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High-Dimensional Isotope Relationships, Yuyang He 2018 Louisiana State University

High-Dimensional Isotope Relationships, Yuyang He

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

High-dimensional isotope relationships describes the relationships of two or more element or position-specific (PS) elements in the same molecule or ion. It provides us more powerful tools to study reaction mechanisms and dynamics. Chapter 1 is about dual or multiple stable isotope relationship on δ-δ (or δ'-δ') space. While temporal data sampled from a closed-system can be treated by a Rayleigh Distillation Model (RDM), spatial data should be treated by a Reaction-Transport Model (RTM). Here we compare the results of a closed-system RDM to a RTM for systems with diffusional mass transfer by simulating the trajectories on nitrate's ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Assessing The Reliability Of The Benthic Mg/Ca–Temperature Proxy: A Uvigerina Core-Top Study From New Zealand, Cassandre R. Stirpe 2018 University of Maine

Assessing The Reliability Of The Benthic Mg/Ca–Temperature Proxy: A Uvigerina Core-Top Study From New Zealand, Cassandre R. Stirpe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sediment cores from New Zealand’s Bay of Plenty and the Chatham Rise in the Southwest Pacific were sampled to establish a regional Mg/Ca–temperature calibration for the benthic foraminifer Uvigerina peregrina. Comparison of foraminiferal Mg/Ca from core-top sediments to local bottom water temperatures reveals a Mg/Ca–temperature relationship broadly consistent with previously published calibrations. In addition to bottom water temperatures, other environmental parameters are examined for possible influence on the Mg/Ca of foraminiferal calcite. Elderfield et al. (2006) proposed that such parameters may exert an influence at colder temperatures, particularly below temperatures of ~3oC (e ...


Applications Of Reservoir Limnology Theory And Steady-State Modeling To Eutrophication Management In Beaver Lake, Arkansas, Matthew Rich 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Applications Of Reservoir Limnology Theory And Steady-State Modeling To Eutrophication Management In Beaver Lake, Arkansas, Matthew Rich

Theses and Dissertations

Reservoir limnology theory predicts that phytoplankton biomass (PB) is greatest in riverine-transition zones and least in lacustrine zones leading to an inverse pattern in water clarity. These theoretical patterns were utilized to create a statistical model of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), an indicator of PB, and Secchi transparency (ST), an indicator of Chl-a, in Beaver Lake, Arkansas, a 12,800-ha reservoir, in order to hindcast historical conditions. Sampling for Chl-a, ST, and photic depth occurred semimonthly at 12 locations along a 78-km transect from the river inflow to the dam during the 2015 growing season. The ratio of Chl-a and ST measured ...


Detrital Protein Contributes To Oyster Nutrition And Growth In The Damariscotta Estuary, Maine, Usa, Cheyenne M. Adams 2018 University of Maine School of Marine Science, Darling Marine Center

Detrital Protein Contributes To Oyster Nutrition And Growth In The Damariscotta Estuary, Maine, Usa, Cheyenne M. Adams

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Oyster aquaculture is an expanding industry that relies on identifying and utilizing natural estuarine conditions for the economically viable production of a filter-feeding crop. The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, is the principal species currently cultured in Maine. In addition to preferentially consumed phytoplankton, various detrital complexes (non-algal and/or non-living organic matter) may provide some nutrition to C. virginica between times of phytoplankton abundance. Here I investigated the importance of detrital proteins in supporting the growth of oysters cultured in the upper Damariscotta Estuary. Oyster aquaculture in this area is highly successful and previous reports indicate that labile detrital protein ...


Recent Climate Warming Drives Ecological Change In A Remote High-Arctic Lake, Lineke Woelders, Jan Lenaerts, Kimberley Hagemans, Keechy Akkerman, Thomas B. van Hoof, Wim Z. Hoek 2018 INSTAAR, University of Colorado Boulder

Recent Climate Warming Drives Ecological Change In A Remote High-Arctic Lake, Lineke Woelders, Jan Lenaerts, Kimberley Hagemans, Keechy Akkerman, Thomas B. Van Hoof, Wim Z. Hoek

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

The high Arctic is the fastest warming region on Earth, evidenced by extreme near-surface temperature increase in non-summer seasons, recent rapid sea ice decline and permafrost melting since the early 1990’s. Understanding the impact of climate change on the sensitive Arctic ecosystem to climate change has so far been hampered by the lack of time-constrained, high-resolution records and by implicit climate data analyses. Here, we show evidence of sharp growth in freshwater green algae as well as distinct diatom assemblage changes since ~1995, retrieved from a high-Arctic (80 °N) lake sediment record on Barentsøya (Svalbard). The proxy record approaches ...


