Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Paleontology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,343 Full-Text Articles 1,103 Authors 74,622 Downloads 81 Institutions

All Articles in Paleontology

Faceted Search

1,343 full-text articles. Page 1 of 20.

Comparing Dietary Differences Among The Hornless Artiodactyl Ruminants Hypertragulus, Hypisodus, And Leptomeryx From The Early Oligocene (Orellan) Brule Formation, Toadstool Geologic Park, Nebraska, Holly Chien Seyler 2019 University of Colorado at Boulder

Comparing Dietary Differences Among The Hornless Artiodactyl Ruminants Hypertragulus, Hypisodus, And Leptomeryx From The Early Oligocene (Orellan) Brule Formation, Toadstool Geologic Park, Nebraska, Holly Chien Seyler

Museum and Field Studies Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The Early Oligocene (Orellan) in the North American Western Interior is marked by a cooler and dryer climate than the late Eocene (Chadronian). New mammalian taxa appeared while other groups already present began to diversify. This study takes a closer look at the diversification of hornless ruminant artiodactyls present in the Latest Orellan Merycoidodon bullatus Interval Zone through an analysis of 70 specimens from three closely related species: Hypertragulus (27), Hypisodus (18), and Leptomeryx (25) from a single locality in Toadstool Geologic Park, Nebraska. Specifically, we took a closer look at the hypsodonty index, mesowear, and tooth volume, which have ...


Late Quaternary Evolution And Stratigraphic Framework Influence On Coastal Systems Along The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Usa, Robert Hollis 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Late Quaternary Evolution And Stratigraphic Framework Influence On Coastal Systems Along The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Usa, Robert Hollis

Master's Theses

Coastal systems in the Gulf of Mexico are threatened to reduced sediment supply, storm impacts and relative sea level rise (RSLR). The geologic record can provide insights of geomorphic threshold crossings (formation, progradation, transgression, destruction) to these forcing mechanisms to predict future barrier evolution to climate change. The stratigraphic framework and antecedent topography directly influence coastal evolution over geologic timescales. This study synthesizes ~2100km of geophysical data, 700+ sediment cores, and 63 radiocarbon dates to regionally map two sequence boundaries, multiple ravinement surfaces and fourteen depositional facies. One marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 valley’s fill provided up to 300 ...


Are The Oxygen Isotope Values Of The Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway Different From The Open Ocean?, Camille H. Dwyer, Corinne Myers, Viorel Atudorei 2018 University of New Mexico

Are The Oxygen Isotope Values Of The Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway Different From The Open Ocean?, Camille H. Dwyer, Corinne Myers, Viorel Atudorei

Shared Knowledge Conference

The Western Interior Seaway (WIS) was a North American epicontinental sea that was connected to the open ocean through the passage of the northern Boreal Sea and the southern Tethys Sea from the early Albian (~113 million years ago) to the early Paleogene (~65 million years ago). The WIS began to recced and lost its connection to the southern Tethys Sea in the late Campanian (~72 million years ago). In the early Paleogene, the WIS dried up completely. The oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of benthic bivalves was measured from the upper Campanian and lower Maastrichtian (75 million years ago to ...


15 - Identifying Ancient River Channels And Faces Using Ground Penetrating Radar: Brunswick, Georgia, Usa, Ken Taylor 2018 University of North Georgia

15 - Identifying Ancient River Channels And Faces Using Ground Penetrating Radar: Brunswick, Georgia, Usa, Ken Taylor

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The Princess Anne formation has been previously interpreted as a late-Pleistocene barrier island chain that was deposited ~40 thousand years ago, extending across Brunswick, GA. Historically, this geologic formation has yielded exceptionally well-preserved fossils such as Mammuthus columbi (Columbian mammoth) and Bison latifrons (long-horned bison). Previous studies have hypothesized that these fossils were situated in “cut-and-fill” channel structures (i.e., paleochannels) that later dissected the barrier island deposit ~20 thousand years ago. We performed a high-resolution (200 MHz) ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey to identify any channel-like structures, in addition to subsurface features related to the formation and evolution of the ...


New Insights Into Carboniferous Cyclothems. The Fourth Biennial Field Conference Of The American Association Of Petroleum Geologists (Aapg) Midcontinent Section Fourth Biennial Field Conference Abstracts And Guidebook, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Christopher R. Fielding 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

New Insights Into Carboniferous Cyclothems. The Fourth Biennial Field Conference Of The American Association Of Petroleum Geologists (Aapg) Midcontinent Section Fourth Biennial Field Conference Abstracts And Guidebook, Robert Matthew Joeckel, Christopher R. Fielding

Conservation and Survey Division

The term “cyclothem” was coined by Wanless & Weller (1932) to describe repetitive stratigraphic successions of Carboniferous age in Illinois. Nonetheless, comparable rhythmicity had been identified in Carboniferous rocks both in the central and eastern USA, and in Europe during the preceding century. Cyclothems were found to comprise repetitive vertical successions of sandstones, heterolithic (thinly interbedded) sandstones and mudrocks, mudrocks, limestones, and coals, in many cases with pedogenic overprinting of these lithologies. As usage of the term “cyclothem” increased, so did the diversity of successions to which the term was applied, to the point where many geologists advocated abandonment of the ...


