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An Integrated Approach To Weed Control In Alfalfa Production Systems, Jonathan D. Green 2018 University of Kentucky

An Integrated Approach To Weed Control In Alfalfa Production Systems, Jonathan D. Green

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

The importance of weed control in forage production should not be overlooked, especially when you consider the high investment associated with alfalfa and other legume forages. Weeds reduce forage yield by competing for water, sunlight, and nutrients. For example, yield obtained from the first cutting of alfalfa can be significantly reduced by a heavy infestation of common chickweed. In addition to yield losses, weeds can also lower forage quality, increase the incidence of disease and insect problems, cause premature stand loss, and create harvesting problems. Some weeds are unpalatable to livestock or, in some cases, may be poisonous.


Fertilizing High Producing Alfalfa Stands, Edwin L. Ritchey 2018 University of Kentucky

Fertilizing High Producing Alfalfa Stands, Edwin L. Ritchey

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

There are no secrets for successfully producing a high quality alfalfa crop. Successful alfalfa production is a product of suitable site selection, proper fertility and pH management, good pest control, and favorable weather conditions throughout the season. This paper focuses on proper fertility and pH management practices.


Alfalfa Establishment: Getting Off To A Good Start!, Christopher D. Teutsch 2018 University of Kentucky

Alfalfa Establishment: Getting Off To A Good Start!, Christopher D. Teutsch

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

Alfalfa is a highly productive forage legume that is well adapted to transition zone states like Kentucky. It can be grazed, hayed, or ensiled. Once established and under good management, expected yields range from 5-7 tons per acre per year. High yields can only be obtained from a dense and vigorous alfalfa stand. The first step in obtaining such stands is establishment. The establishment phase of alfalfa production is critical since realization of returns from all other input costs is dependent upon having a good stand and it is expensive. It is important to remember that alfalfa establishment begins long ...


Fine Tuning Varietal Selection For The Mid-South, S. Ray Smith 2018 University of Kentucky

Fine Tuning Varietal Selection For The Mid-South, S. Ray Smith

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

There are many new alfalfa varieties that have come on the market each year. In fact, it can be hard keeping up with all the developments. In the following pages I will overview most of the important traits that can be found in new varieties. These include Low Lignin, Roundup Ready®, potato leafhopper resistance, higher quality, resistance to new diseases, and more… Many times I am asked “Are new varieties really worth the cost?” The best way to answer that question is to consider work by Dr. Jimmy Henning where he summarized 24 location years of Kentucky alfalfa yield data ...


Foreword Of Kentucky Alfalfa And Stored Forages Conference [2018], Christopher D. Teutsch, Christi L. Forsythe 2018 University of Kentucky

Foreword Of Kentucky Alfalfa And Stored Forages Conference [2018], Christopher D. Teutsch, Christi L. Forsythe

Kentucky Alfalfa and Stored Forage Conference

No abstract provided.


Climate Effects On Stable Carbon Isotope Proxies For Paleovegetation In Meade Basin, Kansas, Cara Marie Lauria 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Climate Effects On Stable Carbon Isotope Proxies For Paleovegetation In Meade Basin, Kansas, Cara Marie Lauria

Environmental Studies Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Paleovegetation proxies inform scientists not only about what climate and ecosystems may have looked like through Earth’s history, but also give us the ability to predict what today’s global change may bring for modern ecosystems. Carbon isotope ratios of soil organic matter (SOM) and pedogenic carbonates record relative proportions of C4-derived biomass. Each soil constituent is thought to form under different soil climate conditions. Soil organic matter is thought to form under cooler and wetter conditions when climates favor the production of C3 plant biomass. Pedogenic carbonates are thought to precipitate during the warmest and ...


Identifying Riparian Zones Best Suited To Installation Of Saturated Buffers: A Preliminary Multi-Watershed Assessment, M. D. Tomer, D. B. Jaynes, S. A. Porter, D. E. James, T. M. Isenhart 2018 United States Department of Agriculture

Identifying Riparian Zones Best Suited To Installation Of Saturated Buffers: A Preliminary Multi-Watershed Assessment, M. D. Tomer, D. B. Jaynes, S. A. Porter, D. E. James, T. M. Isenhart

Thomas M. Isenhart

Saturated riparian buffers are a new type of conservation practice that divert subsurface tile drainage water from direct discharge to surface water into distribution pipes that discharge the tile water into riparian soils. This enables natural processes of biological uptake and denitrification to decrease nutrient loads that are being lost from croplands via tile drains, reducing water quality impacts from agriculture at relatively little cost. This chapter suggests and evaluates draft criteria that identify riparian zones within a watershed that are suited to installation of saturated buffers. Soils criteria, evaluated using soil survey information, include subsurface accumulations of soil organic ...


Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Riparian Forest Buffers, Warm-Season And Cool-Season Grass Filters, And Crop Fields, D. G. Kim, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas E. Loynachan, James W. Raich 2018 Iowa State University

Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Riparian Forest Buffers, Warm-Season And Cool-Season Grass Filters, And Crop Fields, D. G. Kim, Thomas M. Isenhart, Timothy B. Parkin, Richard C. Schultz, Thomas E. Loynachan, James W. Raich

Thomas M. Isenhart

Denitrification within riparian buffers may trade reduced nonpoint source pollution of surface waters for increased greenhouse gas emissions resulting from denitrification-produced nitrous oxide (N2O). However, little is known about the N2O emission within conservation buffers established for water quality improvement or of the importance of short-term N2O peak emission following rewetting dry soils and thawing frozen soils. Such estimates are important in reducing uncertainties in current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies estimating soil N2O emission which are based on N inputs. This study contrasts N2O emission from riparian buffer systems of three perennial vegetation types and an adjacent ...


An Optical Method For Carbon Dioxide Isotopes And Mole Fractions In Small Gas Samples: Tracing Microbial Respiration From Soil, Litter, And Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Wenjuan Huang, Kenneth E. Hammel 2018 Iowa State University

An Optical Method For Carbon Dioxide Isotopes And Mole Fractions In Small Gas Samples: Tracing Microbial Respiration From Soil, Litter, And Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Wenjuan Huang, Kenneth E. Hammel

Steven J. Hall

Rationale

Carbon dioxide isotope (δ13C value) measurements enable quantification of the sources of soil microbial respiration, thus informing ecosystem C dynamics. Tunable diode lasers (TDLs) can precisely measure CO2 isotopes at low cost and high throughput, but are seldom used for small samples (≤5 mL). We developed a TDL method for CO2 mole fraction ([CO2]) and δ13C analysis of soil microcosms.

Methods

Peaks in infrared absorbance following constant volume sample injection to a carrier were used to independently measure [12CO2] and [13CO2] for subsequent calculation of δ13C values. Using parallel soil incubations receiving differing C substrates, we partitioned respiration from ...


Elevated Moisture Stimulates Carbon Loss From Mineral Soils By Releasing Protected Organic Matter, Wenjuan Huang, Steven J. Hall 2018 Iowa State University

Elevated Moisture Stimulates Carbon Loss From Mineral Soils By Releasing Protected Organic Matter, Wenjuan Huang, Steven J. Hall

Steven J. Hall

Moisture response functions for soil microbial carbon (C) mineralization remain a critical uncertainty for predicting ecosystem-climate feedbacks. Theory and models posit that C mineralization declines under elevated moisture and associated anaerobic conditions, leading to soil C accumulation. Yet, iron (Fe) reduction potentially releases protected C, providing an under-appreciated mechanism for C destabilization under elevated moisture. Here we incubate Mollisols from ecosystems under C3/C4 plant rotations at moisture levels at and above field capacity over 5 months. Increased moisture and anaerobiosis initially suppress soil C mineralization, consistent with theory. However, after 25 days, elevated moisture stimulates cumulative gaseous C-loss as ...


Electrical Resistivity Tomography Of Claypan Soils In Southeastern Kansas, M. A. Mathis II, S. E. Tucker-Kulesza, G. F. Sassenrath 2018 Kansas State University

Electrical Resistivity Tomography Of Claypan Soils In Southeastern Kansas, M. A. Mathis Ii, S. E. Tucker-Kulesza, G. F. Sassenrath

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Claypan soils cover approximately 10 million acres across several states in the central United States. The soils are characterized by a highly impermeable clay layer within the profile that impedes water flow and root growth. While some claypan soils can be productive, they must be carefully managed to avoid reductions to crop productivity due to root restrictions, water, and nutrient limitations. Clay soils are usually resistant to erosion but may exacerbate erosion of the silt-loam topsoil.

Soil production potential is the capacity of soil to produce at a given level (yield per acre). The productive capacity is tied to soil ...


