowa State University

Determining Threshold Responses Of Plant-Soil Feedbacks To Nitrogen Deposition, Lori A. Biederman, W. Stanley Harpole

Lori A. Biederman

Change associated with nitrogen deposition in the soil will alter ecosystem function and diversity. This study looks at precisely how plants and soil will interact to respond to the addition of N at various levels and in different forms.


Interpretive Geologic Cross Sections Across Lower Platte North Natural Resources District, Nebraska (Ccs-20), Dana Divine 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Interpretive Geologic Cross Sections Across Lower Platte North Natural Resources District, Nebraska (Ccs-20), Dana Divine

Conservation and Survey Division

No abstract provided.


Long-Term Tillage And Nitrogen Fertilization Effects On Soil Surface Chemistry, A. Obour, J. D. Holman 2017 Kansas State University

Long-Term Tillage And Nitrogen Fertilization Effects On Soil Surface Chemistry, A. Obour, J. D. Holman

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Long-term crop management practices can affect nutrient cycling and availability to crops. This study examined the long-term effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application (N rates of 0, 20, 40, and 60 lb N/a) and tillage intensity (conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT), and no-tillage (NT)) on soil phosphorus (P), micronutrients, and soil acidity in a dryland winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)–sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)–fallow cropping system. Results showed soil organic matter (SOM), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations were greater under NT compared to CT or RT. Similarly, NT ( 32 ppm) increased P accumulation in the upper ...


Spatial Sampling Strategies With Multiple Scientific Frames Of Reference, Paul B. Reverdy, Thomas F. Shipley, D. E. Koditschek 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Spatial Sampling Strategies With Multiple Scientific Frames Of Reference, Paul B. Reverdy, Thomas F. Shipley, D. E. Koditschek

Departmental Papers (ESE)

We study the spatial sampling strategies employed by field scientists studying aeolian processes, which are geophysical interactions between wind and terrain. As in geophysical field science in general, observations of aeolian processes are made and data gathered by carrying instruments to various locations and then deciding when and where to record a measurement. We focus on this decision-making process. Because sampling is physically laborious and time consuming, scientists often develop sampling plans in advance of deployment, i.e., employ an offline decision-making process. However, because of the unpredictable nature of field conditions, sampling strategies generally have to be updated online ...


Some Effects Of Method Of Application Of Fertilizers On Corn And Soils, Frederick B. Smith 2017 Iowa State College

Some Effects Of Method Of Application Of Fertilizers On Corn And Soils, Frederick B. Smith

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

These fertilizer experiments in the greenhouse and field gave the following results:

1. The 2-12-2 and 0-12-2 had a greater effect on the development of both the primary and secondary roots of corn than the 0-12-0.

2. Germination and root growth of corn were retarded when the fertilizers were applied in contact with the seed.

3. The desirable effects of fertilizers on the early growth, maturity and yield of corn appeared to be in proportion to the development of the roots of the plant.

4. The greatest development of both the primary and secondary roots was secured when the fertilizers ...


Influence Of Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Grown In Elevated Co2 On Apatite Dissolution, Brian Matthew Morra 2017 University of Maine

Influence Of Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Grown In Elevated Co2 On Apatite Dissolution, Brian Matthew Morra

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 brought about by human activity creates changes in plant morphology, growth rate and exudate production. Our study sought to understand the effect of these changes on soil mineral weathering using plants grown under two conditions, ambient CO2 (400ppm) and elevated CO2 (1000ppm). Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) were grown in flow-through microcosms consisting of a mixture of quartz and apatite sands. Plant growth was sustained by a nutrient solution devoid of calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P). Using Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy and colorimetry, Ca and P content of the leachate and plant tissue served ...


Soil Science Lesson Plan For The Cal Poly Learn By Doing Lab, Kelsey Ormonde 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Soil Science Lesson Plan For The Cal Poly Learn By Doing Lab, Kelsey Ormonde

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

To increase interest in soil science and other related sciences, educational materials need to be tailored to appeal to younger students. The purpose of this project was to create a soil science lesson plan that could be utilized by the Cal Poly Learn By Doing Lab. Information from several articles, textbooks, lesson plans, and websites was reviewed to create a soil science lesson plan for students in 5-8th grade. The lesson plan focused on the three sub-disciplines of soil science; physical, chemical, and biological. Activities were created to correspond to the three sub-disciplines. Alternate activities were created to allow ...


