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Catalyzed Synthesis Of Zinc Clays By Prebiotic Central Metabolites, Ruixin Zhou, Kaustuv Basu, Hyman Hartman, Christopher J. Matocha, S. Kelly Sears, Hajatollah Vali, Marcelo I. Guzman 2017 University of Kentucky

Catalyzed Synthesis Of Zinc Clays By Prebiotic Central Metabolites, Ruixin Zhou, Kaustuv Basu, Hyman Hartman, Christopher J. Matocha, S. Kelly Sears, Hajatollah Vali, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

How primordial metabolic networks such as the reverse tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle and clay mineral catalysts coevolved remains a mystery in the puzzle to understand the origin of life. While prebiotic reactions from the rTCA cycle were accomplished via photochemistry on semiconductor minerals, the synthesis of clays was demonstrated at low temperature and ambient pressure catalyzed by oxalate. Herein, the crystallization of clay minerals is catalyzed by succinate, an example of a photoproduced intermediate from central metabolism. The experiments connect the synthesis of sauconite, a model for clay minerals, to prebiotic photochemistry. We report the temperature, pH, and concentration dependence ...


A Model Archive For A Coupled Hydrodynamic-Sediment Transport-Biogeochemistry Model For The Rhône River Sub-Aqueous Delta, France, Julia M. Moriarty, Courtney K. Harris, Katja Fennel, Kehui Xu, Christophe Rabouille, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

A Model Archive For A Coupled Hydrodynamic-Sediment Transport-Biogeochemistry Model For The Rhône River Sub-Aqueous Delta, France, Julia M. Moriarty, Courtney K. Harris, Katja Fennel, Kehui Xu, Christophe Rabouille, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs

Data

This dataset includes model input, code, and output used in the publication Moriarty et al. (2017, Biogeosciences), which used a coupled hydrodynamic-sediment transport-biogeochemical model to investigate the roles of resuspension, diffusion and biogeochemical processes on oxygen dynamics on the Rhône River sub-aqueous delta, France. Model development for this project focused on coupling the sediment transport and water-column biogeochemistry modules in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) by incorporating a seabed biogeochemistry module into the ROMS framework. As described in Moriarty et al. (2017, Biogeosciences), the coupled model can account for diffusion of nutrients across the seabed-water-column interface; storage of particulate ...


Effects Of Silvopasture Establishment On Aqueous And Gaseous Soil N Losses At The University Of New Hampshire Organic Dairy Research Farm, Kathryn Ann Slebodnik 2017 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Effects Of Silvopasture Establishment On Aqueous And Gaseous Soil N Losses At The University Of New Hampshire Organic Dairy Research Farm, Kathryn Ann Slebodnik

Honors Theses and Capstones

The expansion of local agriculture in the New England region is putting increased pressure on farmers to expand their arable land base. While clear-cutting is a traditional method of converting forested land to agriculture, it is known for having adverse ecological impacts. To minimize these impacts, farmers can create a silvopasture which incorporates a portion of the original forest canopy into pastures or crop fields. This study evaluates the impact of land-use changes for agriculture on soil nitrogen (N) retention. In particular, this study investigates the differences in soil N turnover, gaseous loss, and aqueous loss among an established forest ...


A Multi-Faceted Biogeochemical Approach To Analyzing Hypoxia In Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Shelby LaBuhn 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

A Multi-Faceted Biogeochemical Approach To Analyzing Hypoxia In Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Shelby Labuhn

Theses and Dissertations

Green Bay, Lake Michigan is a large freshwater estuary that has experienced seasonal hypoxia for decades. Hypoxia, or dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 2 mg L-1, is a problem in coastal ecosystems around the world because it has a negative impact on ecosystem health by decreasing biodiversity and fisheries. In order to create adequate management policies for hypoxia, it is important to understand the sources and sinks of oxygen within Green Bay. This study utilizes a number of traditional and novel field methods to measure the production and respiration of oxygen within lower Green Bay, defined as south of Chambers ...


Declining Dissolved Oxygen In The Central California Current Region, Alice Ren 2016 University of Maine

Declining Dissolved Oxygen In The Central California Current Region, Alice Ren

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A potential consequence of climate change is a global decrease in dissolved oxygen at depth due to changes in the balance of ventilation, mixing, respiration, and photosynthesis in the oceans. Regionally, the California Current has experienced dissolved oxygen declines since the late 1980s with observations from Oregon and the Southern California Bight. Here, we present observations of declining dissolved oxygen along CalCOFI Line 67 off of Monterey Bay, in the Central California Current region, and investigate likely mechanisms. The hydrographic cruises obtained dissolved oxygen measurements 50-300 km from shore between 1998 and 2013, with quasi-seasonal sampling resolution. Dissolved oxygen decreased ...


