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Predicting Post-Fire Change In West Virginia, Usa From Remotely-Sensed Data, Michael Strager P. Strager, Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy, Aaron E. Maxwell 2016 West Virginia University

Predicting Post-Fire Change In West Virginia, Usa From Remotely-Sensed Data, Michael Strager P. Strager, Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy, Aaron E. Maxwell

Journal of Geospatial Applications in Natural Resources

Prescribed burning is used in West Virginia, USA to return the important disturbance process of fire to oak and oak-pine forests. Species composition and structure are often the main goals for re-establishing fire with less emphasis on fuel reduction or reducing catastrophic wildfire. In planning prescribed fires land managers could benefit from the ability to predict mortality to overstory trees. In this study, wildfires and prescribed fires in West Virginia were examined to determine if specific landscape and terrain characteristics were associated with patches of high/moderate post-fire change. Using the ensemble machine learning approach of Random Forest, we determined ...


Landform Mapping Of The Clarks River Alluvial System Using Lidar Dems, Benedict W. Ferguson 2016 Murray State University

Landform Mapping Of The Clarks River Alluvial System Using Lidar Dems, Benedict W. Ferguson

Scholars Week

The Clarks River is located in western Kentucky near the city of Benton. It travels through and weathers lacustrine or lake deposits as well as fluvial or river deposits. These deposits are also overlain by loess deposited from the last glacial maximum. Historically, people have taken advantage of these rich deposits for agriculture which has led to increased settlement. With increased settlement, the river has experienced alteration. The west fork of the Clarks River has been channelized while the east fork of the Clarks River has managed to remain un-channelized and has since been allowed to run relatively freely.

Detailed ...


Mapping The Variability Of Soil Quality Indicators In Natural Versus Agricultural Ecosystems, Mary G. Derting Miss 2016 mderting

Mapping The Variability Of Soil Quality Indicators In Natural Versus Agricultural Ecosystems, Mary G. Derting Miss

Scholars Week

Traditionally, Kentucky agriculture has focused on crop production and soil fertility while overlooking soil quality and its dependence on land management type. This research attempted to reveal the importance of land management types and their individual effects on physical soil quality indicators. The second objective of this study was to show the variance of physical soil quality indicators across different land managements by using layered maps. Such visual representation of the data along with statistical analysis also showed which soil quality parameters are more sensitive to change in land management type. Land management types included three undisturbed grassland and undisturbed ...


Sensitivity Of Seven Diverse Speciesto Blue And Green Light: Interactions With Photon Flux, Michael Chase Snowden, Bruce Bugbee, Kevin R. Cope 2016 Utah State University

Sensitivity Of Seven Diverse Speciesto Blue And Green Light: Interactions With Photon Flux, Michael Chase Snowden, Bruce Bugbee, Kevin R. Cope

Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications

Despite decades of research, the effects of spectral quality on plant growth, and development are not well understood. Much of our current understanding comes from studies with daily integrated light levels that are less than 10% of summer sunlight thus making it difficult to characterize interactions between light quality and quantity. Several studies have reported that growth is increased under fluorescent lamps compared to mixtures of wavelengths from LEDs. Conclusions regarding the effect of green light fraction range from detrimental to beneficial. Here we report the effects of eight blue and green light fractions at two photosynthetic photon fluxes (PPF ...


Simple Soil Quality Tests And Organic Management Practices For Orchards In The Intermountain West, Esther Oline Thomsen 2016 Utah State University

Simple Soil Quality Tests And Organic Management Practices For Orchards In The Intermountain West, Esther Oline Thomsen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Soil quality problems such as erosion, depleted soil organic matter, salinity, depleted or excessive nutrient reserves and reduced water holding capacity are of increasing concern to farmers in the Intermountain West. Marginal soils require higher rates of fertilizers and other amendments to meet crop needs. As input costs rise and water resources are increasingly limited, simple and effective methods for evaluating and improving soil quality and fertility are of growing importance. Practices known to improve soil quality include reduced to no tillage, cover crop use- especially legumes, and addition of mulch and other carbon rich amendments. Comprehensive soil quality testing ...


Trapping Fecal Bacteria And Sediment In Surface Runoff From Cropland Treated With Poultry Litter, Mark S. Coyne, R. A. Gilfillen, Robert L. Blevins 2016 University of Kentucky

Trapping Fecal Bacteria And Sediment In Surface Runoff From Cropland Treated With Poultry Litter, Mark S. Coyne, R. A. Gilfillen, Robert L. Blevins

Mark S. Coyne

Between 1991 and 1994 the broiler population exploded in Kentucky as the poultry industry began to expand. The Kentucky Department of Agriculture predicts that within four years annual broiler production could exceed 275 million birds. This may be good for Kentucky's economy but it carries some important environmental consequences. If expansion continues as anticipated, the estimated waste production from broilers for processing could reach 300,000 tons per year (assuming each broiler house produces 150,000 birds per year and the yearly manure and litter production per house is approximately 160 tons).


