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Secondary Minerals From Salt Caves In The Atacama Desert (Chile): A Hyperarid And Hypersaline Environment With Potential Analogies To The Martian Subsurface, Jo De Waele, Cristina Carbone, Laura Sanna, Marco Vattano, Ermanno Galli, Francesco Sauro, Paolo Forti 2017 University of Bologna

Secondary Minerals From Salt Caves In The Atacama Desert (Chile): A Hyperarid And Hypersaline Environment With Potential Analogies To The Martian Subsurface, Jo De Waele, Cristina Carbone, Laura Sanna, Marco Vattano, Ermanno Galli, Francesco Sauro, Paolo Forti

International Journal of Speleology

Over the past 15 years several expeditions by French, American and especially Italian cavers have unveiled over 50 caves in the Cordillera de la Sal (Atacama Desert, Northern Chile). Many of these caves contain a variety of speleothems and minerals, some of which have rarely been observed within karst systems. Most of the secondary deposits in these caves are composed of halite, but also other halide, carbonate, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate minerals have been found. Among the sixteen cave mineral species recognized, atacamite, darapskite, blödite, leonite, anhydrite, and especially antarcticite are worth mentioning. In one of the samples an ...


Petrographical And Geochemical Changes In Bosnian Stalagmites And Their Palaeo-Environmental Significance, Veronica Chiarini, Isabelle Couchoud, Russell Drysdale, Petra Bajo, Simone Milanolo, Silvia Frisia, Alan Greig, John Hellstrom, Jo De Waele 2017 University of Bologna

Petrographical And Geochemical Changes In Bosnian Stalagmites And Their Palaeo-Environmental Significance, Veronica Chiarini, Isabelle Couchoud, Russell Drysdale, Petra Bajo, Simone Milanolo, Silvia Frisia, Alan Greig, John Hellstrom, Jo De Waele

International Journal of Speleology

Detailed petrographic observations have been coupled with trace element and δ13C - δ18O analyses in order to investigate their dynamics in two Holocene Bosnian speleothems. The potential of this multiproxy approach in providing a means to extract palaeo-environmental information from stalagmites whose stable isotope signals are noisy and without obvious trends has been tested. The studied stalagmites are mostly characterized by columnar microcrystalline fabric. At the sub-millimetre scale of lamination, different microcrystalline columnar sub-types (open and closed) have been detected and classified on the basis of the observed porosity and the crystallite size. The presence of variations ...


Geochemical Investigation Of Anomalous Arsenic Enrichment In The Santiago Peak Volcanics Of Southern California, Elizabeth C. Johnston 2017 University of San Diego

Geochemical Investigation Of Anomalous Arsenic Enrichment In The Santiago Peak Volcanics Of Southern California, Elizabeth C. Johnston

Theses

Arsenic (As) is enriched in the Santiago Peak Volcanics (SPV) that crop out at Black Mountain Open Space Park in San Diego, CA. Thus, the Black Mountain SPV present an excellent opportunity to investigate As enrichment in ancient volcanic arc systems as a result of deep earth subduction zone processes. Through targeted field study of this unit, we aim to (1) confirm the volcanic arc provenance of rocks cropping out at Black Mountain, (2) investigate As enrichment in relation to volcanic arc processes, and (3) propose a model for As occurrence in the SPV. Our findings indicate Black Mountain SPV ...


Sedimentology And Geochemistry Of The Mixed Carbonate-Siliciclastic Espanola Formation, Paleoproterozoic Huronian Supergroup, Bruce Mines-Elliot Lake Area, Ontario, Canada, Mansour H. Al-Hashim 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Sedimentology And Geochemistry Of The Mixed Carbonate-Siliciclastic Espanola Formation, Paleoproterozoic Huronian Supergroup, Bruce Mines-Elliot Lake Area, Ontario, Canada, Mansour H. Al-Hashim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Espanola Formation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian Supergroup is a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic succession. Detailed sedimentological analysis of the formation in the Bruce Mines-Elliot Lake region reveals 17 sedimentary lithofacies, which comprise three distinct lithofacies associations. The lithofacies associations represent, in ascending order, shoreface, offshore, and nearshore (or lagoon) depositional environments along a wave- and storm-dominated shallow siliciclastic marine shelf. Major, trace, and rare earth element analyses of the siliciclastic component indicate derivation from a mainly granodioritic Archean upper continental crust with some contributions from mafic volcanic and/or sedimentary rocks. The results show that the source rocks were subjected to ...


