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Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry Method (Reox/Mims) To Measure 15n-Nitrate In Isotope-Enrichment Experiments, Xianbiao Lin, Kaijun Lu, Amber K. Hardison, et al 2021 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry Method (Reox/Mims) To Measure 15n-Nitrate In Isotope-Enrichment Experiments, Xianbiao Lin, Kaijun Lu, Amber K. Hardison, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Using 15N stable isotope as a tracer to quantify N transformation rates in isotope-enrichment experiments improves understanding of the N cycle in various ecosystems. However, measuring 15N-nitrate (15NO3) in small volumes of water for these experiments is a major challenge due to the inconvenience of preparing samples by traditional techniques. We developed a “REOX/MIMS” method by applying membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) to determining 15NO3 concentrations in a small volumes of water from isotope-enrichment experiments after converting the dissolved inorganic N to N2. The nitrates (NO3 + NO2) were reduced to ...


Molybdenite Re–Os, Titanite And Garnet U–Pb Dating Of The Magushan Skarn Cu–Mo Deposit, Xuancheng District, Middle–Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt, Yue Li, Feng Yuan, Simon M. Jowitt, Fangyue Wang, Xiangling Li, Yufeng Deng, Yunyue Wang, Taofa Zhou 2021 Hefei University of Technology

Molybdenite Re–Os, Titanite And Garnet U–Pb Dating Of The Magushan Skarn Cu–Mo Deposit, Xuancheng District, Middle–Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt, Yue Li, Feng Yuan, Simon M. Jowitt, Fangyue Wang, Xiangling Li, Yufeng Deng, Yunyue Wang, Taofa Zhou

Geoscience Faculty Publications

© 2020 Elsevier B.V. The Magushan skarn Cu–Mo deposit is a representative example of the skarn mineralization occurring within the Xuancheng ore district of the Middle–Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt of eastern China. The precise age of an ore deposit is important for understanding the timing of mineralization relative to other geological events in a region and to fully place the formation of a mineral deposit within the geological context of other processes that occur within the study area. Here, we present new molybdenite Re–Os and titanite and andradite garnet U–Pb ages for the Magushan deposit ...


Three Centuries Of Vegetation Change In The William & Mary College Woods Reconstructed Using Phytoliths, Timothy Terlizzi 2021 William & Mary

Three Centuries Of Vegetation Change In The William & Mary College Woods Reconstructed Using Phytoliths, Timothy Terlizzi

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The College Woods, west of William & Mary’s campus, consists of ~900 acres of protected southern mixed hardwood forest. The woods surround Lake Matoaka, a former millpond established in ~1700. Despite the rich history of the area, little is known about how the dominant vegetative landcover has shifted over the last 300 years. This study set out to quantify the modern vegetation within the College Woods via the phytolith assemblages within the soil and identify shifts in the assemblages since the creation of Lake Matoaka and whether these changes are distinct from the vegetation that existed in the area before the lake. To accomplish this, I studied the composition and preservation of phytoliths – silica bodies generated within and between plant cells. The study focused on the two questions: do the modern phytolith assemblages in the soil of the College Woods reflect the vegetation present and can phytoliths within the sediments of Lake Matoaka be used to identify the dominant vegetative communities over the last ~300 years? I addressed these questions with three approaches: 1) Identify the primary phytolith producing taxa within the College Woods; 2) Identify the modern phytolith assemblages within the soil of the College Woods; 3) Identify the differences between phytolith assemblages from the lake sediment core samples. I found the following: 1) The production of phytoliths varies heavily between and within different common taxa of the College Woods, with species of oaks (Quercus spp.) unpredictably producing phytoliths and beeches (Fagus grandifolia) likely contributing the majority of dicot phytoliths; 2) The modern phytolith assemblages of the College Woods reflect a low phytolith producing environment, and the vegetative homogeneity is reflected in the phytolith record; 3) The ...


200— Chemical Analysis Of Slag From Standish, Ny, Maria Leonard, Dori Farthing 2021 SUNY Geneseo

200— Chemical Analysis Of Slag From Standish, Ny, Maria Leonard, Dori Farthing

GREAT Day

From 1883 to 1907, magnetite was smelted in Standish, NY. During this time, a large amount of slag, a byproduct of smelting, was created. The slag is now in a pile that covers ~13 acres in the northeastern region of the Adirondacks. The slag at the site has been classified into 6 broad types based on their physical properties. Exemplars of select types were crushed and analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). Both major elements and trace element data was collected for these samples. The XRF results indicate that all Standish slag is dominated by SiO2, CaO, and Fe2O3(t ...