The Fecal Coliform/Fecal Streptococci Ratio (Fc/Fs) And Water Quality In The Bluegrass Region Of Kentucky, Mark S. Coyne, J. M. Howell 2016 University of Kentucky

The Fecal Coliform/Fecal Streptococci Ratio (Fc/Fs) And Water Quality In The Bluegrass Region Of Kentucky, Mark S. Coyne, J. M. Howell

Mark S. Coyne

In the mid 70' s, someone noticed that the ratio of two indicator bacteria in fecal wastes - fecal coliforms (FC) and fecal streptococci (FS) - was characteristic of particular animal wastes. In human wastes, the fecal coliform/fecal streptococci ratio (FC/FS ratio) was greater than 4. In domesticated animals, like cattle, the ratio was between 0.1 and 4.0. In wild animals, the ratio was less than 0.1. Since that time, many attempts have been made to use the ratio to determine the source of fecal bacteria in contaminated ground water.


Filter Strip Length And Fecal Bacteria Trapping From Poultry Waste - An Update, Mark S. Coyne, R. A. Gilfillen, Robert L. Blevins 2016 University of Kentucky

Filter Strip Length And Fecal Bacteria Trapping From Poultry Waste - An Update, Mark S. Coyne, R. A. Gilfillen, Robert L. Blevins

Mark S. Coyne

Cheap, efficient, and environmentally sound waste disposal will be needed as Kentucky's broiler industry expands. The filter strip length needed to protect water resources from contaminants in surface runoff is a pressing issue in waste management and water quality. In a previous Soil Science News and Views (Vol. 15, No. 8) we reported that grass filter strips as short as 15 feet can trap over 90% of the fecal bacteria eroding from land-applied and incorporated poultry waste during runoff following rainstorms. In this update, we provide some additional information and conclusions from that study on filter strip length, based ...


Water Quality And Fecal Indicator Bacteria, Mark S. Coyne 2016 University of Kentucky

Water Quality And Fecal Indicator Bacteria, Mark S. Coyne

Mark S. Coyne

How can you tell if water is fit to drink? Color and taste aren't reliable guides for water safety. Clear water can be contaminated with chemicals or microorganisms the senses can't detect. One of the principle qualities of potable (drinkable) water is its freedom from microbial contaminants. This article will describe some criteria and methods that are used to determine the microbial quality of water.


Infiltration Of Fecal Bacteria Through Soils: Timing And Tillage Effects, Mark S. Coyne, C. S. Stoddard, John H. Grove, William O. Thom 2016 University of Kentucky

Infiltration Of Fecal Bacteria Through Soils: Timing And Tillage Effects, Mark S. Coyne, C. S. Stoddard, John H. Grove, William O. Thom

Mark S. Coyne

Land-applying animal wastes potentially exposes humans and animals to fecal pathogens, either by direct contact with soil and produce, or via ground water contamination. Some of these organisms are Salmonella, certain pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, protozoa such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and enteric viruses. Whether soil adequately filters these pathogens before they reach ground water depends on the interaction of porosity, texture, depth, water content, rainfall intensity and duration, and soil management.


Agricultural Impacts On Fecal Contamination Of Shallow Groundwaters In The Bluegrass Region Of Kentucky, Mark S. Coyne, J. M. Howell 2016 University of Kentucky

Agricultural Impacts On Fecal Contamination Of Shallow Groundwaters In The Bluegrass Region Of Kentucky, Mark S. Coyne, J. M. Howell

Mark S. Coyne

Any farming practices that degrade water quality contribute to agricultural nonpoint source pollution. This is a problem in Kentucky's Bluegrass region where shallow soils and karst geology permit surface contaminants to reach groundwater quickly. Real and perceived threats to public health may make groundwater protection plans a reality if evidence for non-point source pollution in agricultural areas continues to grow.


Tillage Slows Fecal Bacteria Infiltration Through Soil, Mark S. Coyne, S. W. McMurry, E. Perfect 2016 University of Kentucky

Tillage Slows Fecal Bacteria Infiltration Through Soil, Mark S. Coyne, S. W. Mcmurry, E. Perfect

Mark S. Coyne

Bacterial pathogens can degrade ground water quality by infiltrating and eroding from land treated with poultry wastes. The potential for ground water contamination (as well as associated health risks and cost of water treatment) greatly depends on the depth of soil to the water table or bedrock and soil structure. Pathogens must move through the soil profile to contaminate ground water (although sinkholes can provide a direct channel from the soil surface to the water table in karst areas). Deep soils have less potential for contamination than shallow soils. Structureless soils retain fecal bacteria better than well structured soils. Research ...


