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Coastal Wetland Dynamics Under Sea-Level Rise And Wetland Restoration In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico Using Bayesian Multilevel Models And A Web Tool, Tyler Hardy 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Coastal Wetland Dynamics Under Sea-Level Rise And Wetland Restoration In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico Using Bayesian Multilevel Models And A Web Tool, Tyler Hardy

Master's Theses

There is currently a lack of modeling framework to predict how relative sea-level rise (SLR), combined with restoration activities, affects landscapes of coastal wetlands with uncertainties accounted for at the entire northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). I developed such a modeling framework – Bayesian multi-level models to study the spatial pattern of wetland loss in the NGOM, driven by relative RSLR, vegetation productivity, tidal range, coastal slope, and wave height – all interacting with river-borne sediment availability, indicated by hydrological regimes. These interactions have not been comprehensively investigated before. I further modified this model to assess the efficacy of restoration projects from ...


Analysis Of The Parkway Drive Landslide, North Salt Lake, Ut, Brianna V. Hill 2018 Utah State University

Analysis Of The Parkway Drive Landslide, North Salt Lake, Ut, Brianna V. Hill

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

On August 5th, 2014, a hillside failed behind a North Salt Lake City, UT neighborhood threatening several homes. Aerial Photography, Digital Elevation Models (DEM), geochemistry, rain gage and seismic data were used to test the influence of contributing factors in this landslide failure. Aerial photographs available from 1993 to present were examined for signs of tension cracks suggesting impending ground motion, as well as documentation of human modification along the hillslope. Repeat DEM analysis of elevation and slope of the hillside before and after the slide were examined to characterize the pre-failure hillslope and subsequent landslide. Geochemical analyses were ...


Analysis Of Coastal-Plain Fluvial Architecture And High-Frequency Stacking Patterns In The Upper Cretaceous Masuk Formation, Utah: Climate-Driven Cyclicity?, Aaron M. Hess 2018 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Analysis Of Coastal-Plain Fluvial Architecture And High-Frequency Stacking Patterns In The Upper Cretaceous Masuk Formation, Utah: Climate-Driven Cyclicity?, Aaron M. Hess

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Most sequence stratigraphic models are based on the premise that relative changes in sea level (RSL) control stacking patterns in continental-margin settings. An alternative hypothesis, however, is that upstream factors, notably variations in relative water discharge (RQW), or the ratio of water to sediment discharge, can influence or control stratal stacking patterns in fluvial systems. There are two key features observed in sequence boundaries of RQW-driven systems that differentiate them from RSL-driven systems: (1) the depth of incision increases updip, and (2) rates of erosion are spatially uniform, leading to the formation of widespread, planar sequence boundaries. This paper presents ...


Extremely High Diversity Of Sulfate Minerals In Caves Of The Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) Related To Crater Lake And Fumarolic Activity, Andrés Ulloa, Fernando Gázquez, Aurelio Sanz-Arranz, Jesús Medina, Fernando Rull, José María Calaforra, Guillermo E. Alvarado, María Martínez, Geoffroy Avard, J. Maarten De Moor, Jo De Waele 2018 Universidad de Costa Rica

Extremely High Diversity Of Sulfate Minerals In Caves Of The Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) Related To Crater Lake And Fumarolic Activity, Andrés Ulloa, Fernando Gázquez, Aurelio Sanz-Arranz, Jesús Medina, Fernando Rull, José María Calaforra, Guillermo E. Alvarado, María Martínez, Geoffroy Avard, J. Maarten De Moor, Jo De Waele

International Journal of Speleology

The caves of the Irazú volcano (Costa Rica), became accessible after the partial collapse of the NW sector of the Irazú volcano in 1994, offering the opportunity to investigate active minerogenetic processes in volcanic cave environments. We performed a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of speleothems in the caves Cueva los Minerales and Cueva Los Mucolitos, both located in the northwest foothills of the main crater. Mineralogical analyses included X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, while geochemical characterization used Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) coupled to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In addition, measurements of environmental parameters in the caves, cave ...