Abrupt Ocean Anoxia During The Late Ordovician Mass Extinction Detected Using Uranium Isotopes Of Marine Carbonates, Rickey Bartlett, Maya Elrick, Yemane Asmerom, Viorel Atudorei 2016 University of New Mexico

Abrupt Ocean Anoxia During The Late Ordovician Mass Extinction Detected Using Uranium Isotopes Of Marine Carbonates, Rickey Bartlett, Maya Elrick, Yemane Asmerom, Viorel Atudorei

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The Ordovician witnessed an explosion in marine biodiversity punctuated by the first of the ‘big-5’ Phanerozoic mass extinctions, the Late Ordovician mass extinction (LOME). The LOME consists of two discrete pulses occurring at the beginning and end of the Hirnantian. Lithologic and geochemical evidence suggests widespread marine anoxia triggered the second LOME pulse; however, most of these redox proxies record local bottom water or porewater conditions rather than global seawater conditions. To evaluate global redox trends, we utilize uranium (U) isotopes and trace element geochemistry of marine carbonates as a global marine redox proxy.

Bulk carbonate samples were collected from ...


A Stable Isotope Investigation Of Pollen From Pinery Provincial Park, Southwestern Ontario, Canada, Deana M. Schwarz 2016 The University of Western Ontario

A Stable Isotope Investigation Of Pollen From Pinery Provincial Park, Southwestern Ontario, Canada, Deana M. Schwarz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pollen is a useful proxy for reconstructing paleoclimate; however, the relationship between its stable isotopic composition and the environment in which it forms is still poorly understood. We examine the stable oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen isotope compositions of pollen from tree (coniferous and deciduous), grass (C3 and C4), and marsh species from Pinery Provincial Park, Ontario, and its environs, and maple and oak tree species from eight localities across the United States of America, to (i) determine the major environmental influences on pollen δ18O, δ13C, and δ15N values, (ii) examine the causes ...


Abundance Of Archaias Angulatus On The West Florida Coast Indicates The Influence Of Carbonate Alkalinity Over Salinity, Sean Thomas Beckwith 2016 University of South Florida

Abundance Of Archaias Angulatus On The West Florida Coast Indicates The Influence Of Carbonate Alkalinity Over Salinity, Sean Thomas Beckwith

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Archaias angulatus, a large symbiont-bearing foraminifer (Order Miliolida) that produces a Mg-calcite shell, is common throughout the Caribbean and warm western Atlantic region. This species lives abundantly in seagrass beds along the Springs Coast of northwest Florida (up to 4 adults per gram of sediment) where spring-fed rivers emerge from a limestone aquifer, and in Florida Bay to the southeast (25 adults/g) where the sediment is primarily biogenic carbonate. In contrast, live specimens are seldom found in the seagrass beds along the central-west coast of Florida, where barrier islands are dominated by quartz sand. My working hypothesis is that ...


The Character And Distribution Of Cu-Pge Mineralization At The Geordie Lake Deposit Within The Coldwell Complex, Ontario, Imran Meghji 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Character And Distribution Of Cu-Pge Mineralization At The Geordie Lake Deposit Within The Coldwell Complex, Ontario, Imran Meghji

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cu-PGE mineralization at the Geordie Lake Deposit (GLD) is spatially associated with weak to intense actinolite and albite alteration within gabbro and troctolite. Previous studies have determined a magmatic, and magmatic-hydrothermal origin of the deposit. The most significant Cu-PGE occurrence in the GLD is dominantly stratiform, and in contact with a basal syenite. Similar patterns of REE with progressive enrichment from troctolite, to gabbro, and basal syenite indicate that these lithologies are genetically linked. Major element geochemistry shows no discernable variation between the altered and unaltered samples. Whole rock δ18O analyses were conducted in equal intervals down the ...


Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, Jingfeng Xiao, Scott V. Ollinger, Steve Frolking, George Hurtt, David Y. Hollinger, Kenneth J. Davis, Yude Pan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Feng Deng, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Beverly E. Law, M. Altaf Arain, Ankur R. Desai, Andrew D. Richardson, Ge Sun, Brian Amiro, Hank Margolis, Lianhong Gu, Russell L. Scott, Peter D. Blanken, Andrew E. Suyker 2016 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, Jingfeng Xiao, Scott V. Ollinger, Steve Frolking, George Hurtt, David Y. Hollinger, Kenneth J. Davis, Yude Pan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Feng Deng, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Beverly E. Law, M. Altaf Arain, Ankur R. Desai, Andrew D. Richardson, Ge Sun, Brian Amiro, Hank Margolis, Lianhong Gu, Russell L. Scott, Peter D. Blanken, Andrew E. Suyker

Xiaoyang Zhang

The exchange of carbon dioxide is a key measure of ecosystem metabolism and a critical intersection between the terrestrial biosphere and the Earth’s climate. Despite the general agreement that the terrestrial ecosystems in North America provide a sizeable carbon sink, the size and distribution of the sink remain uncertain. We use a data-driven approach to upscale eddy covariance flux observations from towers to the continental scale by integrating flux observations, meteorology, stand age,aboveground biomass, and a proxy for canopy nitrogen concentrations from AmeriFlux and Fluxnet-Canada Research Network as well as a variety of satellite data streams from the ...


High-Resolution Signatures Of Oxygenation And Microbiological Activity In Speleothem Fluid Inclusions, Nigel Blamey, Penelope J. Boston, Laura Rosales-Lagarde 2016 New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology

High-Resolution Signatures Of Oxygenation And Microbiological Activity In Speleothem Fluid Inclusions, Nigel Blamey, Penelope J. Boston, Laura Rosales-Lagarde

International Journal of Speleology

Speleothems frequently host “fossil” fluids that were trapped in small inclusions during growth. Such fluids may provide valuable clues to past microbial, geochemical, and climatic processes during their formation. However, one difficulty is to understand which gases represent background atmosphere and fluids within a given cave system at a particular time, and which may be the product of post-trapping residual microbial activity or abiotic chemical reactions? Do we have any hope of sorting out these differences? The success depends on a quantitative understanding of the gas composition trapped in the inclusions and an understanding of the interactions of cave mineralogy ...


Protracted Thrusting Followed By Late Rapid Cooling Of The Greater Himalayan Sequence, Annapurna Himalaya, Central Nepal: Insights From Titanite Petrochronology, Jesse Bennett Walters 2016 Boise State University

Protracted Thrusting Followed By Late Rapid Cooling Of The Greater Himalayan Sequence, Annapurna Himalaya, Central Nepal: Insights From Titanite Petrochronology, Jesse Bennett Walters

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Temperature-time (T-t) paths derived from coupled Zr-in-titanite thermometry and U-Pb geochronology are useful for examining middle-crustal tectonic processes. T-t data collected from the titanite-bearing calcsilicates of the upper Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) along the Marsyandi River, Annapurna Himalaya, illustrate a significantly different metamorphic history than previously recorded in central Nepal. Combined with traditional thermobarometry, textural relationships, and field mapping, titanite T-t data reveal a protracted history of mid-crustal tectonics. Peak Zr-in-titanite temperatures are 750-850 °C at 10-14 kbar. T-t paths are divided into two groups, which are separated by the Chame Shear Zone (CSZ). Group I (upper) rocks show cooling ...


