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The Dynamic Relationship Between The Bear River, Quaternary Basaltic Center, Normal Faults, And The Resulting Rearrangement Of Rivers In The Northeast Edge Of The Great Basin, Southeast Idaho, Brady Utley 2017 Utah State University

The Dynamic Relationship Between The Bear River, Quaternary Basaltic Center, Normal Faults, And The Resulting Rearrangement Of Rivers In The Northeast Edge Of The Great Basin, Southeast Idaho, Brady Utley

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

The objective of this research project in Gem Valley graben, southeast Idaho is to identify the location, age and history of the Quaternary diversion of the Bear River into paleo-Lake Thatcher, and then into the Lake Bonneville basin from the Columbia River basin. Mapping, geochemical analysis, cross-cutting relationships, and five new age determinations, together with prior published research, shed new light on the complex history of interaction between the volcanic rocks, rivers, lakes, and faults in Gem Valley. Research goals were to test the hypothesis that local faulting and volcanism drove the diversion of the Bear River and controlled the ...


Field Occurrence, Chemical Composition And Industrial Application Of Ekinrin-Adde Marble Deposit, Kogi State, North Central Nigeria, M Onimisi, I T. Ojonimi, M S. Kolawole, T B. Ibimode 2017 Kogi State University, Anyigba

Field Occurrence, Chemical Composition And Industrial Application Of Ekinrin-Adde Marble Deposit, Kogi State, North Central Nigeria, M Onimisi, I T. Ojonimi, M S. Kolawole, T B. Ibimode

Confluence Journal of Environmental Studies (CJES), Kogi State University, Nigeria

Field occurrence, chemical composition and industrial application of the Ekinrin – Adde marble deposit of Kogi State, north central Nigeria has been studied. Field occurrence of the marble deposit has been determined by traversing on foot along closely spaced horizontal traverses of 10 meters interval. The major element composition of twenty representative samples of the marble deposit was determined using the Minipal-4 EDS X – Ray Flourescence Spectrometer. The field occurrence shows that the marble deposit occurs as a lensoid body within a granite gneiss host rock. The marble is whitish in colour, coarse grained in texture and is overlain in some ...


Biogeochemical Interactions In Flooded Underground Mines, Renee Schmidt 2017 Montana Tech

Biogeochemical Interactions In Flooded Underground Mines, Renee Schmidt

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

This study presents a biogeochemical analysis of microbial communities in flooded underground mines in Butte, Montana, USA. Samples were collected from nine mineshafts representing three distinct geochemical zones. These zones consist of the East, West, and Outer Camp mines. The East Camp mines, bordering the Berkeley Pit Superfund site, have the highest concentrations of dissolved metals and the most acidic pH values. Dissolved metal concentrations in the West Camp are one to three orders of magnitude lower than in the East Camp and have nearly neutral pH values. The Outer Camp mines have similar metal concentrations to the West Camp ...


Foundations For A Geobiochemical Characterization Of Mudpots In Yellowstone National Park, Georgia Dahlquist 2017 Montana Tech

Foundations For A Geobiochemical Characterization Of Mudpots In Yellowstone National Park, Georgia Dahlquist

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Mudpots are acidic, turbid thermal features formed by the argillic or sericitic alteration of rock with enough fluid to create a viscous feature. Prior to this research, the combination of interdisciplinary sampling for geochemistry, mineralogy, and microbiology of rhyolite hosted mudpots, particularly in chemically distinct subregions of an area, remained largely unavailable. This work discusses mudpots and nearby hot springs sampled in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in July 2016 and the measured in situ pH, temperature, and conductivity values, and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Water, filtered via gravity pre-filtration and 1.2 μm and 0.8/0.2μm syringe filtration, yielded ...


Tracking Potential Leakage Of Tailings-Lake Water Into Background Groundwater In Butte, Montana, Using Geochemical And Stable Isotope Tracers, Matthew Berzel 2017 Montana Tech

Tracking Potential Leakage Of Tailings-Lake Water Into Background Groundwater In Butte, Montana, Using Geochemical And Stable Isotope Tracers, Matthew Berzel

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

This study was conducted to identify environmental tracers using water chemistry and stable isotopes in the Moulton Road area adjacent to the Yankee Doodle tailings impoundment north of Butte, Montana. The water level of the tailings lake is being raised as tailings slurry is pumped up to the impoundment, and numerous residential wells are located in close proximity. Although it has an alkaline pH (> 9), the water in the tailings lake is much higher in some chemical constituents than the wells and some of these constituents could be used as tracers to determine if lake water is migrating out of ...


