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Nutrient Dynamics And Ecosystem Development Of Urban Forests, Gisselle A. Mejía 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Nutrient Dynamics And Ecosystem Development Of Urban Forests, Gisselle A. Mejía

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Urban growth and expansion are a major component of global environmental change, with impacts on climate, air and water quality, biodiversity, and human well-being. Forests embedded in urban landscapes are critical in mitigating these impacts at local, regional, and continental scales. However, assessing urban forests is difficult because cities are heterogenous in physical, chemical, biological, and social dimensions. This heterogeneity has constrained how urban forests are defined, and therefore, how they are studied. The objective of this dissertation is to determine how these biophysical and social factors drive ecological processes in urban forests and will address three outstanding challenges in ...


Exploring The Use Of Covellite As A Proxy For Corrosion Of Native Copper By Sulphur Reducing Bacteria, Manan K. Joshi 2022 Western University

Exploring The Use Of Covellite As A Proxy For Corrosion Of Native Copper By Sulphur Reducing Bacteria, Manan K. Joshi

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

We are analyzing the effect of sulphate reducing bacteria on native copper, and using that evidence to further support the initiative of having a deep geological repository to store nuclear material. Sulphate reducing bacteria are a concern for the deep geological repository as they cause the corrosion of regular copper. However native copper has gone billions of years without corrosion, which could either mean that it had not been exposed to sulphate reducing bacteria over the billions of years, or native copper is able to withstand corrosion despite the contact of sulphate reducing bacteria. We can find out by trying ...


The Paleoecology Of High-Elevation Bison In The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem And Implications For Modern Bison Conservation, Darian Bouvier 2022 East Tennessee State University

The Paleoecology Of High-Elevation Bison In The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem And Implications For Modern Bison Conservation, Darian Bouvier

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The national mammal of the United States, the American Bison (Bison bison) was once nearly extinct. Populations have recovered to the degree that thousands roam the Great Plains today. Due to their large numbers and body size, this species has an oversized impact on the ecological communities where it lives and is considered a keystone herbivore in modern North American grasslands. This study explores the detailed, seasonally resolved, paleoecology of seven bison from the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem during the Late Holocene through stable isotope analyses and species niche modeling. Isotopic analyses of δ13C, δ15N, and δ ...


The Characterization Of Dynamic Soil Properties And Their Relation To Soil Organic Carbon In East Tennessee Soils, Shannon Marissa Newell 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Characterization Of Dynamic Soil Properties And Their Relation To Soil Organic Carbon In East Tennessee Soils, Shannon Marissa Newell

Masters Theses

Quantifying how dynamic soil properties (DSPs) are affected by different management regimes is essential for understanding how these vital resources can be better managed. The Dewey soil series is a critical soil series in East Tennessee. For this study, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) worked alongside the National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS) in an effort to better understand the dynamics of the Dewey soil series through a wide range of DSP data. To accomplish this, Dewey soil was collected from five sites which are considered representative of five management regimes: well-managed cropland (WMC), poorly-managed cropland (PMC), well-managed pasture (WMP ...


Manganese Geochemistry And Plant Availability In Response To Agricultural Practices, Ashleigh R. Montgomery 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Manganese Geochemistry And Plant Availability In Response To Agricultural Practices, Ashleigh R. Montgomery

Masters Theses

Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for all organisms. In soils, Mn forms determine availability to plants. Most Mn research has been conducted in forest ecosystems and Mn cycling in agricultural systems is understudied. Therefore, the objective of the experiment is to understand the effect of different agricultural management strategies on Mn cycling and plant availability. First, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different application rates of two Mn fertilizers (MnSO4 and MnEDTA) on soil geochemical properties and growth of corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max). The fertilizers were applied to soil at three ...


Whole Farm Net Zero: Approaches To Quantification Of Climate Regulation Ecosystem Services At The Whole Farm Scale. Vermont Payment For Ecosystem Services Technical Report #7, Christopher Bonasia, Lindsey Ruhl, Benjamin Timothy Dube, Alissa C. White, Heather M. Darby 2022 University of Vermont

Whole Farm Net Zero: Approaches To Quantification Of Climate Regulation Ecosystem Services At The Whole Farm Scale. Vermont Payment For Ecosystem Services Technical Report #7, Christopher Bonasia, Lindsey Ruhl, Benjamin Timothy Dube, Alissa C. White, Heather M. Darby

UVM Extension Faculty Publications

In this report, approaches to the quantification of climate mitigation ecosystem services at the whole farm scale are reviewed and summarized for easy comparison. Eight quantification tools, and three case studies demonstrating possible tool applications, are summarized to fulfill the requirements of the Technical Services Contract—Task 7. Information from a combination of literature review and expert interviews served to document the inputs, outputs, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for each quantification tool. This research was conducted in service to the Vermont Soil Health and Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) Working Group (VT PES working group). It is our hope ...