Role Of Sorting On The Composition Of Siliciclastic Sediment: Implications For Interpreting Provenance After Limited Transport In An Arid Climate, Forrest Christopher Driscoll 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Role Of Sorting On The Composition Of Siliciclastic Sediment: Implications For Interpreting Provenance After Limited Transport In An Arid Climate, Forrest Christopher Driscoll

Masters Theses

This study tested whether transport distances (< 500 m) have the capacity to shape the geochemistry of sediments across multiple grain-size populations due to sorting derived from a single source. In the Stepladder Mountains, Mojave Desert, CA, a < 1 km2 [square kilometers] watershed allows for a controlled study to understand how modern sediments acquire their composition from a single granodioritic source in an arid climate where there is no chemical weathering. Sediments are naturally sorted into distinct grain-size populations, with modes ranging from very fine sand to gravel within a single, alluvial channel. Sediment samples representative of each population were petrographically and geochemically analyzed in order to test the effectiveness of commonly used discrimination diagrams. Sediments became proportionally enriched in plagioclase and biotite and depleted in K-feldspar and quartz with decreasing grain size ...


Water-Rock Interactions And Seasonal Hydrologic Processes In Constructed Everglades Tree Islands, Andres E. Prieto Estrada 2016 Florida International University

Water-Rock Interactions And Seasonal Hydrologic Processes In Constructed Everglades Tree Islands, Andres E. Prieto Estrada

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The decline of tree islands in the freshwater-Everglades wetland because of hydrologic manipulation, has compromised valuable ecosystem services. Although the role of tree islands in maintaining freshwater quality stems largely from evapotranspiration processes, fundamental questions remain about the effects of different geologic materials on their hydrogeochemical functioning. To reduce this uncertainty, the lithological composition of a set of man-made tree islands was investigated coupled with long-term hydrologic and hydrochemical data. Key results indicate that limestone substrates and peat substrates with elevated proportions of sand, facilitated surface water-groundwater interactions and mineral dissolution. However, limestone-based islands were more effective in lowering the ...


Lower Lakes Carbon Project: The Aquatic Vegetation Contribution To Carbon Pools, Leigh A. Sullivan, Nicholas J. Ward, Richard T. Bush, Alicia Hidden, Diane M. Fyfe, Michelle Bush, Crystal A. Maher 2016 Southern Cross University

Lower Lakes Carbon Project: The Aquatic Vegetation Contribution To Carbon Pools, Leigh A. Sullivan, Nicholas J. Ward, Richard T. Bush, Alicia Hidden, Diane M. Fyfe, Michelle Bush, Crystal A. Maher

Adjunct Professor Richard T Bush

No abstract provided.


Lower Lakes Carbon Project: The Aquatic Vegetation Contribution To Carbon Pools, Leigh A. Sullivan, Nicholas J. Ward, Richard T. Bush, Alicia Hidden, Diane M. Fyfe, Michelle Bush, Crystal A. Maher 2016 Southern Cross University

Lower Lakes Carbon Project: The Aquatic Vegetation Contribution To Carbon Pools, Leigh A. Sullivan, Nicholas J. Ward, Richard T. Bush, Alicia Hidden, Diane M. Fyfe, Michelle Bush, Crystal A. Maher

Dr Nicholas J Ward

No abstract provided.