Tectonic Controls On Alluvial Fan Dissection In The El Paso Mountains, Michael Thomas Gaffney 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Tectonic Controls On Alluvial Fan Dissection In The El Paso Mountains, Michael Thomas Gaffney

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

The localized dissection of alluvial fans along the western El Paso Mountains is under question. A relatively minor, south dipping normal fault, previously unmentioned in scientific literature, cuts across Quaternary terraces and alluvial fans in the piedmont of the El Paso Mountains. The linear trend of footwall uplift and the pattern of stream incision into the footwall adjacent to the linear trend of footwall uplift reveal that fan dissection is a result of base level fall caused by ongoing tectonism along the El Paso fault system. The regional importance is discussed as the timing of faulting reveals relatively recent uplift ...


Optimizing Uav Surveys For Coastal Morphodynamics: Estimation Of Spatial Uncertainty As A Function Of Flight Acquisition And Post-Processing Factors, Mark Lundine 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Optimizing Uav Surveys For Coastal Morphodynamics: Estimation Of Spatial Uncertainty As A Function Of Flight Acquisition And Post-Processing Factors, Mark Lundine

Celebration of Learning

Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and photogrammetry software enable the rapid collection of aerial photography and video over study areas of varying sizes, thereby providing ease of use and accessibility for studies of coastal geomorphology. However, there remains uncertainty over UAV survey techniques, with disagreement on specific flight patterns, flight altitudes, photograph amounts, ground control point (GCP) amounts, GCP spacing schemes, drone models, and which SfM software to use, amongst other study-specific parameters.

A controlled field test (of 1.2 hectares) was performed to determine SfM’s sensitivity to the following flight parameters: altitude (60 m, 80 m ...


Spatial And Temporal Analysis Of Island Morphology In Lower Pool 18 Of The Mississippi River, Marissa C. Iverson 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Spatial And Temporal Analysis Of Island Morphology In Lower Pool 18 Of The Mississippi River, Marissa C. Iverson

Celebration of Learning

The Upper Mississippi River System has a significant trend in island loss due to river engineering structures. However, Lower Pool 18 is observed as a counterexample to the island loss pattern with its island development near Lock and Dam 18 during the past 80 years. This research is modeled after a study done in Lower Pool 6 of the Upper Mississippi River where an island development was found to contradict the island loss prevalence. The Lower Pool 18 research’s goal is to map, describe, and explain spatial patterns of islands growth, persistence and loss. Historical maps and aerial photographs ...


Use Of Floodscape Mapping To Assess Changes In Inundation Frequency Of The Upper Mississippi River, Jeffrey L. Swanson 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Use Of Floodscape Mapping To Assess Changes In Inundation Frequency Of The Upper Mississippi River, Jeffrey L. Swanson

Celebration of Learning

As an alternative to probability-based maps, DeJager (and others) reconceptualized floodplain mapping using the notion of “floodscapes” (DeJager et al., 2015). A floodscape map is developed using daily stage data and high-resolution topography to create maps that depict the average number of days of inundation (per year or growing season). Floodscape maps reveal intricate and continuous patterns of high-frequency flows that are critically important to floodplain ecological functioning. DeJager found significant correlations between floodscape inundation and riparian vegetation patterns but single floodscape maps only provide snapshots in time. This current research develops and utilizes multiple floodscape maps to quantify changes ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum

Celebration of Learning

Urban expansion has had devastating impacts on forest ecosystems, especially within the past century. Human attempts to dominate nature have diminished natural disturbance regimes, which have maintained the biodiversity and historic composition of these ecosystems. Fires have been a prominent force in maintaining the structure of oak, hickory and other heliophytic (sun loving and fire-adapted) forest systems. Human induced fire suppression has led to mesophication across North America. Mesophication is the transition from drier conditions with open canopies to wetter conditions with closed canopies. These new conditions decrease the survival rates of these important species and begin to favor mesophytic ...


Results Of Test-Hole Drilling For Observation Well Planning In The Lower Loup Natural Resources District, Spring 2017, Douglas R. Hallum P.G., Sue Olafsen Lackey, Steven S. Sibray 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Results Of Test-Hole Drilling For Observation Well Planning In The Lower Loup Natural Resources District, Spring 2017, Douglas R. Hallum P.G., Sue Olafsen Lackey, Steven S. Sibray

Conservation and Survey Division

The High Plains Aquifer underlies much of Nebraska. It is the primary source of groundwater within the Lower Loup Natural Resources District (LLNRD) of central Nebraska. Water derived from the aquifer is an important natural resource for the area and supplies water for recreation, wildlife and agriculture, as well as domestic, municipal, and industrial uses. Falling spring water levels measured in existing observation and irrigation wells have raised concerns about possible changes in water availability, groundwater-surface water relationships and water quality in the area, prompting the LLNRD to propose test holes and the collection of additional groundwater data in the ...