369— Comparison Of Wilkins Creek And Spring Creek Stream Chemistries, Victoria Taylor, Brooke Stickles 2021 SUNY Geneseo

369— Comparison Of Wilkins Creek And Spring Creek Stream Chemistries, Victoria Taylor, Brooke Stickles

GREAT Day

A stream's chemistry and health can be affected by seasonal fluctuations, environment and land usage. Wilkins Creek and Spring Creek are tributaries of Conesus Lake located in Livonia, New York. The two streams flow through varying terrain. Wilkins Creek flows predominantly through wetlands, residential and agricultural land. Spring Creek runs through the village of Livonia. The different environments may result in altered stream chemistries. An analysis of water chemistry was taken at different points in Wilkins Creek and Spring Creek before they converged. Alkalinity, chloride, oxygen, pH, conductivity, and water temperature were measured at each location. Samples were collected ...


On The Genesis Of Aluminum-Rich Speleothems In A Granite Cave Of Nw Spain, Jorge Sanjurjo-Sanchez, Carlos Arce Chamorro, Juan Ramón Vidal Romaní, Marcos Vaqueiro-Rodríguez, Victor Barrientos, Joeri Kaal 2021 University of A Coruña, Spain

On The Genesis Of Aluminum-Rich Speleothems In A Granite Cave Of Nw Spain, Jorge Sanjurjo-Sanchez, Carlos Arce Chamorro, Juan Ramón Vidal Romaní, Marcos Vaqueiro-Rodríguez, Victor Barrientos, Joeri Kaal

International Journal of Speleology

Granite massifs often contain caves, with dimensions ranging from a few meters up to 1,000 m, also referred to as pseudokarst. The speleothems in such caves are mostly composed of either Si-rich (commonly opal-A) or Al-rich authigenic mineraloids. Whereas the formation and geochemical composition of opal-A biospeleothems have been studied and are fairly well understood, knowledge on the Al-rich analogues is scarce. This work reports for the first time a study on the composition, accretion process, age and growth rate of an Al-rich speleothem type flowstone from the A Trapa Cave System (Galicia, NW Spain), developed in a granite ...


Reassessing Hydrothermal Heat Discharge And The Relationship Of Hot Springs In The North Oregon Cascades, Aaron Alexander Orr 2021 Portland State University

Reassessing Hydrothermal Heat Discharge And The Relationship Of Hot Springs In The North Oregon Cascades, Aaron Alexander Orr

Dissertations and Theses

Reservoir temperatures of hydrothermal systems in the Pacific Northwest reflect the feasibility of geothermal energy production and the tectonic framework of the region. Multicomponent geothermometry techniques were applied to new and historic water chemistry data in the north-central Oregon Western Cascades and the lower Wind River Valley in southern Washington in order to recalculate reservoir temperatures. Revised reservoir temperatures, water chemistry, and isotope data were used to determine relationships between hot springs in the north-central Oregon Cascades. Geothermal reservoir temperatures were estimated for the lower Wind River Valley (98.44 ± 0.96°C) and for Austin and Bagby Hot Springs ...


Nickel Isotopic Evidence For Late-Stage Accretion Of Mercury-Like Differentiated Planetary Embryos, Shui Jiong Wang, Wenzhong Wang, Jian Ming Zhu, Zhongqing Wu, Jingao Liu, Guilin Han, Fang Zhen Teng, Shichun Huang, Hongjie Wu, Yujian Wang, Guangliang Wu, Weihan Li 2021 State Key Lab for Geological Processes and Mineral Resources

Nickel Isotopic Evidence For Late-Stage Accretion Of Mercury-Like Differentiated Planetary Embryos, Shui Jiong Wang, Wenzhong Wang, Jian Ming Zhu, Zhongqing Wu, Jingao Liu, Guilin Han, Fang Zhen Teng, Shichun Huang, Hongjie Wu, Yujian Wang, Guangliang Wu, Weihan Li

Geoscience Faculty Publications

© 2021, The Author(s). Earth’s habitability is closely tied to its late-stage accretion, during which impactors delivered the majority of life-essential volatiles. However, the nature of these final building blocks remains poorly constrained. Nickel (Ni) can be a useful tracer in characterizing this accretion as most Ni in the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) comes from the late-stage impactors. Here, we apply Ni stable isotope analysis to a large number of meteorites and terrestrial rocks, and find that the BSE has a lighter Ni isotopic composition compared to chondrites. Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we show that ...


