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Geomorphic And Paleoclimatic Implications Of Glacial Extent Records In The Sierra Nevada Del Cocuy, Colombia During Termination 1, Jordan Nickerson Herbert 2022 Dartmouth College

Geomorphic And Paleoclimatic Implications Of Glacial Extent Records In The Sierra Nevada Del Cocuy, Colombia During Termination 1, Jordan Nickerson Herbert

Dartmouth College Master’s Theses

Reconstructions of past glacial extents using geomorphic mapping and cosmogenic dating provide an opportunity to infer past climates. A record of the past extents of tropical mountain glaciers is particularly useful because there are few other means to reconstruct past temperatures in high-altitude, low-latitude locations. The tropics play an outsized role in mediating global climate, yet there is a lack of understanding of how the tropics may have influenced past climate changes such as the most recent deglaciation (Termination 1, ~18–11.7 ka). Improving reconstructions of tropical mountain glaciers will aid in understanding the role of the tropics in ...


Revisiting 228Th As A Tool For Determining Sedimentation And Mass Accumulation Rates, Joseph J. Tamborski, Pinghe Cai, Meagan Eagle, Paul Henderson, Matthew A. Charette 2022 Old Dominion University

Revisiting 228Th As A Tool For Determining Sedimentation And Mass Accumulation Rates, Joseph J. Tamborski, Pinghe Cai, Meagan Eagle, Paul Henderson, Matthew A. Charette

OES Faculty Publications

The use of 228Th has seen limited application for determining sedimentation and mass accumulation rates in coastal and marine environments. Recent analytical advances have enabled rapid, precise measurements of particle-bound 228Th using a radium delayed coincidence counting system (RaDeCC). Herein we review the 228Th cycle in the marine environment and revisit the historical use of 228Th as a tracer for determining sediment vertical accretion and mass accumulation rates in light of new measurement techniques. Case studies comparing accumulation rates from 228Th and 210Pb are presented for a micro-tidal salt marsh and a marginal sea ...


A Pressure And Stress Study Of Reidite, Gillian G. Noonan 2022 Western University

A Pressure And Stress Study Of Reidite, Gillian G. Noonan

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Zircon is a mineral that can commonly be found in many rocks in the Earth’s crust and other planetary bodies. Meteorite impact sites have also been shown to contain zircon and its high-pressure polymorph, Reidite.


Temporal Lidar Scanning In Quantifying Cumulative Rockfall Volume And Hazard Assessment: A Case Study At Southwestern Saudi Arabia, Abdullah A. Alotaibi, Norbert H. Maerz, Kenneth J. Boyko, Ahmed M. Youssef, Biswajeet Pradhan 2022 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Temporal Lidar Scanning In Quantifying Cumulative Rockfall Volume And Hazard Assessment: A Case Study At Southwestern Saudi Arabia, Abdullah A. Alotaibi, Norbert H. Maerz, Kenneth J. Boyko, Ahmed M. Youssef, Biswajeet Pradhan

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Rockfalls and unstable slopes pose a serious threat to people and property along roads/highways in the southwestern mountainous regions of Saudi Arabia. In this study, the application of terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology was applied aiming to propose a strategy to analyze and accurately depict the detection of rockfall changes, calculation of rockfall volume, and evaluate rockfall hazards along the Habs Road, Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia. A series of temporal LiDAR scans were acquired at three selected sites. Our results show that these three sites have different degrees of hazard due to their geological differences. The mean ...


Precambrian Molar-Tooth Structure: Unraveling The Diagenesis Of Ancient Carbonates, Agustin Kriscautzky 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Precambrian Molar-Tooth Structure: Unraveling The Diagenesis Of Ancient Carbonates, Agustin Kriscautzky

Doctoral Dissertations

Molar-tooth structure (MTS) is an enigmatic carbonate fabric that occurs mainly within Proterozoic carbonate host rocks. It is composed of two distinct features: cracks of various morphologies and crack-filling calcite microspar. Although the origins of MTS remain unknown, most previous investigation has focused on the formation of the cracks and mechanisms involved in the void space generation, with less emphasis on the intriguing carbonate fill. In this study I have investigated molar-tooth bearing carbonates from regions that span both paleogeography and geologic time. Analysis at the microscopic scale, including traditional petrography, cathodoluminescence petrography, scanning electron microscopy, and micrometer-scale geochemical analyses ...