An Assessment Of Atmospheric And Meteorological Factors Regulating Red Sea Phytoplankton Growth, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, Mohamed A. Qurban, Emmanouil Proestakis, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova, Vassilis Amiridis, Antonis Gkikas, Eleni Marinou, Thomas Piechota, K. P. Manikandan 2018 Chapman University

An Assessment Of Atmospheric And Meteorological Factors Regulating Red Sea Phytoplankton Growth, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, Mohamed A. Qurban, Emmanouil Proestakis, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova, Vassilis Amiridis, Antonis Gkikas, Eleni Marinou, Thomas Piechota, K. P. Manikandan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study considers the various factors that regulate nutrients supply in the Red Sea. Multi-sensor observation and reanalysis datasets are used to examine the relationships among dust deposition, sea surface temperature (SST), and wind speed, as they may contribute to anomalous phytoplankton blooms, through time-series and correlation analyses. A positive correlation was found at 0–3 months lag between chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) anomalies and dust anomalies over the Red Sea regions. Dust deposition process was further examined with dust aerosols’ vertical distribution using satellite lidar data. Conversely, a negative correlation was found at 0–3 months lag between SST ...


Investigation Of Omnivorous Trophic Position In The Drilling Gastropod, Urosalpinx Cinerea, Using Stable Isotope Analysis, Molly E. Karnes, Michelle M. Casey 2018 Murray State University

Investigation Of Omnivorous Trophic Position In The Drilling Gastropod, Urosalpinx Cinerea, Using Stable Isotope Analysis, Molly E. Karnes, Michelle M. Casey

Scholars Week

Drill-holes found in the fossil record are an important tool to study ecological patterns of the past. It is therefore important to gain a better understanding of the role of extant drilling snails in modern ecosystems. Although traditionally considered a predator, trophic position of 3.0, specimens of the muricid Urosalpinx cinerea from Long Island Sound revealed trophic positions between 2.3 and 2.5, suggestive of an omnivorous diet. This study addresses the generality of this result by examining a U. cinerea population from Wilmington, North Carolina. Preliminary whole body, soft tissue stable isotope analysis of nitrogen and carbon ...


Assessing Phytoplankton Nutritional Status And Potential Impact Of Wet Deposition In Seasonally Oligotrophic Waters Of The Mid-Atlantic Bight, P. N. Sedwick, P. W. Bernhardt, M. R. Mulholland, R. G. Najjar, L. M. Blumen, B. M. Sohst, C. Sookhdeo, B. Widner 2018 Old Dominion University

Assessing Phytoplankton Nutritional Status And Potential Impact Of Wet Deposition In Seasonally Oligotrophic Waters Of The Mid-Atlantic Bight, P. N. Sedwick, P. W. Bernhardt, M. R. Mulholland, R. G. Najjar, L. M. Blumen, B. M. Sohst, C. Sookhdeo, B. Widner

OEAS Faculty Publications

To assess phytoplankton nutritional status in seasonally oligotrophic waters of the southern Mid-Atlantic Bight, and the potential for rain to stimulate primary production in this region during summer, shipboard bioassay experiments were performed using natural seawater and phytoplankton collected north and south of the Gulf Stream. Bioassay treatments comprised iron, nitrate, iron + nitrate, iron + nitrate + phosphate, and rainwater. Phytoplankton growth was inferred from changes in chlorophyll a, inorganic nitrogen, and carbon-13 uptake, relative to unamended control treatments. Results indicated the greatest growth stimulation by iron + nitrate + phosphate, intermediate growth stimulation by rainwater, modest growth stimulation by nitrate and iron + nitrate ...


Oxic Fe(Iii) Reduction Could Have Generated Fe(Ii) In The Photic Zone Of Precambrian Seawater, Elizabeth D. Swanner, Markus Maisch, Wenfang Wu, Andreas Kappler 2018 Iowa State University

Oxic Fe(Iii) Reduction Could Have Generated Fe(Ii) In The Photic Zone Of Precambrian Seawater, Elizabeth D. Swanner, Markus Maisch, Wenfang Wu, Andreas Kappler

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Many marine Precambrian iron formations (IF) record deep anoxic seawater enriched in Fe(II) (i.e. ferruginous) overlain by mildly oxygenated surface water. This is reflected by iron-rich sediments forming in deep basins, and relatively iron-poor sediments forming in shallow, sunlit waters. Such an iron gradient is often interpreted as a redox interface where dissolved Fe(II) was oxidized and precipitated as Fe(III)-bearing minerals. As such, sedimentary iron enrichments are proxy to the progressive oxidation of the oceans through geological time. However, this interpretation is founded on the assumption that Fe(II) could not persist within an oxygenated ...


