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Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause 2020 East Tennessee State University

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Saltville valley in southwestern Virginia is home to Quaternary localities containing paleontological and archaeological remains. Historically the valley has been mined for salt and the small lakes, ponds and springs along the valley floor have a brackish signature. A preliminary report on the site’s ostracode fauna suggested that the site’s water was not always saline. This study analyzed modern and Quaternary ostracodes to understand the valley’s hydrologic and chemical evolution. Sediments contained primarily freshwater species, including the environmentally sensitive Candona crogmaniana. The presence of Pelocypris tuberculatum and a new Fabaeformiscandona species throughout a vertical section spanning ...


High Frequencies Of Theropod Bite Marks Provide Evidence For Feeding, Scavenging, And Possible Cannibalism In A Stressed Late Jurassic Ecosystem, Stephanie K. Drumheller, Julia B. McHugh, Miriam Kane, Anja Riedel, Domenic D'Amore 2020 Daemen College

High Frequencies Of Theropod Bite Marks Provide Evidence For Feeding, Scavenging, And Possible Cannibalism In A Stressed Late Jurassic Ecosystem, Stephanie K. Drumheller, Julia B. Mchugh, Miriam Kane, Anja Riedel, Domenic D'Amore

Faculty Articles

Bite marks provide direct evidence for trophic interactions and competition in the fossil record. However, variations in paleoecological dynamics, such as trophic relationships, feeding behavior, and food availability, govern the frequency of these traces. Theropod bite marks are particularly rare, suggesting that members of this clade might not often focus on bone as a resource, instead preferentially targeting softer tissues. Here, we present an unusually large sample of theropod bite marks from the Upper Jurassic Mygatt-Moore Quarry (MMQ). We surveyed 2,368 vertebrate fossils from MMQ in this analysis, with 684 specimens (28.885% of the sample) preserving at least ...


An Unusual Mastodon Revisited: Providing A Regional Focus For Mammut Americanum (Proboscidea, Mammutidae) In The Southeast, Matthew Inabinett 2020 East Tennessee State University

An Unusual Mastodon Revisited: Providing A Regional Focus For Mammut Americanum (Proboscidea, Mammutidae) In The Southeast, Matthew Inabinett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A century ago, two large American mastodon Mammut americanum specimens from coastal South Carolina were mounted for display at Amherst College. Their robust build, broad and pentalophodont third molars, and well-developed mandibular tusks were noted as unusual. Here, these specimens are redescribed; three additional mastodon mandibles from the same region of South Carolina are also described. Though collection information on these specimens is sparse, they appear to span >150 ka in the Middle to Late Pleistocene, and probably include the first report of Mammut from the earliest-Rancholabrean Ten Mile Hill Formation. Some “unusual” features — moderately to extremely broad third molars ...


A Southeastern North America River Community Forty-Thousand Years Ago, Zack J. Quirk, Dennis B. Blanton 2020 University of Michigan Ann Arbor

A Southeastern North America River Community Forty-Thousand Years Ago, Zack J. Quirk, Dennis B. Blanton

Georgia Journal of Science

Understanding how past communities have been shaped by environmental alterations can provide insight into the impacts of future climate change. Local climate and river systems have changed significantly over the last glacial maximum, but little is known about the communities of the Georgian Coastal Plain earlier in the period. Plant fossils from Coffee Bluff, a Quaternary organic river deposit of the Ocmulgee River in southeastern Georgia, were used to determine past environmental and climatic conditions. The paleoflora were found imbedded in a mud matrix and were removed by a slaking method; they were later identified and separated to respective ecological ...


The Mesozoic Vertebrate Paleontology Of Israel, Jonathan Maxwell 2020 Cedarville University

The Mesozoic Vertebrate Paleontology Of Israel, Jonathan Maxwell

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The Mesozoic rock layers of Israel contain a number of interesting vertebrate fossils, most of which are late Cretaceous in age, though there are some occurrences of vertebrates from the Triassic as well. Unfortunately, the paleontology of Israel is not as well studied as other countries in the area. However, it has contributed some important information to our understanding of the area. The vertebrate fossils are of marine organisms found in a variety of limestones, mudstones and sandstones, indicating that the area was deposited underwater. This includes a large mosasaur, an elasmosaur, and a Triassic pelycosaur. These fossils combined with ...