A Record Of Vapour Pressure Deficit Preserved In Wood And Soil Across Biomes, Adrian Broz, Gregory J. Retallack, Toby M. Maxwell, Lucas C.R. Silva 2021 University of Oregon

A Record Of Vapour Pressure Deficit Preserved In Wood And Soil Across Biomes, Adrian Broz, Gregory J. Retallack, Toby M. Maxwell, Lucas C.R. Silva

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The drying power of air, or vapour pressure deficit (VPD), is an important measurement of potential plant stress and productivity. Estimates of VPD values of the past are integral for understanding the link between rising modern atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) and global water balance. A geological record of VPD is needed for paleoclimate studies of past greenhouse spikes which attempt to constrain future climate, but at present there are few quantitative atmospheric moisture proxies that can be applied to fossil material. Here we show that VPD leaves a permanent record in the slope (S) of least-squares regressions between stable ...


Trondhjemite Leucosomes Generated By Partial Melting Of A Hornblende-Gabbro (Alvand Plutonic Complex, Hamedan, Nw Iran), Adel Saki, Federico Lucci, Mirmohammad Miri, John C. White 2021 Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran

Trondhjemite Leucosomes Generated By Partial Melting Of A Hornblende-Gabbro (Alvand Plutonic Complex, Hamedan, Nw Iran), Adel Saki, Federico Lucci, Mirmohammad Miri, John C. White

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

This work describes the petrogenesis of in situ and in-source trondhjemite leucosomes generated by low-degree partial melting of the Jurassic Cheshmeh-Ghasaban hornblende-gabbros in the northern Alvand batholith (Hamedan, NW Iran). These leucosomes occur in a metatexite migmatite as patches, net-structures, veinlets, and dikes at scales ranging from a few millimetres to a few metres. They have high SiO2 (mean ≈ 78 wt%) and Na2O (4–5 wt%) with low Al2O3 (<15 wt%), K2 O (<1.5 wt%), Sr (33–267 ppm), Eu (0.31–0.62 ppm) and heavy REE (<4 ppm) contents similar to typical low-Al2O3 trondhjemites. Batch-melting models indicate these leucosomes are the result of ≈1-2% partial melting of the hornblende-gabbro, whereas thermobarometric modelling constrains their petrogenesis in the field of hornblende hornfels-facies metamorphism (pressure ≈3.0–4.5 kbar and temperature ≈700-750°C). On a wider scale, our results document natural trondhjemites generated in the upper crust by amphibole-dehydration melting of a mafic source at temperature conditions close to the solidus, filling the existing gap of data in low-pressure (P < 5kbar) and lowtemperature (T < 800°C) amphibole-dominated partial melting experiments. The genesis of these trondhjemites is then discussed with respect to the Mesozoic evolution of the Alvand plutonic complex.


Evolution Of The Magma System Of Pantelleria (Italy) From 190 Ka To Present., Nina J. Jordan, John C. White, Ray Macdonald, Silvio G. Rotolo 2021 University of Leicester

Evolution Of The Magma System Of Pantelleria (Italy) From 190 Ka To Present., Nina J. Jordan, John C. White, Ray Macdonald, Silvio G. Rotolo

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

The eruptive history of Pantelleria has been marked by the eruption of nine peralkaline ignimbrites, with inter-ignimbrite episodes from small, local volcanic centres. New whole-rock geochemical data are presented for seven ignimbrites and used with published data for younger units to track compositional changes with time. From ∼190 ka, silicic magmatism was dominated by comenditic trachyte to comendite compositions, evolving along generally similar liquid lines of descent (LLOD). The final ignimbrite, the Green Tuff (∼46 ka), was tapped from a compositionally zoned pantelleritic upper reservoir to a trachytic mush zone. Younger (20–7 ka) silicic magmatism has been relatively small ...