Glaciochemical Investigations In Three Southern Hemisphere Mountain Sites, Mariusz Potocki 2022 University of Maine

Glaciochemical Investigations In Three Southern Hemisphere Mountain Sites, Mariusz Potocki

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The research presented in this dissertation focuses on glaciochemical records of trace elements, major ions, and stable water isotopes from three mountain regions: the Antarctic Peninsula, the Central Chilean Andes, and South Georgia Island.

The first section reports a significant increase in U concentration over 27 years on Detroit Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula. U concentrations in the ice core increase by as much as 102 between the 1980s and 2000s, accompanied by increased variability in recent years. The U concentration increase coincides with expanded open pit mining in the Southern Hemisphere, most notably Australia. Since other land-source dust elements do not ...


Oxygen Speciation In Potassium Silicate And Potassium Aluminosilicate Glasses: Insights From X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Ryan Sawyer 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Oxygen Speciation In Potassium Silicate And Potassium Aluminosilicate Glasses: Insights From X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Ryan Sawyer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In a geological context, glasses are useful analogues for silicate melts as they are more readily studied in the laboratory using a wide range of techniques that are impractical for molten liquids. Understanding the structure of binary silicate glasses can help us understand more about the magmatic processes that affect terrestrial planetary bodies.

Potassium silicate glasses ranging in composition from 10 mol% to 35 mol% K2O were studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). From high resolution O 1s XPS spectra, Bridging Oxygen (BO) mole fractions were calculated and compared with those of previous 29Si MAS NMR studies ...


White Micas As A Tool For Tracking Pegmatite Evolution And Its Use In Li Exploration. A Case Study Of Wekusko Lake, Manitoba, Canada., David N. Benn 2022 The University of Western Ontario

White Micas As A Tool For Tracking Pegmatite Evolution And Its Use In Li Exploration. A Case Study Of Wekusko Lake, Manitoba, Canada., David N. Benn

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Wekusko Lake pegmatite field is part of the Green Bay Group of pegmatites located near Snow Lake, Manitoba, Canada. Within this field, there are at least 13 spodumene-bearing pegmatites of varying degrees of mineralization. The abundance of white micas and the chemical affinity to incorporate Li and other trace elements into its crystalline structure makes white micas an ideal indicator mineral. The evolution of a melt can be tracked using trace elements in white mica. The K/Rb ratio vs Cs is used to determine a link between increasing evolution and increased Li contents of both the white mica ...


Fluid Pathways In Magmatic Fluid-Dominated Hydrothermal System: Upper Resurgent Cone, Brothers Volcano, New Zealand, Esther G. Goita 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Fluid Pathways In Magmatic Fluid-Dominated Hydrothermal System: Upper Resurgent Cone, Brothers Volcano, New Zealand, Esther G. Goita

Honors Theses

The Tonga-Kermadec Arc is an active volcanic arc located between New Zealand and Fiji. The arc expands over an approximate distance of 2530 km. The Kermadec Arc is currently host to over 30 volcanoes, the majority of which are submarine. The magmatic activity along the arc is characterized by the convergence between the Pacific and Australian plates. Brothers volcano is the most active hydrothermal system along the Kermadec arc and hosts two distinct hydrothermal systems, one magmatic fluid dominated, and the other seawater dominated, making the site perfect for studying nascent volcanogenic massive sulfide formation and fluid pathways. The International ...


Stable Carbon And Oxygen Isotopes Of Early Silurian Pentameride Brachiopods From Québec, Ontario, And Nunavut, And Paleoenvironmental Implications, Jordan N. Siewnarine 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Stable Carbon And Oxygen Isotopes Of Early Silurian Pentameride Brachiopods From Québec, Ontario, And Nunavut, And Paleoenvironmental Implications, Jordan N. Siewnarine

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Analysis of low-Mg calcite brachiopod shells for δ18O and δ13C signatures provide quantitative independent geochemical data for paleoenvironmental interpretations. We analyzed 59 brachiopod shells from lower Silurian carbonate rocks of Anticosti Island, the Hudson Bay Lowlands and Niagara regions for spaciotemporal isotopic trends for the early Silurian. Screening tests using scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence and trace element analysis demonstrate exceptional preservation, suggesting retention of primary isotopic values.

