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Soil Properties That Influence The Occurrence Of Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity In Rice Fields, Julia Marie Fryer 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Soil Properties That Influence The Occurrence Of Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity In Rice Fields, Julia Marie Fryer

Theses and Dissertations

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) producers face many challenges throughout each growing season. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) toxicity is a physiological disorder where sulfate (SO42-) is excessively reduced to the toxic gas, H2S. This can reduce yield and, in severe cases, result in crop death. The main research objectives were to: i) understand chemical and physical characteristics in soils prone to H2S toxicity, ii) determine influential soil characteristics on the incidence of H2S toxicity, iii) determine ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) fertilizer additions influence on H2S toxicity, and iv) predict when and where H2S will occur. Three greenhouse experiments were conducted using Arkansas ...


The Effects Of Time And Topography On Deep Carbon Storage In The Clarks River Valley Of Western Kentucky, Benedict W. Ferguson 2018 Geosciences

The Effects Of Time And Topography On Deep Carbon Storage In The Clarks River Valley Of Western Kentucky, Benedict W. Ferguson

Scholars Week

Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics at depths greater than one meter in valley bottoms are not well understood. This study examines the stock of SOC with depth across alluvial landforms in the Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge. Nine cores along three transects from terraces to floodplains and adjacent channel bars were collected to depths of 4 meters or refusal. Bulk density, clay content, and loss-on-ignition were used to estimate stocks. Age estimates based on radiocarbon suggest the landforms range in age from 7975 to 52 yr BP. Average SOC and carbon (C) flux varied with values of 1.76 kg ...


Nebraska Groundwater In Storage, Conservation Survey Division 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Nebraska Groundwater In Storage, Conservation Survey Division

Conservation and Survey Division

No abstract provided.


Fire-Induced Mineralogical Changes In Midwest Tallgrass Prairie Soils, Lacey LeGrand 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Fire-Induced Mineralogical Changes In Midwest Tallgrass Prairie Soils, Lacey Legrand

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Tallgrass prairies are productive ecosystems that historically covered a large part of the Midwest and in the past were subjected to frequent, natural fire regimes. Today prairie remnants are often managed by ecological burns. Glacier Creek Preserve is a restored prairie in Omaha, Nebraska that includes randomized research plots established in 1978 to study the effects of burning on vegetation and provides a controlled field environment to investigate the effects of fire on soils. The purpose of this study is to compare soil mineralogy in long-term burned and unburned plots to answer the question: “Does prescribed burning induce mineralogical changes ...


Discussion And Survey, Conference Attendees 2018 University of Kentucky

Discussion And Survey, Conference Attendees

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

No abstract provided.


The Future Of Alfalfa: Understanding Gmo Traits And Their Impact On Production And Marketing, Phil Bollman 2018 Forage Genetics International LLC

The Future Of Alfalfa: Understanding Gmo Traits And Their Impact On Production And Marketing, Phil Bollman

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

No abstract provided.


Emerging Export Markets For High Quality Alfalfa Hay, Tom Keene 2018 University of Kentucky

Emerging Export Markets For High Quality Alfalfa Hay, Tom Keene

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

The exporting of hay from country to country has been evolving for many years. When we look at today’s exports of American hay, we see that the majority of it takes place off the west coast.


Managing Frost Damaged Alfalfa Stands, Christopher D. Teutsch, Jimmy C. Henning, S. Ray Smith, Tom Keene, Matthew Dixon 2018 University of Kentucky

Managing Frost Damaged Alfalfa Stands, Christopher D. Teutsch, Jimmy C. Henning, S. Ray Smith, Tom Keene, Matthew Dixon

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

Wide fluctuations in springtime temperature are common in Kentucky. Late freezing temperatures in the spring can cause damage to alfalfa depending on how far along it is in breaking dormancy. This publication provides information on the effect of low spring temperatures on both established and new alfalfa stands that have begun growth, as well as a method of predicting sensitivity to late frosts or freezes.


Harvesting Alfalfa For Quality, Garry D. Lacefield 2018 University of Kentucky

Harvesting Alfalfa For Quality, Garry D. Lacefield

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

Alfalfa can be harvested for hay, baleage, silage, greenchop or grazing. Our goal is to produce, harvest and market high yielding-high quality forage. Profitable alfalfa programs consist of four basic phases and each phase have a specific goal.