Examining Denitrification In Agricultural Ditch Sediments Vegetated With Rice Cutgrass (Leersia Oryzoides): Modeling Seasonal Variation Across Increasing Levels Of Nitrate Loading And Model Application To Pre-Existing Datasets, Shannon Lee Speir 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining Denitrification In Agricultural Ditch Sediments Vegetated With Rice Cutgrass (Leersia Oryzoides): Modeling Seasonal Variation Across Increasing Levels Of Nitrate Loading And Model Application To Pre-Existing Datasets, Shannon Lee Speir

Theses and Dissertations

Nitrogen (N) derived from fertilizer application in agricultural systems may contribute to significant environmental impacts, including eutrophication of fresh and coastal waters. Rice cutgrass (Leersia oryzoides) can significantly enhance denitrification potential in agricultural ditch sediments, but relationships with known drivers are not well understood. To address this, I examined effects of nitrate (NO3-) availability on dinitrogen gas (N2) and NO3- fluxes seasonally in Chapter 2. Denitrification rates were measured as N2 flux from intact vegetated sediment cores using Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MIMS). Michaelis-Menten models were developed from observations to mathematically describe N2 fluxes across the spring, summer, and fall ...


Convergence In Nitrogen Deposition And Cryptic Isotopic Variation Across Urban And Agricultural Valleys In Northern Utah, Steven J. Hall, E. M. Ogata, S. R. Weintraub, M. A. Baker, J. R. Ehleringer, C. I. Czimczik, D. R. Bowling 2016 Iowa State University

Convergence In Nitrogen Deposition And Cryptic Isotopic Variation Across Urban And Agricultural Valleys In Northern Utah, Steven J. Hall, E. M. Ogata, S. R. Weintraub, M. A. Baker, J. R. Ehleringer, C. I. Czimczik, D. R. Bowling

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The extent to which atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition reflects land use differences and biogenic versus fossil fuel reactive N sources remains unclear yet represents a critical uncertainty in ecosystem N budgets. We compared N concentrations and isotopes in precipitation-event bulk (wet + dry) deposition across nearby valleys in northern Utah with contrasting land use (highly urban versus intensive agriculture/low-density urban). We predicted greater nitrate (NO3−) versus ammonium (NH4+) and higher δ15N of NO3− and NH4+ in urban valley sites. Contrary to expectations, annual N deposition (3.5–5.1 kg N ha−1 yr−1) and inorganic N concentrations were ...


Using Rare Earth Elements To Constrain Particulate Organic Carbon Flux In The East China Sea, Chin-Chang Hung, Ya-Feng Chen, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Kui Wang, Jianfang Chen, David J. Burdige 2016 Old Dominion University

Using Rare Earth Elements To Constrain Particulate Organic Carbon Flux In The East China Sea, Chin-Chang Hung, Ya-Feng Chen, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Kui Wang, Jianfang Chen, David J. Burdige

OEAS Faculty Publications

Fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the East China Sea (ECS) have been reported to decrease from the inner continental shelf towards the outer continental shelf. Recent research has shown that POC fluxes in the ECS may be overestimated due to active sediment resuspension. To better characterize the effect of sediment resuspension on particle fluxes in the ECS, rare earth elements (REEs) and organic carbon (OC) were used in separate two-member mixing models to evaluate trap-collected POC fluxes. The ratio of resuspended particles from sediments to total trap-collected particles in the ECS ranged from 82-94% using the OC mixing ...


High-Resolution Signatures Of Oxygenation And Microbiological Activity In Speleothem Fluid Inclusions, Nigel Blamey, Penelope J. Boston, Laura Rosales-Lagarde 2016 New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology

High-Resolution Signatures Of Oxygenation And Microbiological Activity In Speleothem Fluid Inclusions, Nigel Blamey, Penelope J. Boston, Laura Rosales-Lagarde

International Journal of Speleology

Speleothems frequently host “fossil” fluids that were trapped in small inclusions during growth. Such fluids may provide valuable clues to past microbial, geochemical, and climatic processes during their formation. However, one difficulty is to understand which gases represent background atmosphere and fluids within a given cave system at a particular time, and which may be the product of post-trapping residual microbial activity or abiotic chemical reactions? Do we have any hope of sorting out these differences? The success depends on a quantitative understanding of the gas composition trapped in the inclusions and an understanding of the interactions of cave mineralogy ...


