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Understanding Feathered Dinosaurs, Michael D. Sprague 2017 Cedarville University

Understanding Feathered Dinosaurs, Michael D. Sprague

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Young-earth creationists hold to separate creations of birds and land animals due to a literal interpretation of Genesis 1:20-25, which describes their creations on different days. As such, they oppose the conventional model of theropod-to-bird evolution. For many years, there were few Mesozoic birds known, namely Hesperornis and Icthyornis. Specimens such as Archaeopteryx, found in 1861, seemed to strengthen the argument for the proposed transition. However, even after John Ostrom reinvigorated the idea of dinosaur-to-bird evolution in 1960 with the discovery of Deinonychus, evidence of this transition was still sparse. In the 1990’s, exquisitely-preserved dinosaur fossils began to ...


A Correlation And Stratigraphy Of Detailed Measured Core Sections Of The Waynesville And Liberty Formations (Katian; Richmondian) - Transecting Warren, Clinton, And Fayette Counties Of Ohio, Mark P. Guilliams 2017 Cedarville University

A Correlation And Stratigraphy Of Detailed Measured Core Sections Of The Waynesville And Liberty Formations (Katian; Richmondian) - Transecting Warren, Clinton, And Fayette Counties Of Ohio, Mark P. Guilliams

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The stratigraphy of the Cincinnatian is difficult to understand and interpret which has resulted in various models for deposition ranging from a layer cake model with continuous beds to completely discontinuous beds. The interest of this study is the Liberty and Waynesville Formations (previously part of the Bull Fork Formation); these are Late Ordovician (Katian; Richmondian) units of predominantly limestone and shale. This project assesses the continuity of fine scale beds within these formations across a small area (approx. the size of Ohio’s Clinton County) by correlating measured sections from drill cores. The project involved the study of five ...


A Description Of A New Allosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) Skull With Comparison To Additional Specimens, Michael D. Sprague 2017 Cedarville University

A Description Of A New Allosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) Skull With Comparison To Additional Specimens, Michael D. Sprague

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Allosaurus was a genus of large theropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Period (Kimmeridgian to early Tithonian). The history of the taxonomic classification of Allosaurus species is muddled at best, and the number of recognized species varies significantly between researchers. Most Allosaurs from the Morrison Formation are typically lumped into a single species, Allosaurus fragilis. Given the amount of variation seen in Allosaurs through the Morrison, the genus may more diverse than generally recognized. A nearly complete Allosaurus skull (CM 279) located in the Creation Museum in Petersberg, KY is described, with comparison of its skull morphology to two other ...


Understanding Feathered Dinosaurs, Michael D. Sprague 2017 Cedarville University

Understanding Feathered Dinosaurs, Michael D. Sprague

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Young-earth creationists hold to separate creations of birds and land animals due to a literal interpretation of Genesis 1:20-25, which describes their creations on different days. As such, they oppose the conventional model of theropod-to-bird evolution. For many years, there were few Mesozoic birds known, namely Hesperornis and Icthyornis. Specimens such as Archaeopteryx, found in 1861, seemed to strengthen the argument for the proposed transition. However, even after John Ostrom reinvigorated the idea of dinosaur-to-bird evolution in 1960 with the discovery of Deinonychus, evidence of this transition was still sparse. In the 1990’s, exquisitely-preserved dinosaur fossils began to ...


Preservation Of Sea Anemone Burrows In Silurian (~432 Million Years Old) Carbonate Rocks Of Southeastern Indiana, Usa, Marissa Tomin 2017 The University of Akron

Preservation Of Sea Anemone Burrows In Silurian (~432 Million Years Old) Carbonate Rocks Of Southeastern Indiana, Usa, Marissa Tomin

Honors Research Projects

Preservation of trace fossils (ichnofossils) in siliciclastic environments is often quite different from preservation in carbonate environments, representing an important source of variation that must be well understood in order to enhance interpretations of paleoenvironments and paleoecology. This study focuses on Conostichus, a relatively common burrow constructed by solitary sea anemones. These trace fossils are generally well-preserved (i.e., they display detailed external features) in siliciclastic rocks but are typically little more than conical masses in carbonate rocks. However, certain specimens recovered from the middle Silurian Massie Formation at the Napoleon quarry of southeastern Indiana are composed entirely out of ...