Understanding Biogeochemical And Physical Controls On Methane Air-Sea Exchange Fluxes In The Pacific Ocean, Sarah Raney 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Understanding Biogeochemical And Physical Controls On Methane Air-Sea Exchange Fluxes In The Pacific Ocean, Sarah Raney

Master's Theses

Methane and trace element samples were collected on GEOTRACES GP15 Pacific Meridional Transect (PMT) cruise conducted between the Aleutian Islands (57 °N) and Tahiti (20 °S) from September to November 2018. Uncertainty in methane air-sea exchange fluxes was determined using a propagation of errors approach. Fluxes ranged from -0.88 to 4.9 µmol CH4 m-2 d-1. Average CH4 flux along the Alaskan margin was 2.2 ± 2.9 µmol CH4 m-2 d-1. Methane fluxes decreased moving southward and increased to their open ocean maximum around 20 °N before declining in equatorial waters ...


Controls On Buffering And Coastal Acidification In A Temperate Estuary, Christopher W. Hunt, Joseph Salisbury, Douglas Vandemark 2022 University of New Hampshire

Controls On Buffering And Coastal Acidification In A Temperate Estuary, Christopher W. Hunt, Joseph Salisbury, Douglas Vandemark

Faculty Publications

Estuaries may be uniquely susceptible to the combined acidification pressures of atmospherically driven ocean acidification (OA), biologically driven CO2 inputs from the estuary itself, and terrestrially derived freshwater inputs. This study utilized continuous measurements of total alkalinity (TA) and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) from the mouth of Great Bay, a temperate northeastern U.S. estuary, to examine the potential influences of endmember mixing and biogeochemical transformation upon estuary buffering capacity (β–H). Observations were collected hourly over 28 months representing all seasons between May 2016 and December 2019. Results indicated that endmember mixing explained most of the ...


Honey As A Biomonitor For Air Pollutant Deposition In The Eastern United States Using Ion Chromatography And Scanning Electron Microscopy, Cole Cochran 2022 William & Mary

Honey As A Biomonitor For Air Pollutant Deposition In The Eastern United States Using Ion Chromatography And Scanning Electron Microscopy, Cole Cochran

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Anthropogenic activities generate metal, acid, and particulate air pollutants which negatively impact human and ecological health. In the United States, power plant, industrial, and vehicle emissions are leading causes of air pollution, however, the measurement of air pollution at high-resolution spatial regimes remains a challenge. Honey has emerged as a powerful biomonitoring tool to effectively quantify contaminants without the need for a large array of monitoring instruments. I hypothesized that honey could be used to effectively measure and map modern air pollutant spatiotemporal relationships over the Eastern U.S. Using ion chromatography with sulfate as an indicator for air pollution ...


Frayed Connections: How Long-Term Nitrogen Additions Disrupt Plant-Soil Interactions And The Carbon Cycle Of A Temperate Forest, Brooke A. Eastman 2022 West Virginia University

Frayed Connections: How Long-Term Nitrogen Additions Disrupt Plant-Soil Interactions And The Carbon Cycle Of A Temperate Forest, Brooke A. Eastman

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Forests are expected to mitigate some of the negative effects of climate change by sequestering anthropogenic carbon (C) from the atmosphere, but the degree to which they drawn down C will depend on the availability of key nutrients, such as nitrogen (N). There is a fair amount of uncertainty in the future of the forest C sink, mostly owing to the fate of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil heterotrophic respiration to future conditions. In N limited systems, plants allocate a significant amount of their photosynthate belowground for the acquisition of nutrients, but under conditions of chronic N deposition, plants ...


Controls On Carbon Gas Fluxes From A Temperate Forest Soil, Natalie A. White, Ruth K. Varner, Clarice R. Perryman 2022 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Controls On Carbon Gas Fluxes From A Temperate Forest Soil, Natalie A. White, Ruth K. Varner, Clarice R. Perryman

Honors Theses and Capstones

Forest soils consume atmospheric methane (CH4), serving as a major global CH4 sink that uptake an estimated 22 ± 12 Tg of CH4 per year. Temperature and soil moisture have been identified as key controls of the microbial consumption of CH4 in forest soils. Climate-driven warming and changing moisture regimes may impact forest soils’ role in the carbon cycle, and recent works suggests that forests could become weaker CH₄ sinks. Long-term monitoring sites can capture these changes, leading to better predictions of CH4 exchange between the atmosphere and soils under climate change. This study utilizes a ...