Exploring The Physical, Chemical And Biological Components Of Soil: Improving Soil Health For Better Productive Capacity, G. F. Sassenrath, K. Davis, A. Sassenrath-Cole, N. Riding 2018 Kansas State University

Exploring The Physical, Chemical And Biological Components Of Soil: Improving Soil Health For Better Productive Capacity, G. F. Sassenrath, K. Davis, A. Sassenrath-Cole, N. Riding

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

“Soil health” is a term that is used to describe soil quality. The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service has defined soil health as “The continued capacity of soil to function as a vital living ecosystem that sustains plants, animals and humans (NRCS 2018).” For a farmer, soil health is the productive capacity of the soil, or the capacity of the soil to produce a crop or pasture. Healthy soils produce more and with better quality.

Soil health is critical for water and nutrient cycling. Soil captures rainwater and stores it for use by plants. Soil ...


Geochemical Differences In Calcic Horizons Due To Parent Material And Anthropogenic Water Input In Southeastern Arizona, Alicia Fischer 2018 Colby College

Geochemical Differences In Calcic Horizons Due To Parent Material And Anthropogenic Water Input In Southeastern Arizona, Alicia Fischer

Honors Theses

Calcic soil horizons are significant carbon sinks. Yet, despite their abundance in semiarid environments, calcic soils are enigmatic for two reasons: (1) some authors hypothesize that dust input does not, independently, control the geochemical properties of these soils; and (2) few studies have examined how these calcic soils change geochemically with respect to irrigation. A 2017 pilot study used portable x-ray fluorescence (pXRF) on calcic soils in Southeastern Arizona (SEAZ) to address these questions. However, this technology has not been widely employed to evaluate soils. The current study addresses whether pXRF and XRF data obtained from the same soil samples ...


Soil Health Profile In Claypan Soils, C. J. Hsiao, G. F. Sassenrath, C. Rice, G. Hettiarachchi, L. Zeglin 2018 Kansas State University

Soil Health Profile In Claypan Soils, C. J. Hsiao, G. F. Sassenrath, C. Rice, G. Hettiarachchi, L. Zeglin

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Healthy soil is the foundation of a sustainable agronomic production system. Microorganisms include bacteria (such as actinomycetes), fungi, and protozoa. Soil microorganisms, or microbes, exist in large numbers in soils and are critical for decomposition of organic residues and nutrient recycling. Soils with ample and diverse microbial populations can provide more essential nutrients for crop growth and development. Soil microbial properties are considered one of the major indicators of soil health.

Soil microbial properties can be measured by the activity and the composition of micro-organism populations. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) are the primary components of cell membranes, they can be ...


Tropical Tree Species Effects On Soil Ph And Biotic Factors And The Consequences For Macroaggregate Dynamics, Ann E. Russell, Stephanie N. Kivlin, Christine V. Hawkes 2018 Iowa State University

Tropical Tree Species Effects On Soil Ph And Biotic Factors And The Consequences For Macroaggregate Dynamics, Ann E. Russell, Stephanie N. Kivlin, Christine V. Hawkes

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Physicochemical and biotic factors influence the binding and dispersivity of soil particles, and thus control soil macroaggregate formation and stability. Although soil pH influences dispersivity, it is usually relatively constant within a site, and thus not considered a driver of aggregation dynamics. However, land-use change that results in shifts in tree-species composition can result in alteration of soil pH, owing to species-specific traits, e.g., support of nitrogen fixation and Al accumulation. In a long-term, randomized complete block experiment in which climate, soil type, and previous land-use history were similar, we evaluated effects of individual native tropical tree species on ...


Land Use Change Sustainability And Carbon Turnover Rate In The Northern Great Plains Soil, Deepak Raj Joshi 2018 South Dakota State University

Land Use Change Sustainability And Carbon Turnover Rate In The Northern Great Plains Soil, Deepak Raj Joshi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sustainable land management involves the management of land, water, biodiversity and other resources that meet human requirements while maintaining ecosystem services. In the northern Great Plains (NGP), the combined impacts of landuse and climate variability have placed many soils at the tipping point of sustainability. The objectives of this study were to: 1) calculate land-use changes from 2006 to 2012 and from 2012 to 2014 in South Dakota and Nebraska; 2) assess if land use changes had impacted on soil sustainability; 3) calculate variation in total carbon budget and turnover due to seasonal climate variability, biomass quality and soil properties ...


