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Evidence For Subsurface Origin Of Boulder Caves, Roofed Slots And Boulder-Filled Canyons (Broumov Highland, Czechia), Filip Duszyński, Kacper Jancewicz, Piotr Migoń 2018 University of Wrocław

Evidence For Subsurface Origin Of Boulder Caves, Roofed Slots And Boulder-Filled Canyons (Broumov Highland, Czechia), Filip Duszyński, Kacper Jancewicz, Piotr Migoń

International Journal of Speleology

The backslope of a sandstone cuesta in the Broumov Highland (Czechia) is cut by a complex network of canyons. Long sections of canyons have thick boulder fills which are difficult to reconcile with simple rock fall and talus development scenario. Boulder caves occur within these fills and their lowermost parts are drained by streams that evacuate fine loose sandy material produced by weathering and mechanical erosion. These boulder fills are explained as largely in situ, residual features, left after subsurface selective disintegration of rock mass, mainly joint-guided, and removal of grains by underground water. Evacuation of fines leaves voids into ...


County-Wide Assessment Of Irrigation Expansion On Air Temperature, Humidity And Evapotranspiration Rates In Nebraska, 1979-2015, Jozsef Szilagyi 2018 Conservation and Survey Division, School of Natural Resources

County-Wide Assessment Of Irrigation Expansion On Air Temperature, Humidity And Evapotranspiration Rates In Nebraska, 1979-2015, Jozsef Szilagyi

Conservation and Survey Division

Total irrigated land area has been expanding in Nebraska over the last 40 years, propelling the state into a leading position within the US in terms of irrigated acreages. Typically, those counties which display the largest degree of irrigation development had a significant portion of their land area already irrigated in 1978. Large-scale irrigation in Nebraska affects its atmospheric environment. During the typical irrigation season of May to August, counties with the largest rate of irrigation expansion have cooled by about 0.2 – 0.3 °F per decade in the summer months of June, July and August, while counties with ...


Coastal Wetland Dynamics Under Sea-Level Rise And Wetland Restoration In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico Using Bayesian Multilevel Models And A Web Tool, Tyler Hardy 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Coastal Wetland Dynamics Under Sea-Level Rise And Wetland Restoration In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico Using Bayesian Multilevel Models And A Web Tool, Tyler Hardy

Master's Theses

There is currently a lack of modeling framework to predict how relative sea-level rise (SLR), combined with restoration activities, affects landscapes of coastal wetlands with uncertainties accounted for at the entire northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). I developed such a modeling framework – Bayesian multi-level models to study the spatial pattern of wetland loss in the NGOM, driven by relative RSLR, vegetation productivity, tidal range, coastal slope, and wave height – all interacting with river-borne sediment availability, indicated by hydrological regimes. These interactions have not been comprehensively investigated before. I further modified this model to assess the efficacy of restoration projects from ...


Impact Craters On Titan: Finalizing Titan's Crater Population, Joshua E. Hedgepeth 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Impact Craters On Titan: Finalizing Titan's Crater Population, Joshua E. Hedgepeth

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Titan is one of the most dynamic moons in the solar system. It is smaller than Earth and much colder, yet Titan is eerily similar to Earth, with rivers, rain, and seas, as well as sand seas that wrap around the equator. However, the rivers are made of hydrocarbons rather than water and the sand made of organics rather rock. We can use Titan’s impact craters to study how these processes modify the surface by comparing the craters depths, diameters and rim heights of Titan’s craters with fresh craters. Therefore, we have used the complete data set from ...


Analysis Of The Parkway Drive Landslide, North Salt Lake, Ut, Brianna V. Hill 2018 Utah State University

Analysis Of The Parkway Drive Landslide, North Salt Lake, Ut, Brianna V. Hill

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

On August 5th, 2014, a hillside failed behind a North Salt Lake City, UT neighborhood threatening several homes. Aerial Photography, Digital Elevation Models (DEM), geochemistry, rain gage and seismic data were used to test the influence of contributing factors in this landslide failure. Aerial photographs available from 1993 to present were examined for signs of tension cracks suggesting impending ground motion, as well as documentation of human modification along the hillslope. Repeat DEM analysis of elevation and slope of the hillside before and after the slide were examined to characterize the pre-failure hillslope and subsequent landslide. Geochemical analyses were ...


Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Mining-Related Lead-Zinc Sediment Contamination, Galena River Watershed, Sw Wisconsin-Nw Illinois, Dylan Alexander King 2018 Missouri State University

Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Mining-Related Lead-Zinc Sediment Contamination, Galena River Watershed, Sw Wisconsin-Nw Illinois, Dylan Alexander King

MSU Graduate Theses

Alluvial sediments within the Galena River Watershed were severely contaminated with heavy metals by historical zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) mining operations during the early 1800s until 1979. Since the mines closed, there have been efforts to remediate on-site mine waste. However, the effectiveness of these efforts to reduce metal concentrations in stream sediments is unknown. This study compares present-day (2017) contamination trends in the Galena River Watershed to trends reported 25 years ago. A total of 415 sediment/soil samples were collected and analyzed using X-ray florescence spectrometry to determine sediment metal concentrations. The highest concentrations of zinc measured ...


Old And Recent Processes In A Warm And Humid Desert Hypogene Cave: ‘A’Rak Na‘Asane, Israel, Amos Frumkin, Shlomi Aharon, Uri Davidovich, Boaz Langford, Yoav Negev, Micka Ullman, Anton Vaks, Shemesh Ya‘aran, Boaz Zissu 2018 The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Old And Recent Processes In A Warm And Humid Desert Hypogene Cave: ‘A’Rak Na‘Asane, Israel, Amos Frumkin, Shlomi Aharon, Uri Davidovich, Boaz Langford, Yoav Negev, Micka Ullman, Anton Vaks, Shemesh Ya‘Aran, Boaz Zissu

International Journal of Speleology

Recent environmental processes are studied in ʻA’rak Naʻasane Cave at the northern Judean Desert, Israel. The outer zone of the cave is heavily influenced by the outside environment through a large entrance, facilitating entry of air flow, fauna and humans, with minor cave-forming modifications. Conversely, the inner cave sustains humid and warm conditions, favoring modifications by condensation corrosion of convective air flow, associated with deposition of popcorn speleothems at the lower parts of dissolution pockets. The warm humid air of the inner cave may be associated with an underlying thermal water table. Active condensation corrosion is decreasing, possibly because ...


Unconfined Hypogene Evaporite Karst: West Texas And Southeastern New Mexico, Usa, Kevin W. Stafford, Jon T. Ehrhart, Adam F. Majzoub, Jessica M. Shields, Wesley A. Brown 2018 Stephen F. Austin State University

Unconfined Hypogene Evaporite Karst: West Texas And Southeastern New Mexico, Usa, Kevin W. Stafford, Jon T. Ehrhart, Adam F. Majzoub, Jessica M. Shields, Wesley A. Brown

International Journal of Speleology

Diverse karst phenomena occur throughout the Gypsum Plain where the Castile Formation crops out over ~1800 km2 in West Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Hypergene karst is extensive and widespread, while traditional hypogene karst manifestations (both caves and intrastratal dissolution) occur in high frequency in the western outcrop region where surface denudation has been the greatest so as to induce surficial breaching. Unconfined hypogene karst occurrences have been recently identified, including two general variations: 1) artesian-like discharge features; and 2) venting structures. Artesian-like discharge features arise at surficially-breached hypogene caves and through high permeability regions on the margins of ...


New Insights On Secondary Minerals From Italian Sulfuric Acid Caves, Ilenia M. D'Angeli, Cristina Carbone, Maria Nagostinis, Mario Parise, Marco Vattano, Giuliana Madonia, Jo De Waele 2018 University of Bologna

New Insights On Secondary Minerals From Italian Sulfuric Acid Caves, Ilenia M. D'Angeli, Cristina Carbone, Maria Nagostinis, Mario Parise, Marco Vattano, Giuliana Madonia, Jo De Waele

International Journal of Speleology

Sulfuric acid minerals are important clues to identify the speleogenetic phases of hypogene caves. Italy hosts ~25% of the known worldwide sulfuric acid speleogenetic (SAS) systems, including the famous well-studied Frasassi, Monte Cucco, and Acquasanta Terme caves. Nevertheless, other underground environments have been analyzed, and interesting mineralogical assemblages were found associated with peculiar geomorphological features such as cupolas, replacement pockets, feeders, sulfuric notches, and sub-horizontal levels. In this paper, we focused on 15 cave systems located along the Apennine Chain, in Apulia, in Sicily, and in Sardinia, where copious SAS minerals were observed. Some of the studied systems (e.g ...