Little Lasting Impact Of The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum On Shallow Marine Molluscan Faunas, Linda Ivany, Carlie Pietsch, John Handley, Rowan Lockwood, Warren Allmon, Jocelyn Sessa 2018 Syracuse University

Little Lasting Impact Of The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum On Shallow Marine Molluscan Faunas, Linda Ivany, Carlie Pietsch, John Handley, Rowan Lockwood, Warren Allmon, Jocelyn Sessa

Faculty Publications

Global warming, acidification, and oxygen stress at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) are associated with severe extinction in the deep sea and major biogeographic and ecologic changes in planktonic and terrestrial ecosystems, yet impacts on shallow marine macrofaunas are obscured by the incompleteness of shelf sections. We analyze mollusk assemblages bracketing (but not including) the PETM and find few notable lasting impacts on diversity, turnover, functional ecology, body size, or life history of important clades. Infaunal and chemosymbiotic taxa become more common, and body size and abundance drop in one clade, consistent with hypoxia-driven selection, but within-clade changes are not ...


Little Lasting Impact Of The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum On Shallow Marine Molluscan Faunas, Linda C. Ivany, Carlie Pietsch, John C. Handley, Rowan Lockwood, Warren D. Allmon, Jocelyn A. Sessa 2018 Syracuse University

Little Lasting Impact Of The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum On Shallow Marine Molluscan Faunas, Linda C. Ivany, Carlie Pietsch, John C. Handley, Rowan Lockwood, Warren D. Allmon, Jocelyn A. Sessa

Carlie Pietsch

Global warming, acidification, and oxygen stress at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) are associated with severe extinction in the deep sea and major biogeographic and ecologic changes in planktonic and terrestrial ecosystems, yet impacts on shallow marine macrofaunas are obscured by the incompleteness of shelf sections. We analyze mollusk assemblages bracketing (but not including) the PETM and find few notable lasting impacts on diversity, turnover, functional ecology, body size, or life history of important clades. Infaunal and chemosymbiotic taxa become more common, and body size and abundance drop in one clade, consistent with hypoxia-driven selection, but within-clade changes are not ...


County-Wide Assessment Of Irrigation Expansion On Air Temperature, Humidity And Evapotranspiration Rates In Nebraska, 1979-2015, Jozsef Szilagyi 2018 Conservation and Survey Division, School of Natural Resources

County-Wide Assessment Of Irrigation Expansion On Air Temperature, Humidity And Evapotranspiration Rates In Nebraska, 1979-2015, Jozsef Szilagyi

Conservation and Survey Division

Total irrigated land area has been expanding in Nebraska over the last 40 years, propelling the state into a leading position within the US in terms of irrigated acreages. Typically, those counties which display the largest degree of irrigation development had a significant portion of their land area already irrigated in 1978. Large-scale irrigation in Nebraska affects its atmospheric environment. During the typical irrigation season of May to August, counties with the largest rate of irrigation expansion have cooled by about 0.2 – 0.3 °F per decade in the summer months of June, July and August, while counties with ...


A New Lower Actinopterygian Fish From The Upper Mississippian Bluefield Formation Of West Virginia, Usa, Kathryn Mickle 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

A New Lower Actinopterygian Fish From The Upper Mississippian Bluefield Formation Of West Virginia, Usa, Kathryn Mickle

College of Life Sciences Faculty Papers

The Upper Mississippian Bluefield Formation of the Mauch Chunk Group in southeastern West Virginia is known for its preservation of a variety of invertebrate taxa and early tetrapod trackways, but no lower actinopterygian remains have been formally described from these Carboniferous rocks. Here, the first lower actinopterygian fish is described from the Bluefield Formation of West Virginia. This fish is represented by a nearly complete articulated specimen with a three-dimensional snout and an unobstructed view of the gular and branchiostegal region. This new taxon is defined by a unique set of characters, which include features of the snout, circumorbital series ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of Calcareous Nannofossils Across A Late Oligocene Paleolatitude Transect Of The North Atlantic Ocean, William Barrett Clark 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Quantitative Analysis Of Calcareous Nannofossils Across A Late Oligocene Paleolatitude Transect Of The North Atlantic Ocean, William Barrett Clark

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Samples from ODP Sites 926, 628, 563, U1406, 647, and 918, were analyzed quantitatively across a paleolatitude transect of the North Atlantic Ocean to determine the paleolatitudinal distribution of calcareous nannofossils in the Late Oligocene and the effects of that distribution on biostratigraphic resolution. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA), a Temperature index (TI), and the Shannon Diversity Index (H), were used to examine the paleoenvironmental gradients which exerted the most control over the distribution of species and their abundances. The temperature index correlates significantly to the first axis of the DCA, suggesting that thermal controls were the most important factor in ...