Stable Isotope Analysis Of A Platecarpus Tympaniticus (Squamata, Mosasauridae) With Actinocamax Sternbergi (Mollsuca, Belemnoidea) Reveals Possible Endothermic Thermoregulation, Mitchell Lukens 2022 Fort Hays State University

Stable Isotope Analysis Of A Platecarpus Tympaniticus (Squamata, Mosasauridae) With Actinocamax Sternbergi (Mollsuca, Belemnoidea) Reveals Possible Endothermic Thermoregulation, Mitchell Lukens

Master's Theses

Mosasaurs, ancient marine reptiles, dominated the late Cretaceous oceans. However, their ecological success is a contentious topic. Were they ectothermic, like their modern relatives the varanid lizards? Or endothermic like extant marine mammals? Stable isotopes can reveal temperature and physiological variances within skeletons, but do not differentiate between body temperature and ambient environmental temperature. A rare mosasaur specimen from the Smoky Hill Chalk of a partial, articulated Platecarpus tympaniticus with stomach contents of belemnites provides a possible direct temperature contrast between predator and prey. The belemnites, related to modern coleoids, are identified as Actinocamax sternbergi. These animals possessed body temperatures ...


Combined Effects Of Temperature And Heavy Metals On The Performance Of The Giant Salmonfly., James Frakes, Amanda Andreas, Benjamin P. Colman, Aurthur Woods 2022 University of Montana.edu

Combined Effects Of Temperature And Heavy Metals On The Performance Of The Giant Salmonfly., James Frakes, Amanda Andreas, Benjamin P. Colman, Aurthur Woods

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

In many freshwater ecosystems, communities of aquatic insects are facing the combined stresses of warmer waters due to climate change and increased exposure to heavy metal toxicants. Although each stressor may threaten aquatic insects independently, they also likely interact in important ways to affect insect physiology and performance. Here we investigate this potential interaction using two populations of aquatic nymphs of the giant salmonfly, Pteronarcys californica, collected from adjacent rivers in Montana: naïve individuals from Rock Creek, a relatively pristine stream, and individuals from the Upper Clark Fork River, which has a history of heavy metal pollution and higher temperatures ...


Spatial Geochemical Changes In Central And East Texas Soils Over Time Resulting From Human Decomposition, Isabela Marisol Overturf 2022 Claremont McKenna College

Spatial Geochemical Changes In Central And East Texas Soils Over Time Resulting From Human Decomposition, Isabela Marisol Overturf

CMC Senior Theses

Human decomposition is studied to aid forensic investigations and better understand the impact of cemeteries on urban resources like soil and groundwater. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in soil geochemistry at and around a human grave to search for lateral nutrient movement and possibly identify new patterns in elemental concentrations that could be used in estimating post-mortem intervals (PMIs). At the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State San Marcos, soil samples were collected from a shallow grave over the course of 54 days to conduct analysis for organic matter content, texture, pH, and bulk ...


Drivers And Seasonal Variability Of Redox-Sensitive Metal Chemistry In A Shallow Subterranean Estuary, Alison E. O'Connor, Elizabeth A. Canuel, Aaron J. Beck 2022 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Drivers And Seasonal Variability Of Redox-Sensitive Metal Chemistry In A Shallow Subterranean Estuary, Alison E. O'Connor, Elizabeth A. Canuel, Aaron J. Beck

VIMS Articles

The subterranean estuary (STE) has been historically defined in terms of the mixing of saline and fresh water, in an analogy to surface estuaries. However, redox gradients are also a defining characteristic of the STE and influence its role as a source or sink for metals in the environment. Approaching the STE from a redox-focused biogeochemical perspective (e.g., considering the role of microbial respiration and availability of organic matter) provides the ability to quantify drivers of metal transport across spatial and temporal scales. This study measured the groundwater composition of a shallow STE over 2 years and used multiple ...


