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Prevention And Preparedness Of The Messina-Reggio Calabria Strait: An Earthquake Forecasting And Didactic Project, Francesco Di Stefano, Gioacchino Giampaolo Giuliani, Dimitar Ouzounov, Daniele Cataldi, Cristiano Fidani, Angelo D'Errico, Giulia Fioravanti 2021 Foundation “G. Giuliani ONLUS”

Prevention And Preparedness Of The Messina-Reggio Calabria Strait: An Earthquake Forecasting And Didactic Project, Francesco Di Stefano, Gioacchino Giampaolo Giuliani, Dimitar Ouzounov, Daniele Cataldi, Cristiano Fidani, Angelo D'Errico, Giulia Fioravanti

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This contribution is addressed to an introductive university course on the correlation existing between radon emission and earthquakes processes held following a flipped-class approach where students receive didactic materials prior to face-to-face lessons. This research was initially started to investigate the real correlation between Radon emission from the Earth and the occurrence of strong earthquakes by using measurements of hourly Radon flow variation. During quiet seismogenic conditions, we observe an unvarying level of Radon emission in the air. Before a strong earthquake, substantial variations of Radon (222Rn) concentration have been observed in the air, probably because of the increase ...


Geochronological Implications Of 210Pb And 137Cs Mobility In Cave Guano Deposits, Donald A. McFarlane, Joyce Lundberg 2021 The Claremont Colleges, California, USA

Geochronological Implications Of 210Pb And 137Cs Mobility In Cave Guano Deposits, Donald A. Mcfarlane, Joyce Lundberg

International Journal of Speleology

Some recent publications on the paleo- and historical environmental interpretation of bat guano sequences have relied on 210Pb and 137Cs distribution to establish age-depth models, even when these are at odds with radiocarbon models in the lower parts of the sequence. Here, we present both field and laboratory evidence for the unpredictable mobility of lead and cesium in decomposing bat guano deposits. We suggest that 210Pb- and 137Cs-based chronologies of bat guano deposits should only be used when independently supported, for example, by a robust radiocarbon age-depth model.


Palynology And Paleoclimatology Of The Chicxulub Impact Crater In The Early Paleogene, Vann Smith 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Palynology And Paleoclimatology Of The Chicxulub Impact Crater In The Early Paleogene, Vann Smith

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

At the end of the Cretaceous Period, a large bolide impacted the Earth and formed the Chicxulub impact crater in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. In 2016, International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 364 Site M0077 drilled into the buried peak ring of the crater, recovering a marine Paleocene to early Eocene post-impact section deposited on top of the impact breccia. Palynological analysis of 195 samples from the post-impact section has yielded the first pre-Holocene vegetational record from inside the Chicxulub impact crater and the first palynological record of the recovery of life following the end-Cretaceous mass extinction from inside the ...


The Variability Of Seawater Carbonate Chemistry In Two Florida Urban Mangrove Ecosystems, Alexandrina R. Rangel 2021 Florida Department of Environmental Protection

The Variability Of Seawater Carbonate Chemistry In Two Florida Urban Mangrove Ecosystems, Alexandrina R. Rangel

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere are yielding serious impacts across the world’s ocean, including ocean acidification, sea level rise, and increasing seawater temperature. However, these changes are not occurring uniformly across all marine ecosystems. Coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, already experience extreme and variable environmental conditions due to natural biogeochemical and physical processes. The goal of this study was to document small-scale variability in two urban mangrove ecosystems to gain insight into how ocean acidification will manifest within these systems. Using a stand-up paddleboard, a suite of sensors, and traditional bottle sampling techniques, we measured ...


Isotopic Analysis And Mobility Mapping Of Mammuthus Columbi From The Mammoth Site In South Dakota, Matthew Harrington 2021 East Tennessee State University

Isotopic Analysis And Mobility Mapping Of Mammuthus Columbi From The Mammoth Site In South Dakota, Matthew Harrington

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Mammoth Site in Hot Springs, South Dakota preserves a unique death assemblage of sub-adult and adult male Columbian mammoths (Mammuthus columbi). Extensive work on the site has led to a detailed understanding of the taphonomy of the assemblage; yet the life histories and ecology of these mammoths remain relatively unknown. Tooth enamel from four Mammoth Site mammoth individuals were bulk sampled with one of the individuals (MSL 742) also serially micro-sampled for 𝛿13C, 𝛿18O, and 87Sr/86Sr. Isotopic results indicate that MSL 742 remained within the southern and western Black Hills year-round with ...


Investigation Of Shocked Basalts From Vargeão Dome And Vista Alegre: Implications For The Search For Life On Mars, Nikol Posnov 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Investigation Of Shocked Basalts From Vargeão Dome And Vista Alegre: Implications For The Search For Life On Mars, Nikol Posnov

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Impact craters represent excellent astrobiological targets for planetary exploration missions to Mars. The impact of an asteroid or comet into a crystalline, H2O-bearing target may result in development of a hydrothermal system and increase the habitability of the substrate for the colonization of endolithic microorganisms. Given that Mars’ surface is covered by cratered basaltic rock, this study investigated target rocks and impact breccias from Vargeão Dome and Vista Alegre impact structures that formed in basalt in the Paraná Basin of Brazil.

Utilizing petrography and micro-X-ray diffraction (μXRD), the degree of shock metamorphism in plagioclase was quantitively determined. Measuring ...


An Integrative Model For Soil Biogeochemistry And Methane Processes: I. Model Structure And Sensitivity Analysis, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Xiaofeng Xu, Xiaoying Shi, Yihui Wang, Xia Song, Christopher W. Schadt, Natalie A. Griffiths, Jiafu Mao, Jeffrey M. Warren, Peter E. Thornton, Jeff Chanton, Jason K. Keller, Scott D. Bridgham, Jessica Gutknecht, Stephen D. Sebestyen, Adrien Finzi, Randall Kolka, Paul J. Hanson 2021 Oak Ridge National Laboratory

An Integrative Model For Soil Biogeochemistry And Methane Processes: I. Model Structure And Sensitivity Analysis, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Xiaofeng Xu, Xiaoying Shi, Yihui Wang, Xia Song, Christopher W. Schadt, Natalie A. Griffiths, Jiafu Mao, Jeffrey M. Warren, Peter E. Thornton, Jeff Chanton, Jason K. Keller, Scott D. Bridgham, Jessica Gutknecht, Stephen D. Sebestyen, Adrien Finzi, Randall Kolka, Paul J. Hanson

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Environmental changes are anticipated to generate substantial impacts on carbon cycling in peatlands, affecting terrestrial-climate feedbacks. Understanding how peatland methane (CH4) fluxes respond to these changing environments is critical for predicting the magnitude of feedbacks from peatlands to global climate change. To improve predictions of CH4 fluxes in response to changes such as elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and warming, it is essential for Earth system models to include increased realism to simulate CH4 processes in a more mechanistic way. To address this need, we incorporated a new microbial-functional group-based CH4 module into the Energy Exascale ...


Molecular Markers Of Biogenic And Oil-Derived Hydrocarbons In Deep-Sea Sediments Following The Deepwater Horizon Spill, Isabel C. Romero, Jeffrey P. Chanton, Gregg Brooks, Samantha Bosman, Rebekka A. Larson, Austin Harris, Patrick Schwing, Arne Diercks 2021 University of South Florida St. Petersburg

Molecular Markers Of Biogenic And Oil-Derived Hydrocarbons In Deep-Sea Sediments Following The Deepwater Horizon Spill, Isabel C. Romero, Jeffrey P. Chanton, Gregg Brooks, Samantha Bosman, Rebekka A. Larson, Austin Harris, Patrick Schwing, Arne Diercks

Faculty Publications

Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWHOS), the formation of an unexpected and extended sedimentation event of oil-associated marine snow (MOSSFA: Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation) demonstrated the importance of biology on the fate of contaminants in the oceans. We used a wide range of compound-specific data (aliphatics, hopanes, steranes, triaromatic steroids, polycyclic aromatics) to chemically characterize the MOSSFA event containing abundant and multiple hydrocarbon sources (e.g., oil residues and phytoplankton). Sediment samples were collected in 2010–2011 (ERMA-NRDA programs: Environmental Response Management Application – Natural Resource Damage Assessment) and 2018 (REDIRECT project: Resuspension, Redistribution and Deposition of ...


Carbonate Paleothermometry In Fayetteville Green Lake, New York, Micah Wiesner 2021 Syracuse University

Carbonate Paleothermometry In Fayetteville Green Lake, New York, Micah Wiesner

Theses - ALL

Lacustrine carbonates are important paleoclimate archives, but unknowns in the seasonal timing and depth of precipitation obscure the interpretation of temperatures associated with them. The clumped isotope paleothermometer records the formation temperature T(D47) of carbonates. This study examines a set of lacustrine carbonates formed in the water column, in addition to carbonate from a sediment core, to better understand the depth and seasonality of carbonate formation in a lacustrine setting. We test that, regardless of season and formation temperature, lacustrine carbonates form in isotopic equilibrium with respect to D47 and d18O fractionation. Further, we account for the effect of ...


Incorporating Life Into Living Shorelines: Can Gulf Ribbed Mussels Reduce Shoreline Erosion And Enhance Restoration Practices?, Jordan Logarbo 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Incorporating Life Into Living Shorelines: Can Gulf Ribbed Mussels Reduce Shoreline Erosion And Enhance Restoration Practices?, Jordan Logarbo

LSU Master's Theses

The gulf ribbed mussel (Geukensia granosissima) exists throughout the Gulf of Mexico and influences biotic and abiotic environmental attributes as an ecosystem engineer. Ribbed mussels are an important component of marsh ecosystems providing services including filtering particulate matter, depositing and transforming nutrients in the system, increasing soil strength via byssal threads and providing structure via their shells.

The spatial distribution of mussels along the marsh edge of Sister Lake, LA was investigated via a broad survey of 150 sites, in relation to elevation, exposure and vegetation percent cover. This survey was followed by a second survey at a subset of ...


Organic Matter Spatial And Temporal Patterns In Coastal Sands Of Long Bay, South Carolina, Kayla B. Christofferson 2021 Coastal Carolina University

Organic Matter Spatial And Temporal Patterns In Coastal Sands Of Long Bay, South Carolina, Kayla B. Christofferson

Honors Theses

Sandy coastlines serve crucial functions to coastal economies and coastal ecology alike. In the past, organic-poor sands were considered of lower importance than organic-rich muds. Recent studies showed that sands’ low organic matter concentrations are due to high biogeochemical cycling rates, driven by rapid physical exchange, but remain infrequently studied. I present time-series of sand mass-loss-on-ignition (LOI, an organic matter proxy) profiles from February 2017 onwards at multiple sites along Long Bay, South Carolina. LOI profiles exhibit subsurface maximum values, unlike the typical decrease with depth in muddy sediments. I hypothesize that organic matter distribution with depth is affected by ...


Isolated Point Discharges Into Coastal Swashes As Nutrient Sources To Coastal Waters, Mary E. Olsen 2021 Coastal Carolina University

Isolated Point Discharges Into Coastal Swashes As Nutrient Sources To Coastal Waters, Mary E. Olsen

Honors Theses

Coastal water quality in the Grand Strand of South Carolina is directly influenced by human activities. Nutrient-rich runoff, stemming from numerous anthropogenic sources, finds its way into coastal waters through freshwater inputs often through tidal creeks, termed swashes. In order to better describe the amount of nutrient inputs into Singleton Swash and White Point Swash, we examine anthropogenic runoff from isolated identifiable point discharges and their nutrient concentrations. We report concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, as the sum of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium) and phosphate in discharge and creek water. We hypothesize that nutrient concentrations of isolated, minor point ...


Microplankton Dynamics In The River-Dominated Mississippi Bight, Adam D. Boyette 2021 University of Southern Mississippi

Microplankton Dynamics In The River-Dominated Mississippi Bight, Adam D. Boyette

Dissertations

The Mississippi Bight (MSB) is a river-dominated continental margin influenced by multiple large river systems, including the Mississippi River, Alabama and Tombigbee rivers via Mobile Bay, and numerous smaller rivers, creeks, and bayous. This is part of a biologically-rich ecosystem that supports the second largest fishery industry by volume in the United States. Despite our understanding of the linkages between primary production with higher trophic levels, there remains limited studies quantifying these trophic interactions in this system. Microplankton (µm) community dynamics and trophic connectivity between primary producers and heterotrophic protists represent a critical nexus influencing overall biological productivity in this ...


Three Centuries Of Vegetation Change In The William & Mary College Woods Reconstructed Using Phytoliths, Timothy Terlizzi 2021 William & Mary

Three Centuries Of Vegetation Change In The William & Mary College Woods Reconstructed Using Phytoliths, Timothy Terlizzi

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The College Woods, west of William & Mary’s campus, consists of ~900 acres of protected southern mixed hardwood forest. The woods surround Lake Matoaka, a former millpond established in ~1700. Despite the rich history of the area, little is known about how the dominant vegetative landcover has shifted over the last 300 years. This study set out to quantify the modern vegetation within the College Woods via the phytolith assemblages within the soil and identify shifts in the assemblages since the creation of Lake Matoaka and whether these changes are distinct from the vegetation that existed in the area before the lake. To accomplish this, I studied the composition and preservation of phytoliths – silica bodies generated within and between plant cells. The study focused on the two questions: do the modern phytolith assemblages in the soil of the College Woods reflect the vegetation present and can phytoliths within the sediments of Lake Matoaka be used to identify the dominant vegetative communities over the last ~300 years? I addressed these questions with three approaches: 1) Identify the primary phytolith producing taxa within the College Woods; 2) Identify the modern phytolith assemblages within the soil of the College Woods; 3) Identify the differences between phytolith assemblages from the lake sediment core samples. I found the following: 1) The production of phytoliths varies heavily between and within different common taxa of the College Woods, with species of oaks (Quercus spp.) unpredictably producing phytoliths and beeches (Fagus grandifolia) likely contributing the majority of dicot phytoliths; 2) The modern phytolith assemblages of the College Woods reflect a low phytolith producing environment, and the vegetative homogeneity is reflected in the phytolith record; 3) The ...


Effects Of The Triassic-Jurassic Central Atlantic Magmatic Event Recorded In Continental Strata In Western Pangea: The Δ13c Record Of Warner Valley & Zion National Park, Dennis Mmasa 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of The Triassic-Jurassic Central Atlantic Magmatic Event Recorded In Continental Strata In Western Pangea: The Δ13c Record Of Warner Valley & Zion National Park, Dennis Mmasa

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Triassic is a period of abrupt climate change bracketed by mass extinctions including one driven by the eruption of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Late Triassic. The Moenave Formation (MF) of Utah and Arizona is ideal to investigate effects of the CAMP on continental strata distal to the eruptive center. This study focuses on the C-isotopic composition of bulk carbonate C from two localities, Blacks Canyon, Zion National Park, UT and Olsen Canyon within Warner Valley, UT. The data collected was used to document a chemostratigraphic record to compare to globally established records and bulk organic ...


Microbially-Mediated Carbonate Dissolution And Precipitation; Towards A Protocol For Ex-Situ, Cave-Analogue Cultivation Experiments, Vanessa E. Johnston, Andrea Martín-Pérez, Sara Skok, Janez Mulec 2021 Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Slovenia

Microbially-Mediated Carbonate Dissolution And Precipitation; Towards A Protocol For Ex-Situ, Cave-Analogue Cultivation Experiments, Vanessa E. Johnston, Andrea Martín-Pérez, Sara Skok, Janez Mulec

International Journal of Speleology

Subterranean calcite dissolution and precipitation are often considered as strictly geochemical processes. The active involvement of microbes in these processes is commonly underestimated in the literature due to general oligotrophic conditions in caves, except in particular cave conditions, such as sulfidic caves and moonmilk deposits, where the presence of microbes likely plays a key role in mineral deposition. Here, we study the possible involvement of microbes from Postojna Cave, Slovenia, in carbonate dissolution (litholysis) and precipitation (lithogenesis). Microbes were sampled from small pools below hydrologically diverse drip sites and incubated on polished limestone tablets at 10 and 20°C for ...


Investigating Gallium Inclusion In Aluminum And Iron Oxyhydroxides, Corey A. Palmer 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Investigating Gallium Inclusion In Aluminum And Iron Oxyhydroxides, Corey A. Palmer

Masters Theses

Because Ga shares many physicochemical properties with Al and Fe, Ga may be able to incorporate into Al and Fe oxy-hydroxides. Understanding how Ga incorporates into these oxy-hydroxides may be crucial for finding Ga-rich bauxite deposits. In order to find the difference in Ga inclusion rates into oxy-hydroxides, as well as understand the mechanisms for this Ga inclusion, Al and Fe oxy-hydroxides were synthesized in the lab with Ga additions of 2 mol % Ga and 20 mol % Ga for a low-Ga and high-Ga treatment, respectively, along with a no added Ga control. X-Ray diffraction analyses confirmed the formation of bayerite ...


Seasonal Variability In Diazotroph Abundance And Gene Expression At A Coastal N2 Fixation Hotspot (Outer Banks, Nc), Katherine Crider, Corday Selden, Kimberly Powell, P. Dreux Chappell 2021 Old Dominion University

Seasonal Variability In Diazotroph Abundance And Gene Expression At A Coastal N2 Fixation Hotspot (Outer Banks, Nc), Katherine Crider, Corday Selden, Kimberly Powell, P. Dreux Chappell

College of Sciences Posters

Marine microbial dinitrogen (N2) fixation, the conversion of gaseous N2 to bioavailable species, is the primary source of new oceanic nitrogen (N). N is present in nucleic acids, amino acids, and proteins, and is essential to all life. Long considered to be a primarily oligotrophic ocean process, significant N2 fixation rates have recently been observed in coastal environments, including along the Cape Hatteras front. To see if elevated N2 fixation was a persistent feature in this region, N2 fixation rates and N2 fixer (diazotroph) abundance and gene expression were investigated through roughly monthly sampling ...


Alexandrium In The Arctic: Are Harmful Algae Spreading As The Arctic Warms?, Sveinn Einarsson, Kate Lowry, Robert Pickart, Karin Ashjian, P. Dreux Chappell 2021 Old Dominion University

Alexandrium In The Arctic: Are Harmful Algae Spreading As The Arctic Warms?, Sveinn Einarsson, Kate Lowry, Robert Pickart, Karin Ashjian, P. Dreux Chappell

College of Sciences Posters

Alexandrium tamerense is a well-studied dinoflagellate known for its ability to produce the neurotoxin that causes paralytic shellfish poisoning. Until 1970 Alexandrium tamerense was only found in Europe, North America, and Japan but has been increasingly found all over the globe. Alexandrium is characteristically found in temperate and subtropical regions and as the Arctic warms, there is considerable concern that it may be expanding into the Arctic. We found Alexandrium tamerense during a research expedition to the Alaskan Beaufort Sea shelf to study upwelling. Upwelling events are known to support seasonal blooms of phytoplankton, which are important primary producers at ...


A Foray Into Laboratory Scale Soil Incubations With Corn Stover And High Lignin Fermentation Byproduct, Michelle Wang 2021 Dartmouth College

A Foray Into Laboratory Scale Soil Incubations With Corn Stover And High Lignin Fermentation Byproduct, Michelle Wang

ENGS 88 Honors Thesis (AB Students)

As the production of biofuels increases to meet the demands of a growing low carbon economy, questions of sustainability surrounding its feedstock and waste streams have become increasingly relevant. In the biofuel production process, crop residues like corn stover are harvested from the field and converted to biofuels leaving generating a residue called high lignin fermentation byproduct (HLFB). From extensive process modelling in the literature, it is suggested that HLFB should be either combusted to fuel auxiliary conversion processes or returned to the soil in place of the crop residues that were harvested. Currently, there is little literature testing the ...


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