Utilizing Ground-Penetrating Radar In The Delineation And Cultural Resource Management Of Eroding Maine Coastal Shell Middens, Jacquelynn F. Miller 2018 University of Maine

Utilizing Ground-Penetrating Radar In The Delineation And Cultural Resource Management Of Eroding Maine Coastal Shell Middens, Jacquelynn F. Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Shell middens along the Maine coast archive up to 5000 years of cultural and climatic change, but the record is continually and rapidly lost to the sea through climate-driven coastal erosion and sea-level rise. These sites were constructed by the ancestors of Maine Tribes, and are composed of centimeters to meters of clam (Mya arenaria) and/or oyster (Crassostrea virginica) shells, other faunal remains, and cultural materials. Shell middens record human interaction with the environment and early coastal occupation and adaptation. The faunal remains reflect paleoenvironmental conditions and the distribution of extinct and extant forage-species along the western Gulf of ...


Glacial History Of The Tsagaan Gol- Potanin Glacier Valley, Altai Mountains, Mongolia, Mariah J. Radue 2018 University of Maine

Glacial History Of The Tsagaan Gol- Potanin Glacier Valley, Altai Mountains, Mongolia, Mariah J. Radue

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The last glacial termination (~19-11 ka) marks the end of the last ice age and the transition to modern interglacial conditions. The mechanisms that triggered deglaciation are unresolved. Various hypotheses for deglacial warming involve changes in Earth’s orbit, an 80-ppm increase in atmospheric CO­2, a ‘bipolar seesaw’ in oceanic-heat redistribution, and shifting wind belts. Here, I present a 10Be surface-exposure chronology for a system of glacial landforms in the Tsagaan Gol-Potanin Glacier valley in the Mongolian Altai (49°N, 88°E) to determine the nature of the termination in interior Asia. Located near the center of Earth ...


Ranking Matthiessen State Park Trails By Hazard Rather Than Difficulty, Levi S. Gambill, Danielle N. Conrad, Joshua A. Woodard, Max Reams 2018 Olivet Nazarene University

Ranking Matthiessen State Park Trails By Hazard Rather Than Difficulty, Levi S. Gambill, Danielle N. Conrad, Joshua A. Woodard, Max Reams

Student Scholarship - Geology

Matthiessen State Park offers differing perspectives of the geology of the area, from the stunning views of bluffs and floodplain of the Vermilion River to the deep, winding canyons of the park’s Dells Area. A numerical system was used to rank the severity of hazards along the various park trails similar to the work of Ross, who pioneered the ranking of trails by hazard, specifically for Starved Rock State Park. Ross showed that ranking trails by hazard may be more useful for visitors than simply ranking trails by degree of difficulty. Ranking of trails for Matthiessen State Park proved ...


Assessing Land Deformation And Sea Encroachment In The Nile Delta, Egypt, Esayas Gebremichael 2018 Western Michigan University

Assessing Land Deformation And Sea Encroachment In The Nile Delta, Egypt, Esayas Gebremichael

Research and Creative Activities Poster Day

Persistent scatterer interferometric analyses were conducted on a stack of 84 Envisat ASAR scenes spanning 7 years (2004 to 2010) over the entire Nile Delta of Egypt and surroundings to monitor the ongoing spatial and temporal land deformation, identify the factors controlling the deformation, and model the interplay between sea level rise and land subsidence to identify areas and populations threatened by sea encroachment by the end of the 21st century. Findings include: (1) general patterns of subsidence in the northern delta, near-steady (none) subsidence in the southern delta, separated by a previously mapped flexure zone undergoing uplift; (2) high ...


