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Lotic-Sipco2: Adaptation Of An Open-Source Co2 Sensor System And Examination Of Associated Emission Uncertainties Across A Range Of Stream Sizes And Land Uses, Andrew L. Robison, Lauren E. Koenig, Jody D. Potter, Lisle E. Snyder, Christopher W. Hunt, William H. McDowell, Wilfred M. Wollheim 2024 Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Lotic-Sipco2: Adaptation Of An Open-Source Co2 Sensor System And Examination Of Associated Emission Uncertainties Across A Range Of Stream Sizes And Land Uses, Andrew L. Robison, Lauren E. Koenig, Jody D. Potter, Lisle E. Snyder, Christopher W. Hunt, William H. Mcdowell, Wilfred M. Wollheim

Faculty Publications

River networks play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle, as relevant sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Advancements in high-frequency monitoring in aquatic environments have enabled measurement of dissolved CO2 concentration at temporal resolutions essential for studying carbon variability and evasion from these dynamic ecosystems. Here, we describe the adaptation, deployment, and validation of an open-source and relatively low-cost in situ pCO2 sensor system for lotic ecosystems, the lotic-SIPCO2. We tested the lotic-SIPCO2 in 10 streams that spanned a range of land cover and basin size. Key system adaptations for lotic environments included prevention of biofouling, …


Rates Of Diagenesis Of Tropical Insectivorous Bat Guano Accumulations: Implications For Potential Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction, Donald A. McFarlane, Joyce Lundberg 2024 The Claremont Colleges, Claremont, USA

Rates Of Diagenesis Of Tropical Insectivorous Bat Guano Accumulations: Implications For Potential Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction, Donald A. Mcfarlane, Joyce Lundberg

International Journal of Speleology

Cave guano deposits are increasingly being recognized as valuable repositories of paleo-climatic and paleo-environmental information. However, that value is constrained by rates of guano decomposition, and these rates have not been previously well-studied. Here we show that field and laboratory studies of deep insectivorous bat guano sequences in the caves of Borneo demonstrate the extreme dependence of decomposition rate on guano water content. Under tropical conditions, moist guanos exhibit decomposition coefficients (k) values of ~ 0.01, implying the loss of most of the organic content on decadal timescales. Under similar temperatures but drier conditions, k values drop to …


Towards Sociobiogeochemistry: Critical Perspectives On Anthropogenic Alterations To Soil Nitrogen Chemistry Via U.S. Urban And Suburban Development, Christopher D. Ryan 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Towards Sociobiogeochemistry: Critical Perspectives On Anthropogenic Alterations To Soil Nitrogen Chemistry Via U.S. Urban And Suburban Development, Christopher D. Ryan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The ecological impacts of changes to land use are relevant to concerns about climate change, eutrophication of waterbodies, and reductions in biodiversity. As a foundational component of ecosystem functioning, changes to soil biogeochemistry have significant effects on overall ecosystem health. With cities continuing to grow and develop in extent, the impacts of urbanization and suburbanization on soils are of particular concern. Despite a wide range of natural climatic and geologic conditions, several factors have driven similar patterns of land transformation and management across the United States. In particular, federal initiatives including the Home Owners Loan Corporation, the Federal Housing Administration, …


Re-Evaluating Hydrogen Sulfide As A Sink For Cadmium And Zinc In The Oxic To Suboxic Upper Water Column Of The Pacific Ocean, N. R. Buckley, E. E. Black, J. A. Kenyon, N. T. Lanning, M. Sieber, T. M. Conway, J. N. Fitzsimmons, G. A. Cutter 2024 Old Dominion University

Re-Evaluating Hydrogen Sulfide As A Sink For Cadmium And Zinc In The Oxic To Suboxic Upper Water Column Of The Pacific Ocean, N. R. Buckley, E. E. Black, J. A. Kenyon, N. T. Lanning, M. Sieber, T. M. Conway, J. N. Fitzsimmons, G. A. Cutter

OES Faculty Publications

Hydrogen sulfide is produced by heterotrophic bacteria in anoxic waters and via carbonyl sulfide hydrolysis and phytoplankton emissions under oxic conditions. Apparent losses of dissolved cadmium (dCd) and zinc (dZn) in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans have been attributed to metal-sulfide precipitation formed via dissimilatory sulfate reduction. It has also been argued that such a removal process could be a globally important sink for dCd and dZn. However, our studies from the North Pacific OMZ show that dissolved and particulate sulfide concentrations are insufficient to support the removal of dCd via precipitation. In contrast, apparent …


