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Summary Of Thermo–Time Domain Reflectometry Method: Advances In Monitoring In Situ Soil Bulk Density, Yili Lu, Xiaona Liu, Meng Zhang, Joshua Heitman, Robert Horton, Tusheng Ren 2018 China Agricultural University

Summary Of Thermo–Time Domain Reflectometry Method: Advances In Monitoring In Situ Soil Bulk Density, Yili Lu, Xiaona Liu, Meng Zhang, Joshua Heitman, Robert Horton, Tusheng Ren

Agronomy Publications

Soil bulk density (ρb) is a key indicator of soil compaction and soil health that relates to water infiltration, plant rooting depth, nutrient availability, and soil microbial activity. Under field conditions, ρb usually varies with time and depth because of agronomic practices, root growth, and environmental processes (e.g., rainfall events, wetting/drying, and freezing/thawing). The traditional technique (i.e., the coring method) for determining ρb has the problems of destructive sampling, labor intensive, and is unable to capture the spatial and temporal variations. In a chapter of the recent Methods of Soil Analysis book, we ...


Physical Processes Dictate Early Biogeochemical Dynamics Of Soil Pyrogenic Organic Matter In A Subtropical Forest Ecosystem, Jason Stuart, Russell Anderson, Patrick Lazzarino, Kevin A. Kuehn, Omar R. Harvey 2018 University of Southern Mississippi

Physical Processes Dictate Early Biogeochemical Dynamics Of Soil Pyrogenic Organic Matter In A Subtropical Forest Ecosystem, Jason Stuart, Russell Anderson, Patrick Lazzarino, Kevin A. Kuehn, Omar R. Harvey

Faculty Publications

Quantifying links between pyOM dynamics, environmental factors and processes is central to predicting ecosystem function and response to future perturbations. In this study, changes in carbon (TC), nitrogen (TN), pH, and relative recalcitrance (R50) for pineand cordgrass-derived pyOM were measured at 3–6 weeks intervals throughout the first year of burial in the soil. Objectives were to (1) identify key environmental factors and processes driving early-stage pyOM dynamics, and (2) develop quantitative relationships between environmental factors and observed changes in pyOM properties. The study was conducted in sandy soils of a forested ecosystem within the Longleaf pine range of the ...


Comparing Strip Trials Of Chicken Litter, Compost, Hog Manure, And Wet Cattle Manure On Soil Fertility, Tanner Douma, Emily Hummel, Wendi Jo Vande Voort 2018 Dordt College

Comparing Strip Trials Of Chicken Litter, Compost, Hog Manure, And Wet Cattle Manure On Soil Fertility, Tanner Douma, Emily Hummel, Wendi Jo Vande Voort

Student Work

Utilizing agriculture animal and biodegradable waste can reduce the input costs of fertilizers while enhancing the soil. This comparative study focuses on the nutrient values soil receives from agricultural waste. The central objective was, “Due to the historical over-application of manure leading to environmental concerns, a comparative study of soil fertility and economic viability of manures and compost are analyzed in a one-year study”. On an 18.7 acre corn plot, 11 strips were applied with four different manure types, which were randomized, during the 2017 growing season. Chicken litter, compost, hog manure, wet cattle manure, and control strips were ...


Reducing Tillage In Small-Scale Permanent Bed Organic Vegetable Production Systems, Jeremiah D. Vallotton 2018 University of Maine

Reducing Tillage In Small-Scale Permanent Bed Organic Vegetable Production Systems, Jeremiah D. Vallotton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The response of field-grown vegetable crops to reduced tillage and mulching in permanent beds was evaluated through measuring crop yields, weed pressure, earthworm counts, and soil basal respiration. Two vegetable crops (“Bush Delicata” squash and “Farao” cabbage) were started in April and May of 2016 and 2017 respectively, transplanted in late June, and harvested on 15-Sep-2016 and 25-Aug-2017. Fruit number and weight of squash, and head weight and feeding damage of cabbage were measured. These results suggest that intensive tillage (8” rototill every year) can be successfully reduced to alternating years of shallow (2”) rototilling and a less intensive form ...


Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Production On A Silt-Loam Soil In Arkansas, Casey Rector 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Production On A Silt-Loam Soil In Arkansas, Casey Rector

Theses and Dissertations

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a common crop grown in Arkansas under flooded-soil conditions. The saturated to nearly saturated soil makes rice production an ideal environment for the production of potent greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxide (N2O). The objectives of this study were to i) evaluate the impact of water management practice (full-season-flood and intermittent-flood) and cultivar (pure-line and hybrid) on N2O fluxes, season-long N2O emissions, and global warming potential (GWP; 2016) and ii) evaluate the impact of tillage practice [conventional tillage and no-tillage (NT)] and type of urea fertilizer [ N-(n-butyl) thiosphosphoric triamide (NBPT)-coated and non-coated urea ...