Identifying Biogeochemical Factors Responsible For The Cyclical Precipitation Of Sphalerite And Galena In Low Temperature Mississippi Valley Type Ore Deposits, Daniel John Makowsky 2021 Mississippi State University

Identifying Biogeochemical Factors Responsible For The Cyclical Precipitation Of Sphalerite And Galena In Low Temperature Mississippi Valley Type Ore Deposits, Daniel John Makowsky

Theses and Dissertations

Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) lead and zinc deposits provide a significant source of sedimentary galena and sphalerite. However, geochemical characteristics and genesis including the source and production of hydrogen sulfide required for galena and sphalerite ore formation and the reasoning for quick, episodic mineralization is not fully understood. By simulating regional MVT brines, the input and effect of biological by-products during the development of these ores as well as the cause of cyclicity within MVT deposits have been observed. Experiments using compositions from MVT fluid inclusions were conducted over two-week periods. Variables during the experiments included temperature, CO2, hydrogen sulfide ...


Kudzu Invasion And Control In Southern Upland Forests Of Mississippi, Gina M. Profetto 2021 University of New Orleans, New Orleans

Kudzu Invasion And Control In Southern Upland Forests Of Mississippi, Gina M. Profetto

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.), is a common invasive species throughout the American South. In southern upland mixed oak-pine forests of Mississippi, kudzu invasion generally and indiscriminately suppressed the pre-invasion plant community. Three different control methods reduced kudzu density but differed in the level of reduction achieved and in their effects on the pre-existing plant community. A combination of burning and herbicides produced the most desirable outcome in terms of restoring the pre-invasion community. Kudzu invasion significantly increased nitrate pools compared to control sites, but had no effect on ammonium or nitrite, or on the microbial processes of mineralization ...


Iron Geochemistry Across An Estuary-To-Coastal Gradient, Lissett G. Diaz 2021 Coastal Carolina University

Iron Geochemistry Across An Estuary-To-Coastal Gradient, Lissett G. Diaz

Honors Theses

Iron is a ubiquitous earth element that participates in biogeochemical processes that occur in marine sediments. Microorganisms utilize iron for many purposes, including cell growth, conserving energy, and for maintaining metabolic activity. In coastal sedimentary settings, understanding the redox reactions involving ferric iron, Fe3+, and ferrous iron, Fe2+, in its solid phase and pore-water phases, respectively, enable an appreciation of biogeochemical transformations occurring in the coastal zone. In this study, iron concentrations in sediment of ranging permeability were determined at four stations marking an estuary-coast transition zone in Singleton Swash in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. The findings of ...


Soil Accretion And Mass Accumulation In A Scrub And Fringe Mangrove Forest In Biscayne Bay, Florida, Jessica A. Jacobs 2021 University of South Florida

Soil Accretion And Mass Accumulation In A Scrub And Fringe Mangrove Forest In Biscayne Bay, Florida, Jessica A. Jacobs

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study estimated soil accretion and mass (organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total soil) accumulation in a scrub and fringe mangrove forest in Biscayne Bay, FL, to assess how forests of different morphologies (scrub vs. fringe) have kept pace with recently accelerating rates of sea-level rise. Accretion rates (AR) were estimated using the Constant Initial Concentration (CIC) model of lead-210 deposition and it was determined that the scrub forest has accreted at 1.3 ± 0.2 mm yr-1 over 75 years and the fringe forest at 2.8 ± 0.4 mm yr-1 over 92 years. The fringe forest ...


Nutrient Cycling In Tropical And Temperate Coastal Waters: Is Latitude Making A Difference?, Christian Lønborg, Moritz Müller, Edward C. V. Butler, Shan Jiang, Seng Keat Ooi, Dieu Huong Trinh, Pui Yee Wong, Suryati M. Ali, Chun Cui, Wee Boon Siong, Erik S. Yando, Daniel A. Friess, Judith A. Rosentreter, Bradley D. Eyre, Patrick Martin 2021 Old Dominion University

Nutrient Cycling In Tropical And Temperate Coastal Waters: Is Latitude Making A Difference?, Christian Lønborg, Moritz Müller, Edward C. V. Butler, Shan Jiang, Seng Keat Ooi, Dieu Huong Trinh, Pui Yee Wong, Suryati M. Ali, Chun Cui, Wee Boon Siong, Erik S. Yando, Daniel A. Friess, Judith A. Rosentreter, Bradley D. Eyre, Patrick Martin

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Tropical coastal waters are highly dynamic and amongst the most biogeochemically active zones in the ocean. This review compares nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles in temperate and tropical coastal waters. We review the literature to identify major similarities and differences between these two regions, specifically with regards to the impact of environmental factors (temperature, sunlight), riverine inputs, groundwater, lateral fluxes, atmospheric deposition, nitrogen fixation, organic nutrient cycling, primary production, respiration, sedimentary burial, denitrification and anammox. Overall, there are some similarities but also key differences in nutrient cycling, with differences relating mainly to temperature, sunlight, and precipitation amounts and patterns ...


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