Quantifying Peat Carbon Accumulation In Alaska Using A Process-Based Biogeochemistry Model, Sirui Wang, Qianlai Zhuang, Zicheng Yu, Scott Bridgham, Jason K. Keller 2016 Purdue University

Quantifying Peat Carbon Accumulation In Alaska Using A Process-Based Biogeochemistry Model, Sirui Wang, Qianlai Zhuang, Zicheng Yu, Scott Bridgham, Jason K. Keller

Education Faculty Articles and Research

This study uses an integrated modeling framework that couples the dynamics of hydrology, soil thermal regime, and ecosystem carbon and nitrogen to quantify the long-term peat carbon accumulation in Alaska during the Holocene. Modeled hydrology, soil thermal regime, carbon pools and fluxes, and methane emissions are evaluated using observation data at several peatland sites in Minnesota, Alaska, and Canada. The model is then applied for a 10,000 year (15 ka to 5 ka; 1 ka = 1000 cal years before present) simulation at four peatland sites. We find that model simulations match the observed carbon accumulation rates at fen sites ...


The Role Of Organic Matter In The Fate And Transport Of Antibiotic Resistance, Metals, And Nutrients In The Karst Of Northwest Arkansas, Victor Lee Roland II 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Role Of Organic Matter In The Fate And Transport Of Antibiotic Resistance, Metals, And Nutrients In The Karst Of Northwest Arkansas, Victor Lee Roland Ii

Theses and Dissertations

Organic matter (OM) in the environment acts as a nutrient, but may also act as a transport vector for harmful chemical compounds and bacteria. Acetate is a labile form of OM produced during fermentation in anaerobic lagoons used to store animal fecal-waste from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Dry and liquid fertilizers from CAFOs pose a threat to groundwater by introducing excessive amounts of nutrients (e.g. OM, nitrate and ammonia), metals, and antibiotic compounds. In the epikarst of Northern Arkansas in the Buffalo River watershed additional input of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from liquid CAFO waste-fertilizers was hypothesized ...


Microbial Extracellular Enzymes In Marine Sediments: Methods Development And Potential Activities In The Baltic Sea Deep Biosphere, Jenna Marie Schmidt 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Microbial Extracellular Enzymes In Marine Sediments: Methods Development And Potential Activities In The Baltic Sea Deep Biosphere, Jenna Marie Schmidt

Masters Theses

The deep biosphere is defined as the subsurface ecosystem in which little energy is available to microorganisms and microorganisms can live for thousands of years. Heterotrophic microbes survive in the deep biosphere even though organic matter is limited and highly recalcitrant in nature. Measuring microbial extracellular enzyme activity provides a potential means to evaluate the rate at which microorganisms are performing carbon remineralization in the energy limited sediment beneath the seafloor. Extracellular enzymes breakdown organic compounds so that the nutrients can move inside the cell and be used for energy. This study explored the role extracellular enzymes play in the ...


Iron Addition To Soil Specifically Stabilized Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Whendee L. Silver, Vitaliy I. Timokhin, Kenneth E. Hammel 2016 Iowa State University

Iron Addition To Soil Specifically Stabilized Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Whendee L. Silver, Vitaliy I. Timokhin, Kenneth E. Hammel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The importance of lignin as a recalcitrant constituent of soil organic matter (SOM) remains contested. Associations with iron (Fe) oxides have been proposed to specifically protect lignin from decomposition, but impacts of Fe-lignin interactions on mineralization rates remain unclear. Oxygen (O2) fluctuations characteristic of humid tropical soils drive reductive Fe dissolution and precipitation, facilitating multiple types of Fe-lignin interactions that could variably decompose or protect lignin. We tested impacts of Fe addition on 13C methoxyl-labeled lignin mineralization in soils that were exposed to static or fluctuating O2. Iron addition suppressed lignin mineralization to 21% of controls, regardless ...


Laboratory Simulation Of An Iron(Ii)-Rich Precambrian Marine Upwelling System To Explore The Growth Of Photosynthetic Bacteria, Markus Maisch, Wenfang Wu, Andreas Wu, Elizabeth D. Swanner 2016 Iowa State University

Laboratory Simulation Of An Iron(Ii)-Rich Precambrian Marine Upwelling System To Explore The Growth Of Photosynthetic Bacteria, Markus Maisch, Wenfang Wu, Andreas Wu, Elizabeth D. Swanner

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

A conventional concept for the deposition of some Precambrian Banded Iron Formations (BIF) proceeds on the assumption that ferrous iron [Fe(II)] upwelling from hydrothermal sources in the Precambrian ocean was oxidized by molecular oxygen [O2] produced by cyanobacteria. The oldest BIFs, deposited prior to the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) at about 2.4 billion years (Gy) ago, could have formed by direct oxidation of Fe(II) by anoxygenic photoferrotrophs under anoxic conditions. As a method for testing the geochemical and mineralogical patterns that develop under different biological scenarios, we designed a 40 cm long vertical flow-through column to simulate ...