Measuring Inorganic Carbon Fluxes From Carbonate Mineral Weathering From Large River Basins: The Ohio River Basin, Autumn B. Turner 2017 Western Kentucky University

Measuring Inorganic Carbon Fluxes From Carbonate Mineral Weathering From Large River Basins: The Ohio River Basin, Autumn B. Turner

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations have motivated efforts to better quantify reservoirs and fluxes of Earth’s carbon. Of these fluxes from the atmosphere, one that has received relatively little attention is the atmospheric carbon sink associated with carbonate mineral dissolution. Osterhoudt (2014) and Salley (2016) explored new normalization techniques to improve and standardize a process for measuring this flux over large river basins. The present research extends this work to the 490,600 km2 Ohio River drainage basin and 11 subbasins. The study estimated the DIC flux leaving these basins between October 1, 2013, and September 30, 2014, based on ...


Geochemical And Petrographic Analysis Of Basaltic Rocks Of The Hawaiian Island: Implications For Their Evolutionary Stage Of Development, Autumn A. Burrell 2017 Bridgewater State University

Geochemical And Petrographic Analysis Of Basaltic Rocks Of The Hawaiian Island: Implications For Their Evolutionary Stage Of Development, Autumn A. Burrell

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Geochemical and petrographic analyses of basaltic rocks were performed from five volcanoes on the Big Island of Hawaii. From north to south these volcanoes include: Kohala; Hualalai; Mauna Kea; Mauna Loa; and Kilauea. These volcanoes have formed through several distinct stages of volcanic growth and development. During each of these stages, the lavas extruded will be composed of a distinctive geochemical signature which corresponds to each of the 4 main phases of development. These include a 1) pre-shield building; 2) main shield building; 3) post-shield building; and 4) a rejuvenated stage.

The geochemical results are used to establish the evolutionary ...


Terroir Studies In Washington And Wisconsin American Viticultural Areas, Snejana Karakis 2017 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Terroir Studies In Washington And Wisconsin American Viticultural Areas, Snejana Karakis

Theses and Dissertations

The concept of terroir has been evaluated since the 12th century, when Cistercian monks from Burgundy realized that the physical environment in which grapes are grown has a major influence on the character and quality of the resulting wine. These environmental conditions affecting grape and wine quality are known as terroir in viticulture and have become increasingly important in the grape growing and wine industry. In this dissertation, three studies investigating the terroir of vineyards located in Washington and Wisconsin American Viticultural Areas (AVAs), which are defined by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) as delimited grape-growing ...


Exploring The Calvert Cliffs: Interpreting Classic Miocene Sequences Through The Application Of Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy And Paleoecology, Joshua B. Zimmt 2017 College of William and Mary

Exploring The Calvert Cliffs: Interpreting Classic Miocene Sequences Through The Application Of Strontium Isotope Stratigraphy And Paleoecology, Joshua B. Zimmt

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Calvert Cliffs (Maryland, USA) is a classic condensed Miocene sequence that has attracted much scientific attention for its laterally extensive and highly condensed fossil beds (Kidwell, 1982a). Several meters thick and up to 70% shell material, the period of formation of these major complex shell beds has been debated for decades. Kidwell (1989) and associated studies have demonstrated that the major complex shell beds possess certain characteristics that suggest the beds formed as a succession of condensed parasequences during a transgressive systems tract. However, no quantitative analysis has calculated the period of formation of the major complex shell beds ...


Determining Sources Of Nitrate In The Semi-Arid Rio Grande Using Nitrogen And Oxygen Isotopes, Diego Alberto Sanchez Hernandez 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Determining Sources Of Nitrate In The Semi-Arid Rio Grande Using Nitrogen And Oxygen Isotopes, Diego Alberto Sanchez Hernandez

Masters Theses

The Rio Grande, a semi-arid river in the American Southwest, is a major source of surface water for agriculture and drinking supplies in New Mexico and Texas. In addition to increasing salinity, considerable increases of NO3- [nitrate] have been observed in the semi-arid portion of the Rio Grande. It is possible that elevated water salinity inhibits denitrification on irrigated fields and, thus, fails to mediate excess nutrient load from anthropogenic activities. Therefore, two major goals of this project were to 1) characterize and quantify major NO3- sources, and 2) assess whether elevated water salinity affects microbial denitrification. In ...