Months-Long Spike In Aqueous Arsenic Following Domestic Well Installation And Disinfection: Short- And Long-Term Drinking Water Quality Implications, Melinda L. Erickson, Elizabeth D. Swanner, Brady A. Ziegler, Jeff R. Havig 2021 US Geological Survey

Months-Long Spike In Aqueous Arsenic Following Domestic Well Installation And Disinfection: Short- And Long-Term Drinking Water Quality Implications, Melinda L. Erickson, Elizabeth D. Swanner, Brady A. Ziegler, Jeff R. Havig

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Exposure to high concentration geogenic arsenic via groundwater is a worldwide health concern. Well installation introduces oxic drilling fluids and hypochlorite (a strong oxidant) for disinfection, thus inducing geochemical disequilibrium. Well installation causes changes in geochemistry lasting 12 + months, as illustrated in a recent study of 250 new domestic wells in Minnesota, north-central United States. One study well had extremely high initial arsenic (1550 µg/L) that substantially decreased after 15 months (5.2 µg/L). The drilling and development of the study well were typical and ordinary; nothing observable indicated the very high initial arsenic concentration. We hypothesized that ...


Artisanal Mining Impacts In Urbanized Semi-Arid Environments: Lessons From Historic Arsenic Mining Near San Diego, California, James A. Wright 2021 University of San Diego

Artisanal Mining Impacts In Urbanized Semi-Arid Environments: Lessons From Historic Arsenic Mining Near San Diego, California, James A. Wright

Theses

Anomalously elevated arsenic concentrations occur at an abandoned artisanal mine site in an open space recreational park in urban San Diego County, California. Although mining at the site ceased 100 years ago little to no remediation efforts took place leaving shafts, adits, waste piles and derelict infrastructure accessible by inquisitive hikers and adventurers frequenting Black Mountain Open Space Park. This study evaluates the geochemical mechanisms of As transport downgradient from the mine and examines the contribution of both climate and urbanization on the restriction of As mobility. Sediment As concentrations reach 2,320 mg/kg (483 times background crustal concentrations ...


Analysis Of Water Concentration Formed Within Deformed Synthetic Quartz Crystals, Andrew Steward 2021 The University of Akron

Analysis Of Water Concentration Formed Within Deformed Synthetic Quartz Crystals, Andrew Steward

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Analyzing the strength of synthetic quartz is essential to understanding the strength of natural milky quartz, which likely controls the strength of Earth’s continental crust. Synthetic quartz is sometimes used for deformation experiments because it has a homogenous water distribution unlike natural milky quartz. The purpose of this study is to determine if annealing synthetic quartz at T = 600°C will convert the water in synthetic quartz to free water, like milky quartz, but with little water loss. Following two annealing experiments at Texas A&M University, I performed four annealing experiments to measure the water content of five ...


Variations In Produced Water Chemistry And Relation To Regional Geology And Production In The Marcellus Shale, Northcentral West Virginia, Jonathan M. Brady 2021 West Virginia University

Variations In Produced Water Chemistry And Relation To Regional Geology And Production In The Marcellus Shale, Northcentral West Virginia, Jonathan M. Brady

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

An investigation of 74 Marcellus Shale wells across northcentral West Virginia indicates changes in produced water chemistry and quantity can be related to geologic conditions based on well logs and core data. These changes are determined by reviewing multiple produced water analyses for individual wells for periods up to ten years. Results show variations among the areas in this study. From west to east across central Harrison County to central Taylor County, then north into Monongalia County, gamma-ray logs show increasing intensity, especially in the middle and lower Marcellus. XRD mineralogy from core data shows increasing clay content from west ...


Crustal Evolution Of The New England Appalachians: The Rise And Fall Of A Long-Lived Orogenic Plateau, Ian Hillenbrand 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Crustal Evolution Of The New England Appalachians: The Rise And Fall Of A Long-Lived Orogenic Plateau, Ian Hillenbrand

Masters Theses

The rise and demise of mountain belts, caused by growth, modification, or removal of the continental lithosphere are fundamental processes that influence almost all Earth systems. Understanding the nature, timing, and significance of active processes in the creation and evolution of modern mountain belts is challenged by a lack of middle crustal and lower crustal exposures. Analogues can be found in ancient orogens, whose deeply eroded roots offer a window into deeper processes, yet this record is complicated by overprinting events and complex deformational histories. Research presented herein constrains the tectonic history of multistage Appalachian Orogen, type locality of the ...