Integrated Management Of Alfalfa Diseases, Kiersten A. Wise 2018 University of Kentucky

Integrated Management Of Alfalfa Diseases, Kiersten A. Wise

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

Alfalfa diseases can reduce forage quality and the longevity of alfalfa stands. Integrated management of diseases can minimize disease impact and improve forage stand and quality. There are several important pathogens that cause disease on alfalfa, and the occurrence of these diseases, as well as the severity of damage, depend on several factors, including the type of pathogen, the environment, and the level of resistance of the host to a particular disease. In addition, disease presence and severity are also influenced by agronomic practices, particularly sowing dates, cutting dates and frequency, and fertility programs.


An Integrated Pest Management Ipm Approach In Alfalfa Production Systems, Lee H. Townsend 2018 University of Kentucky

An Integrated Pest Management Ipm Approach In Alfalfa Production Systems, Lee H. Townsend

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

Alfalfa lends itself to an integrated pest management (IPM) approach for alfalfa weevils and potato leafhoppers, the two key insect pests of the crop. Both species live in most alfalfa fields every summer. However, alfalfa can tolerate low levels of their feeding without costly yield or quality loss.


An Integrated Approach To Weed Control In Alfalfa Production Systems, Jonathan D. Green 2018 University of Kentucky

An Integrated Approach To Weed Control In Alfalfa Production Systems, Jonathan D. Green

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

The importance of weed control in forage production should not be overlooked, especially when you consider the high investment associated with alfalfa and other legume forages. Weeds reduce forage yield by competing for water, sunlight, and nutrients. For example, yield obtained from the first cutting of alfalfa can be significantly reduced by a heavy infestation of common chickweed. In addition to yield losses, weeds can also lower forage quality, increase the incidence of disease and insect problems, cause premature stand loss, and create harvesting problems. Some weeds are unpalatable to livestock or, in some cases, may be poisonous.


Fertilizing High Producing Alfalfa Stands, Edwin L. Ritchey 2018 University of Kentucky

Fertilizing High Producing Alfalfa Stands, Edwin L. Ritchey

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

There are no secrets for successfully producing a high quality alfalfa crop. Successful alfalfa production is a product of suitable site selection, proper fertility and pH management, good pest control, and favorable weather conditions throughout the season. This paper focuses on proper fertility and pH management practices.


Alfalfa Establishment: Getting Off To A Good Start!, Christopher D. Teutsch 2018 University of Kentucky

Alfalfa Establishment: Getting Off To A Good Start!, Christopher D. Teutsch

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

Alfalfa is a highly productive forage legume that is well adapted to transition zone states like Kentucky. It can be grazed, hayed, or ensiled. Once established and under good management, expected yields range from 5-7 tons per acre per year. High yields can only be obtained from a dense and vigorous alfalfa stand. The first step in obtaining such stands is establishment. The establishment phase of alfalfa production is critical since realization of returns from all other input costs is dependent upon having a good stand and it is expensive. It is important to remember that alfalfa establishment begins long ...


Fine Tuning Varietal Selection For The Mid-South, S. Ray Smith 2018 University of Kentucky

Fine Tuning Varietal Selection For The Mid-South, S. Ray Smith

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

There are many new alfalfa varieties that have come on the market each year. In fact, it can be hard keeping up with all the developments. In the following pages I will overview most of the important traits that can be found in new varieties. These include Low Lignin, Roundup Ready®, potato leafhopper resistance, higher quality, resistance to new diseases, and more… Many times I am asked “Are new varieties really worth the cost?” The best way to answer that question is to consider work by Dr. Jimmy Henning where he summarized 24 location years of Kentucky alfalfa yield data ...


Foreword Of Kentucky Alfalfa And Stored Forages Conference [2018], Christopher D. Teutsch, Christi L. Forsythe 2018 University of Kentucky

Foreword Of Kentucky Alfalfa And Stored Forages Conference [2018], Christopher D. Teutsch, Christi L. Forsythe

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

No abstract provided.