Unraveling Sources Of Cyanate In The Marine Environment: Insights From Cyanate Distributions And Production During The Photochemical Degradation Of Dissolved Organic Matter, Rui Wang, Jihua Liu, Yongle Xu, Li Liu, Kenneth Mopper 2024 Shandong University

Unraveling Sources Of Cyanate In The Marine Environment: Insights From Cyanate Distributions And Production During The Photochemical Degradation Of Dissolved Organic Matter, Rui Wang, Jihua Liu, Yongle Xu, Li Liu, Kenneth Mopper

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Cyanate is a nitrogen and energy source for diverse marine microorganisms, playing important roles in the nitrogen cycle. Despite the extensive research on cyanate utilization, the sources of this nitrogen compound remain largely enigmatic. To unravel the sources of cyanate, distributions and production of cyanate during photochemical degradation of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) were investigated across various environments, including freshwater, estuarine, coastal areas in Florida, and the continental and slope regions of the North American mid-Atlantic Ocean (NATL). Cyanate production was also examined during the photochemical degradation of exudates from a typical strain of Synechococcus, an important phytoplankton …


Permafrost Carbon: Progress On Understanding Stocks And Fluxes Across Northern Terrestrial Ecosystems, Claire C. Treat, Anna-Maria Virkkala, Eleanor Burke, Lori Bruhwiler, Abhishek Chatterjee, Joshua B. Fisher, Josh Hashemi, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Brendan M. Rogers, Sebastian Westermann, Jennifer D. Watts, Elena Blanc-Betes, Matthias Fuchs, Stefan Kruse, Avni Malhotra, Kimberley Miner, Jens Strauss, Amanda Armstrong, Howard E. Epstein, Bradley Gay, Mathias Goeckede, Aram Kalhori, Dan Kou, Charles E. Miller, Susan M. Natali, Youmi Oh, Sarah Shakil, Oliver Sonnentag, Ruth K. Varner, Scott Zolkos, Edward A.G. Schuur, Gustaf Hugelius 2024 Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research

Permafrost Carbon: Progress On Understanding Stocks And Fluxes Across Northern Terrestrial Ecosystems, Claire C. Treat, Anna-Maria Virkkala, Eleanor Burke, Lori Bruhwiler, Abhishek Chatterjee, Joshua B. Fisher, Josh Hashemi, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Brendan M. Rogers, Sebastian Westermann, Jennifer D. Watts, Elena Blanc-Betes, Matthias Fuchs, Stefan Kruse, Avni Malhotra, Kimberley Miner, Jens Strauss, Amanda Armstrong, Howard E. Epstein, Bradley Gay, Mathias Goeckede, Aram Kalhori, Dan Kou, Charles E. Miller, Susan M. Natali, Youmi Oh, Sarah Shakil, Oliver Sonnentag, Ruth K. Varner, Scott Zolkos, Edward A.G. Schuur, Gustaf Hugelius

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Significant progress in permafrost carbon science made over the past decades include the identification of vast permafrost carbon stocks, the development of new pan-Arctic permafrost maps, an increase in terrestrial measurement sites for CO2 and methane fluxes, and important factors affecting carbon cycling, including vegetation changes, periods of soil freezing and thawing, wildfire, and other disturbance events. Process-based modeling studies now include key elements of permafrost carbon cycling and advances in statistical modeling and inverse modeling enhance understanding of permafrost region C budgets. By combining existing data syntheses and model outputs, the permafrost region is likely a wetland methane …


Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia 2023 Brigham Young University

Reducing Food Scarcity: The Benefits Of Urban Farming, S.A. Claudell, Emilio Mejia

Journal of Nonprofit Innovation

Urban farming can enhance the lives of communities and help reduce food scarcity. This paper presents a conceptual prototype of an efficient urban farming community that can be scaled for a single apartment building or an entire community across all global geoeconomics regions, including densely populated cities and rural, developing towns and communities. When deployed in coordination with smart crop choices, local farm support, and efficient transportation then the result isn’t just sustainability, but also increasing fresh produce accessibility, optimizing nutritional value, eliminating the use of ‘forever chemicals’, reducing transportation costs, and fostering global environmental benefits.