Identification And Characterization Of Salinity Tolerance Genes By Activation Tagging In Arabidopsis, Jawaher Alkahtani 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Identification And Characterization Of Salinity Tolerance Genes By Activation Tagging In Arabidopsis, Jawaher Alkahtani

Theses and Dissertations

Salinity often affects irrigated areas in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The existence and accumulation of soluble salts in the soil layers limit the growth of crops essential for our food. Salt stress dramatically affects plant growth, plant development, as well as crop yield. Arabidopsis thaliana is the plant model that provides a comprehensive knowledge of plant development, genetics and physiology, and response to abiotic stresses such as salinity. The redundancy of genes due to duplication, even in the simple model genome of Arabidopsis, limits the value of knockout (KO) mutagenesis to provide complete information on gene function ...


Soil Properties That Influence The Occurrence Of Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity In Rice Fields, Julia Marie Fryer 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Soil Properties That Influence The Occurrence Of Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity In Rice Fields, Julia Marie Fryer

Theses and Dissertations

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) producers face many challenges throughout each growing season. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) toxicity is a physiological disorder where sulfate (SO42-) is excessively reduced to the toxic gas, H2S. This can reduce yield and, in severe cases, result in crop death. The main research objectives were to: i) understand chemical and physical characteristics in soils prone to H2S toxicity, ii) determine influential soil characteristics on the incidence of H2S toxicity, iii) determine ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) fertilizer additions influence on H2S toxicity, and iv) predict when and where H2S will occur. Three greenhouse experiments were conducted using Arkansas ...


The Effects Of Time And Topography On Deep Carbon Storage In The Clarks River Valley Of Western Kentucky, Benedict W. Ferguson 2018 Geosciences

The Effects Of Time And Topography On Deep Carbon Storage In The Clarks River Valley Of Western Kentucky, Benedict W. Ferguson

Scholars Week

Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics at depths greater than one meter in valley bottoms are not well understood. This study examines the stock of SOC with depth across alluvial landforms in the Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge. Nine cores along three transects from terraces to floodplains and adjacent channel bars were collected to depths of 4 meters or refusal. Bulk density, clay content, and loss-on-ignition were used to estimate stocks. Age estimates based on radiocarbon suggest the landforms range in age from 7975 to 52 yr BP. Average SOC and carbon (C) flux varied with values of 1.76 kg ...


Developing A Protocol For Extracting Mineral-Associated Organic Matter In Soils Developed From Coal Mine Waste, Mallory Klein, Elizabeth Herndon 2018 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Developing A Protocol For Extracting Mineral-Associated Organic Matter In Soils Developed From Coal Mine Waste, Mallory Klein, Elizabeth Herndon

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Soils play an important role in storing carbon as organic matter and soils globally contain twice as much carbon as the atmosphere. Organic matter can be protected from decomposition and sequestered in the soil for decades to millennia in a number of ways, including chemical recalcitrance that makes it resistant to decomposition and through stabilization interactions with mineral surfaces. Here, we examined organic matter associations with mineral surfaces in the soils of the Huff Run watershed, which has been severely impacted by coal mining activity. We hypothesized that organic matter in these soils is at least partially stabilized through interactions ...


Understanding Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Under Seasonal Changes In Climate And Land Use, Mohamed Elhakeem, A. N. Thanos Papanicolaou, Christopher G. Wilson, Yi-Jia Chang, Lee Burras, Benjamin Abban, Douglas A. Wysocki, Skye Wills 2018 Abu Dhabi University

Understanding Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Under Seasonal Changes In Climate And Land Use, Mohamed Elhakeem, A. N. Thanos Papanicolaou, Christopher G. Wilson, Yi-Jia Chang, Lee Burras, Benjamin Abban, Douglas A. Wysocki, Skye Wills

Agronomy Publications

The goal of this study was to understand better the co-play of intrinsic soil properties and extrinsic factors of climate and management in the estimation of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) in intensively managed landscapes. For this purpose, a physically-based, modeling framework was developed using hydro-pedotransfer functions (PTFs) and watershed models integrated with Geographic Information System (GIS) modules. The integrated models were then used to develop Ksat maps for the Clear Creek, Iowa watershed and the state of Iowa. Four types of saturated hydraulic conductivity were considered, namely the baseline (Kb), the bare (Kbr), the effective with ...