Dissolved Organic Carbon Fluxes From A New England Salt Marsh, Hayley Nicole Schiebel 2016 University of Massachusetts Boston

Dissolved Organic Carbon Fluxes From A New England Salt Marsh, Hayley Nicole Schiebel

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Blue carbon systems (mangroves, salt marshes, and seagrass beds) sequester large amounts of carbon via primary productivity and sedimentation. Sequestered carbon can be respired back to the atmosphere, buried for long time periods, or exported (“outwelled”) to adjacent ecosystems. This study estimates the total outwelling of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the Neponset Salt Marsh (Boston, Massachusetts) as well as the major plant and sediment processes contributing to the overall flux. The total export was quantified via high-resolution in situ chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) measurements as a proxy for DOC using 12 years of transect data. Seasonal trends, alternate ...


Cone In Cone Concretions Of The Stanley Group In Southeastern Oklahoma, Kyle B. Ayres 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Cone In Cone Concretions Of The Stanley Group In Southeastern Oklahoma, Kyle B. Ayres

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cone in cone concretions found in the Stanley Group of Southeastern Oklahoma have a variety of external and internal attributes which allow diagenetic and theoretical models of formation to be hypothesized. Stanley Group carbonate cone in cone concretions are initially formed in sulfur reducing horizons at shallow burial depths in a poorly circulated possibly deep trough containing siliceous sediments and organic matter. Collected concretions near the town of Smithville, Oklahoma displayed four different external morphologies and four variations of mineral constituents. All concretions contained microscopic cones which initiated diffusion and/or fluid patterns and is an early cementation process that ...


Statistical Modeling To Predict N2O Production Within The Hyporheic Zone By Coupling Denitrifying Microbial Community Abundance To Geochemical And Hydrological Parameters, Tiffany Brooke Farrell 2016 Boise State University

Statistical Modeling To Predict N2O Production Within The Hyporheic Zone By Coupling Denitrifying Microbial Community Abundance To Geochemical And Hydrological Parameters, Tiffany Brooke Farrell

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The hyporheic zone (HZ) of streams can be a significant source of nitrous oxide (N2O). However, the biogeochemical processes controlling N2O emissions remain poorly constrained due to difficulties in obtaining high-resolution chemical, physical, and biological data from streams. We performed a large-scale flume experiment to unravel the complexities of a natural system by constraining streambed morphology, flow rate, organic carbon loading, grain size distribution, and exogenous nitrate loading while enabling regular monitoring of dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity, and concentrations of NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, and N2O in the HZ. We employed real-time ...


Gone With The Wind: Soil Moisture Effects On Gaseous Nitrogen Removal From Wastewater, Faith L. Anderson 2016 University of Rhode Island

Gone With The Wind: Soil Moisture Effects On Gaseous Nitrogen Removal From Wastewater, Faith L. Anderson

Senior Honors Projects

Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), or septic systems, release nitrogen (N), which can be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. The final step in the treatment of wastewater is dispersal onto a drainfield, where it percolates through the soil. Part of the N is removed from wastewater and released into the atmosphere as N2 and N2O by denitrification, which requires anoxic conditions. Previous studies looking at the effect of soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) on denitrification using clean water with a high level of dissolved O2 (DO) have identified a minimum of 60% WFPS for denitrification to take ...


Photocatalytic Reduction Of Fumarate To Succinate On Zns Mineral Surfaces, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman 2016 University of Kentucky

Photocatalytic Reduction Of Fumarate To Succinate On Zns Mineral Surfaces, Ruixin Zhou, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle is an important central biosynthetic pathway that fixes CO2 into carboxylic acids. Among the five reductive steps in the rTCA cycle, the two-electron reduction of fumarate to succinate proceeds nonenzymatically on the surface of photoexcited sphalerite (ZnS) colloids suspended in water. This model reaction is chosen to systematically study the surface photoprocess occurring on ZnS in the presence of [Na2S] (1–10 mM) hole scavenger at 15 °C. Experiments at variable pH (5–10) indicate that monodissociated fumaric acid is the primary electron acceptor forming the monoprotic form of succinic acid ...


Iron Concretions In The Cretaceous Dakota Formation, Anthony Kohtz, Richard Kettler, David Loope 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Iron Concretions In The Cretaceous Dakota Formation, Anthony Kohtz, Richard Kettler, David Loope

UCARE Research Products

The Cretaceous Dakota Formation contains abundant iron oxide concretions. The precursors to the iron concretions are siderite (FeCO3) nodules that formed in a reducing floodplain environment. A variety of concretion morphologies formed when the precursor siderite nodules were dissolved by oxidizing groundwater in a paleoaquifer. Iron-oxidizing bacteria are able to oxidize aqueous Fe(II) to Fe(III) oxy-hydroxide at microaerophilic and neutrophilic conditions. This study investigated these concretions to determine if there was a microbial element in their formation and to characterize the concretion morphologies present in the Dakota. This is important for complete paleoenvironment interpretations and astrobiology pursuits.


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