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Sedimentary Processes Influencing Divergent Wetland Evolution In The Hudson River Estuary, Kelly McKeon 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Sedimentary Processes Influencing Divergent Wetland Evolution In The Hudson River Estuary, Kelly Mckeon

Masters Theses

Consistent shoreline development and urbanization have historically resulted in the loss of wetlands. However, some construction activities have inadvertently resulted in the emergence of new tidal wetlands, with prominent examples of such anthropogenic wetlands found within the Hudson River Estuary. Here, we utilize two of these human-induced tidal wetlands to explore the sedimentary and hydrologic conditions driving wetland development from a restoration perspective. Tivoli North Bay is an emergent freshwater tidal marsh, while Tivoli South Bay is an intertidal mudflat with vegetation restricted to the seasonal growth of aquatic vegetation during summer months. Using a combination of sediment traps, cores ...


Molecular Genetic Analysis Of Stygobiotic Shrimps Of The Genus Xiphocaridinella (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae) Reveals A Connection Between Distant Caves In Central Abkhazia, Southwestern Caucasus, Ivan Marin, Ilya Turbanov 2021 A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Russia

Molecular Genetic Analysis Of Stygobiotic Shrimps Of The Genus Xiphocaridinella (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae) Reveals A Connection Between Distant Caves In Central Abkhazia, Southwestern Caucasus, Ivan Marin, Ilya Turbanov

International Journal of Speleology

Based on the morpho-genetic study of stygobiotic shrimps from the genus Xiphocaridinella Sadowsky, 1930 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae), a hydrogeological connection of a number of distant caves in Central Abkhazia of the southwestern Caucasus is satisfied, which indicates the possibility of using biospeleological studies in some cases to identify karst hydrosystems together with traditional hydrogeological methods. Moreover, a new stygobiotic atyid shrimp from the genus Xiphocaridinella, X. kelasuri sp. n., is described based on morphology and analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I DNA sequences from three distant caves. The new species is genetically divergent from relatives and phylogenetically related to Xiphocaridinella ...


The Impacts Of Mid-Holocene Warming On Water Quality In A Southwestern Ontario Kettle Pond, Morgan E. Peicheff 2021 Western University

The Impacts Of Mid-Holocene Warming On Water Quality In A Southwestern Ontario Kettle Pond, Morgan E. Peicheff

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti 2021 The University of Western Ontario

The Physical Properties Of Volcanic And Impact Melt, Gavin Douglas Tolometti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The emplacement mechanisms of lunar impact melt flows, that form from hypervelocity impact events, have been a subject of debate in the lunar science community, because of their unique physical properties that separate them from other geologic features. Understanding how lunar impact melt flows were emplaced on the surface of the Moon will not only grant us new information about the flow dynamics of impact melt but provide insight into the production and distribution of impact melt and how it built and modified the surfaces of planetary surfaces.

Lunar impact melt flows exhibit surface roughness textures and morphologies that are ...


Ensemble Data Fitting For Bathymetric Models Informed By Nominal Data, Samantha Zambo 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Ensemble Data Fitting For Bathymetric Models Informed By Nominal Data, Samantha Zambo

Dissertations

Due to the difficulty and expense of collecting bathymetric data, modeling is the primary tool to produce detailed maps of the ocean floor. Current modeling practices typically utilize only one interpolator; the industry standard is splines-in-tension.

In this dissertation we introduce a new nominal-informed ensemble interpolator designed to improve modeling accuracy in regions of sparse data. The method is guided by a priori domain knowledge provided by artificially intelligent classifiers. We recast such geomorphological classifications, such as ‘seamount’ or ‘ridge’, as nominal data which we utilize as foundational shapes in an expanded ordinary least squares regression-based algorithm. To our knowledge ...


Differences In Erosion Rates And Elevation Among Natural, Living And Hardened Shorelines In Mississippi, And Alabama, Brittany Juneau 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Differences In Erosion Rates And Elevation Among Natural, Living And Hardened Shorelines In Mississippi, And Alabama, Brittany Juneau

Honors Theses

Shoreline erosion is a phenomenon that currently threatens both natural ecosystems and human settlements along the coast. With trends showing gradual sea level rise as a result of climate change, erosion is becoming an increasing threat to these communities. This research aims to provide more insight into the relationship between shoreline morphology and three shoreline protection techniques: natural marsh, living shoreline, and hardened structures. Six sites along the Alabama and Mississippi coast that had all three shoreline types were evaluated to determine what the average erosion rate and slope was for each shoreline. Erosion rates were calculated by image analysis ...


