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Optimizing Uav Surveys For Coastal Morphodynamics: Estimation Of Spatial Uncertainty As A Function Of Flight Acquisition And Post-Processing Factors, Mark Lundine 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Optimizing Uav Surveys For Coastal Morphodynamics: Estimation Of Spatial Uncertainty As A Function Of Flight Acquisition And Post-Processing Factors, Mark Lundine

Celebration of Learning

Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and photogrammetry software enable the rapid collection of aerial photography and video over study areas of varying sizes, thereby providing ease of use and accessibility for studies of coastal geomorphology. However, there remains uncertainty over UAV survey techniques, with disagreement on specific flight patterns, flight altitudes, photograph amounts, ground control point (GCP) amounts, GCP spacing schemes, drone models, and which SfM software to use, amongst other study-specific parameters.

A controlled field test (of 1.2 hectares) was performed to determine SfM’s sensitivity to the following flight parameters: altitude (60 m, 80 m ...


Spatial And Temporal Analysis Of Island Morphology In Lower Pool 18 Of The Mississippi River, Marissa C. Iverson 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Spatial And Temporal Analysis Of Island Morphology In Lower Pool 18 Of The Mississippi River, Marissa C. Iverson

Celebration of Learning

The Upper Mississippi River System has a significant trend in island loss due to river engineering structures. However, Lower Pool 18 is observed as a counterexample to the island loss pattern with its island development near Lock and Dam 18 during the past 80 years. This research is modeled after a study done in Lower Pool 6 of the Upper Mississippi River where an island development was found to contradict the island loss prevalence. The Lower Pool 18 research’s goal is to map, describe, and explain spatial patterns of islands growth, persistence and loss. Historical maps and aerial photographs ...


Use Of Floodscape Mapping To Assess Changes In Inundation Frequency Of The Upper Mississippi River, Jeffrey L. Swanson 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Use Of Floodscape Mapping To Assess Changes In Inundation Frequency Of The Upper Mississippi River, Jeffrey L. Swanson

Celebration of Learning

As an alternative to probability-based maps, DeJager (and others) reconceptualized floodplain mapping using the notion of “floodscapes” (DeJager et al., 2015). A floodscape map is developed using daily stage data and high-resolution topography to create maps that depict the average number of days of inundation (per year or growing season). Floodscape maps reveal intricate and continuous patterns of high-frequency flows that are critically important to floodplain ecological functioning. DeJager found significant correlations between floodscape inundation and riparian vegetation patterns but single floodscape maps only provide snapshots in time. This current research develops and utilizes multiple floodscape maps to quantify changes ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum

Celebration of Learning

Urban expansion has had devastating impacts on forest ecosystems, especially within the past century. Human attempts to dominate nature have diminished natural disturbance regimes, which have maintained the biodiversity and historic composition of these ecosystems. Fires have been a prominent force in maintaining the structure of oak, hickory and other heliophytic (sun loving and fire-adapted) forest systems. Human induced fire suppression has led to mesophication across North America. Mesophication is the transition from drier conditions with open canopies to wetter conditions with closed canopies. These new conditions decrease the survival rates of these important species and begin to favor mesophytic ...


Results Of Test-Hole Drilling For Observation Well Planning In The Lower Loup Natural Resources District, Spring 2017, Douglas R. Hallum P.G., Sue Olafsen Lackey, Steven S. Sibray 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Results Of Test-Hole Drilling For Observation Well Planning In The Lower Loup Natural Resources District, Spring 2017, Douglas R. Hallum P.G., Sue Olafsen Lackey, Steven S. Sibray

Conservation and Survey Division

The High Plains Aquifer underlies much of Nebraska. It is the primary source of groundwater within the Lower Loup Natural Resources District (LLNRD) of central Nebraska. Water derived from the aquifer is an important natural resource for the area and supplies water for recreation, wildlife and agriculture, as well as domestic, municipal, and industrial uses. Falling spring water levels measured in existing observation and irrigation wells have raised concerns about possible changes in water availability, groundwater-surface water relationships and water quality in the area, prompting the LLNRD to propose test holes and the collection of additional groundwater data in the ...