Development Of A Multiband Remote Sensing System For Determination Of Unsaturated Soil Properties, Cyrus D. Garner 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Development Of A Multiband Remote Sensing System For Determination Of Unsaturated Soil Properties, Cyrus D. Garner

Theses and Dissertations

A multiband system including active microwave sensing and visible-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was developed to measure unsaturated soil properties in both field and laboratory environments. Remote measurements of soil volumetric water content (θv), soil water matric potential (ψ), and soil index properties (liquid limit [LL], plastic limit [PL], and clay fraction [CF]) were conducted. Field-based measurement of θv was conducted using a ground-based radar system and field measurements within 10 percentage points of measurements acquired with traditional sampling techniques were obtained. Laboratory-based, visible and near infrared spectroscopy was found to be capable of obtaining empirical, soil specific regression functions (partial ...


Soil Moisture In A Regional Climate Model: Simulation And Projection, Zaitao Pan, Raymond W. Arritt, William J. Gutowski Jr., Eugene S. Takle 2017 Iowa State University

Soil Moisture In A Regional Climate Model: Simulation And Projection, Zaitao Pan, Raymond W. Arritt, William J. Gutowski Jr., Eugene S. Takle

Eugene Takle

Regional climate simulations driven by three sets of initial and lateral boundary conditions—analyzed observations, GCM control climate, and GCM enhanced greenhouse-gas scenario climate—are used to assess model accuracy in predicting soil moisture and to examine changes in soil moisture in the scenario climate. Simulated soil moisture does not show noticeable drift during the 10-year simulations. Observed and simulated soil moisture for Illinois and Iowa correspond reasonably well for the top 10 cm soil layer but a consistent low bias is present in the top 1 m. Growing season depletion of soil water is simulated well but recharge after ...


Measuring Soil Electrical Conductivity To Delineate Zones Of Variability In Production Fields, Gretchen Sassenrath, S. Kulesza 2017 Kansas State University

Measuring Soil Electrical Conductivity To Delineate Zones Of Variability In Production Fields, Gretchen Sassenrath, S. Kulesza

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Production fields in southeast Kansas are highly variable. Differences in elevation and changes in soil texture contribute to unevenness in plant-available moisture and nutrients, resulting in significant inconsistencies in crop production and yield within a field. These variabilities complicate management and impact the return on investments from different areas of the field. Identification of the regions of variability is possible through several methods, including visual inspection, remote imagery, and yield maps. An additional method of assessing soil variability is by measuring the electrical conductivity of the soil. Measuring apparent electrical conductivity gives a map of the spatial distribution of soil ...


Key Components Of Healthy Soils And Their Role In Crop Production, C. J. Hsiao, Gretchen Sassenrath, Charles Rice, L. Zeglin, G. Hettiarachchi 2017 Kansas State University

Key Components Of Healthy Soils And Their Role In Crop Production, C. J. Hsiao, Gretchen Sassenrath, Charles Rice, L. Zeglin, G. Hettiarachchi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Soil health is a confusing term that means different things to different people. To a crop producer, healthy soils are critical for good crop growth and yield. Some soil properties include soil texture, such as the relative percentage of sand, silt and clay; the water content; nutrient levels; organic carbon content; the microbial community; and microbial activity. These properties are determinants of soil health. Our research confirmed that changes in soil management affect the composition and activity of soil microorganisms in surface soils. Greater concentrations of microbial biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) in the no-till agricultural system indicated healthier ...


Mathematical Model Of The Shell With The Infill For Retaining Structures, Alexander T. Bekker, Nikita Ya. Tsimbelman, Dmitriy A. Potyanikhin, Andrey I. Mamontov, Ömer Bilgin, Tatiana I. Chernova 2017 Far Eastern Federal University

Mathematical Model Of The Shell With The Infill For Retaining Structures, Alexander T. Bekker, Nikita Ya. Tsimbelman, Dmitriy A. Potyanikhin, Andrey I. Mamontov, Ömer Bilgin, Tatiana I. Chernova

Ömer Bilgin

A description of finite element model and analysis of a shell with an infill is performed. A large diameter thin cylindrical shell structure with the edge leaning against compressible foundation soil is analyzed. Different materials are considered individually for the models of each structure shell and infill component (metal or reinforced concrete shell, and granular or elastic infill in a shell and foundation soil loaded by the structure). Contact conditions between 1) the infill and the shell’s inner surface and 2) between the foundation material and the shell edge are analyzed. An example of calculating strain conditions in the ...


A Study Of The Secondary Effects Of Hill Fertilization, Horace J. Harper 2017 Iowa State College

A Study Of The Secondary Effects Of Hill Fertilization, Horace J. Harper

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

A field, laboratory, and greenhouse study of secondary effects of hill fertilization was made using several different soils as follows: Carrington loam, Webster silt loam, Grundy silt loam, Knox silt loam, Marion silt loam, and Buckner coarse sand. The effect of hill fertilization on the root development of the corn plant was also investigated.