Early Miocene Quantitative Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy From The Tropical Atlantic, Waheed A. Albasrawi 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Early Miocene Quantitative Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy From The Tropical Atlantic, Waheed A. Albasrawi

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Quantitative analysis for the Lower Miocene of Ocean Drilling Program Hole 959A from the West African margin was performed to document all the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic events present. Combined with data from previous investigations of the Lower Miocene from the tropical Atlantic, this research identifies and tests the viability of markers used in current zonation scheme, identifies alternative markers for age boundaries, and examine statistically the most probable order of event in the Lower Miocene using the Ranking and Scaling method (RASC).

The examination of Hole 959A was performed on a 112 samples. Seven additional sites that collectively span the ...


A Gis Analysis Of Waulsortian-Like Mounds In The Mississippian Of Kentucky And Tennessee, Philip Roberson 2016 Murray State University

A Gis Analysis Of Waulsortian-Like Mounds In The Mississippian Of Kentucky And Tennessee, Philip Roberson

Scholars Week

Following a mass extinction nearly 365 million years ago, bryozoans and crinoids replaced corals and stromatoporoids as the dominant framework organisms in reefs and, during the very earliest part of the Carboniferous period, they built reef-like structures that are known from Europe, North America and Africa. They are characterized by large size, a matrix of carbonate mud, and their major framework organisms.

Waulsortian-like mounds occur in geographically isolated patches in outcrop and in the subsurface of central Tennessee and Kentucky where they are associated with hydrocarbon production. These mounds have the same characteristic organisms as the European mounds and do ...


Evolution, Paleoecology, And Paleobiogeography Of The Late Ordovician Brachiopod Fauna Of Laurentia, Colin D. Sproat 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Evolution, Paleoecology, And Paleobiogeography Of The Late Ordovician Brachiopod Fauna Of Laurentia, Colin D. Sproat

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

During the early Katian (Late Ordovician), the North American craton was being inundated due to a major eustatic sea level rise and regional subsidence associated with the ongoing Taconic orogeny. The Trentonian brachiopod fauna, as a dominant group of the marine shelly benthos at that time, evolved and invaded the expanding epicontinental seas.

Three Trentonian brachiopod lineages were studied to trace their evolution. The Rostricellula-Rhynchotrema-Hiscobeccus lineage was characterized by an increase in shell size, globosity, and frilled lamellae, with Hiscobeccus becoming a prominent component of the Late Ordovician epicontinental brachiopod fauna.

Parastrophina is a widely reported but non-dominant taxon of ...


Lessons From The Past: Unfolding The Dynamics Among Climate, Balkan Landscapes, And Humans Over The Past Millennium, Charuta J. Kulkarni 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Lessons From The Past: Unfolding The Dynamics Among Climate, Balkan Landscapes, And Humans Over The Past Millennium, Charuta J. Kulkarni

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The primary objective of this doctoral dissertation is to reconstruct the environmental history of the Central Balkans (Serbia) over the past millennium utilizing biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical signals through X-ray fluorescence (XRF), statistical analyses, and atomic mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C chronology. This dissertation establishes the first chronological framework for vegetation-landscape changes in Serbia and discusses the role of humans and climate as underlying processes.

Chapter 1 discusses the background and the nature of the research problem followed by the extensive literature review on the topic of the Holocene climate and paleoecology. The state of Holocene paleoecology ...


Permian Foraminifera From British Honduras, Charles A. Ross 2016 Selected Works

Permian Foraminifera From British Honduras, Charles A. Ross

Charles Ross

Fusulinids identified from the Macal Shale Group, Macal Series, south central British Honduras and Schwarerina gruperaensis Thompson and Miller, Schwagerina sp. A, Eoverbeekina aff. E. americana Thompson and Miller, Ozawainella? sp., and Staffella sp. One species of the Trochamminid genus Tetrataxis also occurs in these strata. These species suggest correlation with the lower part of the Chochal Limestone of Guatemala, the Grupera Formation of Chiapas, Mexico, and the Lenox Hills Formation (upper part of the standard Wolfcampian Series, Permian), Glass Mountains, Texas.