Ranking Matthiessen State Park Trails By Hazard Rather Than Difficulty, Levi S. Gambill, Danielle N. Conrad, Joshua A. Woodard, Max Reams 2018 Olivet Nazarene University

Ranking Matthiessen State Park Trails By Hazard Rather Than Difficulty, Levi S. Gambill, Danielle N. Conrad, Joshua A. Woodard, Max Reams

Student Scholarship - Geology

Matthiessen State Park offers differing perspectives of the geology of the area, from the stunning views of bluffs and floodplain of the Vermilion River to the deep, winding canyons of the park’s Dells Area. A numerical system was used to rank the severity of hazards along the various park trails similar to the work of Ross, who pioneered the ranking of trails by hazard, specifically for Starved Rock State Park. Ross showed that ranking trails by hazard may be more useful for visitors than simply ranking trails by degree of difficulty. Ranking of trails for Matthiessen State Park proved ...


Reconstructing Late Holocene Paleofloods Along The Middle Tennessee River And Exploring Links With Climate And Land Use, Lance Stewart 2018 Murray State University

Reconstructing Late Holocene Paleofloods Along The Middle Tennessee River And Exploring Links With Climate And Land Use, Lance Stewart

Scholars Week

Sediment stored in floodplains and low alluvial terraces along the middle Tennessee River reflects flood frequency and magnitude during the past ca. 2800 years. This study uses the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and geochronology of three alluvial terraces to infer past flooding and explore links with climate change and anthropogenic land-use practices. Four sites located on different geomorphic landforms adjacent to the Tennessee River preserve records of at least 11 major flood events from 2780 ± 185 BP to 100 ± 10 BP. Buried soils at three sites are older than ca. 1380 BP and suggest a relatively recent period of landscape stability compared ...


The Effects Of Time And Topography On Deep Carbon Storage In The Clarks River Valley Of Western Kentucky, Benedict W. Ferguson 2018 Geosciences

The Effects Of Time And Topography On Deep Carbon Storage In The Clarks River Valley Of Western Kentucky, Benedict W. Ferguson

Scholars Week

Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics at depths greater than one meter in valley bottoms are not well understood. This study examines the stock of SOC with depth across alluvial landforms in the Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge. Nine cores along three transects from terraces to floodplains and adjacent channel bars were collected to depths of 4 meters or refusal. Bulk density, clay content, and loss-on-ignition were used to estimate stocks. Age estimates based on radiocarbon suggest the landforms range in age from 7975 to 52 yr BP. Average SOC and carbon (C) flux varied with values of 1.76 kg ...


Regional Stress Regime Study Of East Texas Based On Orientation Of Fractures In The Weches Formation, Cory D. Ellison 2018 Stephen F Austin State University

Regional Stress Regime Study Of East Texas Based On Orientation Of Fractures In The Weches Formation, Cory D. Ellison

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fractures in the Weches Formation in a roughly 50 mile radius around Nacogdoches, Texas were documented and analyzed using data obtained at various outcrops. This data was used to infer information about the regional stress regime based on the direction of maximum/minimum horizontal stresses (SHmax / SHmin) that formed the fractures. This is based on the principle that systematic, steeply dipping, mode I joints propagate in the direction of SHmax and normal to the direction of SHmin. Joints in the Weches Formation are typically iron filled and are predominantly opening mode, indicated by crack-seal formation, steep dip (700 – 900) and ...


Publications And Other Works By R. F. Diffendal, Jr., Robert F. Diffendal 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Publications And Other Works By R. F. Diffendal, Jr., Robert F. Diffendal

Papers in Natural Resources

Articles
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Abstracts
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Manuscripts Accepted (A) , Submitted (S) or In Preparation (P)
Geologic Maps in Press
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Editing

Updated April 2018


High Resolution Monitoring Of River Bluff Erosion Reveals Failure Mechanisms And Geomorphically Effective Flows, Sara Ann Kelly, Patrick Belmont 2018 Utah State University

High Resolution Monitoring Of River Bluff Erosion Reveals Failure Mechanisms And Geomorphically Effective Flows, Sara Ann Kelly, Patrick Belmont

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Using a combination of Structure from Motion and time lapse photogrammetry, we document rapid river bluff erosion occurring in the Greater Blue Earth River (GBER) basin, a muddy tributary to the sediment-impaired Minnesota River in south central Minnesota. Our datasets elucidated dominant bluff failure mechanisms and rates of bluff retreat in a transient system responding to ongoing streamflow increases and glacial legacy impacts. Specifically, we document the importance of fluvial scour, freeze–thaw, as well as other drivers of bluff erosion. We find that even small flows, a mere 30% of the two-year recurrence interval flow, are capable of causing ...


