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Sequence Stratigraphy Of Campanian-Maastrichtian Strata In Eastern Alabama, David Simmons 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Sequence Stratigraphy Of Campanian-Maastrichtian Strata In Eastern Alabama, David Simmons

Master's Theses

Eastern Alabama is an area of interest due to the transition from the Gulf Coastal Plain to the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Coastal Plain investigations have been sparse compared to research conducted in the oil rich areas down dip in the Gulf of Mexico. A sequence stratigraphic framework using the T-R cycle methodology of Embry (2002) has been established by integrating surface and subsurface lithologic data with biostratigraphic zonations into Petra ®. High sedimentation from the ancestral Chattahoochee River and lower relative sea-level formed an additional depositional sequence within the Santonian-Campanian aged Blufftown Formation in eastern Alabama. The sequence is approximately late ...


A Characterization Of Petrified And Mummified Wood From An Eocene Deposit In Mississippi, Nayeon Lee, Sungkwang Mun, Mark Horstemeyer, Stephen J. Horstemeyer, David J. Lang 2018 Mississippi State University

A Characterization Of Petrified And Mummified Wood From An Eocene Deposit In Mississippi, Nayeon Lee, Sungkwang Mun, Mark Horstemeyer, Stephen J. Horstemeyer, David J. Lang

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

This study experimentally investigates pieces of fossilized wood that include both mummified and petrified portions within the same pieces collected from the Red Hills Lignite Mine in Mississippi, USA. To the authors’ knowledge, having petrified and mummified regions within the same piece of wood has not been previously reported. Our study analyzes the chemical compositions, microstructures, and nanohardness to characterize the fossilized wood. The chemical analysis revealed that the composition of the mummified regions included mainly carbon, oxygen, and small amount of minerals indicating these regions were similar to currently growing wood, and the petrified regions included silicon and oxygen ...


Feathered Dinosaurs Reconsidered: New Insights From Baraminology And Ethnotaxonomy, Matthew McLain, Matt Petrone, Matthew Speights 2018 The Master's University

Feathered Dinosaurs Reconsidered: New Insights From Baraminology And Ethnotaxonomy, Matthew Mclain, Matt Petrone, Matthew Speights

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Birds could not have evolved from land animal ancestors because Genesis clearly states that birds and land animals were created on separate days. As a result, young-earth creationists have consistently opposed the theory that birds evolved from dinosaurs. Nevertheless, numerous fossils of dinosaurs with feathers, including some very bird-like dinosaurs, have been found in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. We determined to understand what these fossils mean in a creationist context through a survey of their fossil record and statistical baraminological analyses. While the survey demonstrates that feathered dinosaur fossils do, in fact, exist, the baraminological analyses suggest ...


Tree Ring Disturbance Clustering For The Collapse Of Long Tree-Ring Chronologies, John Woodmorappe 2018 none

Tree Ring Disturbance Clustering For The Collapse Of Long Tree-Ring Chronologies, John Woodmorappe

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

The Disturbance-Clustering hypothesis, first introduced here, posits that geographically-demarcated subtly-perturbed tree rings had induced the affected trees to crossmatch not in accordance with climatic signals, as is assumed in conventional dendrochronology. They instead crossmatch only within a geographic cluster of like-perturbed trees, and not with those of other clusters or with any of the remaining unaffected climatically-governed trees. During chronology-building, these clusters became connected with each other, into an artificially-long chronology, by means of rarely-occurring fortuitously-crossmatching “bridge” series. An experiment involving fifteen ostensibly heterochronous ancient trees graphically supports this hypothesis. Merely one-per-decade individual-ring perturbations induce all fifteen series to form ...


The Dinosauria: Baraminological And Multivariate Patterns, Neal A. Doran, Matthew McLain, Natalie Young, Adam Sanderson 2018 Bryan College

The Dinosauria: Baraminological And Multivariate Patterns, Neal A. Doran, Matthew Mclain, Natalie Young, Adam Sanderson

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

The Dinosauria pose both interesting and challenging questions for creationist systematists. One question is whether new dinosaur discoveries are closing morphospatial gaps between dinosaurian groups, revealing continuous morphological fossil series, such as between coelurosaurians and avialans. Questions such as these underscore the importance of systematics for resolving correct group memberships, including tools for visualizing morphospatial relationships. Baraminic distance correlation (BDC), three-dimensional multidimensional scaling (MDS), and a new method to baraminic studies – principal component analysis (PCA) – were applied to 18 character matrices from 2004. The data included saurischian and ornithischian dinosaur groups including (1) “basal” Saurischia, (2) Ceratosauria (including Coelophysidae), (3 ...


