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Trapping Fecal Bacteria And Sediment In Surface Runoff From Cropland Treated With Poultry Litter, Mark S. Coyne, R. A. Gilfillen, Robert L. Blevins 2016 University of Kentucky

Trapping Fecal Bacteria And Sediment In Surface Runoff From Cropland Treated With Poultry Litter, Mark S. Coyne, R. A. Gilfillen, Robert L. Blevins

Mark S. Coyne

Between 1991 and 1994 the broiler population exploded in Kentucky as the poultry industry began to expand. The Kentucky Department of Agriculture predicts that within four years annual broiler production could exceed 275 million birds. This may be good for Kentucky's economy but it carries some important environmental consequences. If expansion continues as anticipated, the estimated waste production from broilers for processing could reach 300,000 tons per year (assuming each broiler house produces 150,000 birds per year and the yearly manure and litter production per house is approximately 160 tons).


The Fecal Coliform/Fecal Streptococci Ratio (Fc/Fs) And Water Quality In The Bluegrass Region Of Kentucky, Mark S. Coyne, J. M. Howell 2016 University of Kentucky

The Fecal Coliform/Fecal Streptococci Ratio (Fc/Fs) And Water Quality In The Bluegrass Region Of Kentucky, Mark S. Coyne, J. M. Howell

Mark S. Coyne

In the mid 70' s, someone noticed that the ratio of two indicator bacteria in fecal wastes - fecal coliforms (FC) and fecal streptococci (FS) - was characteristic of particular animal wastes. In human wastes, the fecal coliform/fecal streptococci ratio (FC/FS ratio) was greater than 4. In domesticated animals, like cattle, the ratio was between 0.1 and 4.0. In wild animals, the ratio was less than 0.1. Since that time, many attempts have been made to use the ratio to determine the source of fecal bacteria in contaminated ground water.


Filter Strip Length And Fecal Bacteria Trapping From Poultry Waste - An Update, Mark S. Coyne, R. A. Gilfillen, Robert L. Blevins 2016 University of Kentucky

Filter Strip Length And Fecal Bacteria Trapping From Poultry Waste - An Update, Mark S. Coyne, R. A. Gilfillen, Robert L. Blevins

Mark S. Coyne

Cheap, efficient, and environmentally sound waste disposal will be needed as Kentucky's broiler industry expands. The filter strip length needed to protect water resources from contaminants in surface runoff is a pressing issue in waste management and water quality. In a previous Soil Science News and Views (Vol. 15, No. 8) we reported that grass filter strips as short as 15 feet can trap over 90% of the fecal bacteria eroding from land-applied and incorporated poultry waste during runoff following rainstorms. In this update, we provide some additional information and conclusions from that study on filter strip length, based ...


Water Quality And Fecal Indicator Bacteria, Mark S. Coyne 2016 University of Kentucky

Water Quality And Fecal Indicator Bacteria, Mark S. Coyne

Mark S. Coyne

How can you tell if water is fit to drink? Color and taste aren't reliable guides for water safety. Clear water can be contaminated with chemicals or microorganisms the senses can't detect. One of the principle qualities of potable (drinkable) water is its freedom from microbial contaminants. This article will describe some criteria and methods that are used to determine the microbial quality of water.


Infiltration Of Fecal Bacteria Through Soils: Timing And Tillage Effects, Mark S. Coyne, C. S. Stoddard, John H. Grove, William O. Thom 2016 University of Kentucky

Infiltration Of Fecal Bacteria Through Soils: Timing And Tillage Effects, Mark S. Coyne, C. S. Stoddard, John H. Grove, William O. Thom

Mark S. Coyne

Land-applying animal wastes potentially exposes humans and animals to fecal pathogens, either by direct contact with soil and produce, or via ground water contamination. Some of these organisms are Salmonella, certain pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, protozoa such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and enteric viruses. Whether soil adequately filters these pathogens before they reach ground water depends on the interaction of porosity, texture, depth, water content, rainfall intensity and duration, and soil management.


Agricultural Impacts On Fecal Contamination Of Shallow Groundwaters In The Bluegrass Region Of Kentucky, Mark S. Coyne, J. M. Howell 2016 University of Kentucky

Agricultural Impacts On Fecal Contamination Of Shallow Groundwaters In The Bluegrass Region Of Kentucky, Mark S. Coyne, J. M. Howell

Mark S. Coyne

Any farming practices that degrade water quality contribute to agricultural nonpoint source pollution. This is a problem in Kentucky's Bluegrass region where shallow soils and karst geology permit surface contaminants to reach groundwater quickly. Real and perceived threats to public health may make groundwater protection plans a reality if evidence for non-point source pollution in agricultural areas continues to grow.