Magnetite Mineralization Of The Hammondville Pluton: Poly-Phase Kiruna Type Iocg Magnetite-Apatite Deposits In The Lyon Mountain Granite, Phillip Geer 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Magnetite Mineralization Of The Hammondville Pluton: Poly-Phase Kiruna Type Iocg Magnetite-Apatite Deposits In The Lyon Mountain Granite, Phillip Geer

Masters Theses

Recent mapping of the Eagle Lake Quadrangle, NY, coupled with whole-rock geochemistry and microscopy has offered insight into the petrogenesis of the magnetite-apatite deposits of the Hammondville mining district in the eastern Adirondack Mountains. This study provides insight into the magmatic history of the ca. 1060-1050 Ma Lyon Mountain Granite (Hammondville Pluton) which is intimately related to, and hosts the deposits in this area. Magnetite seams are commonly surrounded by well layered magnetite gneiss, which typically parallel the seams, although in some outcrops appear to be slightly truncated by them. Mineralization is generally concordant with the weak layering found throughout ...


Interpretation Of Hydrogeologic Data To Support Groundwater Management, Bazile Groundwater Management Area, Northeast Nebraska, 2019—A Case Demonstration Of The Nebraska Geocloud, Christopher M. Hobza, Gregory V. Steele 2020 U.S. Geological Survey

Interpretation Of Hydrogeologic Data To Support Groundwater Management, Bazile Groundwater Management Area, Northeast Nebraska, 2019—A Case Demonstration Of The Nebraska Geocloud, Christopher M. Hobza, Gregory V. Steele

Publications of the US Geological Survey

Nitrate, age tracer, and continuous groundwater-level data were interpreted in conjunction with airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey data to understand the movement of nitrate within the Bazile Groundwater Management Area (BGMA) in northeastern Nebraska. Previously published age tracer data and nitrate data indicated vertical stratification of groundwater quality. Younger groundwater sampled within shallow parts of the aquifer had higher concentrations of nitrate, with 70 percent exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter. In contrast, groundwater sampled from deeper parts of the aquifer indicated that nitrate concentrations were less than 2 milligrams per liter ...


Surface Alteration In The Ölkelduháls, Nesjavellir, And Geysir Hydrothermal Systems, Iceland: Implications For Mars, Jordan Ludyan 2020 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Surface Alteration In The Ölkelduháls, Nesjavellir, And Geysir Hydrothermal Systems, Iceland: Implications For Mars, Jordan Ludyan

Theses and Dissertations

Silica- and sulfate-rich deposits observed by Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit near Home Plate, Gusev crater, Mars, indicate alteration of Mars basalt by a diverse array of hydrothermal fluids and processes. Constraining the precise fluid conditions present at the time of deposition for these deposits on Mars relies on investigations of terrestrial hydrothermal systems that produce similar mineral assemblages. Alteration products and fluids collected from the Ölkelduháls, Nesjavellir, and Geysir hydrothermal areas in southern Iceland cover a wide range of end-member and intermediate fluid and alteration environments, and provide a means to compare the secondary minerals produced from different hydrothermal ...


Sedimentology, Sequence Stratigraphy, And High-Precision U-Pb Age Constraints On The Late Paleozoic Ansilta Formation, Calingasta-Uspallata Basin, Nw Argentina, John Ethan Malone 2020 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Sedimentology, Sequence Stratigraphy, And High-Precision U-Pb Age Constraints On The Late Paleozoic Ansilta Formation, Calingasta-Uspallata Basin, Nw Argentina, John Ethan Malone

Theses and Dissertations

The Ansilta Formation, located several kilometers east of the Astronomical Observatory El Leoncito near Barreal, San Juan Province, Argentina was deposited during the late Mississippian to early Pennsylvanian. This succession includes glacimarine, nearshore, and fluvial systems deposited at the mid-Carboniferous portion of the late Paleozoic ice age within the Calingasta—Uspallata Basin on the western margin of the Protoprecordillera. The lower member of the Ansilta Formation is equivalent to the nearby Leoncito, Majaditas, and Hoyada Verde formations, and is composed of diamictite, conglomerates, sandstones, pebbly mudstones, and laminated mudstone. Glacial environments are unique in that facies changes occur as a ...


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