Cenozoic Vertebrate Biostratigraphy Of South Carolina, Usa, And Additions To The Fauna, Barry Albright Dr., Albert Sanders Dr., Robert Weems, David Cicimurri, James Knight 2020 University of North Florida

Cenozoic Vertebrate Biostratigraphy Of South Carolina, Usa, And Additions To The Fauna, Barry Albright Dr., Albert Sanders Dr., Robert Weems, David Cicimurri, James Knight

Showcase of Faculty Scholarly & Creative Activity

Although South Carolina has not typically been considered a state yielding a wealth of vertebrate paleontological resources, study of its fossils, particularly those from the famous “Ashley River phosphate beds” near Charleston, played a significant role in the early history of vertebrate paleontology as a scientific discipline in North America. Long overshadowed by the exceptionally rich Cenozoic record from Florida, renewed efforts in South Carolina over the last three decades have resulted in a wealth of new data from sites that rival, and in some cases surpass, any others along the US Atlantic Coastal Plain. With increasing study of these ...


Interpretive Geologic Maps And Cross Sections For Phelps, Kearney, And Adams Counties In Nebraska, Dana Divine, Leslie M. Howard 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Interpretive Geologic Maps And Cross Sections For Phelps, Kearney, And Adams Counties In Nebraska, Dana Divine, Leslie M. Howard

Conservation and Survey Division

Data from thousands of test-hole and well logs were interpreted to improve understanding and management of the High Plains aquifer in a three-county study area adjacent to the Big Bend reach of the Platte River. Five principal conclusions resulted from these interpretations: (1) the extent of Neogene Ogallala deposits beneath the study area is different than previously mapped; (2) a large paleovalley incised into Cretaceous bedrock probably cuts across Kearney and Adams counties and may be the course of the ancestral Platte River prior to formation of the Big Bend; (3) a groundwater mound created by irrigation canals artificially raises ...


An Assessment Of Convergence In The Feeding Morphology Of Xiphactinus Audax And Megalops Atlanticus Using Landmark-Based Geometric Morphometrics, Edward Chase Shelburne 2020 Fort Hays State University

An Assessment Of Convergence In The Feeding Morphology Of Xiphactinus Audax And Megalops Atlanticus Using Landmark-Based Geometric Morphometrics, Edward Chase Shelburne

Master's Theses

Convergence is an evolutionary phenomenon wherein distantly related organisms independently develop features or functional adaptations to overcome similar environmental constraints. Historically, convergence among organisms has been speculated or asserted with little rigorous or quantitative investigation. More recent advancements in systematics has allowed for the detection and study of convergence in a phylogenetic context, but this does little to elucidate convergent anatomical features in extinct taxa with poorly understood evolutionary histories. The purpose of this study is to investigate one potentially convergent system—the feeding structure of Xiphactinus audax (Teleostei: Ichthyodectiformes) and Megalops atlanticus (Teleostei: Elopiformes)—using a comparative anatomical approach ...


Estimating Evolutionary Volatility In A Maximum-Likelihood Framework, Samuel Warren Tybout 2020 West Virginia University

Estimating Evolutionary Volatility In A Maximum-Likelihood Framework, Samuel Warren Tybout

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Evolutionary volatility is a trait that encompasses a clade’s combined capacity for origination and extinction. High volatility increases extinction risk, and declining global extinction rates are thought to be linked to declining volatility. Despite volatility’s scientific importance, there is no standardized way of measuring it. This study provides a new method, derived from a stochastic birth-death model, of estimating evolutionary volatility from fossil data. Simulations indicate that the method produces accurate and precise estimates for large fossil datasets. Analysis of fossil data for five bivalve families (Lucinidae, Mytilidae, Pectinidae, Pholadomyidae, and Veneridae) indicates that diversity projections made from ...


A Conservation Palaeobiological Perspective On Chesapeake Bay Oysters, Rowan Lockwood, Roger L. Mann 2019 William & Mary

A Conservation Palaeobiological Perspective On Chesapeake Bay Oysters, Rowan Lockwood, Roger L. Mann

VIMS Articles

The eastern oyster plays a vital role in estuarine habitats, acting as an ecosystem engineer and improving water quality. Populations of Chesapeake Bay oysters have declined precipitously in recent decades. The fossil record, which preserves 500 000 years of once-thriving reefs, provides a unique opportunity to study pristine reefs to establish a possible baseline for mitigation. For this study, over 900 fossil oysters were examined from three Pleistocene localities in the Chesapeake region. Data on oyster shell lengths, lifespans and population density were assessed. Comparisons to modern Crassostrea virginica, sampled from monitoring surveys of similar environments, reveal that fossil oysters ...