The Effect Of An Historical Geology Course On Students’ Attitudes Towards Science And Their Knowledge Of Deep Time As A Threshold To Their Knowledge Of Evolution, Allan Nolan 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Effect Of An Historical Geology Course On Students’ Attitudes Towards Science And Their Knowledge Of Deep Time As A Threshold To Their Knowledge Of Evolution, Allan Nolan

Dissertations

In America there exists a conflict between a small group of its citizens and the concept of evolution. Researchers have studied this conflict and the ways in which teachers might approach educational methodologies that not only address evolution in a sensitive manner, but also remain legally acceptable.

This research was designed to address teaching evolution in the context of deep time – the concept that time is vast and that geology and biology operate in a timescale of hundreds of millions to billions of years. In previous peer-reviewed works, it has been stated that deep time acts as a threshold concept ...


Results Of Test-Hole Drilling For Observation Well Planning In The Lower Loup Natural Resources District, Spring 2017, Douglas R. Hallum P.G., Sue Olafsen Lackey, Steven S. Sibray 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Results Of Test-Hole Drilling For Observation Well Planning In The Lower Loup Natural Resources District, Spring 2017, Douglas R. Hallum P.G., Sue Olafsen Lackey, Steven S. Sibray

Conservation and Survey Division

The High Plains Aquifer underlies much of Nebraska. It is the primary source of groundwater within the Lower Loup Natural Resources District (LLNRD) of central Nebraska. Water derived from the aquifer is an important natural resource for the area and supplies water for recreation, wildlife and agriculture, as well as domestic, municipal, and industrial uses. Falling spring water levels measured in existing observation and irrigation wells have raised concerns about possible changes in water availability, groundwater-surface water relationships and water quality in the area, prompting the LLNRD to propose test holes and the collection of additional groundwater data in the ...


Devonian Stromatoporoid Interactions At The Falls Of The Ohio State Park, Clarksville, Indiana, Morgan Sierra Hall 2018 Bellarmine University

Devonian Stromatoporoid Interactions At The Falls Of The Ohio State Park, Clarksville, Indiana, Morgan Sierra Hall

Undergraduate Theses

Stromatoporoids are calcitic sponges that occurred in the fossil record from the Early Ordovician to Late Devonian period. These sponges interacted with other organisms, especially rugose and tabulate corals. Some corals appear to benefit from the rigidity of stromatoporoids in response to turbulent waters. Stromatoporoids and many corals went extinct during the Frasnian-Famennian crisis when paleoenvironmental parameters were shifting. Studying the relationships between these taxa may provide insight to their vulnerability during the extinction.

This research was performed at the Falls of the Ohio in Clarksville, Indiana. Organisms in the Coral Zone were studied using transect sampling. Each fossil along ...


A Four-Legged Megalosaurus And Swimming Brontosaurs, Jordan C. Oldham 2018 Cedarville University

A Four-Legged Megalosaurus And Swimming Brontosaurs, Jordan C. Oldham

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

Thomas Kuhn in his famous work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions laid out the framework for his theory of how science changes. At the advent of dinosaur paleontology fossil hunters like Gideon Mantell discovered some of the first dinosaurs like Iguanodon and Megalosaurus. Through new disciples like Georges Cuvier’s comparative anatomy lead early dinosaur paleontologist to reconstruct them like giant reptiles of absurd proportions. This lead to the formation of a new paradigm that prehistoric animals like dinosaurs existed and eventually went extinct. The first reconstructions of dinosaur made them to look like giant counterparts of their modern cousins ...


Paradigms And Paleoartists: How Our Perception Of Dinosaurs Forms, Jordan C. Oldham 2018 Cedarville University

Paradigms And Paleoartists: How Our Perception Of Dinosaurs Forms, Jordan C. Oldham

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Thomas Kuhn in his famous work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions put forth his idea about how science changes. Kuhn thought that science changed by scientific revolutions brought on by an anomaly. After the anomaly, a crisis point would ensue as more scientists would research the anomaly. While in the process of research they would abandon the old paradigm in favor of one that would explain the anomaly. Not all anomalies create a crisis, but can rather result in a paradigm shift. These shifts occur within the old paradigm, and do not led to the formation of a new paradigm ...


Conflicting Theories: Impact And Volcanism, Dimitrik Johnson 2018 Germanna Community College

Conflicting Theories: Impact And Volcanism, Dimitrik Johnson

Student Writing

The K-Pg extinction (or K-T extinction), more commonly referred to as the extinction of the dinosaurs, is the most recent mass extinction event in Earth’s history. The causes of the event have been widely debated, with the two main theories being a large asteroid impact or volcanism. While some scientists disagree, the most popular and agreed upon theory is that a large asteroid impacted Earth 65 million years ago, creating a toxic dust cloud that filled the atmosphere, and resulted in the eventual extinction of most of the dinosaurs. This theory was first brought to life by Luis Alvarez ...


