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Identifying Riparian Zones Best Suited To Installation Of Saturated Buffers: A Preliminary Multi-Watershed Assessment, M. D. Tomer, D. B. Jaynes, S. A. Porter, D. E. James, T. M. Isenhart 2018 United States Department of Agriculture

Identifying Riparian Zones Best Suited To Installation Of Saturated Buffers: A Preliminary Multi-Watershed Assessment, M. D. Tomer, D. B. Jaynes, S. A. Porter, D. E. James, T. M. Isenhart

Thomas M. Isenhart

Saturated riparian buffers are a new type of conservation practice that divert subsurface tile drainage water from direct discharge to surface water into distribution pipes that discharge the tile water into riparian soils. This enables natural processes of biological uptake and denitrification to decrease nutrient loads that are being lost from croplands via tile drains, reducing water quality impacts from agriculture at relatively little cost. This chapter suggests and evaluates draft criteria that identify riparian zones within a watershed that are suited to installation of saturated buffers. Soils criteria, evaluated using soil survey information, include subsurface accumulations of soil organic ...


Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Riparian Forest Buffers, Warm-Season And Cool-Season Grass Filters, And Crop Fields, D. G. Kim, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas E. Loynachan, James W. Raich 2018 Iowa State University

Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Riparian Forest Buffers, Warm-Season And Cool-Season Grass Filters, And Crop Fields, D. G. Kim, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas E. Loynachan, James W. Raich

Thomas M. Isenhart

Denitrification within riparian buffers may trade reduced nonpoint source pollution of surface waters for increased greenhouse gas emissions resulting from denitrification-produced nitrous oxide (N2O). However, little is known about the N2O emission within conservation buffers established for water quality improvement or of the importance of short-term N2O peak emission following rewetting dry soils and thawing frozen soils. Such estimates are important in reducing uncertainties in current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies estimating soil N2O emission which are based on N inputs. This study contrasts N2O emission from riparian buffer systems of three perennial vegetation types and an adjacent ...


A Survey To Better Understand The Use Of The Terms “Colluvium” And “Alluvium”, Bradley A. Miller, Jérôme Juilleret 2018 Iowa State University

A Survey To Better Understand The Use Of The Terms “Colluvium” And “Alluvium”, Bradley A. Miller, Jérôme Juilleret

Bradley A. Miller

We need your help to fully understand how scientists from different backgrounds define the terms “colluvium” and “alluvium.” We ask that you contribute your perspective by taking the survey at http://goo.gl/forms/fV8RBWKjis. The closing deadline is October 31, 2016. The feedback so far has been positive, and many participants have described the experience as fun. Many commented on how the survey challenged their thinking about these sediments, causing them to more carefully consider potential gaps in their definitions for the terms and their strategies for identifying the materials. Others have expressed great interest in the results because ...


An Optical Method For Carbon Dioxide Isotopes And Mole Fractions In Small Gas Samples: Tracing Microbial Respiration From Soil, Litter, And Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Wenjuan Huang, Kenneth E. Hammel 2018 Iowa State University

An Optical Method For Carbon Dioxide Isotopes And Mole Fractions In Small Gas Samples: Tracing Microbial Respiration From Soil, Litter, And Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Wenjuan Huang, Kenneth E. Hammel

Steven J. Hall

Rationale

Carbon dioxide isotope (δ13C value) measurements enable quantification of the sources of soil microbial respiration, thus informing ecosystem C dynamics. Tunable diode lasers (TDLs) can precisely measure CO2 isotopes at low cost and high throughput, but are seldom used for small samples (≤5 mL). We developed a TDL method for CO2 mole fraction ([CO2]) and δ13C analysis of soil microcosms.

Methods

Peaks in infrared absorbance following constant volume sample injection to a carrier were used to independently measure [12CO2] and [13CO2] for subsequent calculation of δ13C values. Using parallel soil incubations receiving differing C substrates, we partitioned respiration from ...


Elevated Moisture Stimulates Carbon Loss From Mineral Soils By Releasing Protected Organic Matter, Wenjuan Huang, Steven J. Hall 2018 Iowa State University

Elevated Moisture Stimulates Carbon Loss From Mineral Soils By Releasing Protected Organic Matter, Wenjuan Huang, Steven J. Hall

Steven J. Hall

Moisture response functions for soil microbial carbon (C) mineralization remain a critical uncertainty for predicting ecosystem-climate feedbacks. Theory and models posit that C mineralization declines under elevated moisture and associated anaerobic conditions, leading to soil C accumulation. Yet, iron (Fe) reduction potentially releases protected C, providing an under-appreciated mechanism for C destabilization under elevated moisture. Here we incubate Mollisols from ecosystems under C3/C4 plant rotations at moisture levels at and above field capacity over 5 months. Increased moisture and anaerobiosis initially suppress soil C mineralization, consistent with theory. However, after 25 days, elevated moisture stimulates cumulative gaseous C-loss as ...