Reconstructing Late Holocene Paleofloods Along The Middle Tennessee River And Exploring Links With Climate And Land Use, Lance Stewart 2018 Murray State University

Reconstructing Late Holocene Paleofloods Along The Middle Tennessee River And Exploring Links With Climate And Land Use, Lance Stewart

Scholars Week

Sediment stored in floodplains and low alluvial terraces along the middle Tennessee River reflects flood frequency and magnitude during the past ca. 2800 years. This study uses the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and geochronology of three alluvial terraces to infer past flooding and explore links with climate change and anthropogenic land-use practices. Four sites located on different geomorphic landforms adjacent to the Tennessee River preserve records of at least 11 major flood events from 2780 ± 185 BP to 100 ± 10 BP. Buried soils at three sites are older than ca. 1380 BP and suggest a relatively recent period of landscape stability compared ...


The Effects Of Time And Topography On Deep Carbon Storage In The Clarks River Valley Of Western Kentucky, Benedict W. Ferguson 2018 Geosciences

The Effects Of Time And Topography On Deep Carbon Storage In The Clarks River Valley Of Western Kentucky, Benedict W. Ferguson

Scholars Week

Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics at depths greater than one meter in valley bottoms are not well understood. This study examines the stock of SOC with depth across alluvial landforms in the Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge. Nine cores along three transects from terraces to floodplains and adjacent channel bars were collected to depths of 4 meters or refusal. Bulk density, clay content, and loss-on-ignition were used to estimate stocks. Age estimates based on radiocarbon suggest the landforms range in age from 7975 to 52 yr BP. Average SOC and carbon (C) flux varied with values of 1.76 kg ...


Regional Stress Regime Study Of East Texas Based On Orientation Of Fractures In The Weches Formation, Cory D. Ellison 2018 Stephen F Austin State University

Regional Stress Regime Study Of East Texas Based On Orientation Of Fractures In The Weches Formation, Cory D. Ellison

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fractures in the Weches Formation in a roughly 50 mile radius around Nacogdoches, Texas were documented and analyzed using data obtained at various outcrops. This data was used to infer information about the regional stress regime based on the direction of maximum/minimum horizontal stresses (SHmax / SHmin) that formed the fractures. This is based on the principle that systematic, steeply dipping, mode I joints propagate in the direction of SHmax and normal to the direction of SHmin. Joints in the Weches Formation are typically iron filled and are predominantly opening mode, indicated by crack-seal formation, steep dip (700 – 900) and ...


Publications And Other Works By R. F. Diffendal, Jr., Robert F. Diffendal 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Publications And Other Works By R. F. Diffendal, Jr., Robert F. Diffendal

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Updated April 2018


Mapping And Interpreting The Glacial Geology Of Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan, Sarah M. VanderMeer 2018 Western Michigan University

Mapping And Interpreting The Glacial Geology Of Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan, Sarah M. Vandermeer

Dissertations

Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore is among the most popular parks in Michigan, yet prior to this study, it was the only National Park that lacked a detailed surficial geology map characterizing the distribution of sediments and landforms. Additionally, much of the landscape remained unexplored. These factors prevented thorough interpretations of landscape development and evolution. This research aims to map and further explore the relationship of glacial sediments and landforms throughout Pictured Rocks to refine and expand the current understanding of glacial events that shaped this landscape.

A new, detailed (1:24,000-scale) surficial geology map of the ten 7.5-minute ...


High Resolution Monitoring Of River Bluff Erosion Reveals Failure Mechanisms And Geomorphically Effective Flows, Sara Ann Kelly, Patrick Belmont 2018 Utah State University

High Resolution Monitoring Of River Bluff Erosion Reveals Failure Mechanisms And Geomorphically Effective Flows, Sara Ann Kelly, Patrick Belmont

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Using a combination of Structure from Motion and time lapse photogrammetry, we document rapid river bluff erosion occurring in the Greater Blue Earth River (GBER) basin, a muddy tributary to the sediment-impaired Minnesota River in south central Minnesota. Our datasets elucidated dominant bluff failure mechanisms and rates of bluff retreat in a transient system responding to ongoing streamflow increases and glacial legacy impacts. Specifically, we document the importance of fluvial scour, freeze–thaw, as well as other drivers of bluff erosion. We find that even small flows, a mere 30% of the two-year recurrence interval flow, are capable of causing ...


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