Early Permian Fusulinids From Macusani, Southern Peru, Charles A. Ross 2016 Western Washington University

Early Permian Fusulinids From Macusani, Southern Peru, Charles A. Ross

Charles Ross

Triticites patulus Dunbar and Newell and Schwagerina adamsi sp. nov. from the early Wolfcampian (Permian) part of the Copacabana Group near Macusani, southern Peru, show morphological features that add new data concerning the evolution of the genera Schwagerina and Pseudoschwagerina from lineages arising within the genus Triticites near the close of the Pennsylvanian.


First Major Appearance Of Brachiopod-Dominated Benthic Shelly Communities In The Reef Ecosystem During The Early Silurian, Cale A.C. Gushulak 2016 The University of Western Ontario

First Major Appearance Of Brachiopod-Dominated Benthic Shelly Communities In The Reef Ecosystem During The Early Silurian, Cale A.C. Gushulak

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The early Silurian reefs of the Attawapiskat Formation in the Hudson Bay Basin preserved the oldest record of major invasion of the coral-stromatoporoid skeletal reefs by brachiopods and other marine shelly benthos, providing an excellent opportunity for studying the early evolution, functional morphology, and community organization of the rich and diverse reef-dwelling brachiopods. Biometric and multivariate analysis demonstrate that the reef-dwelling Pentameroides septentrionalis evolved from the level-bottom-dwelling Pentameroides subrectus to develop a larger and more globular shell. The reef-dwelling brachiopods in the paleoequatorial Hudson Bay Basin were more diverse than contemporaneous higher latitude reef-dwelling brachiopod faunas, with ten distinct community ...


Reconstructing The Paleoecology And Biogeography Of Rhinoceroses (Mammalia: Rhinocerotidae) In The Great Plains Of North America, Leading Up To Their Extinction In The Early Pliocene, Bian Wang 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Reconstructing The Paleoecology And Biogeography Of Rhinoceroses (Mammalia: Rhinocerotidae) In The Great Plains Of North America, Leading Up To Their Extinction In The Early Pliocene, Bian Wang

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Members of the family Rhinocerotidae first appeared in the middle Eocene and were one of most successful mammal groups of the Oligocene and Miocene in North America. Their extinction in the early Pliocene has been attributed to several causes, including cooling climate, an expansion of C4 grasslands, and faunal turnover favoring high-crowned, open habitat-adapted mammalian taxa. This study tests whether the extinction of North American rhinoceroses in the Great Plains was abrupt or gradual by examining changes in their paleogeographic distribution in a series of time-slices through the Barstovian, Clarendonian, and Hemphillian North American land-mammal ages. It further examines ...


The Influence Of The Great Falls Tectonic Zone On The Thrust Sheet Geometry Of The Southern Sawtooth Range, Montana, Usa, Caroline M. Burberry, J. M. Palu 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Influence Of The Great Falls Tectonic Zone On The Thrust Sheet Geometry Of The Southern Sawtooth Range, Montana, Usa, Caroline M. Burberry, J. M. Palu

Papers in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The reactivation potential of pre-existing deep-seated structures influences deformation structures produced in subsequent compression. This contribution investigates thrust geometries produced in surface thrust sheets of the Sawtooth Range, Montana, USA, deforming over a previously faulted sedimentary section. Surface thrust fault patterns were picked using existing maps and remote sensing. Thrust location and regional transport direction was also verified in the field. These observations were used to design a series of analogue models, involving deformation of a brittle cover sequence over a lower section with varying numbers of vertical faults. A final model tested the effect of decoupling the upper cover ...


Age Re-Assessment Of The Cave Bear Assemblage From Urşilor Cave, North-Western Romania, Marius V. Robu 2016 "Emil Racoviţă" Institute of Speleology

Age Re-Assessment Of The Cave Bear Assemblage From Urşilor Cave, North-Western Romania, Marius V. Robu

International Journal of Speleology

The most common methods used for assessing the relative age of a cave bear bone assemblage are the P4/4 index (morphodynamic index of the cave bear fourth premolar), the K-index and the Index of Plumpness (both used for cave bear’s 2nd metatarsal). Preliminary work on this (Robu et al., 2011), for Urşilor Cave (NW Romania), has indicated one of the youngest European cave bear populations. As the number of extracted fossil bones from the palaeontological excavation increased recently, a re-assessment of the of the age of the cave bear assemblage is necessary. 206 cave bear fourth ...