Carbon Budget Of Tidal Wetlands, Estuaries, And Shelf Waters Of Eastern North America, R. G. Najjar, M. Herrmann, R. Alexander, D. J. Burdige, D. Butman, W.-J. Cai, E. A. Canuel, R. F. Chen, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. R. Mulholland 2018 Old Dominion University

Carbon Budget Of Tidal Wetlands, Estuaries, And Shelf Waters Of Eastern North America, R. G. Najjar, M. Herrmann, R. Alexander, D. J. Burdige, D. Butman, W.-J. Cai, E. A. Canuel, R. F. Chen, M. A. M. Friedrichs, M. R. Mulholland

OEAS Faculty Publications

Carbon cycling in the coastal zone affects global carbon budgets and is critical for understanding the urgent issues of hypoxia, acidification, and tidal wetland loss. However, there are no regional carbon budgets spanning the three main ecosystems in coastal waters: tidal wetlands, estuaries, and shelf waters. Here we construct such a budget for eastern North America using historical data, empirical models, remote sensing algorithms, and process‐based models. Considering the net fluxes of total carbon at the domain boundaries, 59 ± 12% (± 2 standard errors) of the carbon entering is from rivers and 41 ± 12% is from the atmosphere, while 80 ...


Nutrient Contamination From An Agricultural Non-Point Source And Its Mitigation: A Case Study Of Eku Meadowbrook Farm, Madison County, Kentucky, Walter S. Borowski, Reid E. Buskirk, James Scott Winter, Jonathan Malzone Dr. 2018 Eastern Kentucky University

Nutrient Contamination From An Agricultural Non-Point Source And Its Mitigation: A Case Study Of Eku Meadowbrook Farm, Madison County, Kentucky, Walter S. Borowski, Reid E. Buskirk, James Scott Winter, Jonathan Malzone Dr.

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Non-point sources are now responsible for most nutrient contamination in surface water and groundwater, leading to eutrophication and decreased water quality. Because of fertilizer use and animal husbandry, agricultural areas are prime sources for nutrient contamination. Consequently, it is advisable to mitigate entry of nutrients into watersheds from agricultural runoff and groundwater flow. Eastern Kentucky University (EKU) Meadowbrook Farm (Madison County, Kentucky) seeks to decrease its export of nutrients to Muddy Creek, which is tributary of the Kentucky River. To demonstrate the efficacy of any sequestration strategies, nutrient export must be measured both before and after sequestration efforts are implemented ...


First Assessment On The Air Co2 Dynamic In The Show Caves Of Tropical Karst, Vietnam, Duc A. Trinh, Quan H. Trinh, Angel Fernández-Cortés, David Mattey, Javier G. Guinea 2018 Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute

First Assessment On The Air Co2 Dynamic In The Show Caves Of Tropical Karst, Vietnam, Duc A. Trinh, Quan H. Trinh, Angel Fernández-Cortés, David Mattey, Javier G. Guinea

International Journal of Speleology

In this study, air, water, and host rock in show caves in a Vietnam’s karst region was monitored and analyzed to identify the ventilation regime and track the cave air CO2 sources. In general, the studied caves are well ventilated. In dynamic – multiple entrance caves, air ventilation is described with the use of U shape model. In static – single entrance cave, air circulation is explained by cold air trap model. Both ventilation models suggest that air is more circulated in winter than in summer. Seasonally, the cave air CO2 increases from early spring to summer. Value in ...


Nitrate Removal In Both Traditional And Saturated Riparian Buffers, Tyler Groh 2018 Iowa State University

Nitrate Removal In Both Traditional And Saturated Riparian Buffers, Tyler Groh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nitrate leaching from Midwestern agricultural fields is an important environmental issue, as this nitrate can enter streams and cause local drinking water issues as well as increase the size of the annual benthic hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico. Tile drainage has been linked to the majority of the nitrate loading to the Gulf of Mexico. There are many edge-of-field practices that can help reduce the amount of nitrate exported from a field. This dissertation primarily focuses on riparian buffers as an edge-of-field practice to remove nitrate, both from tile water with saturated riparian buffers (SRBs) and from groundwater ...


A Stable Isotopic Study Of Gnamma Hydrology In The Colorado Rocky Mountains, Johanne Albrigtsen 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

A Stable Isotopic Study Of Gnamma Hydrology In The Colorado Rocky Mountains, Johanne Albrigtsen

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Gnammas are potholes in solid bedrock that periodically fill with rainwater to form ephemeral pools. In order to understand the ecological and evolutionary processes at play in these dynamic ecosystems, the spatial and temporal controls on gnamma hydrology must be constrained. Previous studies on the relationships between hydro-regime and biota in gnamma environments posit evaporation as the sole process of water loss. I evaluated this assumption about gnamma water balance via stable isotope analysis of gnamma waters in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. My study aimed to constrain the processes of water loss in gnammas; that is, whether gnammas lose water ...


Understanding Abiotic And Biotic Mechanisms Associated With The Formation Of Iron-Silicates Like Low Fe(Iii) Greenalite In Banded Iron Formations, Isaac L. Hinz 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder

Understanding Abiotic And Biotic Mechanisms Associated With The Formation Of Iron-Silicates Like Low Fe(Iii) Greenalite In Banded Iron Formations, Isaac L. Hinz

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ancient ocean conditions and the mechanism(s) associated with the formation of the primary minerals of Banded Iron Formations (BIFs) have been debated overtime. Recent studies on BIFs have revealed trapped well-preserved nanoparticles of iron-silicates like Greenalite in chert nodules in BIFs (Rasmussen et al, 2015, 2016, 2017). This led to research into the chemical and biological conditions needed to produce an iron-silicate like Greenalite to help constrain ancient ocean conditions 2.5 Ga associated with the formation of BIFs. Initial experiments showed that forming abundant iron(II)-silicates similar to Greenalite required 1 mmol Fe2+ and 2 ...


Characterizing Cdom Spectral Variability From Seas To Space, Brice Grunert 2018 Michigan Technological University

Characterizing Cdom Spectral Variability From Seas To Space, Brice Grunert

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption varies significantly across the global oceans, presumably due to differences in source and degradation pathways. Tracking this variability on a global, or even regional, scale requires broad temporal and spatial sampling at high frequency. Satellite remote sensing provides this platform; however, current and near future sensors are/will be limited to measurements within the UV and visible wavelengths (> 350 nm) while most optical proxies estimating CDOM composition, and relevant for understanding largescale biogeochemical processes, use wavelengths less than 350 nm. This dissertation examines global variability in CDOM spectral variability utilizing a variety of optical ...


Composition Of Dissolved Organic Matter In Pore Waters Of Anoxic Marine Sediments Analyzed By 1h Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Christina A. Fox, Hussain A. Abdulla, David J. Burdige, James P. Lewicki, Tomoko Komada 2018 Old Dominion University

Composition Of Dissolved Organic Matter In Pore Waters Of Anoxic Marine Sediments Analyzed By 1h Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Christina A. Fox, Hussain A. Abdulla, David J. Burdige, James P. Lewicki, Tomoko Komada

OEAS Faculty Publications

Marine sediments are globally significant sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the oceans, but the biogeochemical role of pore-water DOM in the benthic and marine carbon cycles remains unclear due to a lack of understanding about the molecular composition of DOM. To help fill this knowledge gap, we used 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to examine depth variability in the composition of pore-water DOM in anoxic sediments of Santa Barbara Basin, California Borderland. Proton detected spectra were acquired on whole samples without pre-concentration to avoid preclusion of any DOM components from the analytical window. Broad unresolved resonance (operationally ...


Aquatic Carbon Cycling From The Headwaters To The Sea In Eastern Australia, Arún Looman 2018 Southern Cross University

Aquatic Carbon Cycling From The Headwaters To The Sea In Eastern Australia, Arún Looman

Theses

Inland aquatic systems are important components of the global carbon (C) budget. However, the drivers of spatiotemporal variability in C fluxes occurring within and between inland aquatic systems are not well understood. This research aims to improve understanding of the factors influencing C cycling across aquatic gradients from the headwaters to estuaries. Variability was characterised at intra-ecosystem spatial and over diel-to-seasonal temporal scales, as well as during both the active (baseflow) and passive (stormflow) phases of the hydrologic cycle. This study also exemplifies the importance of considering land use characteristics when assessing the carbon dynamics of estuaries.


Evaluating Potential For Water Quality Decline In Maine Lakes, Kaci N. Fitzgibbon 2017 University of Maine

Evaluating Potential For Water Quality Decline In Maine Lakes, Kaci N. Fitzgibbon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding lake vulnerability with respect to eutrophication and loss of water quality is important for sustainability of aquatic ecosystems. This project aims at identifying and quantifying the effects of relevant physiochemical, climate, and watershed characteristics on lake vulnerability in order to develop management decision tools for the Maine Department of Environmental Protection (MEDEP). In a changing chemical and physical environment, using independent variables from each of these categories and then relating them to the summer lake epilimnetic phosphorus (P) concentrations allows for development of models to inform stakeholders of lake vulnerability to eutrophication problems.

We studied 24 lakes covering a ...


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