Selected Highlights In American Soil Science History From The 1980s To The Mid-2010s, Eric C. Brevik, Jeffrey A. Homburg, Bradley A. Miller, Thomas E. Fenton, James A. Doolittle, Samuel J. Indorante 2018 Dickinson State University

Selected Highlights In American Soil Science History From The 1980s To The Mid-2010s, Eric C. Brevik, Jeffrey A. Homburg, Bradley A. Miller, Thomas E. Fenton, James A. Doolittle, Samuel J. Indorante

Bradley A. Miller

The beginning of the 20th century through the 1970s were good times for soil science in the USA, with relatively strong funding and overall growth in the profession. However, the soil science discipline in the USA hit hard times in the 1980s and 1990s. Federal funding for soil survey work began to decline as did student numbers in university programs and membership in the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). Despite this, there were still many positive advances within soil science in the USA during these two decades. There was an increased use of geophysical instrumentation, remote sensing, geographic information ...


Bacterial And Archaeal Nitrifier Communities After Seven Years Surface Ground Cover And Nutrient Management In An Orchard Soil, Mashael Albalawi 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Bacterial And Archaeal Nitrifier Communities After Seven Years Surface Ground Cover And Nutrient Management In An Orchard Soil, Mashael Albalawi

Theses and Dissertations

Nitrification is oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and subsequently to nitrate. The rate limiting step of nitrification, ammonia oxidation to nitrite, was thought for many years to be carried out primarily by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). However, using molecular techniques and investigating the amoA gene, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were discovered. Understanding how long-term application of surface ground covers and organic fertilizers to perennial systems affect microbial communities is critical for sustainable soil management. An organically managed experimental apple orchard soil received seven years (2006 – 2013) of annual, surface applications of poultry litter or commercial fertilizer compared to no fertilizer combined ...


Aquifers Of Nebraska Ii: The Niobrara Aquifer, Dana Divine, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Sue Olafsen Lackey 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Aquifers Of Nebraska Ii: The Niobrara Aquifer, Dana Divine, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Sue Olafsen Lackey

Conservation and Survey Division

The marine shale, chalk, marl, and chalky limestone of the Niobrara Formation directly underlie Quaternary sediments in 23 counties from south-central to northeastern Nebraska. Nevertheless, the formation serves as an aquifer only in and around Cedar, Madison, and Nuckolls counties. Niobrara aquifer wells mostly supply irrigation, domestic, and livestock needs. Two hundred of the approximately 230 active registered wells in Nebraska that are screened entirely in the Niobrara aquifer are in Cedar County and environs. About another 200 wells in this area are screened in both the Niobrara aquifer and overlying Quaternary sediments. Wells screened entirely in the Niobrara aquifer ...


Understanding Cigarette Butt Littering Behavior On A Public Beach: A Case Study Of Jekyll Island, Maranda R. Miller, Mark E. Burbach 2017 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Understanding Cigarette Butt Littering Behavior On A Public Beach: A Case Study Of Jekyll Island, Maranda R. Miller, Mark E. Burbach

Conservation and Survey Division

Conservation of natural resources and promotion of family-friendly tourism activities are vital to Jekyll Island. As it is stated in the Jekyll Island Authority (JIA) Master Plan “Jekyll Island is a unique, state-owned barrier island that balances conserving and preserving natural, historic, and cultural resources with providing accessible, affordable recreation, vacation, and education opportunities for the people of Georgia and beyond” (Jekyll Island Authority, 2014b, p. 4). The JIA has reported approximately 1 million people visit the island annually (Jekyll Island Authority, 2015). As such, tourism is instrumental to Jekyll Island’s economy, and that tourism contributes to the overall ...


An Evaluation Of Borehole Hydraulic Conductivity Equations And Field Determined Soil Water Characteristic Curves, Johnathan Dale Blanchard 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Evaluation Of Borehole Hydraulic Conductivity Equations And Field Determined Soil Water Characteristic Curves, Johnathan Dale Blanchard

Theses and Dissertations

The methods utilized to determine the hydraulic conductivity of compacted clay liners (CCLs) are of importance for safe guarding the environment from landfill leachate. Therefore, the methods utilized in the analysis of the Two Stage Borehole (TSB) test, as described in the ASTM D6391-11 (Method A, B, and C) standard, were evaluated. Data from hydraulic conductivity tests, as performed on three test pads, were utilized to review the ASTM D6391-11 equations. Additionally, two test pads were instrumented with volumetric water content and soil water matric potential sensors to facilitate the determination of field-obtained soil water characteristic curves (SWCCs) and hydraulic ...