Catalyzed Synthesis Of Zinc Clays By Prebiotic Central Metabolites, Marcelo I. Guzman, Ruixin Zhou, Kaustuv Basu, Hyman Hartman, Christopher J. Matocha, S. Kelly Sears, Hajatollah Vali 2017 University of Kentucky

Catalyzed Synthesis Of Zinc Clays By Prebiotic Central Metabolites, Marcelo I. Guzman, Ruixin Zhou, Kaustuv Basu, Hyman Hartman, Christopher J. Matocha, S. Kelly Sears, Hajatollah Vali

Chemistry Faculty Publications

How primordial metabolic networks such as the reverse tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle and clay mineral catalysts coevolved remains a mystery in the puzzle to understand the origin of life. While prebiotic reactions from the rTCA cycle were accomplished via photochemistry on semiconductor minerals, the synthesis of clays was demonstrated at low temperature and ambient pressure catalyzed by oxalate. Herein, the crystallization of clay minerals is catalyzed by succinate, an example of a photoproduced intermediate from central metabolism. The experiments connect the synthesis of sauconite, a model for clay minerals, to prebiotic photochemistry. We report the temperature, pH, and concentration dependence ...


Alicyclic And Aromatic Carboxylic Acids In Soil Organic Matter: An Investigation Of Potential Origin And Association With Plutonium Using Advanced Analytical Techniques, Nicole DiDonato 2017 Old Dominion University

Alicyclic And Aromatic Carboxylic Acids In Soil Organic Matter: An Investigation Of Potential Origin And Association With Plutonium Using Advanced Analytical Techniques, Nicole Didonato

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

Carboxylic acids are a defining component of soil organic matter, responsible for many of the physical and chemical properties, including metal-organic matter interactions, which govern its role as an important constituent of soils. However, there is a shortage of detailed molecular level information regarding orientation and structural arrangement of carboxylic acids within soil organic matter. This dissertation utilizes electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICRMS) as well as solid-state and multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to investigate the molecular formula composition within several organic matter sources and the primary structures that feature carboxylic acids. Soil organic matter ...


Mineralogy And Geochemistry Of The Heddleston Porphyry Cu-Mo Deposit, Montana, Ben Schubert 2017 Montana Tech

Mineralogy And Geochemistry Of The Heddleston Porphyry Cu-Mo Deposit, Montana, Ben Schubert

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The Heddleston porphyry Cu-Mo deposit is located in Lewis and Clark County, Montana, near the headwaters of the Blackfoot River. It is immediately west of the historic Mike Horse mine, an important producer of Pb-Zn from polymetallic veins and lodes. The Heddleston property was explored extensively by the Anaconda Company in the 1960s and 1970s, but was never mined. Specimens of polished drill core from the deposit are archived in the Anaconda Research Collection at Montana Tech campus. The purpose of this research project was to use the archived samples to examine the geochemistry and mineralogy of the Heddleston and ...


Supergene Mineralization Of The Continental Pit, Butte, Silver Bow County, Montana, Kyle Eastman 2017 Montana Tech

Supergene Mineralization Of The Continental Pit, Butte, Silver Bow County, Montana, Kyle Eastman

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

The Butte porphyry Cu-Mo-Ag deposit has been considerably altered by supergene processes that enriched Cu and Ag, and mobilized other metals. Supergene enrichment provided early miners with excellent ore grades, and contributes significantly to current mining operations in Butte. The Continental Pit exhibits the classic leached and enriched vertical zonation that is common in near-surface porphyry systems around the world. Although studied by the Anaconda Copper Mining Company during the mid-20th century, significant and economically relevant questions remain regarding this deposit’s supergene heavy metal geochemistry and its relationship to the local hydrology and tectonic history.

This thesis investigates the ...


Iron Addition To Soil Specifically Stabilized Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Whendee L. Silver, Vitaliy I. Timokhin, Kenneth E. Hammel 2017 Iowa State University

Iron Addition To Soil Specifically Stabilized Lignin, Steven J. Hall, Whendee L. Silver, Vitaliy I. Timokhin, Kenneth E. Hammel

Steven J. Hall

The importance of lignin as a recalcitrant constituent of soil organic matter (SOM) remains contested. Associations with iron (Fe) oxides have been proposed to specifically protect lignin from decomposition, but impacts of Fe-lignin interactions on mineralization rates remain unclear. Oxygen (O2) fluctuations characteristic of humid tropical soils drive reductive Fe dissolution and precipitation, facilitating multiple types of Fe-lignin interactions that could variably decompose or protect lignin. We tested impacts of Fe addition on 13C methoxyl-labeled lignin mineralization in soils that were exposed to static or fluctuating O2. Iron addition suppressed lignin mineralization to 21% of controls, regardless ...