Extremely High Diversity Of Sulfate Minerals In Caves Of The Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) Related To Crater Lake And Fumarolic Activity, Andrés Ulloa, Fernando Gázquez, Aurelio Sanz-Arranz, Jesús Medina, Fernando Rull, José María Calaforra, Guillermo E. Alvarado, María Martínez, Geoffroy Avard, J. Maarten De Moor, Jo De Waele 2018 Universidad de Costa Rica

Extremely High Diversity Of Sulfate Minerals In Caves Of The Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) Related To Crater Lake And Fumarolic Activity, Andrés Ulloa, Fernando Gázquez, Aurelio Sanz-Arranz, Jesús Medina, Fernando Rull, José María Calaforra, Guillermo E. Alvarado, María Martínez, Geoffroy Avard, J. Maarten De Moor, Jo De Waele

International Journal of Speleology

The caves of the Irazú volcano (Costa Rica), became accessible after the partial collapse of the NW sector of the Irazú volcano in 1994, offering the opportunity to investigate active minerogenetic processes in volcanic cave environments. We performed a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of speleothems in the caves Cueva los Minerales and Cueva Los Mucolitos, both located in the northwest foothills of the main crater. Mineralogical analyses included X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, while geochemical characterization used Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) coupled to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In addition, measurements of environmental parameters in the caves, cave ...


Tectonic Controls On Alluvial Fan Dissection In The El Paso Mountains, Michael Thomas Gaffney 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Tectonic Controls On Alluvial Fan Dissection In The El Paso Mountains, Michael Thomas Gaffney

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

The localized dissection of alluvial fans along the western El Paso Mountains is under question. A relatively minor, south dipping normal fault, previously unmentioned in scientific literature, cuts across Quaternary terraces and alluvial fans in the piedmont of the El Paso Mountains. The linear trend of footwall uplift and the pattern of stream incision into the footwall adjacent to the linear trend of footwall uplift reveal that fan dissection is a result of base level fall caused by ongoing tectonism along the El Paso fault system. The regional importance is discussed as the timing of faulting reveals relatively recent uplift ...


Optimizing Uav Surveys For Coastal Morphodynamics: Estimation Of Spatial Uncertainty As A Function Of Flight Acquisition And Post-Processing Factors, Mark Lundine 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Optimizing Uav Surveys For Coastal Morphodynamics: Estimation Of Spatial Uncertainty As A Function Of Flight Acquisition And Post-Processing Factors, Mark Lundine

Celebration of Learning

Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and photogrammetry software enable the rapid collection of aerial photography and video over study areas of varying sizes, thereby providing ease of use and accessibility for studies of coastal geomorphology. However, there remains uncertainty over UAV survey techniques, with disagreement on specific flight patterns, flight altitudes, photograph amounts, ground control point (GCP) amounts, GCP spacing schemes, drone models, and which SfM software to use, amongst other study-specific parameters.

A controlled field test (of 1.2 hectares) was performed to determine SfM’s sensitivity to the following flight parameters: altitude (60 m, 80 m ...


Spatial And Temporal Analysis Of Island Morphology In Lower Pool 18 Of The Mississippi River, Marissa C. Iverson 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Spatial And Temporal Analysis Of Island Morphology In Lower Pool 18 Of The Mississippi River, Marissa C. Iverson

Celebration of Learning

The Upper Mississippi River System has a significant trend in island loss due to river engineering structures. However, Lower Pool 18 is observed as a counterexample to the island loss pattern with its island development near Lock and Dam 18 during the past 80 years. This research is modeled after a study done in Lower Pool 6 of the Upper Mississippi River where an island development was found to contradict the island loss prevalence. The Lower Pool 18 research’s goal is to map, describe, and explain spatial patterns of islands growth, persistence and loss. Historical maps and aerial photographs ...


Use Of Floodscape Mapping To Assess Changes In Inundation Frequency Of The Upper Mississippi River, Jeffrey L. Swanson 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Use Of Floodscape Mapping To Assess Changes In Inundation Frequency Of The Upper Mississippi River, Jeffrey L. Swanson

Celebration of Learning

As an alternative to probability-based maps, DeJager (and others) reconceptualized floodplain mapping using the notion of “floodscapes” (DeJager et al., 2015). A floodscape map is developed using daily stage data and high-resolution topography to create maps that depict the average number of days of inundation (per year or growing season). Floodscape maps reveal intricate and continuous patterns of high-frequency flows that are critically important to floodplain ecological functioning. DeJager found significant correlations between floodscape inundation and riparian vegetation patterns but single floodscape maps only provide snapshots in time. This current research develops and utilizes multiple floodscape maps to quantify changes ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum

Celebration of Learning

Urban expansion has had devastating impacts on forest ecosystems, especially within the past century. Human attempts to dominate nature have diminished natural disturbance regimes, which have maintained the biodiversity and historic composition of these ecosystems. Fires have been a prominent force in maintaining the structure of oak, hickory and other heliophytic (sun loving and fire-adapted) forest systems. Human induced fire suppression has led to mesophication across North America. Mesophication is the transition from drier conditions with open canopies to wetter conditions with closed canopies. These new conditions decrease the survival rates of these important species and begin to favor mesophytic ...