Acid phosphate was found to have a more pronounced effect on the hydrogen ion concentration of the soil solution than either ammonium sulfate or potassium chloride. In most cases the first effect of acid phosphate was to increase the acidity of the soil solution. In poorly ...


Relationships Between Hydrogen Ion, Hydroxyl Ion And Salt Concentrations And The Growth Of Seven Soil Molds, Harlan W. Johnson 2017 Iowa State College

Relationships Between Hydrogen Ion, Hydroxyl Ion And Salt Concentrations And The Growth Of Seven Soil Molds, Harlan W. Johnson

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Comparatively few data have been recorded relative to the effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the development and activities of molds and other fungi, altho such records have been secured for the bacteria. For both groups much more work has been accomplished on the effect of titratable acidity. The importance of molds in transforming plant food in the soil has made advisable the securing of such data. The present paper records the results of a study of the limiting and optimum hydrogen and hydroxyl ion concentrations and the limiting concentrations of several salts as related to the growth of seven ...


The Color Of Soils In Relation To Organic Matter Content, P. E. Brown, A. M. O'Neal 2017 Iowa State College

The Color Of Soils In Relation To Organic Matter Content, P. E. Brown, A. M. O'Neal

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The color of soils has long been considered to indicate to some extent, at least, their fertility. For centuries farmers in the humid regions have been accustomed to select their land very largely on the basis of color. Dark colored soils have been preferred because experience has shown that such soils are usually more productive than light colored types. But just what the relation is between the color of soils and their fertility or crop-producing power has never been determined. It has been assumed that the organic matter or humus content, which is mainly responsible for the color of soils ...


Catalyzed Synthesis Of Zinc Clays By Prebiotic Central Metabolites, Ruixin Zhou, Kaustuv Basu, Hyman Hartman, Christopher J. Matocha, S. Kelly Sears, Hajatollah Vali, Marcelo I. Guzman 2017 University of Kentucky

Catalyzed Synthesis Of Zinc Clays By Prebiotic Central Metabolites, Ruixin Zhou, Kaustuv Basu, Hyman Hartman, Christopher J. Matocha, S. Kelly Sears, Hajatollah Vali, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

How primordial metabolic networks such as the reverse tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle and clay mineral catalysts coevolved remains a mystery in the puzzle to understand the origin of life. While prebiotic reactions from the rTCA cycle were accomplished via photochemistry on semiconductor minerals, the synthesis of clays was demonstrated at low temperature and ambient pressure catalyzed by oxalate. Herein, the crystallization of clay minerals is catalyzed by succinate, an example of a photoproduced intermediate from central metabolism. The experiments connect the synthesis of sauconite, a model for clay minerals, to prebiotic photochemistry. We report the temperature, pH, and concentration dependence ...


Evaluating The Impacts Of Grassland Conversions To Experimental Forest On Groundwater Recharge In The Nebraska Sand Hills, Zablon A. Adane 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluating The Impacts Of Grassland Conversions To Experimental Forest On Groundwater Recharge In The Nebraska Sand Hills, Zablon A. Adane

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The Nebraska Sand Hills grasslands provide the greatest groundwater recharge rates in the High Plains Aquifer. However, the grasslands and their ecological services have become vulnerable to land use change and degradation. This study used a series of field data to investigate the effects of grassland conversions to forest on recharge rates in a century-old experimental forest in the Sand Hills. The results show that the impact of grassland conversion on recharge was dependent on the species and plantation density. Estimated recharge rates beneath the dense plantations represent reductions of 86–94% relative to the native grassland. Results of 1 ...


Accelerated Increase In The Arctic Tropospheric Warming Events Surpassing Stratospheric Warming Events During Winter, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang, Yen-Heng Lin, Ming-Ying Lee, Jin-Ho Yoon, Jonathan D.D. Meyer, Philip J. Rasch 2017 simon.wang@usu.edu

Accelerated Increase In The Arctic Tropospheric Warming Events Surpassing Stratospheric Warming Events During Winter, Shih-Yu (Simon) Wang, Yen-Heng Lin, Ming-Ying Lee, Jin-Ho Yoon, Jonathan D.D. Meyer, Philip J. Rasch

Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications

In January 2016, a robust reversal of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) took place associated with a rapid tropospheric warming in the Arctic region; this was followed by the occurrence of a classic sudden stratospheric warming in March-April. The succession of these two distinct Arctic warming events provides a stimulating opportunity to examine their characteristics in terms of similarities and differences. Historical cases of these two types of Arctic warming were identified and validated based upon tropical linkages with the Madden-Julian Oscillation and El Niño as well as those documented in previous studies. Our results indicate a recent and accelerated increase ...


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