Imagine Doris, who is …


Wonderstone And Its Connection To Liesegang, Microbes, And Beyond, Haden S. Mandery 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Wonderstone And Its Connection To Liesegang, Microbes, And Beyond, Haden S. Mandery

Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

In the western and southwestern United States, the term wonderstone is used to describe volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks with variegated banding produced by iron oxide mineralization or staining. This iron oxide mineralization is typically described as Liesegang banding. In this paper I will (1) test if the banding in wonderstone follows the spacing and width laws characteristic of Liesegang, (2) identify the source of iron that ultimately precipitated in the bands, and (3) examine the role that microbes played in the formation of the mineralization in these rocks. I conclude that the iron oxide mineralization is not Liesegang banding. …


Exploring Soil Microbial Dynamics In Southern Appalachian Forests: A Systems Biology Approach To Prescribed Fire Impacts, Saad Abd Ar Rafie 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Exploring Soil Microbial Dynamics In Southern Appalachian Forests: A Systems Biology Approach To Prescribed Fire Impacts, Saad Abd Ar Rafie

Doctoral Dissertations

Prescribed fires in Southern Appalachian forests are vital in ecosystem management and wildfire risk mitigation. However, understanding the intricate dynamics between these fires, soil microbial communities, and overall ecosystem health remains challenging. This dissertation addresses this knowledge gap by exploring selected aspects of this complex relationship across three interconnected chapters.

The first chapter investigates the immediate effects of prescribed fires on soil microbial communities. It reveals subtle shifts in porewater chemistry and significant increases in microbial species richness. These findings offer valuable insights into the interplay between soil properties and microbial responses during the early stages following a prescribed fire. …


Enhancing Our Understanding Of Ancient Oceans Through The Investigation Of Molybdenum Behavior Under Sulfidic Conditions, Rachel Faye Phillips 2023 University of Texas at El Paso

Enhancing Our Understanding Of Ancient Oceans Through The Investigation Of Molybdenum Behavior Under Sulfidic Conditions, Rachel Faye Phillips

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The most abundant trace metal in the ocean today, molybdenum (Mo), exhibits distinct behavior in oxygenated water, where it remains predominantly dissolved, compared to euxinic (i.e., oxygen-free and sulfidic) water, in which it is sequestered into the sediment. This dissimilar behavior allows us to use Mo concentrations and isotopic compositions in sediment to reconstruct marine oxygenation conditions throughout geologic history. However, Mo sequestration mechanisms under euxinic conditions remain unresolved, which limits the accuracy and precision of reconstructions made using Mo signatures in the rock record. For my doctoral research, I experimentally investigated abiotic and biotic Mo sequestration mechanisms under various …


The Discovery Of Diverse Picophytoplankton Populations In The Columbia And Willamette Rivers Using Flow Cytometry, Kylee Brevick 2023 Portland State University

The Discovery Of Diverse Picophytoplankton Populations In The Columbia And Willamette Rivers Using Flow Cytometry, Kylee Brevick

Chemistry Undergraduate Departmental Honors Theses

As important primary producers, picophytoplankton determine the flow of carbon and energy in aquatic ecosystems. Picocyanobacteria are one picophytoplankton group known to be dominant in oceans and lakes, but they are still poorly understood in river systems. This project examined picophytoplankton communities in two distinct river systems: the Columbia and Willamette Rivers in Portland, Oregon. I aimed to characterize and quantify the picophytoplankton populations in the context of the environmental conditions of the two rivers. I used flow cytometry to detect cells based on their relative size and pigment fluorescence. I sampled nearly weekly for ten months to capture population …


Quantifying The Role Of Water Quality On Nitrogen Cycling In A Trophic Estuary, Kayla Gonzalez-Boy 2023 Kennesaw State University

Quantifying The Role Of Water Quality On Nitrogen Cycling In A Trophic Estuary, Kayla Gonzalez-Boy

Symposium of Student Scholars

Jobos Bay Estuary is an intertidal, tropical estuary located in southern Puerto Rico. The estuary covers about 12 km2 and has a variety of habitats, such as seagrass beds, mangroves, mud flats, and coral reefs, which play important roles in sediment trapping and water quality maintenance. Seagrasses also serve as nursery and feeding grounds and provide shelter for macrofauna. Currently, the role of seagrasses and water quality on nitrogen (N) cycling in trophic estuaries is not well constrained. Understanding variations in sediment-based effects on N cycling rates and transformations, and how they are associated with water quality, is an …