Tillage Slows Fecal Bacteria Infiltration Through Soil, Mark S. Coyne, S. W. McMurry, E. Perfect 2016 University of Kentucky

Tillage Slows Fecal Bacteria Infiltration Through Soil, Mark S. Coyne, S. W. Mcmurry, E. Perfect

Mark S. Coyne

Bacterial pathogens can degrade ground water quality by infiltrating and eroding from land treated with poultry wastes. The potential for ground water contamination (as well as associated health risks and cost of water treatment) greatly depends on the depth of soil to the water table or bedrock and soil structure. Pathogens must move through the soil profile to contaminate ground water (although sinkholes can provide a direct channel from the soil surface to the water table in karst areas). Deep soils have less potential for contamination than shallow soils. Structureless soils retain fecal bacteria better than well structured soils. Research ...


The Illinois Soil Nitrogen Test: Should It Be Used In Iowa?, John E. Sawyer, Mohammod Ali Tabatabai 2016 Iowa State University

The Illinois Soil Nitrogen Test: Should It Be Used In Iowa?, John E. Sawyer, Mohammod Ali Tabatabai

John E. Sawyer

The test was developed several years ago at the University of Illinois by researchers in the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences. It is a laboratory procedure designed to measure N liberated from soil heated for 5 hours with dilute alkali solution (sodium hydroxide). The test does not measure nitrate, but does measure exchangeable ammonium and a fraction of soil organic N.


Evaluation Of Fertilizer Additives For Enhanced Nitrogen Efficiency In Corn, Daniel W. Barker, John E. Sawyer, Michael J. Castellano 2016 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Fertilizer Additives For Enhanced Nitrogen Efficiency In Corn, Daniel W. Barker, John E. Sawyer, Michael J. Castellano

John E. Sawyer

The use of N additives and slow release materials with ammoniacal fertilizer varies throughout the U.S. Corn Belt due to differing N loss potentials across climate, soils, and production systems. In Iowa, recent years of high rainfall events and prolonged wet soil conditions has renewed interest to protect fertilizer N loss from denitrification, leaching, and greenhouse gas emission with use of nitrification inhibitors. These loss processes can be significant in Iowa soils that are poorly drained and have high organic matter, high pH, and high populations of denitrifying bacteria. Subsurface tile drainage is also prevalent in farmer fields throughout ...


Drought Impacts On Soil Fertility Management, John E. Sawyer 2016 Iowa State University

Drought Impacts On Soil Fertility Management, John E. Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

If crop production was severely reduced because of dry conditions this year, there are a few items you can consider when planning for next year's crop. One, with severely damaged crops and low yields you might credit some of the phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) applied for this year's crop to next year, as much less removal will occur in grain harvest of the lower than expected yield.


45th Annual North Central Extension-Industry Soil Fertility Conference, John E. Sawyer 2016 Iowa State University

45th Annual North Central Extension-Industry Soil Fertility Conference, John E. Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

If you would like to learn more about current soil fertility issues and research being conducted at universities across the North Central region, then consider attending the 45th Annual North Central Extension-Industry Soil Fertility Conference on November 4-5, 2015, from 1 p.m. to noon, at the Holiday Inn Airport in Des Moines, Iowa. The conference will include invited presentations from university and industry leaders, research reports from university soil fertility researchers, and posters outlining research by graduate students at universities across the North Central region (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, Ontario, Pennsylvania, South ...


Sulfur Management For Iowa Crop Production, John E. Sawyer, Brian J. Lang, Daniel W. Barker 2016 Iowa State University

Sulfur Management For Iowa Crop Production, John E. Sawyer, Brian J. Lang, Daniel W. Barker

John E. Sawyer

Summary of statewide evaluation in Iowa of alfalfa and corn yield response to applied sulfur fertilizers. On-farm, small-plot and field-length strip trial yield response data presented from 2005-2013.


Nutrient Considerations With Corn Stover Harvest, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino 2016 Iowa State University

Nutrient Considerations With Corn Stover Harvest, John E. Sawyer, Antonio P. Mallarino

John E. Sawyer

Weigh the relationships between corn stover harvest (as compared to grain only harvest) with the research presented in this publication.

Make informed decisions about using stover harvest for bioenergy and using corn residue for soil sustainability. Find corn N, P, and K fertilization recommendations needed to maintain desirable soil-test values.


Interpretation Of Soil Test Results, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer 2016 Iowa State University

Interpretation Of Soil Test Results, Antonio P. Mallarino, John E. Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

A detailed explanation on how to interpret soil test results to assist with soil nutrient recommendations.


The Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe Method For Estimating Field Scale Soil Water Content: Advances And Applications, William A. Avery 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe Method For Estimating Field Scale Soil Water Content: Advances And Applications, William A. Avery

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The need for accurate, real-time, reliable, and multi-scale soil water content (SWC) monitoring is critical for a multitude of scientific disciplines trying to understand and predict the earth’s terrestrial energy, water, and nutrient cycles. One promising technique to help meet this demand is fixed and roving cosmic-ray neutron probes (CRNP). However, the relationship between observed low-energy neutrons and SWC is affected by local soil and vegetation calibration parameters. This effect may be accounted for by a calibrated equation based on local soil type and the amount of standing biomass. However, determining the calibration parameters for this equation is labor ...


Cone In Cone Concretions Of The Stanley Group In Southeastern Oklahoma, Kyle B. Ayres 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Cone In Cone Concretions Of The Stanley Group In Southeastern Oklahoma, Kyle B. Ayres

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cone in cone concretions found in the Stanley Group of Southeastern Oklahoma have a variety of external and internal attributes which allow diagenetic and theoretical models of formation to be hypothesized. Stanley Group carbonate cone in cone concretions are initially formed in sulfur reducing horizons at shallow burial depths in a poorly circulated possibly deep trough containing siliceous sediments and organic matter. Collected concretions near the town of Smithville, Oklahoma displayed four different external morphologies and four variations of mineral constituents. All concretions contained microscopic cones which initiated diffusion and/or fluid patterns and is an early cementation process that ...


Barrier Spit Evolution And Primary Consolidation Of Backbarrier Facies: West Belle Pass Barrier, La, John N. Kramer III 2016 University of New Orleans, New Orleans

Barrier Spit Evolution And Primary Consolidation Of Backbarrier Facies: West Belle Pass Barrier, La, John N. Kramer Iii

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

West Belle Pass Barrier is a barrier spit that formed during the last delta lobe progradation associated with the Lafourche delta complex. Located on the western flank of the Caminada-Moreau Headland, West Belle Pass Barrier and Raccoon Pass are located downdrift of the Belle Pass jetties. Morphological changes stemming from storms, jetty infrastructure, and an expanding tidal inlet are evaluated using historical shoreline data and imagery. Littoral transport around the jetties combined with inlet growth created a framework wherein sediment is transported through Raccoon Pass and sequestered as a flood-tidal delta. These events aided in the landward migration of West ...


Cockatoo Sands In The Victoria Highway And Carlton Hill Areas, East Kimberley: Hydrogeology, Aquifer Properties And Groundwater Chemistry, Don Bennett, John Andrew Simons, Richard George, Paul Raper 2016 Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia

Cockatoo Sands In The Victoria Highway And Carlton Hill Areas, East Kimberley: Hydrogeology, Aquifer Properties And Groundwater Chemistry, Don Bennett, John Andrew Simons, Richard George, Paul Raper

Resource Management Technical Reports

Cockatoo Sands are recognised as potentially suitable for irrigated agriculture because they are generally well drained and not subject to waterlogging or inundation. These characteristics allow them to be cultivated and prepared for planting various crops during the wet and dry seasons of northern Australia. Expanding agricultural production onto the Cockatoo Sands around Kununurra will increase opportunities for agriculture by increasing the overall scale of agriculture, allowing year-round agricultural enterprise, new crops and new market opportunities.

DAFWA has assessed the soil characteristics and agriculturally suitable areas of Cockatoo Sands in the Victoria Highway and Carlton Hill areas near Kununurra. Potential ...


Alluvial Sedimentation Associated With Logging In Low Gradient Watersheds In Desoto National Forest, Mississippi, Andrew W. Simmons 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Alluvial Sedimentation Associated With Logging In Low Gradient Watersheds In Desoto National Forest, Mississippi, Andrew W. Simmons

Master's Theses

Forestry and related businesses are an important factor of Mississippi’s economy, contributing between $11 and $14 billion annually (Mississippi Forestry Commission, 2006). The timber industry is not only important in Mississippi but is an important sector of the economy throughout the Gulf Coast region. While providing positive economic benefits to the region, the forestry industry can also negatively affect soil properties, hillslope stability, and increase sedimentation rates in local streams and rivers. The aim of this research is to determine if forestry removal causes an increase of soil erosion and how it affects floodplain sedimentation in the low gradient ...


Gone With The Wind: Soil Moisture Effects On Gaseous Nitrogen Removal From Wastewater, Faith L. Anderson 2016 University of Rhode Island

Gone With The Wind: Soil Moisture Effects On Gaseous Nitrogen Removal From Wastewater, Faith L. Anderson

Senior Honors Projects

Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), or septic systems, release nitrogen (N), which can be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. The final step in the treatment of wastewater is dispersal onto a drainfield, where it percolates through the soil. Part of the N is removed from wastewater and released into the atmosphere as N2 and N2O by denitrification, which requires anoxic conditions. Previous studies looking at the effect of soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) on denitrification using clean water with a high level of dissolved O2 (DO) have identified a minimum of 60% WFPS for denitrification to take ...


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