Redescription And Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Materials Assigned To The Taxon "Captorhinikos" Chozaensis, Jason Paul Jung 2018 California State University - San Bernardino

Redescription And Phylogenetic Analysis Of The Materials Assigned To The Taxon "Captorhinikos" Chozaensis, Jason Paul Jung

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

“Captorhinikos” chozaensis is a multiple-tooth-rowed captorhinid reptile from the Lower Permian Clear Fork Group, undivided formation. Upon re-examination of the materials associated with the species from both the Chicago Field Museum of Natural History, and the Smithsonian United States National Museum, I reaffirm their affinity and collective identity as a valid taxon. “Captorhinikos” chozaensis does not, however, belong with either of the two members of its genus, C. valensis or “C.” parvus, instead occupying its own branch on the phylogenetic tree of the Captorhinidae. This conclusion is based in strong results from a combined phylogenetic parsimony analysis combined with an ...


Nitrogen Isotopes Suggest A Change In Nitrogen Dynamics Between The Late Pleistocene And Modern Time In Yukon, Canada, Farnoush Tahmasebi, Fred J. Longstaffe, Grant Zazula 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Nitrogen Isotopes Suggest A Change In Nitrogen Dynamics Between The Late Pleistocene And Modern Time In Yukon, Canada, Farnoush Tahmasebi, Fred J. Longstaffe, Grant Zazula

Earth Sciences Publications

A magnificent repository of Late Pleistocene terrestrial megafauna fossils is contained in ice-rich loess deposits of Alaska and Yukon, collectively eastern Beringia. The stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope compositions of bone collagen from these fossils are routinely used to determine paleodiet and reconstruct the paleoecosystem. This approach requires consideration of changes in C- and N-isotope dynamics over time and their effects on the terrestrial vegetation isotopic baseline. To test for such changes between the Late Pleistocene and modern time, we compared δ13C and δ15N for vegetation and bone collagen and ...


Interactive Map Portal Of Some Important Fossil Localities Along The Southern Tethyan Margin Of The Sephardic (Triassic) And Ethiopian (Jurassic) Faunal Provinces, Marcelo Rosensaft, Howard R. Feldman 2018 Touro College

Interactive Map Portal Of Some Important Fossil Localities Along The Southern Tethyan Margin Of The Sephardic (Triassic) And Ethiopian (Jurassic) Faunal Provinces, Marcelo Rosensaft, Howard R. Feldman

Lander College for Women - The Anna Ruth and Mark Hasten School Publications and Research

The use of a “map portal” allows researchers to publish their maps and the data incorporated therein in a simple way that will reach a broad audience. Colleagues, as well as other workers worldwide, can connect to the portal through the internet and display the maps on desktop computers. The process is dynamic; any change made in the source map is immediately displayed on the user’s desktop. In this report we illustrate a map of Triassic and Jurassic brachiopod collecting localities on the southern Tethyan margin in the Middle East. The locations are shown as red points that overlie ...


An Analysis Of Multiple Stressors On Resident Benthic Communities In A California Agricultural Stream, Lenwood W. Hall Jr., Ronald D. Anderson, William D. Killen, Raymond W. Allen III 2018 Touro University Nevada

An Analysis Of Multiple Stressors On Resident Benthic Communities In A California Agricultural Stream, Lenwood W. Hall Jr., Ronald D. Anderson, William D. Killen, Raymond W. Allen Iii

Office of the Provost (TUN) Publications and Research

This 3-year study (2015-2017) was designed to characterize benthic communities (macroinvertebrates) and physical habitat in an agriculturally dominated waterbody in the Central Coast area of California (Santa Maria River). Benthic communities as represented by various metrics that represent richness, composition, tolerance/intolerance and trophic measures were used as response variables for the various stressors described below. Concurrent water quality evaluations, physical sediment parameters (grain size and total organic carbon [TOC]), pyrethroids, bulk metals—including simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) ratios—and nutrients were measured. The relationship of various benthic metrics to physical habitat metrics, pyrethroids, metals ...


Late Quaternary Chorus Frog (Pseudacris) From The Channel Islands, California, Jim I. Mead, Justin Wilkins, Paul W. Collins 2018 Mammoth Site of Hot Springs South Dakota

Late Quaternary Chorus Frog (Pseudacris) From The Channel Islands, California, Jim I. Mead, Justin Wilkins, Paul W. Collins

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Abstract.-Fossil and subfossil remains of the vertebrate faunas from the northern Channel Islands, southern California, have been studied for many decades. Continued interest has focused on skeletal remains of birds, rodents, and mammoths from archaeological and paleontological localities, but considerably less attention has been placed on the detailed description of the herpetofauna (salamanders, anurans [frogs and toads], lizards, and snakes) on the Channel Islands. We present descriptions of an ilium of an anuran from Santa Rosa Island (Larramendy North; radiocarbon dating at least 13,393 calibrated years ago) and two tibiofibulae San Miguel Island (Daisy Cave) dating from earliest ...