Diatoms Of The Intertidal Environments Of Willapa Bay, Washington, Usa As A Sea-Level Indicator, Isabel Hong, Benjamin P. Horton, Andrea D. Hawkes, Robert J. O.Donnell III, Jason S. Padgett, Tina Dura, Simon E. Engelhart 2021 Central Washington University

Diatoms Of The Intertidal Environments Of Willapa Bay, Washington, Usa As A Sea-Level Indicator, Isabel Hong, Benjamin P. Horton, Andrea D. Hawkes, Robert J. O.Donnell Iii, Jason S. Padgett, Tina Dura, Simon E. Engelhart

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

An understanding of the modern relationship between diatom species and elevation is a prerequisite for using fossil diatoms to reconstruct relative sea level (RSL). We described modern diatom distributions from seven transects covering unvegetated subtidal environments to forested uplands from four tidal wetland sites (Smith Creek, Bone River, Niawiakum River, and Naselle River) of Willapa Bay, Washington, USA. We compared our diatom dataset (320 species from 104 samples) to a series of environmental variables (elevation, grain-size, total organic carbon (TOCSOM), and porewater salinity) using hierarchical clustering and ordination. While no single variable consistently explains variations in diatom assemblages at ...


Historical Changes Of Channel Width In A Headwater Stream System, Mark Twain National Forest, Missouri, Sierra N. Casagrand 2021 Missouri State University

Historical Changes Of Channel Width In A Headwater Stream System, Mark Twain National Forest, Missouri, Sierra N. Casagrand

MSU Graduate Theses

It is well known that watershed disturbances due to land clearing and agricultural settlement during the early 1800s changed the hydrology and geomorphology of stream systems in the Midwestern USA. However, little is known about the impacts of historical logging on stream systems in forested watersheds. This study evaluates channel width measurements from 38 General Land Office (GLO) surveys completed in 1821, aerial photographs from the 1930’s to present, and LiDAR imagery from 2016/17 to evaluate changes in channel morphology in Big Barren Creek in Mark Twain National Forest in the Ozarks Highlands of southeast Missouri. The area ...


Comparison Of Land Use And Flowslide Incidence In Palu Valley Following The 2018 Mw 7.5 Palu-Donggala Earthquake, Peta C. Fifield 2021 The University of Maine

Comparison Of Land Use And Flowslide Incidence In Palu Valley Following The 2018 Mw 7.5 Palu-Donggala Earthquake, Peta C. Fifield

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The September 28 Mw 7.5 Palu-Donggala earthquake in Indonesia was the deadliest natural disaster in 2018. Five flowslides on the eastern side of Palu Valley, which were attributed to the substantial majority of deaths and economic losses in the region, occurred due to liquefaction of naturally dry alluvial deposits in gently sloping ground (2 to 6%). The requisite conditions for soil liquefaction are the presence of loose granular sediments and full saturation. Instigation of these catastrophic ground failures were linked to artificial saturation by an unlined agricultural irrigation canal. From a civil engineering perspective, the Palu ground failures on ...


Exploring Questions Of Tectonic Geomorphology In The Bear River Range, Utah Using Terrain Analysis And Reconstruction, Edward M. Grasinger 2021 Utah State University

Exploring Questions Of Tectonic Geomorphology In The Bear River Range, Utah Using Terrain Analysis And Reconstruction, Edward M. Grasinger

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Despite a long tradition of geologic studies in the region surrounding Utah State University, there remain unexplored questions and unutilized approaches for understanding the landscape evolution of the Bear River Range. A large-scale reconstruction of the East Cache fault system can be useful in estimating the total displacement of the fault, its geologic longevity, and total energy involved. Likewise, an analysis of reach-scale features of the Logan River can explore how tectonics and bedrock type affect the patterns and history of the river. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software is useful in reconstructing, visualizing, and measuring such geomorphological features and changes ...