Lower Lakes Carbon Project: The Aquatic Vegetation Contribution To Carbon Pools, Leigh A. Sullivan, Nicholas J. Ward, Richard T. Bush, Alicia Hidden, Diane M. Fyfe, Michelle Bush, Crystal A. Maher 2016 Southern Cross University

Lower Lakes Carbon Project: The Aquatic Vegetation Contribution To Carbon Pools, Leigh A. Sullivan, Nicholas J. Ward, Richard T. Bush, Alicia Hidden, Diane M. Fyfe, Michelle Bush, Crystal A. Maher

Adjunct Professor Leigh A Sullivan

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Diagenesis In Reservoir Development Of The Big Clifty (Jackson) Sandstone In South-Central Kentucky, Kort H. Butler 2016 Western Kentucky University

The Role Of Diagenesis In Reservoir Development Of The Big Clifty (Jackson) Sandstone In South-Central Kentucky, Kort H. Butler

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The Big Clifty is a Chesterian-age Mississippian sandstone member of the Golconda Formation that extends from south-central Kentucky into adjacent Illinois and Indiana. Asphaltic deposits and conventional petroleum plays are distributed along the Pennyrile Fault System and Plateau in the southeastern portion of the Illinois basin. In south-central Kentucky anomalous oil-saturation geometries are observed in cored sections of the Big Clifty from wells in Warren and Butler counties along the margin of the Pennyrile Plateau. Petrographic study of the cores has revealed several diagenetic processes that have contributed to, or are directly responsible for, the anomalous oil saturation geometries and ...


Iron Addition To Soil Specifically Stabilized Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Whendee L. Silver, Vitaliy I. Timokhin, Kenneth E. Hammel 2016 Iowa State University

Iron Addition To Soil Specifically Stabilized Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Whendee L. Silver, Vitaliy I. Timokhin, Kenneth E. Hammel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The importance of lignin as a recalcitrant constituent of soil organic matter (SOM) remains contested. Associations with iron (Fe) oxides have been proposed to specifically protect lignin from decomposition, but impacts of Fe-lignin interactions on mineralization rates remain unclear. Oxygen (O2) fluctuations characteristic of humid tropical soils drive reductive Fe dissolution and precipitation, facilitating multiple types of Fe-lignin interactions that could variably decompose or protect lignin. We tested impacts of Fe addition on 13C methoxyl-labeled lignin mineralization in soils that were exposed to static or fluctuating O2. Iron addition suppressed lignin mineralization to 21% of controls, regardless ...


Proportions Of Convective And Stratiform Precipitation Revealed In Water Isotope Ratios, Pradeep K. Aggarwal, Ulrike Romatschke, Luis Araguas-Araguas, Dagnachew Belachew, Fred J. Longstaffe, Peter Berg, Courtney Schumacher, Aaron Funk 2016 International Atomic Energy Agency

Proportions Of Convective And Stratiform Precipitation Revealed In Water Isotope Ratios, Pradeep K. Aggarwal, Ulrike Romatschke, Luis Araguas-Araguas, Dagnachew Belachew, Fred J. Longstaffe, Peter Berg, Courtney Schumacher, Aaron Funk

Earth Sciences Publications

Tropical and midlatitude precipitation is fundamentally of two types, spatially-limited and high-intensity convective or widespread and lower-intensity stratiform, owing to differences in vertical air motions and microphysical processes governing rain formation. These processes are difficult to observe or model and precipitation partitioning into rain types is critical for understanding how the water cycle responds to climate changes. Here, we combine two independent data sets – convective and stratiform precipitation fractions, derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite or synoptic cloud observations, and stable isotope and tritium compositions of surface precipitation, derived from a global network – to show that isotope ratios ...


Structure And Geochronology Of The White Fork Pluton, Southern Sierra Nevada, Ian Richard Mahaffey 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Structure And Geochronology Of The White Fork Pluton, Southern Sierra Nevada, Ian Richard Mahaffey

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences

The Sierra Nevada batholith represents an archetypal continental arc, although the style of deformation throughout the history of the arc is only poorly understood, in part due to the voluminous nature of Late Cretaceous magmatism that has overprinted earlier structures. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of pre-Late Cretaceous deformation in the Sierra Nevada batholith through a structural and geochronological study of the Jurassic White Fork pluton. A Jurassic age for the White Fork pluton is indicated by its inclusion of numerous 148 Ma Independence dikes, and geochronology on the White Fork pluton is limited ...


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