Sources And Controls Of Carbon Dioxide In Inland Waters At Watershed, Regional, And Continental Scales, Brian Saccardi 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Sources And Controls Of Carbon Dioxide In Inland Waters At Watershed, Regional, And Continental Scales, Brian Saccardi

Doctoral Dissertations

Inland waters are significant sources of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, and estimates of emissions are similar in magnitude to those of the carbon dioxide sequestered by the net terrestrial sink. Currently, methods of estimating carbon dioxide emissions are based on statistical approaches and often do not consider landscape attributes such as human development, agriculture, or the hydrologic connectivity of the stream network. The following research addresses these issues in chapter 1 by developing and validating a reactive transport model at the watershed scale, then in chapter 2 by applying the reactive transport model at the continental scale across US …


Volcanic Diffuse Volatile Emissions Tracked By Plant Responses Detectable From Space, Robert R. Bogue, Peter M. J. Douglas, Joshua B. Fisher, John Stix 2023 McGill University

Volcanic Diffuse Volatile Emissions Tracked By Plant Responses Detectable From Space, Robert R. Bogue, Peter M. J. Douglas, Joshua B. Fisher, John Stix

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Volcanic volatile emissions provide information about volcanic unrest but are difficult to detect with satellites. Volcanic degassing affects plants by elevating local CO2 and H2O concentrations, which may increase photosynthesis. Satellites can detect plant health, or a reaction to photosynthesis, through a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This can act as a potential proxy for detecting changes in volcanic volatile emissions from space. We tested this method by analyzing 185 Landsat 5 and 8 images of the Tern Lake thermal area (TLTA) in northeast Yellowstone caldera from 1984 to 2022. We compared the NDVI values of the thermal area with …


Reply To: Beyond Microbial Carbon Use Efficiency, Feng Tao, Johannes Lehmann, Ying-Ping Wang, Lifen Jiang, Bernhard Ahrens, Kostiantyn Viatkin, Stefano Manzoni, Benjamin Z. Houlton, Yuanyuan Huang, Bruce A. Hungate, Serita D. Frey, Michael W. I. Schmidt, Markus Reichstein, Nuno Carvalhais, Philippe Ciais, Umakant Mishra, Gustaf Hugelius, Toby D. Hocking, Xingjie Lu, Zheng Shi, Ronald Vargas, Yusuf Yigini, Christian Omuto, Ashish A. Malik, Guillermo Peralta, Rosa Cuevas-Corona, Luciano E. Di Paolo, Isabel Luotto, Cuijuan Liao, Yi-Shuang Liang, Vinisa S. Saynes, Xiaomeng Huang 2023 Cornell University

Reply To: Beyond Microbial Carbon Use Efficiency, Feng Tao, Johannes Lehmann, Ying-Ping Wang, Lifen Jiang, Bernhard Ahrens, Kostiantyn Viatkin, Stefano Manzoni, Benjamin Z. Houlton, Yuanyuan Huang, Bruce A. Hungate, Serita D. Frey, Michael W. I. Schmidt, Markus Reichstein, Nuno Carvalhais, Philippe Ciais, Umakant Mishra, Gustaf Hugelius, Toby D. Hocking, Xingjie Lu, Zheng Shi, Ronald Vargas, Yusuf Yigini, Christian Omuto, Ashish A. Malik, Guillermo Peralta, Rosa Cuevas-Corona, Luciano E. Di Paolo, Isabel Luotto, Cuijuan Liao, Yi-Shuang Liang, Vinisa S. Saynes, Xiaomeng Huang

Faculty Publications

In their commentary, Xiao et al. cautioned that the conclusions on the critical role of microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE) in global soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in a paper by Tao et al. (2023) might be too simplistic. They claimed that Tao et al.’s study lacked mechanistic consideration of SOC formation and excluded important datasets. Xiao et al. brought up important points, which can be largely reconciled with our findings by understanding the differences in expressing processes in empirical studies and in models.