Evidence For Ephemeral Middle Eocene To Early Oligocene Greenland Glacial Ice And Pan-Arctic Sea Ice, Aradhna Tripati, Dennis Darby 2018 Old Dominion University

Evidence For Ephemeral Middle Eocene To Early Oligocene Greenland Glacial Ice And Pan-Arctic Sea Ice, Aradhna Tripati, Dennis Darby

OEAS Faculty Publications

Earth's modern climate is defined by the presence of ice at both poles, but that ice is now disappearing. Therefore understanding the origin and causes of polar ice stability is more critical than ever. Here we provide novel geochemical data that constrain past dynamics of glacial ice on Greenland and Arctic sea ice. Based on accurate source determinations of individual ice-rafted Fe-oxide grains, we find evidence for episodic glaciation of distinct source regions on Greenland as far-ranging as ~68°N and ~80°N synchronous with ice-rafting from circum-Arctic sources, beginning in the middle Eocene. Glacial intervals broadly coincide with ...


Volcanogenic Pseudo-Fossils From The ~3.48 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia, David Wacey, Nora Noffke, Martin Saunders, Paul Guagliardo, David M. Pyle 2018 Old Dominion University

Volcanogenic Pseudo-Fossils From The ~3.48 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia, David Wacey, Nora Noffke, Martin Saunders, Paul Guagliardo, David M. Pyle

OEAS Faculty Publications

The ~ 3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, is a key geological unit for the study of Earth's earliest life and the habitats it occupied. Here, we describe a new suite of spheroidal to lenticular microstructures that morphologically resemble some previously reported Archean microfossils. Correlative microscopy shows that these objects have a size distribution, wall ultrastructure, and chemistry that are incompatible with a microfossil origin and instead are interpreted as pyritized and silicified fragments of vesicular volcanic glass. Organic kerogenous material is associated with much of the altered volcanic glass; variable quantities of organic carbon line or ...


Refinement And Utilization Of The Marine Climate Proxy Arctica Islandica: An Ideal Replication Strategy For Stable Isotope Studies And An Investigation Into The Shell Growth And Hydrographic Variability Of Georges Bank (Northwestern Atlantic), Jared Daniel Brenzink Ballew 2018 Iowa State University

Refinement And Utilization Of The Marine Climate Proxy Arctica Islandica: An Ideal Replication Strategy For Stable Isotope Studies And An Investigation Into The Shell Growth And Hydrographic Variability Of Georges Bank (Northwestern Atlantic), Jared Daniel Brenzink Ballew

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents two studies that discuss the further refinement and utilization of the marine climate proxy Arctica islandica. The first study uses a Monte Carlo simulation to examine the relationship between replication and uncertainty for climate reconstructions utilizing oxygen isotopes, carbon isotopes and temperature estimates (derived from the modified Grossman and Ku [1986] equation) from the climate proxy A. islandica. An uncertainty within the 95% confidence interval occurred when using two or three shells. An increase to four shells further reduced the uncertainty to within the 99% confidence interval. Studies that utilize stable isotope ratios from A. islandica shells ...


The Triassic Saharonim Formation Of The Sephardic Province On The Southern Tethyan Margin Is An Analog For The Triassic Germanic Muschelkalk Of Western Europe, Howard R. Feldman, Talia J. Belowich 2018 Touro College

The Triassic Saharonim Formation Of The Sephardic Province On The Southern Tethyan Margin Is An Analog For The Triassic Germanic Muschelkalk Of Western Europe, Howard R. Feldman, Talia J. Belowich

Lander College for Women - The Anna Ruth and Mark Hasten School Publications and Research

The Germanic Muschelkalk consists of a sedimentary sequence of limestone and dolostone units that overlies the Permian Buntsandstein Formation and underlies the Middle and Late Triassic Keuper Formation. The three formations form the Germanic Triassic Supergroup. The Muschelkalk was deposited in a shallow marine environment that was only partially connected to the Tethys Ocean to the south with the middle section evaporitic indicating a restricted basin. Fossiliferous beds are often biostromal such as the well-known Coenothyris brachiopod beds (e.g. Terebratula Bed, terebratulid facies) common in the Muschelkalk. The Saharonim Formation of the Sephardic Province, found along the southern shore ...


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