Identifying Riparian Zones Best Suited To Installation Of Saturated Buffers: A Preliminary Multi-Watershed Assessment, M. D. Tomer, D. B. Jaynes, S. A. Porter, D. E. James, T. M. Isenhart 2018 United States Department of Agriculture

Identifying Riparian Zones Best Suited To Installation Of Saturated Buffers: A Preliminary Multi-Watershed Assessment, M. D. Tomer, D. B. Jaynes, S. A. Porter, D. E. James, T. M. Isenhart

Thomas M. Isenhart

Saturated riparian buffers are a new type of conservation practice that divert subsurface tile drainage water from direct discharge to surface water into distribution pipes that discharge the tile water into riparian soils. This enables natural processes of biological uptake and denitrification to decrease nutrient loads that are being lost from croplands via tile drains, reducing water quality impacts from agriculture at relatively little cost. This chapter suggests and evaluates draft criteria that identify riparian zones within a watershed that are suited to installation of saturated buffers. Soils criteria, evaluated using soil survey information, include subsurface accumulations of soil organic ...


Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Riparian Forest Buffers, Warm-Season And Cool-Season Grass Filters, And Crop Fields, D. G. Kim, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas E. Loynachan, James W. Raich 2018 Iowa State University

Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Riparian Forest Buffers, Warm-Season And Cool-Season Grass Filters, And Crop Fields, D. G. Kim, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas E. Loynachan, James W. Raich

Thomas M. Isenhart

Denitrification within riparian buffers may trade reduced nonpoint source pollution of surface waters for increased greenhouse gas emissions resulting from denitrification-produced nitrous oxide (N2O). However, little is known about the N2O emission within conservation buffers established for water quality improvement or of the importance of short-term N2O peak emission following rewetting dry soils and thawing frozen soils. Such estimates are important in reducing uncertainties in current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies estimating soil N2O emission which are based on N inputs. This study contrasts N2O emission from riparian buffer systems of three perennial vegetation types and an adjacent ...


An Optical Method For Carbon Dioxide Isotopes And Mole Fractions In Small Gas Samples: Tracing Microbial Respiration From Soil, Litter, And Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Wenjuan Huang, Kenneth E. Hammel 2018 Iowa State University

An Optical Method For Carbon Dioxide Isotopes And Mole Fractions In Small Gas Samples: Tracing Microbial Respiration From Soil, Litter, And Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Wenjuan Huang, Kenneth E. Hammel

Steven J. Hall

Rationale

Carbon dioxide isotope (δ13C value) measurements enable quantification of the sources of soil microbial respiration, thus informing ecosystem C dynamics. Tunable diode lasers (TDLs) can precisely measure CO2 isotopes at low cost and high throughput, but are seldom used for small samples (≤5 mL). We developed a TDL method for CO2 mole fraction ([CO2]) and δ13C analysis of soil microcosms.

Methods

Peaks in infrared absorbance following constant volume sample injection to a carrier were used to independently measure [12CO2] and [13CO2] for subsequent calculation of δ13C values. Using parallel soil incubations receiving differing C substrates, we partitioned respiration from ...


Elevated Moisture Stimulates Carbon Loss From Mineral Soils By Releasing Protected Organic Matter, Wenjuan Huang, Steven J. Hall 2018 Iowa State University

Elevated Moisture Stimulates Carbon Loss From Mineral Soils By Releasing Protected Organic Matter, Wenjuan Huang, Steven J. Hall

Steven J. Hall

Moisture response functions for soil microbial carbon (C) mineralization remain a critical uncertainty for predicting ecosystem-climate feedbacks. Theory and models posit that C mineralization declines under elevated moisture and associated anaerobic conditions, leading to soil C accumulation. Yet, iron (Fe) reduction potentially releases protected C, providing an under-appreciated mechanism for C destabilization under elevated moisture. Here we incubate Mollisols from ecosystems under C3/C4 plant rotations at moisture levels at and above field capacity over 5 months. Increased moisture and anaerobiosis initially suppress soil C mineralization, consistent with theory. However, after 25 days, elevated moisture stimulates cumulative gaseous C-loss as ...


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