Agronomic Management Practice Effects On Particulate Organic Matter And Infiltration In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System In Eastern Arkansas, Johan Desrochers 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Agronomic Management Practice Effects On Particulate Organic Matter And Infiltration In A Wheat-Soybean, Double-Crop System In Eastern Arkansas, Johan Desrochers

Theses and Dissertations

Improving the understanding of conventional and alternative management practices and their interactions on aggregate-derived particulate organic matter (POM) fractions and soil hydraulic properties, particularly infiltration, is instrumental to soil and groundwater management and long-term sustainability in the Lower Mississippi River Delta (LMRD) region of eastern Arkansas. The objective of this long-term wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), double-crop (WSDC) field study in a silt-loam soil (Glossaquic Fraglossudalf) in the LMRD region of eastern Arkansas was to evaluate the effects of conventional and alternative management practices, including wheat-residue level, residue burning, tillage and irrigation, on i) POM fractions ...


The Effect Of Preflood Nitrogen And Flood Establishment Timing On Rice Development, Nitrogen Uptake And Grain Yield, Tyler Richmond 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effect Of Preflood Nitrogen And Flood Establishment Timing On Rice Development, Nitrogen Uptake And Grain Yield, Tyler Richmond

Theses and Dissertations

Urea-N fertilizer is typically applied at the 5-leaf stage to rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in a dry-seeded, delayed-flood production system. How long the preflood-N can be delayed without adverse effects on yield potential is poorly understood. The research objective was to determine the effects of preflood-N application and flood establishment timing on aboveground-N content, 50% heading, yield components, and grain yield. Trials were established on silt loam soils at the Pine Tree Research Station (PTRS) and Rice Research and Extension Center (RREC) during 2015 and 2016. Urea-N was applied at 0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg N ha-1 ...


Geophysical Delineation Of Megaporosity And Fluid Migration Pathways For Geohazard Characterization Within The Delaware Basin, Culberson County, Texas, Jonathan David Woodard 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University

Geophysical Delineation Of Megaporosity And Fluid Migration Pathways For Geohazard Characterization Within The Delaware Basin, Culberson County, Texas, Jonathan David Woodard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Differential dissolution of gypsum karst within the Delaware Basin poses a significant threat to infrastructure that society depends on. The study area is located in Culberson County, Texas and traverses a distance of approximately 54 kilometers along RM 652 within the Gypsum Plain which is situated on the northern margin of the Chihuahua Desert and includes outcrops of Castile and Rustler strata that host karst geohazards. Regions of karst geohazard potential have been physically surveyed proximal to the study area in evaporites throughout the Castile Formation outcrop; minimal hazards, in comparison to the Castile Formation, have been documented in ...


Root And Soil Total Carbon And Nitrogen Under Bioenergy Perennial Grasses With Various Nitrogen Rates, Upendra M. Sainju, Brett L. Allen, Andrew W. Lenssen, Maysoon Mikha 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Root And Soil Total Carbon And Nitrogen Under Bioenergy Perennial Grasses With Various Nitrogen Rates, Upendra M. Sainju, Brett L. Allen, Andrew W. Lenssen, Maysoon Mikha

Agronomy Publications

As aboveground biomass of perennial grasses is harvested for feedstock or bioenergy production, root biomass C and N become primary C and N inputs for enhancing soil C and N sequestration. Information is scanty about root biomass C and N and subsequent soil C and N stocks under bioenergy perennial grasses applied with various N fertilization rates in semiarid regions. We evaluated the effect of perennial grass species and N rates on root biomass C and N and soil total C (STC) and total N (STN) stocks at the 0–120 cm depth from 2011 to 2013, 2–4 yr ...


An Optical Method For Carbon Dioxide Isotopes And Mole Fractions In Small Gas Samples: Tracing Microbial Respiration From Soil, Litter, And Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Wenjuan Huang, Kenneth E. Hammel 2017 Iowa State University

An Optical Method For Carbon Dioxide Isotopes And Mole Fractions In Small Gas Samples: Tracing Microbial Respiration From Soil, Litter, And Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Wenjuan Huang, Kenneth E. Hammel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Rationale

Carbon dioxide isotope (δ13C value) measurements enable quantification of the sources of soil microbial respiration, thus informing ecosystem C dynamics. Tunable diode lasers (TDLs) can precisely measure CO2 isotopes at low cost and high throughput, but are seldom used for small samples (≤5 mL). We developed a TDL method for CO2 mole fraction ([CO2]) and δ13C analysis of soil microcosms.

Methods

Peaks in infrared absorbance following constant volume sample injection to a carrier were used to independently measure [12CO2] and [13CO2] for subsequent calculation of δ13C values. Using parallel soil incubations receiving differing C substrates, we partitioned respiration from ...