Sequence Stratigraphy Of Campanian-Maastrichtian Strata In Eastern Alabama, David Simmons 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Sequence Stratigraphy Of Campanian-Maastrichtian Strata In Eastern Alabama, David Simmons

Master's Theses

Eastern Alabama is an area of interest due to the transition from the Gulf Coastal Plain to the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Coastal Plain investigations have been sparse compared to research conducted in the oil rich areas down dip in the Gulf of Mexico. A sequence stratigraphic framework using the T-R cycle methodology of Embry (2002) has been established by integrating surface and subsurface lithologic data with biostratigraphic zonations into Petra ®. High sedimentation from the ancestral Chattahoochee River and lower relative sea-level formed an additional depositional sequence within the Santonian-Campanian aged Blufftown Formation in eastern Alabama. The sequence is approximately late ...


A Characterization Of Petrified And Mummified Wood From An Eocene Deposit In Mississippi, Nayeon Lee, Sungkwang Mun, Mark Horstemeyer, Stephen J. Horstemeyer, David J. Lang 2018 Mississippi State University

A Characterization Of Petrified And Mummified Wood From An Eocene Deposit In Mississippi, Nayeon Lee, Sungkwang Mun, Mark Horstemeyer, Stephen J. Horstemeyer, David J. Lang

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

This study experimentally investigates pieces of fossilized wood that include both mummified and petrified portions within the same pieces collected from the Red Hills Lignite Mine in Mississippi, USA. To the authors’ knowledge, having petrified and mummified regions within the same piece of wood has not been previously reported. Our study analyzes the chemical compositions, microstructures, and nanohardness to characterize the fossilized wood. The chemical analysis revealed that the composition of the mummified regions included mainly carbon, oxygen, and small amount of minerals indicating these regions were similar to currently growing wood, and the petrified regions included silicon and oxygen ...


Feathered Dinosaurs Reconsidered: New Insights From Baraminology And Ethnotaxonomy, Matthew McLain, Matt Petrone, Matthew Speights 2018 The Master's University

Feathered Dinosaurs Reconsidered: New Insights From Baraminology And Ethnotaxonomy, Matthew Mclain, Matt Petrone, Matthew Speights

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Birds could not have evolved from land animal ancestors because Genesis clearly states that birds and land animals were created on separate days. As a result, young-earth creationists have consistently opposed the theory that birds evolved from dinosaurs. Nevertheless, numerous fossils of dinosaurs with feathers, including some very bird-like dinosaurs, have been found in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. We determined to understand what these fossils mean in a creationist context through a survey of their fossil record and statistical baraminological analyses. While the survey demonstrates that feathered dinosaur fossils do, in fact, exist, the baraminological analyses suggest ...


Tree Ring Disturbance Clustering For The Collapse Of Long Tree-Ring Chronologies, John Woodmorappe 2018 none

Tree Ring Disturbance Clustering For The Collapse Of Long Tree-Ring Chronologies, John Woodmorappe

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

The Disturbance-Clustering hypothesis, first introduced here, posits that geographically-demarcated subtly-perturbed tree rings had induced the affected trees to crossmatch not in accordance with climatic signals, as is assumed in conventional dendrochronology. They instead crossmatch only within a geographic cluster of like-perturbed trees, and not with those of other clusters or with any of the remaining unaffected climatically-governed trees. During chronology-building, these clusters became connected with each other, into an artificially-long chronology, by means of rarely-occurring fortuitously-crossmatching “bridge” series. An experiment involving fifteen ostensibly heterochronous ancient trees graphically supports this hypothesis. Merely one-per-decade individual-ring perturbations induce all fifteen series to form ...


The Dinosauria: Baraminological And Multivariate Patterns, Neal A. Doran, Matthew McLain, Natalie Young, Adam Sanderson 2018 Bryan College

The Dinosauria: Baraminological And Multivariate Patterns, Neal A. Doran, Matthew Mclain, Natalie Young, Adam Sanderson

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

The Dinosauria pose both interesting and challenging questions for creationist systematists. One question is whether new dinosaur discoveries are closing morphospatial gaps between dinosaurian groups, revealing continuous morphological fossil series, such as between coelurosaurians and avialans. Questions such as these underscore the importance of systematics for resolving correct group memberships, including tools for visualizing morphospatial relationships. Baraminic distance correlation (BDC), three-dimensional multidimensional scaling (MDS), and a new method to baraminic studies – principal component analysis (PCA) – were applied to 18 character matrices from 2004. The data included saurischian and ornithischian dinosaur groups including (1) “basal” Saurischia, (2) Ceratosauria (including Coelophysidae), (3 ...