The Stratigraphic Position Of Fossil Vertebrates From The Pojoaque Member Of The Tesuque Formation (Middle Miocene, Late Barstovian) Near Española, New Mexico, Garrett R. Williamson 2016 Stephen F. Austin State University

The Stratigraphic Position Of Fossil Vertebrates From The Pojoaque Member Of The Tesuque Formation (Middle Miocene, Late Barstovian) Near Española, New Mexico, Garrett R. Williamson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The stratigraphy of the Pojoaque Member of the Tesuque Formation near Española, NM is not well understood. This region, during the Middle Miocene, represented a dynamic alluvial fan-fluvial-lacustrine environment within the Española Basin while the Rio Grande Rift was active. Cavazza (1986) identified two paleodrainage systems (lithosome A, basin-margin facies and B, basin-floor facies) by means of sandstone and conglomerate petrology, paleocurrent, and sedimentary facies analyses. After x-ray diffraction analyses of claystones within lithosome B, mordenite was discovered, which is a zeolite mineral commonly found within volcanic rocks. This is significant because the presence of mordenite confirms Cavazza’s (1986 ...


Description, Taphonomy, And Paleoecology Of The Late Pleistocene Peccaries (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae) From Bat Cave, Pulaski County, Missouri, Aaron L. Woodruff 2016 East Tennessee State University

Description, Taphonomy, And Paleoecology Of The Late Pleistocene Peccaries (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae) From Bat Cave, Pulaski County, Missouri, Aaron L. Woodruff

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The late Pleistocene faunal assemblage from Bat Cave, central Ozarks, Missouri provides an opportunity to assess specific aspects of behavior, ecology, and ontogeny of the extinct peccary Platygonus compressus. All identifiable elements referable to this taxon were catalogued and examined, and a minimum number of individuals of 70 was determined for the sample. The presence of distinct, non-overlapping age groups suggests that P. compressus utilized Bat Cave on a seasonal basis. A predator-prey relationship with Canis dirus, the second most abundant vertebrate from the Bat Cave site, is also described in this study. Damage patterns suggest that the feeding patterns ...


Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou 2016 Nanjing University

Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou

Shuang-ye Wu

In the Asian monsoon region, variations in the stable isotopic composition of speleothems have often been attributed to the "amount effect". However, an increasing number of studies suggest that the "amount effect" in local precipitation is insignificant or even non-existent. To explore this issue further, we examined the variability of daily stable isotopic composition (δ18O) in precipitation from September 2011 to November 2014 in Nanjing, eastern China. We found that intra-seasonal variations of δ18O during summer were not significantly correlated with local rainfall amount but could be linked to changes in the moisture source location and rainout processes in the ...


Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu 2016 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu

Shuang-ye Wu

Reconstruction of the Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) palaeotopography in South China is important for understanding the distribution pattern of the Hirnantian marine depositional environment. In this study, we reconstructed the Hirnantian palaeotopography in the Upper Yangtze region based on the rankings of the palaeo-water depths, which were inferred according to the lithofacies and biofacies characteristics of the sections. Data from 374 Hirnantian sections were collected and standardized through the online Geobiodiversity Database. The Ordinary Kriging interpolation method in the ArcGIS software was applied to create the continuous surface of the palaeo-water depths, i.e. the Hirnantian palaeotopography. Meanwhile, the line transect ...


Upper Albian To Lower Cenomanian Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy Of The Proto-North Atlantic, Shamar Chin 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Upper Albian To Lower Cenomanian Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy Of The Proto-North Atlantic, Shamar Chin

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Lower Cenomanian calcareous nannofossil assemblages from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Sites 137 and 547 in the proto-North Atlantic Ocean were analyzed quantitatively to examine the fidelity of the widely used CC and UC calcareous nannofossil Zonal schemes. Datasets from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) holes 1050C and 1052E (Blake Nose) and Tanzania Drilling Project (TDP) Site 24 were integrated into this dataset. Four biozones spanning the upper Albian through middle Cenomanian were determined using the method of unitary associations (UA). Data were also used from these sequences to generate a ranking and scaling (RASC) optimum sequence. A new reliability index ...


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