Fire-Induced Mineralogical Changes In Midwest Tallgrass Prairie Soils, Lacey LeGrand 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Fire-Induced Mineralogical Changes In Midwest Tallgrass Prairie Soils, Lacey Legrand

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Tallgrass prairies are productive ecosystems that historically covered a large part of the Midwest and in the past were subjected to frequent, natural fire regimes. Today prairie remnants are often managed by ecological burns. Glacier Creek Preserve is a restored prairie in Omaha, Nebraska that includes randomized research plots established in 1978 to study the effects of burning on vegetation and provides a controlled field environment to investigate the effects of fire on soils. The purpose of this study is to compare soil mineralogy in long-term burned and unburned plots to answer the question: “Does prescribed burning induce mineralogical changes ...


Discussion And Survey, Conference Attendees 2018 University of Kentucky

Discussion And Survey, Conference Attendees

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

No abstract provided.


The Future Of Alfalfa: Understanding Gmo Traits And Their Impact On Production And Marketing, Phil Bollman 2018 Forage Genetics International LLC

The Future Of Alfalfa: Understanding Gmo Traits And Their Impact On Production And Marketing, Phil Bollman

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

No abstract provided.


Emerging Export Markets For High Quality Alfalfa Hay, Tom Keene 2018 University of Kentucky

Emerging Export Markets For High Quality Alfalfa Hay, Tom Keene

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

The exporting of hay from country to country has been evolving for many years. When we look at today’s exports of American hay, we see that the majority of it takes place off the west coast.


Managing Frost Damaged Alfalfa Stands, Christopher D. Teutsch, Jimmy C. Henning, S. Ray Smith, Tom Keene, Matthew Dixon 2018 University of Kentucky

Managing Frost Damaged Alfalfa Stands, Christopher D. Teutsch, Jimmy C. Henning, S. Ray Smith, Tom Keene, Matthew Dixon

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

Wide fluctuations in springtime temperature are common in Kentucky. Late freezing temperatures in the spring can cause damage to alfalfa depending on how far along it is in breaking dormancy. This publication provides information on the effect of low spring temperatures on both established and new alfalfa stands that have begun growth, as well as a method of predicting sensitivity to late frosts or freezes.


Harvesting Alfalfa For Quality, Garry D. Lacefield 2018 University of Kentucky

Harvesting Alfalfa For Quality, Garry D. Lacefield

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

Alfalfa can be harvested for hay, baleage, silage, greenchop or grazing. Our goal is to produce, harvest and market high yielding-high quality forage. Profitable alfalfa programs consist of four basic phases and each phase have a specific goal.


Integrated Management Of Alfalfa Diseases, Kiersten A. Wise 2018 University of Kentucky

Integrated Management Of Alfalfa Diseases, Kiersten A. Wise

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

Alfalfa diseases can reduce forage quality and the longevity of alfalfa stands. Integrated management of diseases can minimize disease impact and improve forage stand and quality. There are several important pathogens that cause disease on alfalfa, and the occurrence of these diseases, as well as the severity of damage, depend on several factors, including the type of pathogen, the environment, and the level of resistance of the host to a particular disease. In addition, disease presence and severity are also influenced by agronomic practices, particularly sowing dates, cutting dates and frequency, and fertility programs.


An Integrated Pest Management Ipm Approach In Alfalfa Production Systems, Lee H. Townsend 2018 University of Kentucky

An Integrated Pest Management Ipm Approach In Alfalfa Production Systems, Lee H. Townsend

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

Alfalfa lends itself to an integrated pest management (IPM) approach for alfalfa weevils and potato leafhoppers, the two key insect pests of the crop. Both species live in most alfalfa fields every summer. However, alfalfa can tolerate low levels of their feeding without costly yield or quality loss.


An Integrated Approach To Weed Control In Alfalfa Production Systems, Jonathan D. Green 2018 University of Kentucky

An Integrated Approach To Weed Control In Alfalfa Production Systems, Jonathan D. Green

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

The importance of weed control in forage production should not be overlooked, especially when you consider the high investment associated with alfalfa and other legume forages. Weeds reduce forage yield by competing for water, sunlight, and nutrients. For example, yield obtained from the first cutting of alfalfa can be significantly reduced by a heavy infestation of common chickweed. In addition to yield losses, weeds can also lower forage quality, increase the incidence of disease and insect problems, cause premature stand loss, and create harvesting problems. Some weeds are unpalatable to livestock or, in some cases, may be poisonous.


Fertilizing High Producing Alfalfa Stands, Edwin L. Ritchey 2018 University of Kentucky

Fertilizing High Producing Alfalfa Stands, Edwin L. Ritchey

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

There are no secrets for successfully producing a high quality alfalfa crop. Successful alfalfa production is a product of suitable site selection, proper fertility and pH management, good pest control, and favorable weather conditions throughout the season. This paper focuses on proper fertility and pH management practices.


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