The Effect Of An Historical Geology Course On Students’ Attitudes Towards Science And Their Knowledge Of Deep Time As A Threshold To Their Knowledge Of Evolution, Allan Nolan 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Effect Of An Historical Geology Course On Students’ Attitudes Towards Science And Their Knowledge Of Deep Time As A Threshold To Their Knowledge Of Evolution, Allan Nolan

Dissertations

In America there exists a conflict between a small group of its citizens and the concept of evolution. Researchers have studied this conflict and the ways in which teachers might approach educational methodologies that not only address evolution in a sensitive manner, but also remain legally acceptable.

This research was designed to address teaching evolution in the context of deep time – the concept that time is vast and that geology and biology operate in a timescale of hundreds of millions to billions of years. In previous peer-reviewed works, it has been stated that deep time acts as a threshold concept ...


A Taxon-Free, Multi-Proxy Model For Making Paleoecological Interpretations Of Neogene North American Faunas, Devra G. Hock 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Taxon-Free, Multi-Proxy Model For Making Paleoecological Interpretations Of Neogene North American Faunas, Devra G. Hock

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Proxies used for interpreting the paleoecology of extinct vertebrate communities are usually based on modern ecosystems, with many developed from Old World ecosystems. However, because no model is completely taxon-free and phylogenetic influences cannot be entirely discounted, these proxies may not be appropriate for paleoecological interpretations of North American ecosystems. Additionally, many proxies based on modern vertebrate communities exclude small-bodied mammals. Here I explore several new paleoecological models based on the frequency of mammalian traits within three ecological categories: locomotion, diet, and body mass. Since these models are intended for interpreting paleoenvironments occupied by Neogene North American mammals, the data ...


Results Of Test-Hole Drilling For Observation Well Planning In The Lower Loup Natural Resources District, Spring 2017, Douglas R. Hallum P.G., Sue Olafsen Lackey, Steven S. Sibray 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Results Of Test-Hole Drilling For Observation Well Planning In The Lower Loup Natural Resources District, Spring 2017, Douglas R. Hallum P.G., Sue Olafsen Lackey, Steven S. Sibray

Conservation and Survey Division

The High Plains Aquifer underlies much of Nebraska. It is the primary source of groundwater within the Lower Loup Natural Resources District (LLNRD) of central Nebraska. Water derived from the aquifer is an important natural resource for the area and supplies water for recreation, wildlife and agriculture, as well as domestic, municipal, and industrial uses. Falling spring water levels measured in existing observation and irrigation wells have raised concerns about possible changes in water availability, groundwater-surface water relationships and water quality in the area, prompting the LLNRD to propose test holes and the collection of additional groundwater data in the ...


Devonian Stromatoporoid Interactions At The Falls Of The Ohio State Park, Clarksville, Indiana, Morgan Sierra Hall 2018 Bellarmine University

Devonian Stromatoporoid Interactions At The Falls Of The Ohio State Park, Clarksville, Indiana, Morgan Sierra Hall

Undergraduate Theses

Stromatoporoids are calcitic sponges that occurred in the fossil record from the Early Ordovician to Late Devonian period. These sponges interacted with other organisms, especially rugose and tabulate corals. Some corals appear to benefit from the rigidity of stromatoporoids in response to turbulent waters. Stromatoporoids and many corals went extinct during the Frasnian-Famennian crisis when paleoenvironmental parameters were shifting. Studying the relationships between these taxa may provide insight to their vulnerability during the extinction.

This research was performed at the Falls of the Ohio in Clarksville, Indiana. Organisms in the Coral Zone were studied using transect sampling. Each fossil along ...


A Four-Legged Megalosaurus And Swimming Brontosaurs, Jordan C. Oldham 2018 Cedarville University

A Four-Legged Megalosaurus And Swimming Brontosaurs, Jordan C. Oldham

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

Thomas Kuhn in his famous work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions laid out the framework for his theory of how science changes. At the advent of dinosaur paleontology fossil hunters like Gideon Mantell discovered some of the first dinosaurs like Iguanodon and Megalosaurus. Through new disciples like Georges Cuvier’s comparative anatomy lead early dinosaur paleontologist to reconstruct them like giant reptiles of absurd proportions. This lead to the formation of a new paradigm that prehistoric animals like dinosaurs existed and eventually went extinct. The first reconstructions of dinosaur made them to look like giant counterparts of their modern cousins ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress