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Corn And Soybean Response To Wastewater-Recycled Phosphorus Fertilizers, Shane Ylagan 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Corn And Soybean Response To Wastewater-Recycled Phosphorus Fertilizers, Shane Ylagan

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ability to recycle phosphorus (P) from wastewaters could provide a sustainable, continuous source of P that might also help protect surface water quality from P enrichment. The mineral struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) is an understudied material that can be created from Pcontaining wastewater and has been shown to have agricultural fertilizer value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of electrochemically precipitated struvite (ECST), chemically precipitated struvite (Crystal Green; CG), diammonium phosphate (DAP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), rock phosphate (RP), and triple super phosphate (TSP) on corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) response in a 79-day greenhouse ...


A Synthesis Program: Reducing Uncertainties Of The Terrestrial Biosphere Carbon Cycle At Various Spatio Temporal Scales, Xinyuan Wei 2020 University of Maine

A Synthesis Program: Reducing Uncertainties Of The Terrestrial Biosphere Carbon Cycle At Various Spatio Temporal Scales, Xinyuan Wei

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The terrestrial biosphere plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, and disturbance fire and climate extreme drought have strong direct and indirect impacts on the carbon fluxes. In addition, the lateral dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux from soils to inland waters represents an important component of the terrestrial biosphere carbon cycle.

Fires play an important role in the terrestrial biosphere carbon cycle, not only through direct carbon release but also contributing to a potential long-term storage as pyrogenic carbon (PyC). PyC is formed through fires, and because it may resist further biological and chemical degradation, is more stable ...


Relative Impacts Of Global Changes And Regional Watershed Changes On The Inorganic Carbon Balance Of The Chesapeake Bay, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Raymond G. Najjar, Elizabeth Shadwick, Hanquin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Relative Impacts Of Global Changes And Regional Watershed Changes On The Inorganic Carbon Balance Of The Chesapeake Bay, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Raymond G. Najjar, Elizabeth Shadwick, Hanquin Tian, Yuanzhi Yao

VIMS Articles

The Chesapeake Bay is a large coastal-plain estuary that has experienced considerable anthropogenic changeover the past century. At the regional scale, land-use change has doubled the nutrient input from rivers and led to an increase in riverine carbon and alkalinity. The bay has also experienced global changes, including the rise of atmospheric temperature and CO2. Here we seek to understand the relative impact of these changes on the inorganic carbon balance of the bay between the early 1900s and the early 2000s. We use a linked land–estuarine–ocean modeling system that includes both inorganic and organic carbon and nitrogen ...


Iron-Mediated Organic Matter Decomposition In Humid Soils Can Counteract Protection, Chunmei Chen, Steven J. Hall, Elizabeth Coward, Aaron Thompson 2020 Tianjin University

Iron-Mediated Organic Matter Decomposition In Humid Soils Can Counteract Protection, Chunmei Chen, Steven J. Hall, Elizabeth Coward, Aaron Thompson

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Soil organic matter (SOM) is correlated with reactive iron (Fe) in humid soils, but Fe also promotes SOM decomposition when oxygen (O2) becomes limited. Here we quantify Fe-mediated OM protection vs. decomposition by adding 13C dissolved organic matter (DOM) and 57FeII to soil slurries incubated under static or fluctuating O2. We find Fe uniformly protects OM only under static oxic conditions, and only when Fe and DOM are added together: de novo reactive FeIII phases suppress DOM and SOM mineralization by 35 and 47%, respectively. Conversely, adding 57FeII alone increases SOM mineralization by 8% following oxidation to 57FeIII. Under O2 ...


An Introduction To “Microbial Biogeochemistry: A Special Issue Of Aquatic Geochemistry Honoring Mark Hines”, W. Berry Lyons, David J. Burdige 2020 Old Dominion University

An Introduction To “Microbial Biogeochemistry: A Special Issue Of Aquatic Geochemistry Honoring Mark Hines”, W. Berry Lyons, David J. Burdige

OEAS Faculty Publications

(First paragraph) This issue of Aquatic Geochemistry is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Mark E. Hines (Fig. 1) and his contributions to the fields of microbial biogeochemistry and aquatic geochemistry. Mark passed away in March of 2018, and through his career as a researcher, teacher, mentor, colleague, and university administrator, he greatly influenced the lives of all around him. We hope that this volume will serve not only as a memory of Mark, but also as a way to recognize his significant influences and major contributions in the fields of carbon, sulfur, and trace element biogeochemistry.


The Impact Of Lake Stratification On Biogeochemical Cycling And Downstream Water Quality: Case Study Of Faylor And Walker Lakes In Snyder County, Pa, Trent Millum 2020 Susquehanna University

The Impact Of Lake Stratification On Biogeochemical Cycling And Downstream Water Quality: Case Study Of Faylor And Walker Lakes In Snyder County, Pa, Trent Millum

Senior Scholars Day

In recent years, dams have received extensive scrutiny for their effects on stream and river systems throughout the United States. Dams vary greatly in size and scale, but investigations often focus on large-scale dams because of their visibility in the public eye and pronounced impact. This can result in smaller and less impactful impoundments being overlooked, despite the cumulative impacts these dams can have on higher order water systems. Two small water impoundments, Walker and Faylor Lakes located respectively on the north and west branches of Middle Creek in Snyder County, Pennsylvania have demonstrated an impact on Middle Creek. This ...


Sediment Controls Dynamic Behavior Of A Cordilleran Ice Stream At The Last Glacial Maximum, Ellen A. Cowan, Sarah D. Zellers, Juliane Müller, Maureen H. Walczak, Lindsay L. Worthington, Beth E. Caissie, Wesley A. Clary, John M. Jaeger, Sean P. S. Gulick, Jacob W. Pratt, Alan C. Mix, Stewart J. Fallon 2020 Appalachian State University

Sediment Controls Dynamic Behavior Of A Cordilleran Ice Stream At The Last Glacial Maximum, Ellen A. Cowan, Sarah D. Zellers, Juliane Müller, Maureen H. Walczak, Lindsay L. Worthington, Beth E. Caissie, Wesley A. Clary, John M. Jaeger, Sean P. S. Gulick, Jacob W. Pratt, Alan C. Mix, Stewart J. Fallon

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The uncertain response of marine terminating outlet glaciers to climate change at time scales beyond short-term observation limits models of future sea level rise. At temperate tidewater margins, abundant subglacial meltwater forms morainal banks (marine shoals) or ice-contact deltas that reduce water depth, stabilizing grounding lines and slowing or reversing glacial retreat. Here we present a radiocarbon-dated record from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1421 that tracks the terminus of the largest Alaskan Cordilleran Ice Sheet outlet glacier during Last Glacial Maximum climate transitions. Sedimentation rates, ice-rafted debris, and microfossil and biogeochemical proxies, show repeated abrupt collapses and slow ...


Geochemical Tracers Of Arctic Ocean Processes: A Study Of Gallium, Barium, And Vanadium, Laura M. Whitmore 2020 University of Southern Mississippi

Geochemical Tracers Of Arctic Ocean Processes: A Study Of Gallium, Barium, And Vanadium, Laura M. Whitmore

Dissertations

The Arctic Ocean is linked to the global oceans and climate through its connectivity with the North Atlantic Ocean and the regional thermohaline deep water formation sites. It’s also a region undergoing rapid environmental change. To inform the community of potential changes in geochemical and biogeochemical cycles, this dissertation addresses three dissolved geochemical tracers (gallium, barium, and vanadium) as indicators of Arctic Ocean processes. Gallium is tested as a replacement for nutrient-type tracers in an effort to deconvolve Pacific and Atlantic derived waters in the Arctic Ocean basins. These water masses carry different heat and salt content and can ...


Diatom Community Composition Shifts Driven By Coherent Cyclonic Mesoscale Eddies In The California Current System, Zuzanna Maria Abdala 2020 Old Dominion University

Diatom Community Composition Shifts Driven By Coherent Cyclonic Mesoscale Eddies In The California Current System, Zuzanna Maria Abdala

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

The California Current System (CCS) is characterized by an equatorward flowing eastern boundary current, as well as seasonal wind-driven coastal upwelling which supplies nutrient-rich waters to the surface and drives high coastal productivity. Cyclonic mesoscale eddies form off the coast in the CCS where they trap the highly productive upwelled coastal waters, along with their resident planktonic communities, and transport them offshore into the more oligotrophic California Current waters. The interaction between waters within and outside of the eddies is limited, and so the eddies act as natural mesocosms, where the resident phytoplankton population undergo ecological succession as the eddy ...


Organic Sulfur: A Spatially Variable And Understudied Component Of Marine Organic Matter, Krista Longnecker, Lisa Oswald, Melissa C. Kido Soule, Gregory A. Cutter, Elizabeth B. Kujawinski 2020 Old Dominion University

Organic Sulfur: A Spatially Variable And Understudied Component Of Marine Organic Matter, Krista Longnecker, Lisa Oswald, Melissa C. Kido Soule, Gregory A. Cutter, Elizabeth B. Kujawinski

OEAS Faculty Publications

Sulfur (S) is a major heteroatom in organic matter. This project evaluated spatial variability in the concentration and molecular-level composition of organic sulfur along gradients of depth and latitude. We measured the concentration of total organic sulfur (TOS) directly from whole seawater. Our data reveal high variability in organic sulfur, relative to established variability in total organic carbon or nitrogen. The deep ocean contained significant amounts of organic sulfur, and the concentration of TOS in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) decreased with increasing age while total organic carbon remained stable. Analysis of dissolved organic matter extracts by ultrahigh resolution mass ...


The Effects Of Legacy Sulphur Deposition On Methylmercury Production In Northern Peatlands; Geochemical And Biological Considerations, Jennifer L. Blythe 2020 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Legacy Sulphur Deposition On Methylmercury Production In Northern Peatlands; Geochemical And Biological Considerations, Jennifer L. Blythe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mercury is a ubiquitous element with a complex geochemical cycle. Aquatic ecosystems such as wetland soils convert inorganic mercury to organic, neurotoxic methylmercury though the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulphate stimulates the activity of SRB, and the production of methylmercury in these environments. My aim was to investigate the effect that legacy sulphate has on Hg methylation in northern peatlands through a laboratory sulphate addition experiment with differentially sulphate-exposed peats and a field study of peatlands subjected to different levels of sulphate. Results from the laboratory study indicate that peatlands in regions of higher atmospheric sulphate deposition show enhanced ...


Modeling The Oh-Initiated Oxidation Of Mercury In The Global Atmosphere Without Violating Physical Laws, Theodore Dibble, Hanna L. Tetu, Khoa T. Lam, Colin P. Thackray, Daniel J. Jacob 2020 SUNY-ESF

Modeling The Oh-Initiated Oxidation Of Mercury In The Global Atmosphere Without Violating Physical Laws, Theodore Dibble, Hanna L. Tetu, Khoa T. Lam, Colin P. Thackray, Daniel J. Jacob

Chemistry Faculty Scholarship

In 2005, Calvert and Lindberg wrote that the use of laboratory-derived rate constants for OH + Hg(0) “…to determine the extent of Hg removal by OH in the troposphere will greatly over-estimate the importance of Hg removal by this reaction.” The HOHg• intermediate formed from OH + Hg will mostly fall apart in the atmosphere before it can react. By contrast, in laboratory experiments, Calvert and Lindberg expected HOHg• to react with radicals (whose concentrations are much higher than in the atmosphere). Yet almost all models of oxidation of Hg(0) ignore the argument of Calvert and Lindberg. We present a ...


Comparison Of Fe(Iii) Reduction Rates By Iron-Reducing Bacteria Within Sub Muros Samples From Quadrilátero Ferrífero Iron-Ore Caves, Brazil, Summer Ellis 2020 The University of Akron

Comparison Of Fe(Iii) Reduction Rates By Iron-Reducing Bacteria Within Sub Muros Samples From Quadrilátero Ferrífero Iron-Ore Caves, Brazil, Summer Ellis

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Previous research investigating the speleogenesis of iron-ore caves (IOC) in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, or “Iron Quadrangle,” of Brazil suggests that microbial iron reduction and subsequent dissolution of the surrounding Fe(III) rich rocks is responsible for cave formation. A soft intra-wall substance (sub muros) containing iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB) was discovered underneath the durable crusts of cave walls. The goal of the study was to determine if reduction rates were comparable between sub muros samples, while additionally observing how different electron donors affect microbial iron reduction. To do this, I compared Fe(III) reduction rates between sub muros samples collected from ...


Dissolved Organic Matter Movement Across Lake Superior’S Terrestrial-Stream-Coastal Interface, Karl M. Meingast 2020 Michigan Technological University

Dissolved Organic Matter Movement Across Lake Superior’S Terrestrial-Stream-Coastal Interface, Karl M. Meingast

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents a carbon pool that can be easily translocated between ecosystems with the movement of water. This study examines the controls on DOM quantity and character delivered to Lake Superior primarily during the snowmelt period. We employed long-term stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) data to determine quantity as well as absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy to analyze DOM structure. Our results indicate that an increasing trend in DOC concentrations, likely driven by decreases in acidity of precipitation, combined with slightly less annual runoff have resulted in relatively constant fluxes of DOM to Lake Superior. Additionally, our study ...


Understanding And Measuring Net Positive Business Strategies, Luke Ruffner Robinson 2020 University of Montana

Understanding And Measuring Net Positive Business Strategies, Luke Ruffner Robinson

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Despite their attempts to mitigate ecological impacts through sustainability initiatives, businesses are a major cause of the world's ecological problems. Some progressive businesses are attempting to move beyond “net zero” in terms of achieving neutral environmental impacts and instead are now pursuing a goal of net positive. Net positive refers to the idea that business activities could contribute value-added benefits to earth’s ecological systems, for example, by using technologies that sequester and store carbon. However, except for a handful of high-profile corporate case studies, little is known about how companies are developing their strategies to become net positive ...


Modeling The Effects Of Global Change On Ecosystem Processes In A Tropical Rainforest, Ann E. Russell, William J. Parton Jr. 2020 Iowa State University

Modeling The Effects Of Global Change On Ecosystem Processes In A Tropical Rainforest, Ann E. Russell, William J. Parton Jr.

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Research Highlights: Ongoing land-use change and climate change in wet tropical forests can potentially drive shifts in tree species composition, representing a change in individual species within a functional group, tropical evergreen trees. The impacts on the global carbon cycle are potentially large, but unclear. We explored the differential effects of species within this functional group, in comparison with the effects of climate change, using the Century model as a research tool. Simulating effects of individual tree species on biome-level biogeochemical cycles constituted a novel application for Century. Background and Objectives: A unique, long-term, replicated field experiment containing five evergreen ...


Estimating Carbon Flux From Optically Recording Total Particle Volume At Depths Below The Primary Pycnocline, Alexander B. Bochdansky, Robert B. Dunbar, Dennis A. Hansell, Gerhard J. Herndl 2019 Old Dominion University

Estimating Carbon Flux From Optically Recording Total Particle Volume At Depths Below The Primary Pycnocline, Alexander B. Bochdansky, Robert B. Dunbar, Dennis A. Hansell, Gerhard J. Herndl

OEAS Faculty Publications

Optical instruments can rapidly determine numbers and characteristics of water column particles with high sensitivity. Here we show the usefulness of optically assessed total particle volume below the main pycnocline to estimate carbon export in two systems: the open subarctic North Atlantic and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Both regions exhibit seasonally high phytoplankton production and efficient export (i.e., a strong biological pump). Total particle volumes in the mesopelagic (200-300 m) were significantly correlated with those in the overlying surface mixed layer (50-60 m), indicating that most particles at depth reflect export from the surface. This connectivity, however, is modulated ...


The Effects Of Sediment Acidification And Temperature On The Immune Capacity Of The Atlantic Jackknife (Razor) Clam (Ensis Leei M. Huber, 2015), Brian Preziosi 2019 University of Maine

The Effects Of Sediment Acidification And Temperature On The Immune Capacity Of The Atlantic Jackknife (Razor) Clam (Ensis Leei M. Huber, 2015), Brian Preziosi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sediment acidification has been shown to negatively impact clams of economic importance such as the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria Linnaeus, 1758, and hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Effects of sediment acidification on razor clams, including the Atlantic jackknife clam Ensis leei M. Huber, 2015, are unknown. E. leei has been identified as a species with potential for aquaculture operations on the New England coast. E. leei may be resilient to acidification and thus persist in acidified sediments where other clams cannot. To this end, the impact of acidified surface sediment on the internal immune capacity of adult (mean shell ...


Employing Earth Observations And Artificial Intelligence To Address Key Global Environmental Challenges In Service Of The Sdgs, Wenzhao Li 2019 Chapman University

Employing Earth Observations And Artificial Intelligence To Address Key Global Environmental Challenges In Service Of The Sdgs, Wenzhao Li

Computational and Data Sciences (PhD) Dissertations

Earth Observation (EO) data provides the capability to integrate data from multiple sources and helps to produce more relevant, frequent, and accurate information about complex processes. EO, empowered by methodologies from Artificial Intelligence (AI), supports various aspects of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This dissertation presents author’s major studies using EO to fill in knowledge gaps and develop methodologies and cloud-based applications in selected SDGs, including SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation), SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities), SDG 14 (Life below Water) and SDG 15 (Life on Land). For SDG 6, the study focuses on spatiotemporal ...


Growth Phase Proteomics Of The Heterotrophic Marine Bacterium Ruegeria Pomeroyi, Dasha Krayushkina, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Jessica Faux, Damon H. May, Michael Riffle, H. Rodger Harvey, Brook L. Nunn 2019 Old Dominion University

Growth Phase Proteomics Of The Heterotrophic Marine Bacterium Ruegeria Pomeroyi, Dasha Krayushkina, Emma Timmins-Schiffman, Jessica Faux, Damon H. May, Michael Riffle, H. Rodger Harvey, Brook L. Nunn

OEAS Faculty Publications

The heterotrophic marine bacterium, Ruegeria pomeroyi, was experimentally cultured under environmentally realistic carbon conditions and with a tracer-level addition of 13C-labeled leucine to track bacterial protein biosynthesis through growth phases. A combination of methods allowed observation of real-time bacterial protein production to understand metabolic priorities through the different growth phases. Over 2000 proteins were identified in each experimental culture from exponential and stationary growth phases. Within two hours of the 13C-labeled leucine addition, R. pomeroyi significantly assimilated the newly encountered substrate into new proteins. This dataset provides a fundamental baseline for understanding growth phase differences in molecular physiology ...


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