Assessing The Periodic Groundwater Flow Conditions Of A Perched Aquifer System In The Daniel Boone National Forest, Ethan Sweet 2017 Murray State University

Assessing The Periodic Groundwater Flow Conditions Of A Perched Aquifer System In The Daniel Boone National Forest, Ethan Sweet

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Assessing the Periodic Groundwater Flow Conditions of a Perched Aquifer System in the Daniel Boone National Forest

Ethan Sweet and Jonathan Malzone

Eastern Kentucky University, Department of Geosciences

Natural ephemeral wetlands situated among the ridge-tops in the Daniel Boone National Forest serve as reservoirs that recharge a shallow groundwater system. Unique interactions between surface and groundwater in these isolated systems provide substantial support for the native ecosystem, serving as a breeding ground for amphibians and as source water for vegetation—especially in periods of drought. Currently it is not understood how groundwater could provide regional biodiversity, a drought buffer, or ...


Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Source Apportionment And Btex Risk Assessment Of Winter 2015 In Roosevelt, Utah, Jerimiah Lamb 2017 Utah State University

Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Source Apportionment And Btex Risk Assessment Of Winter 2015 In Roosevelt, Utah, Jerimiah Lamb

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) monitored in Roosevelt Utah including Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (collectively known as BTEX) are associated with deleterious effects including cancer. This study was designed to assess the origin and effect of the toxicants and addressed two points: 1) Source identification using the USEPA’s Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and NOAA’s Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and 2) A human health risk assessment based on ambient concentrations of BTEX collected at the Roosevelt site. Model fit indicated that the primary contributor to total NMHCs was local oil and gas operations and was supported ...


Soil Properties In Varying Crop And Non-Crop Areas Of Calloway County, Kentucky, Zack Eells, Canaan Wring, Clay Smotherman, Connor Moore 2017 Murray State University

Soil Properties In Varying Crop And Non-Crop Areas Of Calloway County, Kentucky, Zack Eells, Canaan Wring, Clay Smotherman, Connor Moore

Scholars Week

Soil Properties in Varying Crop and Non-Crop Areas of Calloway County, Kentucky

Zack Eells, Clay Smotherman, Canaan Wring, Connor Moore, Iin Handayani, and Brian Parr

Murray State University, Hutson School of Agriculture, Kentucky, USA

Abstract

Cropping practices leading to loss of soil organic matter thus can alter other soil properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of crop and non-crop areas on soils. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected from different fields of corn, soybeans, tobacco, pasture, and wooded areas in the Southwest portion of Calloway County, Kentucky on September 8, 2017. The properties observed ...


Geology Of Northeastern Nebraska And Environs: Cedar, Dakota, And Dixon Counties In Nebraska, And Plymouth And Woodbury County In Iowa, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Dana Divine, P.R. Hanson, Leslie M. Howard 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Geology Of Northeastern Nebraska And Environs: Cedar, Dakota, And Dixon Counties In Nebraska, And Plymouth And Woodbury County In Iowa, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Dana Divine, P.R. Hanson, Leslie M. Howard

Conservation and Survey Division

No abstract provided.


Prairie Strips Improve Biodiversity And The Delivery Of Multiple Ecosystem Services From Corn–Soybean Croplands, John C. Tyndall, Lisa A. Schulte-Moore, Jarad Niemi, Matthew J. Helmers, Matthew Z. Liebman, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., David E. James, Randall K. Kalka, Matthew E. O'Neal, Mark D. Tomer, Heidi Asbjornsen, Pauline Drobney, Jeri Neal, Gary Van Ryswyk, Christopher C. Witte 2017 Iowa State University

Prairie Strips Improve Biodiversity And The Delivery Of Multiple Ecosystem Services From Corn–Soybean Croplands, John C. Tyndall, Lisa A. Schulte-Moore, Jarad Niemi, Matthew J. Helmers, Matthew Z. Liebman, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., David E. James, Randall K. Kalka, Matthew E. O'Neal, Mark D. Tomer, Heidi Asbjornsen, Pauline Drobney, Jeri Neal, Gary Van Ryswyk, Christopher C. Witte

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Loss of biodiversity and degradation of ecosystem services from agricultural lands remain important challenges in the United States despite decades of spending on natural resource management. To date, conservation investment has emphasized engineering practices or vegetative strategies centered on monocultural plantings of nonnative plants, largely excluding native species from cropland. In a catchment-scale experiment, we quantified the multiple effects of integrating strips of native prairie species amid corn and soybean crops, with prairie strips arranged to arrest run-off on slopes. Replacing 10% of cropland with prairie strips increased biodiversity and ecosystem services with minimal impacts on crop production. Compared with ...


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