Ductile And Brittle Deformation Of Slackwater Deposits In The Tucannon River Valley, Chelsi K. Howard 2021 Eastern Washington University

Ductile And Brittle Deformation Of Slackwater Deposits In The Tucannon River Valley, Chelsi K. Howard

Geosciences Student Work

The Tucannon River valley in eastern Washington is home to a number of ductile and brittle soft-sediment deformation. This project aims to look at ductile deformation by classifying and comparing styles of clastic dikes in the field and to look at brittle deformation by analyzing small faults in localized outcrops. Clastic dikes are sedimentary intrusions into other sedimentary strata. There are three main types of clastic dikes: injection, extrusion, and sugtrusion. In addition, two subcategories of clastic dikes are described as sheeted dikes and fault injection dikes. Ductile and brittle deformation occurs in “slackwater” deposits associated with margins of glacial ...


Four Decades Of Understanding Martian Geomorphology: Revisiting Baker's "The Geomorphology Of Mars", Anshuman Bhardwaj, Lydia Sam, Saeideh Gharehchahi 2021 University of Aberdeen

Four Decades Of Understanding Martian Geomorphology: Revisiting Baker's "The Geomorphology Of Mars", Anshuman Bhardwaj, Lydia Sam, Saeideh Gharehchahi

Research, Publications & Creative Work

Owing to multiple successful orbiter and rover missions in the past two and half decades, our understanding of the Martian atmosphere, terrain, and subsurface has continuously evolved. This prompts the need to revisit the first holistic review of Martian geomorphology based on useful images from Viking Mission orbiters, authored by Prof. Victor R. Baker. Several of the remote sensing-based interpretations and recommendations in Baker’s (1981) paper are as valid even today as they were four decades back. With an unprecedented focus on Mars exploration in the coming decades, it is important to briefly revisit the advances and prospects in ...


Resolving A One-Year Ecesis Interval For Alaska Paper Birch: Dating A Rockfall Event, Wishbone Hill, Southcentral Alaska, Riley E. Whitney, Alexander K. Stewart, Trent D. Hubbard, Anabella S. Kowalski, Oscar A. Wilkerson 2021 University of New Hampshire

Resolving A One-Year Ecesis Interval For Alaska Paper Birch: Dating A Rockfall Event, Wishbone Hill, Southcentral Alaska, Riley E. Whitney, Alexander K. Stewart, Trent D. Hubbard, Anabella S. Kowalski, Oscar A. Wilkerson

The Compass: Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon

Numerous large boulders at the base of Wishbone Hill, northeast of Anchorage, Alaska, suggest a historic rockfall event and potential for future surface instability, putting lives and property at risk. The source of the rockfall-boulders is an exposed syncline with a cliff face composed of conglomerate. The age of trees growing atop boulders provides a minimum exposure-age of those boulders and, thus, the rockfall event. To determine when the rockfall occurred, we dated trees growing atop the boulders using tree-ring samples collected from 30 Alaska paper birch trees. After mounting and polishing, each tree-ring sample was dot-counted, and tree-ring widths ...


Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu 2021 Southern Methodist University

Characterization Of Landslide Processes From Radar Remote Sensing And Hydromechanical Modeling, Yuankun Xu

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Landsides are a natural geomorphic process yet a dangerous hazard which annually causes thousands of casualties and billions of property loss in a global scale. Understanding landslide motion kinematics from early initiation to final deposition is critical for monitoring, assessing, and forecasting landslide movement in order to mitigate their hazards. Landslides occur under diverse environmental settings and appear in variable types; however, all types of landslides can be mechanically attributed to shearing failure at the basal surface due to stress regime shift contributed by internal and/or external forcing. Typical internal factors include soil/rock weathering, whereas typical external triggering ...


Late Amazonian Wind Regimes And Landscape Evolution In Northern Meridiani Planum, Mars, Thomas Stritch 2021 Augustana College

Late Amazonian Wind Regimes And Landscape Evolution In Northern Meridiani Planum, Mars, Thomas Stritch

Geology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Aeolian process have dominated the lower latitudes of Mars for billions of years. Aeolian landforms can act as records of current and past climates and landscape evolution processes. The etched deposits of Meridiani Planum, a vast suite of layered bedrock extending from southwest Arabia Terra to Schiaparelli crater, have long been noted to have been eroded by aeolian processes. However, little detailed work on the aeolian landforms of Meridiani Planum beyond the Opportunity rover landing site has been done. In this study, I examine wind streaks, aeolian bedforms (including dunes and large ripples), and yardangs in a valley about 370 ...