Results Of Test-Hole Drilling For Observation Well Planning In The Lower Loup Natural Resources District, Spring 2017, Douglas R. Hallum P.G., Sue Olafsen Lackey, Steven S. Sibray 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Results Of Test-Hole Drilling For Observation Well Planning In The Lower Loup Natural Resources District, Spring 2017, Douglas R. Hallum P.G., Sue Olafsen Lackey, Steven S. Sibray

Conservation and Survey Division

The High Plains Aquifer underlies much of Nebraska. It is the primary source of groundwater within the Lower Loup Natural Resources District (LLNRD) of central Nebraska. Water derived from the aquifer is an important natural resource for the area and supplies water for recreation, wildlife and agriculture, as well as domestic, municipal, and industrial uses. Falling spring water levels measured in existing observation and irrigation wells have raised concerns about possible changes in water availability, groundwater-surface water relationships and water quality in the area, prompting the LLNRD to propose test holes and the collection of additional groundwater data in the ...


Utilizing Ground-Penetrating Radar In The Delineation And Cultural Resource Management Of Eroding Maine Coastal Shell Middens, Jacquelynn F. Miller 2018 University of Maine

Utilizing Ground-Penetrating Radar In The Delineation And Cultural Resource Management Of Eroding Maine Coastal Shell Middens, Jacquelynn F. Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Shell middens along the Maine coast archive up to 5000 years of cultural and climatic change, but the record is continually and rapidly lost to the sea through climate-driven coastal erosion and sea-level rise. These sites were constructed by the ancestors of Maine Tribes, and are composed of centimeters to meters of clam (Mya arenaria) and/or oyster (Crassostrea virginica) shells, other faunal remains, and cultural materials. Shell middens record human interaction with the environment and early coastal occupation and adaptation. The faunal remains reflect paleoenvironmental conditions and the distribution of extinct and extant forage-species along the western Gulf of ...


Glacial History Of The Tsagaan Gol- Potanin Glacier Valley, Altai Mountains, Mongolia, Mariah J. Radue 2018 University of Maine

Glacial History Of The Tsagaan Gol- Potanin Glacier Valley, Altai Mountains, Mongolia, Mariah J. Radue

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The last glacial termination (~19-11 ka) marks the end of the last ice age and the transition to modern interglacial conditions. The mechanisms that triggered deglaciation are unresolved. Various hypotheses for deglacial warming involve changes in Earth’s orbit, an 80-ppm increase in atmospheric CO­2, a ‘bipolar seesaw’ in oceanic-heat redistribution, and shifting wind belts. Here, I present a 10Be surface-exposure chronology for a system of glacial landforms in the Tsagaan Gol-Potanin Glacier valley in the Mongolian Altai (49°N, 88°E) to determine the nature of the termination in interior Asia. Located near the center of Earth ...


Ranking Matthiessen State Park Trails By Hazard Rather Than Difficulty, Levi S. Gambill, Danielle N. Conrad, Joshua A. Woodard, Max Reams 2018 Olivet Nazarene University

Ranking Matthiessen State Park Trails By Hazard Rather Than Difficulty, Levi S. Gambill, Danielle N. Conrad, Joshua A. Woodard, Max Reams

Student Scholarship - Geology

Matthiessen State Park offers differing perspectives of the geology of the area, from the stunning views of bluffs and floodplain of the Vermilion River to the deep, winding canyons of the park’s Dells Area. A numerical system was used to rank the severity of hazards along the various park trails similar to the work of Ross, who pioneered the ranking of trails by hazard, specifically for Starved Rock State Park. Ross showed that ranking trails by hazard may be more useful for visitors than simply ranking trails by degree of difficulty. Ranking of trails for Matthiessen State Park proved ...


Assessing Land Deformation And Sea Encroachment In The Nile Delta, Egypt, Esayas Gebremichael 2018 Western Michigan University

Assessing Land Deformation And Sea Encroachment In The Nile Delta, Egypt, Esayas Gebremichael

Research and Creative Activities Poster Day

Persistent scatterer interferometric analyses were conducted on a stack of 84 Envisat ASAR scenes spanning 7 years (2004 to 2010) over the entire Nile Delta of Egypt and surroundings to monitor the ongoing spatial and temporal land deformation, identify the factors controlling the deformation, and model the interplay between sea level rise and land subsidence to identify areas and populations threatened by sea encroachment by the end of the 21st century. Findings include: (1) general patterns of subsidence in the northern delta, near-steady (none) subsidence in the southern delta, separated by a previously mapped flexure zone undergoing uplift; (2) high ...


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