First Assessment On The Air Co2 Dynamic In The Show Caves Of Tropical Karst, Vietnam, Duc A. Trinh, Quan H. Trinh, Angel Fernández-Cortés, David Mattey, Javier G. Guinea 2018 Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute

First Assessment On The Air Co2 Dynamic In The Show Caves Of Tropical Karst, Vietnam, Duc A. Trinh, Quan H. Trinh, Angel Fernández-Cortés, David Mattey, Javier G. Guinea

International Journal of Speleology

In this study, air, water, and host rock in show caves in a Vietnam’s karst region was monitored and analyzed to identify the ventilation regime and track the cave air CO2 sources. In general, the studied caves are well ventilated. In dynamic – multiple entrance caves, air ventilation is described with the use of U shape model. In static – single entrance cave, air circulation is explained by cold air trap model. Both ventilation models suggest that air is more circulated in winter than in summer. Seasonally, the cave air CO2 increases from early spring to summer. Value in ...


Highway Construction Or Stream Destruction: A Water Quality Analysis In The Black Warrior Basin, Walker County, Alabama, Cayla Baughn 2018 Western Kentucky University

Highway Construction Or Stream Destruction: A Water Quality Analysis In The Black Warrior Basin, Walker County, Alabama, Cayla Baughn

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

In 2012, residents along Freeman Branch Creek in Eldridge, Alabama observed unusual orange discoloration along the stream and on stream vegetation; an unprecendented black veneer coating pebbles along the streambed; and life in the stream seemed to have vanished. Freeman Branch Creek is located in Walker County, Alabama, which is known for its production of coal and natural gas from the underlying Pennsylvanian-aged Pottsville Formation, which is the uppermost geologic layer within the the Black Warrior Basin. Concerns for environmental safety related to intensive mining operations include the concern that shallow aquifers will be contaminated by mining in deep reservoir ...


Evidence Of The 1762 Arakan And Prior Earthquakes In The Northern Sunda Subduction, Dhiman Ranjan Mondal 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Evidence Of The 1762 Arakan And Prior Earthquakes In The Northern Sunda Subduction, Dhiman Ranjan Mondal

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The objective of this dissertation is to understand the seismic hazard associated with Arakan segment of the northern Sunda subduction along SE Bangladesh. In order to do that, it is necessary to document geologic evidence for the 1762 Arakan earthquake and prior events, to help estimate the recurrence interval (repeat time) for that earthquake. Historical records described that the 1762 earthquake caused extensive damage along the Arakan segment of the Sunda subduction system. But the geologic evidence for the earthquake farther north is necessary to better understand its associated seismic hazard to the densely populated nation of Bangladesh. This dissertation ...


Review Of The Ends Of The World: Volcanic Apocalypses, Lethal Oceans, And Our Quest To Understand Earth's Past Mass Extinctions By Peter Brannen, Robert F. Diffendal, Jr. 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Review Of The Ends Of The World: Volcanic Apocalypses, Lethal Oceans, And Our Quest To Understand Earth's Past Mass Extinctions By Peter Brannen, Robert F. Diffendal, Jr.

Robert F. Diffendal, Jr., Publications

In his new best-selling book, Peter Brannen, award-winning science writer, takes you on a fascinating trip through the run-up to the endCretaceous extinction event and the K-Pg (Cretaceous/ Paleogene) boundary, formerly called the K -T (Cretaceous/Tertiary) boundary. ... Brannen interviewed many scientists who studied these events and went on field trips with them to major Cretaceous sites and to those where earlier and later extinction events happened. He presents clear explanations of what is known and not known about all of these events in a largely error-free book. Brannen details the other four big extinction events in geologic history: the ...