The Illinois Soil Nitrogen Test: Should It Be Used In Iowa?, John E. Sawyer, Mohammod Ali Tabatabai 2016 Iowa State University

The Illinois Soil Nitrogen Test: Should It Be Used In Iowa?, John E. Sawyer, Mohammod Ali Tabatabai

John E. Sawyer

The test was developed several years ago at the University of Illinois by researchers in the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences. It is a laboratory procedure designed to measure N liberated from soil heated for 5 hours with dilute alkali solution (sodium hydroxide). The test does not measure nitrate, but does measure exchangeable ammonium and a fraction of soil organic N.


Evaluation Of Fertilizer Additives For Enhanced Nitrogen Efficiency In Corn, Daniel W. Barker, John E. Sawyer, Michael J. Castellano 2016 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Fertilizer Additives For Enhanced Nitrogen Efficiency In Corn, Daniel W. Barker, John E. Sawyer, Michael J. Castellano

John E. Sawyer

The use of N additives and slow release materials with ammoniacal fertilizer varies throughout the U.S. Corn Belt due to differing N loss potentials across climate, soils, and production systems. In Iowa, recent years of high rainfall events and prolonged wet soil conditions has renewed interest to protect fertilizer N loss from denitrification, leaching, and greenhouse gas emission with use of nitrification inhibitors. These loss processes can be significant in Iowa soils that are poorly drained and have high organic matter, high pH, and high populations of denitrifying bacteria. Subsurface tile drainage is also prevalent in farmer fields throughout ...


Drought Impacts On Soil Fertility Management, John E. Sawyer 2016 Iowa State University

Drought Impacts On Soil Fertility Management, John E. Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

If crop production was severely reduced because of dry conditions this year, there are a few items you can consider when planning for next year's crop. One, with severely damaged crops and low yields you might credit some of the phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) applied for this year's crop to next year, as much less removal will occur in grain harvest of the lower than expected yield.


45th Annual North Central Extension-Industry Soil Fertility Conference, John E. Sawyer 2016 Iowa State University

45th Annual North Central Extension-Industry Soil Fertility Conference, John E. Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

If you would like to learn more about current soil fertility issues and research being conducted at universities across the North Central region, then consider attending the 45th Annual North Central Extension-Industry Soil Fertility Conference on November 4-5, 2015, from 1 p.m. to noon, at the Holiday Inn Airport in Des Moines, Iowa. The conference will include invited presentations from university and industry leaders, research reports from university soil fertility researchers, and posters outlining research by graduate students at universities across the North Central region (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, Ontario, Pennsylvania, South ...


Sulfur Management For Iowa Crop Production, John E. Sawyer, Brian J. Lang, Daniel W. Barker 2016 Iowa State University

Sulfur Management For Iowa Crop Production, John E. Sawyer, Brian J. Lang, Daniel W. Barker

John E. Sawyer

Summary of statewide evaluation in Iowa of alfalfa and corn yield response to applied sulfur fertilizers. On-farm, small-plot and field-length strip trial yield response data presented from 2005-2013.


Nutrient Considerations With Corn Stover Harvest, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino 2016 Iowa State University

Nutrient Considerations With Corn Stover Harvest, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino

John E. Sawyer

Weigh the relationships between corn stover harvest (as compared to grain only harvest) with the research presented in this publication.

Make informed decisions about using stover harvest for bioenergy and using corn residue for soil sustainability. Find corn N, P, and K fertilization recommendations needed to maintain desirable soil-test values.


Interpretation Of Soil Test Results, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer 2016 Iowa State University

Interpretation Of Soil Test Results, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

A detailed explanation on how to interpret soil test results to assist with soil nutrient recommendations.


The Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe Method For Estimating Field Scale Soil Water Content: Advances And Applications, William A. Avery 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe Method For Estimating Field Scale Soil Water Content: Advances And Applications, William A. Avery

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The need for accurate, real-time, reliable, and multi-scale soil water content (SWC) monitoring is critical for a multitude of scientific disciplines trying to understand and predict the earth’s terrestrial energy, water, and nutrient cycles. One promising technique to help meet this demand is fixed and roving cosmic-ray neutron probes (CRNP). However, the relationship between observed low-energy neutrons and SWC is affected by local soil and vegetation calibration parameters. This effect may be accounted for by a calibrated equation based on local soil type and the amount of standing biomass. However, determining the calibration parameters for this equation is labor ...


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