Cu-Pd Mineralization And Exploration Geochemistry Of The Eastern Gabbro, Coldwell Alkaline Complex, On, Canada, Yonghua Cao 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Cu-Pd Mineralization And Exploration Geochemistry Of The Eastern Gabbro, Coldwell Alkaline Complex, On, Canada, Yonghua Cao

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Eastern Gabbro forms the northern and eastern margin of the Coldwell Alkaline Complex. It contains three magma series: the barren meta-basalt, the Layered Series, and the Marathon Series which hosts all known PGE mineralization. The Marathon Series can be distinguished from other Series using the combination of portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) and benchtop scanning electron microscope (bSEM). Whole-rock Ba, Mg# (molar Mg/(Mg+Fe)*100), Zr and V/Ti values acquired from pXRF, and Mg#s of olivine and clinopyroxene, and anorthite content (molar Ca/(Ca+Na)*100) of plagioclase acquired from bSEM-EDS are key parameters. The Layered Series ...


Secondary Minerals From Salt Caves In The Atacama Desert (Chile): A Hyperarid And Hypersaline Environment With Potential Analogies To The Martian Subsurface, Jo De Waele, Cristina Carbone, Laura Sanna, Marco Vattano, Ermanno Galli, Francesco Sauro, Paolo Forti 2017 University of Bologna

Secondary Minerals From Salt Caves In The Atacama Desert (Chile): A Hyperarid And Hypersaline Environment With Potential Analogies To The Martian Subsurface, Jo De Waele, Cristina Carbone, Laura Sanna, Marco Vattano, Ermanno Galli, Francesco Sauro, Paolo Forti

International Journal of Speleology

Over the past 15 years several expeditions by French, American and especially Italian cavers have unveiled over 50 caves in the Cordillera de la Sal (Atacama Desert, Northern Chile). Many of these caves contain a variety of speleothems and minerals, some of which have rarely been observed within karst systems. Most of the secondary deposits in these caves are composed of halite, but also other halide, carbonate, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate minerals have been found. Among the sixteen cave mineral species recognized, atacamite, darapskite, blödite, leonite, anhydrite, and especially antarcticite are worth mentioning. In one of the samples an ...


Petrographical And Geochemical Changes In Bosnian Stalagmites And Their Palaeo-Environmental Significance, Veronica Chiarini, Isabelle Couchoud, Russell Drysdale, Petra Bajo, Simone Milanolo, Silvia Frisia, Alan Greig, John Hellstrom, Jo De Waele 2017 University of Bologna

Petrographical And Geochemical Changes In Bosnian Stalagmites And Their Palaeo-Environmental Significance, Veronica Chiarini, Isabelle Couchoud, Russell Drysdale, Petra Bajo, Simone Milanolo, Silvia Frisia, Alan Greig, John Hellstrom, Jo De Waele

International Journal of Speleology

Detailed petrographic observations have been coupled with trace element and δ13C - δ18O analyses in order to investigate their dynamics in two Holocene Bosnian speleothems. The potential of this multiproxy approach in providing a means to extract palaeo-environmental information from stalagmites whose stable isotope signals are noisy and without obvious trends has been tested. The studied stalagmites are mostly characterized by columnar microcrystalline fabric. At the sub-millimetre scale of lamination, different microcrystalline columnar sub-types (open and closed) have been detected and classified on the basis of the observed porosity and the crystallite size. The presence of variations ...


Mercury Increases In Lake Tanganyika Since ~1850, Troy A. Bole 2017 The University of Akron

Mercury Increases In Lake Tanganyika Since ~1850, Troy A. Bole

Honors Research Projects

A series of three sediment cores were collected in Lake Tanganyika, Africa, and were analyzed for mercury concentrations. For all three cores, a decrease in mercury (Hg) levels was observed from the 1600’s (appx. 20 ng/g) until concentrations reached a minimum during the mid-1800’s (appx. 10 ng/g). The mid-1800’s marked a change from decreasing mercury levels to an increase over the following century. The core tops (circa 2006) have concentrations greater than 70 ng/g. The onset of the rise in mercury concentrations coincides with the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the mid to ...


An Investigation Of Paleo-Wildfires During The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) Boundary At El Kef, Tunisia, Michael Gross 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

An Investigation Of Paleo-Wildfires During The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) Boundary At El Kef, Tunisia, Michael Gross

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The causes and consequences of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction have long been a source of contention. Several models predict that enough thermal radiation from the bolide impact was produced to ignite wildfires at least regionally and possibly on a global scale, raising average temperatures by up to ~10°C, and releasing large amounts of CO2 and CO. However, the role of regional versus global wildfire events as an environmental stressor, as well as the sources of the fire (land vegetation vs. hydrocarbon reservoirs) and its expression in terrestrial and marine archives, remains controversial. Typically, wildfires are preserved in the ...


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