Persistence Of Stream Restoration With Large Wood, Redwood National And State Parks, California, Diedra L. Rodriguez 2018 Humboldt State University

Persistence Of Stream Restoration With Large Wood, Redwood National And State Parks, California, Diedra L. Rodriguez

Theses and projects

The conservation and recovery of anadromous salmonids (Oncorhynchus sp.) depend on stream restoration and protection of freshwater habitats. In-stream large wood dictates channel morphology, increases retention of terrestrial inputs such as organic matter, nutrients and sediment, and enhances the quality of fish habitat. Historic land use/land cover changes have resulted in aquatic systems devoid of large wood. Restoration by placement of large wood jams is intended to restore physical and biological processes. An important question for scientists and restoration managers, in addition to the initial effectiveness of restoration, is the persistence and fate of large wood installations. In this ...


Comparison Of Karstification Methods And Isostatic Rebound In The Suwannee River Basin, Florida, Toni Larche 2018 Michigan Technological University

Comparison Of Karstification Methods And Isostatic Rebound In The Suwannee River Basin, Florida, Toni Larche

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Plio-Pleistocene beach ridges in northern Florida are nearly 50 m above current sea level, but sea level during that time is not known to have been more than 25 m above current sea level. The height of beach ridges in northern Florida therefore create a conundrum because Florida is located on a passive margin in what is considered a tectonically stable environment. A series of recent studies have suggested that uplift on the Florida peninsula may be the result of the removal of subsurface crustal mass. Karstification of Florida’s carbonate matrix may provide a mechanism for subsurface crustal mass ...


Impacts Of Vegetation Growth On Reach-Scale Flood Hydraulics In A Sand-Bed River And The Implications For Vegetation-Morphology Coevolution, Samuel Box 2018 University of Montana, Missoula

Impacts Of Vegetation Growth On Reach-Scale Flood Hydraulics In A Sand-Bed River And The Implications For Vegetation-Morphology Coevolution, Samuel Box

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Vegetation affects river morphology via plant effects on the flow field, sediment transport and deposition, and substrate erodibility. Changes in the flow field caused by above-ground biomass mediate geomorphic response to flooding and habitat suitability for vegetation growth. Using numerical hydraulic models that incorporate drag due to spatially heterogeneous vegetation, I quantify how changes in the antecedent characteristics of woody vegetation in the active channel lead to changes in local bed shear stress, reach-average bed shear stress, and the vegetative component of reach-average total shear stress. Flood hydraulics in turn affect channel morphology and vegetation, providing a feedback mechanism by ...


Modeling Landscape Evolution Of The Tweed Caldera Drainage Basin Under Different Climatic Scenarios Through The 26th Century, Kyle Manley 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Modeling Landscape Evolution Of The Tweed Caldera Drainage Basin Under Different Climatic Scenarios Through The 26th Century, Kyle Manley

Undergraduate Honors Theses

As anthropogenic forcing continues to rapidly change worldwide climate, consequential landscape impacts will continue to coincide. In this study, a landscape evolution model called Badllands (BAsin anD LANscape DynamicS) is utilized to project if and how the landscape of the Tweed Caldera catchment, in Eastern Australia, dynamically reacts to shifts in the local climate. Different climatic scenarios were modeled over the next five centuries. In order to model practical scenarios, local climate projections were taken from the Australian government and the IPCC in the form of four representative concentration pathways (2.6, 4.5, 6.0 & 8.5). Another three ...


Flowstone Growth In Gournier River (Vercors, France): A Diachronic Landscape Analysis By 3d Modelling And Photo Draping, Kim Genuite, Yves Perrette, Stéphane Jaillet 2017 Université Savoie Mont Blanc, Laboratoire EDYTEM

Flowstone Growth In Gournier River (Vercors, France): A Diachronic Landscape Analysis By 3d Modelling And Photo Draping, Kim Genuite, Yves Perrette, Stéphane Jaillet

International Journal of Speleology

Calcite surface has been reported by cavers and scientists over the last decades. Here, we present a methodological work aimed at quantifying that growth. We suggest a method of draping old photographs of a part of the Gournier Cave onto a 3D model. This work relies on a collection of photographs taken by cavers. We have chosen to study a site for which the maximum number of photographs was available. The series of photographs over time makes it possible to overcome the limitation of calcite crust dating. The acquisition of the 3D model has been achieved using terrestrial LIDAR. Then ...


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