Streambed Flux Measurement Informed By Distributed Temperature Sensing Leads To A Significantly Different Characterization Of Groundwater Discharge, Troy E. Gilmore, Mason Johnson, Jesse T. Korus Dr., Aaron R. Mittelstet, Marty A. Briggs, Vitaly A. Zlotnik, Sydney Corcoran 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Streambed Flux Measurement Informed By Distributed Temperature Sensing Leads To A Significantly Different Characterization Of Groundwater Discharge, Troy E. Gilmore, Mason Johnson, Jesse T. Korus Dr., Aaron R. Mittelstet, Marty A. Briggs, Vitaly A. Zlotnik, Sydney Corcoran

Conservation and Survey Division

Groundwater discharge though streambeds is often focused toward discrete zones, indicating that preliminary reconnaissance may be useful for capturing the full spectrum of groundwater discharge rates using point-scale quantitative methods. However, many direct-contact reconnaissance techniques can be time-consuming, and remote sensing (e.g., thermal infrared) typically does not penetrate the water column to locate submerged seepages. In this study, we tested whether dozens of groundwater discharge measurements made at “uninformed” (i.e., selected without knowledge on high-resolution temperature variations at the streambed) point locations along a reach would yield significantly dierent Darcy-based groundwater discharge rates when compared with “informed” measurements ...


Pacts 1.0: A Crowdsourced Reporting Standard For Paleoclimate Data, D. Khider, J. Emile-Geay, N. P. McKay, Y. Gil, D. Garijo, V. Ratnakar, M. Alonso-Garcia, S. Bertrand, O. Bothe, P. Brewer, A. Bunn, M. Chevalier, L. Comas-Bru, J. Hertzberg, Y. Zhou 2019 Old Dominion University

Pacts 1.0: A Crowdsourced Reporting Standard For Paleoclimate Data, D. Khider, J. Emile-Geay, N. P. Mckay, Y. Gil, D. Garijo, V. Ratnakar, M. Alonso-Garcia, S. Bertrand, O. Bothe, P. Brewer, A. Bunn, M. Chevalier, L. Comas-Bru, J. Hertzberg, Y. Zhou

OEAS Faculty Publications

The progress of science is tied to the standardization of measurements, instruments, and data. This is especially true in the Big Data age, where analyzing large data volumes critically hinges on the data being standardized. Accordingly, the lack of community-sanctioned data standards in paleoclimatology has largely precluded the benefits of Big Data advances in the field. Building upon recent efforts to standardize the format and terminology of paleoclimate data, this article describes the Paleoclimate Community reporTing Standard (PaCTS), a crowdsourced reporting standard for such data. PaCTS captures which information should be included when reporting paleoclimate data, with the goal of ...


Reorganization Of Surviving Mammal Communities After The End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinction, Anikó B. Tóth, S. Kathleen Lyons, W. Andrew Barr, Anna K. Behrensmeyer, Jessica L. Blois, René Bobe, Matt Davis, Andrew Du, Jussi T. Eronen, J. Tyler Faith, Danielle Fraser, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Gary R. Graves, Advait M. Jukar, Joshua H. Miller, Silvia Pineda-Munoz, Laura C. Soul, Amelia Villaseñor, John Alroy 2019 Macquarie University, Australia

Reorganization Of Surviving Mammal Communities After The End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinction, Anikó B. Tóth, S. Kathleen Lyons, W. Andrew Barr, Anna K. Behrensmeyer, Jessica L. Blois, René Bobe, Matt Davis, Andrew Du, Jussi T. Eronen, J. Tyler Faith, Danielle Fraser, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Gary R. Graves, Advait M. Jukar, Joshua H. Miller, Silvia Pineda-Munoz, Laura C. Soul, Amelia Villaseñor, John Alroy

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Large mammals are at high risk of extinction globally. To understand the consequences of their demise for community assembly, we tracked community structure through the end- Pleistocene megafaunal extinction in North America.We decomposed the effects of biotic and abiotic factors by analyzing co-occurrence within the mutual ranges of species pairs. Although shifting climate drove an increase in niche overlap, co-occurrence decreased, signaling shifts in biotic interactions. Furthermore, the effect of abiotic factors on cooccurrence remained constant over time while the effect of biotic factors decreased. Biotic factors apparently played a key role in continental-scale community assembly before the extinctions ...


Petrography And Provenance Of Floor Sediments From The Loutra Almopias Cave (Pella, Macedonia, Greece), Ioannis Georgiadis, Katerina Chatzopoulou, Nikolaos Kantiranis, Ioakeim Ioakeimidis, Ananias Tsirambides 2019 Aristotle Universiy of Thessaloniki

Petrography And Provenance Of Floor Sediments From The Loutra Almopias Cave (Pella, Macedonia, Greece), Ioannis Georgiadis, Katerina Chatzopoulou, Nikolaos Kantiranis, Ioakeim Ioakeimidis, Ananias Tsirambides

International Journal of Speleology

Thirty seven floor sediment samples of Upper Pleistocene age from the Loutra Almopias Cave were collected from different beds and stratigraphic columns on the basis of their induration grade, grain distribution, and paleontological findings. Channel facies make up the bulk of the clastic sediments found in the cave passages. Slackwater facies compose the final layer of all the stratigraphic sections of the examined cave. The floor sediments are mineralogically immature, since they contain many ferromagnesian minerals, feldspars (especially plagioclase) and quartz. The extensive presence of silicate minerals means that the phyllites, gneisses, schists, ophiolitic rocks and the clastic Mariam Formation ...