Short-Term Versus Long-Term Effects Of Nitrogen Addition And Warming On Ecosystem N Dynamics In A Grass-Dominated Temperate Old Field, Benjamin F. A. Souriol 2023 Western University

Short-Term Versus Long-Term Effects Of Nitrogen Addition And Warming On Ecosystem N Dynamics In A Grass-Dominated Temperate Old Field, Benjamin F. A. Souriol

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and climate warming are both anticipated to influence the ecosystem N dynamics of northern temperate ecosystems substantially over the next century. Nevertheless, in field experiments with N addition and warming treatments, temporal scale can play an important role in determining the extent of treatment effects on N dynamics, and it is unclear to what extent the results of short-term studies can be extrapolated to responses over longer time scales. I compared the short-term versus long-term effects of N addition and warming on net N mineralization, N leaching, and N retention in a grass-dominated old field. …


A New View Of Chlorophyll Dynamics In The Southern Mid-Atlantic Bight From A Two-Year High-Resolution Spray Glider Survey, Francesco Lane 2023 Old Dominion University

A New View Of Chlorophyll Dynamics In The Southern Mid-Atlantic Bight From A Two-Year High-Resolution Spray Glider Survey, Francesco Lane

OES Theses and Dissertations

The southern Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) near Cape Hatteras, NC, USA, is likely a hotspot for the episodic export of carbon-rich shelf waters to the open ocean. Over a 2 year period, from March 2017 to May 2019, Spray gliders repeatedly occupied transects, along the slope and across the shelf, generating high-resolution chlorophyll fluorescence (fChl) data in the southern MAB. This study implements an fChl calibration method utilizing remotely sensing ocean color as a standard. We validate the method’s utility by demonstrating a reduction in post-calibration cross-mission fChl variability and demonstrating close correspondence between the calibrated fChl data and an in …


Thermal And Fluid Evolution Of The Clearwater West Impact-Generated Hydrothermal System, Quebec, And Associated Astrobiological Implications, Daliah R. Bibas 2023 Western University

Thermal And Fluid Evolution Of The Clearwater West Impact-Generated Hydrothermal System, Quebec, And Associated Astrobiological Implications, Daliah R. Bibas

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Impact-generated hydrothermal systems result from interactions between a permeable substrate, an impact-generated heat source, and fluids (e.g., H2O). A comprehensive understanding of the evolution of these terrestrial features has significant implications in the search for habitable environments on Mars, a focus in the emerging field of astrobiology. This thesis presents a detailed case study of the impact-generated hydrothermal alteration of impactites at the Clearwater West impact structure, Quebec, focusing on hydrothermally precipitated quartz vugs in crater-fill impact melt rocks. Sample analysis included optical microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, mass spectrometry, and fluid inclusion microthermometry. Results show 3 main quartz …


Approaches To Assessing Nutrient Coupling In Open Ocean Datasets, James M. Moore, Claire P. Till 2023 Humboldt State University

Approaches To Assessing Nutrient Coupling In Open Ocean Datasets, James M. Moore, Claire P. Till

IdeaFest: Interdisciplinary Journal of Creative Works and Research from Cal Poly Humboldt

Nutrient coupling describes a process where the biogeochemical cycles of two elements are linked by being incorporated similarly into biomass. This paper uses data from the GEOTRACES GP16 cruise (Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect) to investigate the relationship between certain macronutrients generally coupled to trace elements in terms of their oceanic distributions with the notable exception of in an oxygen minimum zone: cadmium-phosphate and zinc-silicate. There are many methods applied to oceanographic data to correlate analyte concentrations; while they are often presented independently in literature, here we attempt to use them in conjunction for a more thorough interpretation. By compiling 1) …


What Is Microbial Dormancy, Mark D. McDonald, Carlos Owusu-Ansah, Jared B. Ellenbogen, Zachary D. Malone, Michael P. Ricketts, Steve E. Frolking, Jessica G. Ernakovich, Michael Ibba, Sarah C. Bagby, J. L. Weissman 2023 Argonne National Laboratory

What Is Microbial Dormancy, Mark D. Mcdonald, Carlos Owusu-Ansah, Jared B. Ellenbogen, Zachary D. Malone, Michael P. Ricketts, Steve E. Frolking, Jessica G. Ernakovich, Michael Ibba, Sarah C. Bagby, J. L. Weissman

Faculty Publications

Life can be stressful. One way to deal with stress is to simply wait it out. Microbes do this by entering a state of reduced activity and increased resistance commonly called ‘dormancy’. But what is dormancy? Different scientific disciplines emphasize distinct traits and phenotypic ranges in defining dormancy for their microbial species and system-specific questions of interest. Here, we propose a unified definition of microbial dormancy, using a broad framework to place earlier discipline-specific definitions in a new context. We then discuss how this new definition and framework may improve our ability to investigate dormancy using multi-omics tools. Finally, we …


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