Joint Spacing In The Caples Lake Granodiorite Of The Sierra Nevada Batholith In Eldorado National Forest, California: A Comparative Analysis Of Joint Sets And Data Resolution, Jimmy Wood 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Joint Spacing In The Caples Lake Granodiorite Of The Sierra Nevada Batholith In Eldorado National Forest, California: A Comparative Analysis Of Joint Sets And Data Resolution, Jimmy Wood

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Joints are the most common deformation structure in the Earth’s upper crust and exert a significant influence on structural stability, landscape morphology, and fluid flow . Therefore, a greater understanding of fracture parameters (e.g., length, aperture, etc.) allows us to more accurately predict their presence, persistence, and prevalence, in the subsurface . We study the fracture spacing of two sub-orthogonal joint sets—66 NE-246 SW and 330 NW-150 SE—in the Caples Lake granodiorite of the Sierra Nevada Batholith, California. Specifically, we investigate 1) their spacing distributions with a keen interest in power-law (fractal) spacing, 2) distribution comparisons between master ...


Assessing Soil-Related Terroir Factors In Sunnyslope District Vineyards Of Southwest Idaho, Rachael Nicole Haggen 2021 Boise State University

Assessing Soil-Related Terroir Factors In Sunnyslope District Vineyards Of Southwest Idaho, Rachael Nicole Haggen

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Terroir is the set of factors including climate, soil, and management practices that influence the character of a wine. Of these factors, soil texture and chemistry is a major determinant in wine grape quality (van Leeuwen et al., 2009). Understanding the characteristics of the soil is key to making decisions that support the production of the highest possible quality grapes from the resources available. Few studies have been conducted in the Snake River Valley AVA (SRVAVA). This study seeks to build upon the data already available and provide analysis of vineyard-scale terroir in a leading grape growing district of the ...


Effects Of The Triassic-Jurassic Central Atlantic Magmatic Event Recorded In Continental Strata In Western Pangea: The Δ13c Record Of Warner Valley & Zion National Park, Dennis Mmasa 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of The Triassic-Jurassic Central Atlantic Magmatic Event Recorded In Continental Strata In Western Pangea: The Δ13c Record Of Warner Valley & Zion National Park, Dennis Mmasa

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Triassic is a period of abrupt climate change bracketed by mass extinctions including one driven by the eruption of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Late Triassic. The Moenave Formation (MF) of Utah and Arizona is ideal to investigate effects of the CAMP on continental strata distal to the eruptive center. This study focuses on the C-isotopic composition of bulk carbonate C from two localities, Blacks Canyon, Zion National Park, UT and Olsen Canyon within Warner Valley, UT. The data collected was used to document a chemostratigraphic record to compare to globally established records and bulk organic ...


Small-Scale Resuspension And Redistribution Of Surface Sediments In The Northeast Gulf Of Mexico, Austin Harris 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Small-Scale Resuspension And Redistribution Of Surface Sediments In The Northeast Gulf Of Mexico, Austin Harris

Master's Theses

Following the release of ~4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico from the Macondo wellhead, a vast area of the seafloor contained recently deposited marine sediments contaminated by the oil spill. The initial deposition of these contaminated marine sediments was likely not the end of the journey for the particles. Downslope gravitational processes and events of increased current speed in the deep ocean setting can result in recently deposited sediments to resuspend and be moved laterally with the current flow, increasing the area effected by the oil spill. Erosion experiments performed in a closed-loop resuspension flume ...


205— Revisiting The Geologic History Of The Pathfinder Landing Site At Ares Vallis, Mars, Andrew Agent 2021 SUNY Geneseo

205— Revisiting The Geologic History Of The Pathfinder Landing Site At Ares Vallis, Mars, Andrew Agent

GREAT Day

Before NASA sent the Pathfinder lander and Sojourner rover to the mouth of Ares Vallis in 1997, they anticipated the discovery of Hesperian-age (3.6 Ga-3.0 Ga) sediments deposited from catastrophic outflows. When pictures came back, the rocks they discovered were large, boulder-size, angular, and were largely inconsistent with transport by large floods. The origin of the deposits at the Pathfinder landing site remains controversial. This study aims to constrain the surface geology of the Pathfinder landing site using new high-resolution imagery and crater statistics. Context Camera (CTX) images along with High-Resolution Imaging Experiment (HiRISE) images were used to ...


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