Assessing Diagenetic Conditions In The Late Triassic Chinle Formation Through Petrographic And Geochemical Analysis Of Phytosaur Teeth, John Fortner 2019 Southern Methodist University

Assessing Diagenetic Conditions In The Late Triassic Chinle Formation Through Petrographic And Geochemical Analysis Of Phytosaur Teeth, John Fortner

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

The Upper Triassic (Norian; ~227-208 Ma) Chinle Formation of Petrified Forest (PeFo) National Park was deposited during a time of major tectonic breakup and profound changes in atmospheric circulation and faunal compositions. Little has been done however to assess whether surficial paleoenvironmental trends related to deterioration of the Late Triassic Megamonsoon resulted in similar trends in the early diagenetic environment. Here, we use phytosaur tooth dentin as a proxy for diagenetic conditions in the Chinle of PEFO, as its greater susceptibility to chemical alteration relative to enamel makes it an excellent substrate from which changing diagenetic conditions may be studied ...


Changes In Mammalian Abundance Through The Eocene-Oligocene Climate Transition In The White River Group Of Nebraska, Usa, Robert Gillham 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Changes In Mammalian Abundance Through The Eocene-Oligocene Climate Transition In The White River Group Of Nebraska, Usa, Robert Gillham

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Marine records show major cooling during the Eocene-Oligocene Climate Transition (EOCT). Most proxy studies in the White River Group suggest drying across the EOCT, and some suggest cooling. The lower resolution continental record has hindered a direct correlation of the marine climate record to Nebraska. I explore various correlation schemes and what they imply for faunal changes. This study compiles and analyzes data from 4,875 specimens in the University of Nebraska State Museum (UNSM) collection to test the hypothesis that climate change across the Eocene-Oligocene (E-O) boundary caused significant abundance changes in mammals. A series of binning schemes was ...


An Early Modern Human Outside Africa, Eric Delson 2019 CUNY Lehman College

An Early Modern Human Outside Africa, Eric Delson

Publications and Research

Analysis of two fossils from a Greek cave has shed light on early hominins in Eurasia. One fossil is the earliest known specimen of Homo sapiens found outside Africa; the other is a Neanderthal who lived 40,000 years later.


Gage County Preliminary Ground Water Study (Gm-20): Reed, E.C. Conservation And Survey Division , Size 8.5" X 11"., E.C. Reed 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Gage County Preliminary Ground Water Study (Gm-20): Reed, E.C. Conservation And Survey Division , Size 8.5" X 11"., E.C. Reed

Conservation and Survey Division

No abstract provided.


Identifying Dietary And Migratory Patterns Of Illinois Woolly Mammoth Populations Using Isotope Analysis Of Carbon, Oxygen, And Strontium, Matthew Harrington, Chris Widga, Al Wanamaker, Doug Walker 2019 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Identifying Dietary And Migratory Patterns Of Illinois Woolly Mammoth Populations Using Isotope Analysis Of Carbon, Oxygen, And Strontium, Matthew Harrington, Chris Widga, Al Wanamaker, Doug Walker

Celebration of Learning

The extinct woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) ranged from Alaska to the Northeastern Seaboard throughout the Late Pleistocene (100-10 Ka). Although it is recognized that woolly mammoths coincided with and lived in a region heavily influenced by glacial ice sheets, little is known about their dietary or migratory behavior. This study classifies and provides insight into the diet and mobility of Midwestern mammoths by analyzing stable isotopes of carbon, oxygen, and strontium preserved in the tooth enamel of these extinct elephantids. A woolly mammoth tooth from Moline, IL, was bulk-sampled and micromilled to extract the aforementioned isotopes from the base of ...


Eocene Terrestrial Mammals From Central Georgia, Parker D. Rhinehart, Alfred J. Mead, Dennis Parmley 2019 Georgia College and State University

Eocene Terrestrial Mammals From Central Georgia, Parker D. Rhinehart, Alfred J. Mead, Dennis Parmley

Georgia Journal of Science

Descriptions of fossils of Eocene terrestrial mammals from the southeastern United States are rare, and particularly so in the Eocene sediments of Georgia. Here we describe a small collection of fossilized teeth and tooth fragments representing four mammalian taxa. The fossils were recovered by surface collecting overburden sediments and screen washing in situ Clinchfield Formation sediments exposed in an inactive kaolin mine, Hardie Mine, in Wilkinson County, Georgia. The Clinchfield Formation has been described as a Late Eocene coastal unit with abundant gastropods, bivalves, sharks, and rays. This is the first detailed description of terrestrial mammals from this unit. Although ...


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