Strengths And Limitations Of Nitrogen Rate Recommendations For Corn And Opportunities For Improvement, Thomas F. Morris, T. Scott Murrell, Douglas B. Beegle, James J. Camberato, Richard B. Ferguson, John Grove, Quirine Ketterings, Peter M. Kyveryga, Carrie A. M. Laboski, Joshua M. McGrath, John J. Meisinger, Jeff Melkonian, Bianca N. Moebius-Clune, Emerson D. Nafziger, Deanna Osmond, John E. Sawyer, Peter C. Scharf, Walter Smith, John T. Spargo, Harold M. van Es, Haishun Yang 2018 University of Connecticut

Strengths And Limitations Of Nitrogen Rate Recommendations For Corn And Opportunities For Improvement, Thomas F. Morris, T. Scott Murrell, Douglas B. Beegle, James J. Camberato, Richard B. Ferguson, John Grove, Quirine Ketterings, Peter M. Kyveryga, Carrie A. M. Laboski, Joshua M. Mcgrath, John J. Meisinger, Jeff Melkonian, Bianca N. Moebius-Clune, Emerson D. Nafziger, Deanna Osmond, John E. Sawyer, Peter C. Scharf, Walter Smith, John T. Spargo, Harold M. Van Es, Haishun Yang

Agronomy Publications

Nitrogen fixation by the Haber–Bosch process has more than doubled the amount of fixed N on Earth, significantly influencing the global N cycle. Much of this fixed N is made into N fertilizer that is used to produce nearly half of the world’s food. Too much of the N fertilizer pollutes air and water when it is lost from agroecosystems through volatilization, denitrification, leaching, and runoff. Most of the N fertilizer used in the United States is applied to corn (Zea mays L.), and the profitability and environmental footprint of corn production is directly tied to N fertilizer ...


Estimating The Contribution Of Groundwater To The Root Zone Of Winter Wheat Using Root Density Distribution Functions, Yonghua Zhu, Liliang Ren, Robert Horton, Haishen Lü, Zhenlong Wang, Fei Yuan 2018 Hohai University, Nanjing

Estimating The Contribution Of Groundwater To The Root Zone Of Winter Wheat Using Root Density Distribution Functions, Yonghua Zhu, Liliang Ren, Robert Horton, Haishen Lü, Zhenlong Wang, Fei Yuan

Agronomy Publications

For winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that grows during the rainless season, the contribution of groundwater to the root zone (CGWR) is an important water source for growth. Accurately estimating the CGWR is important for making decisions on irrigation and discharge for winter wheat fields and preventing water pollution. Because winter wheat slows and even stops root growth over winter, so the fixed root density distribution function that is suitable for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] may not suit winter wheat calculations. Therefore, when estimating the CGWR of winter wheat with the numerical model HYDRUS-1D, the root density distribution function ...


Derivation Of An Explicit Form Of The Percolation-Based Effective-Medium Approximation For Thermal Conductivity Of Partially Saturated Soils, Morteza Sadeghi, Behzad Ghanbarian, Robert Horton 2018 Utah State University

Derivation Of An Explicit Form Of The Percolation-Based Effective-Medium Approximation For Thermal Conductivity Of Partially Saturated Soils, Morteza Sadeghi, Behzad Ghanbarian, Robert Horton

Agronomy Publications

Thermal conductivity is an essential component in multi-physics models and coupled simulation of heat transfer, fluid flow and solute transport in porous media. In the literature, various empirical, semi-empirical, and physical models were developed for thermal conductivity and its estimation in partially saturated soils. Recently, Ghanbarian and Daigle (GD) proposed a theoretical model, using the percolation-based effective-medium approximation, whose parameters are physically meaningful. The original GD model implicitly formulates thermal conductivity λ as a function of volumetric water content θ. For the sake of computational efficiency in numerical calculations, in this study we derive an explicit λ(θ) form of ...


Surface Energy Balance Partitioning In Tilled And Non-Tilled Bare Soils, Ohene Akuoko 2018 Iowa State University

Surface Energy Balance Partitioning In Tilled And Non-Tilled Bare Soils, Ohene Akuoko

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Knowledge of the partitioning of the surface energy balance (SEB) components is essential in understanding heat and water budgets at the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. Agriculturally, changes in soil structure due to soil tillage in the fall and spring affects the magnitude of these components. SEB partitioning determined by modeled and measured studies usually assumes a constant near surface bulk density values for extended periods of time. The objectives of this study is to determine the effect of soil bulk density changes on net radiation, soil heat flux (G), latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H) of a tilled and ...


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