δ13C and δ18O values of shells range from 0.2‰ to 2.9‰ and -6.9‰ to -4.3‰ (VPDB), respectively. Temporally, increases in δ ...


Method Development For Preconcentration And Quantification Of Critical And Valuable Elements In Permian Basin Produced Waters, Joshua Matthew Lewis 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

Method Development For Preconcentration And Quantification Of Critical And Valuable Elements In Permian Basin Produced Waters, Joshua Matthew Lewis

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Produced waters are a voluminous byproduct of unconventional oil and gas production. Produced water volumes are primarily addressed by subsurface reinjection through saltwater disposal wells (SWDs) and reuse within the oil and gas industry. Oil and gas operators continue to evaluate and trial novel methods to improve produced water handling, and reduce freshwater use, and disposal volumes. Here, we present results for method development to quantify Critical and Valuable Elements (CVEs; defined here as the lanthanide series, high field strength elements, industrial elements and precious metals in brines. CVE concentrations in produced waters and other high-salinity waters are poorly understood ...


Monitoring Sars-Cov-2 Risk With Co2. The Importance Of Ventilation, Masks, And Vaccinations., Preston Betz 2022 Southern Methodist University

Monitoring Sars-Cov-2 Risk With Co2. The Importance Of Ventilation, Masks, And Vaccinations., Preston Betz

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

To assess airborne pathogen infection risk, concentrations of interior carbon dioxide and changes in relative humidity serve as proxies for human respiration products. Yanes and Yapp, 2010, demonstrated that interior air carbon dioxide concentrations and 13C/12C ratios display a two-component mixing relationship between respiration carbon dioxide which is highly concentrated (>100x atmospheric) in respiration air CO2 at >40,000 ppm compared with ambient air (~410 ppm). In the absence of combustion carbon dioxide, the concentration of carbon dioxide, in an interior space, depends on the rate of respiration CO2 addition relative to the amount of ...


Fate And Transport Of Toxoplasma Gondii Oocysts In Saturated Porous Media: Effects Of Electrolytes And Natural Organic Matter, Christian Pullano 2022 Clemson University

Fate And Transport Of Toxoplasma Gondii Oocysts In Saturated Porous Media: Effects Of Electrolytes And Natural Organic Matter, Christian Pullano

All Theses

Toxoplasma gondii is a pathogenic microorganism that is currently a threat to public health. Understanding the fate and transport of T. gondii through the soil and groundwater is vital in determining the risk it poses to water resources and human health. The physico-chemical interactions between the groundwater and the bio colloid within an aquifer will dictate its mobility and its ability to infect humans. This research examines how various naturally occurring groundwater chemistries containing organic compounds and monovalent and divalent salt solutions will alter the fate and transport of T. gondii. Solutions containing various concentrations of humic acid, fulvic acid ...


Wetland Uranium Transport Via Iron-Organic Matter Flocs And Hyporheic Exchange, Connor J. Parker 2022 Clemson University

Wetland Uranium Transport Via Iron-Organic Matter Flocs And Hyporheic Exchange, Connor J. Parker

All Dissertations

Uranium (U) released from the M-Area at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site into Tims Branch, a seasonal wetland and braided stream system, is estimated to be 43,500 kg between 1965 and 1984. The motivation for this work is the uranium’s persistence in the wetland for decades, where it is estimated that 80% of the U currently remains in the Tims Branch wetland. U has begun to incorporate into wetland iron (Fe) and carbon cycles, associating with local Fe mineralogy and deposits of rich wetland organic matter (OM). The objective of this work is to characterize the ...


Evaluating Alternative Ebullition Models For Predicting Peatland Methane Emission And Its Pathways Via Data–Model Fusion, Shuang Ma, Lifen Jiang, Rachel M. Wilson, Jeff P. Chanton, Scott Bridgham, Shuli Niu, Colleen M. Iversen, Avni Malhotra, Jiang Jiang, Xingjie Lu, Jason Keller, Xiaofeng Xu, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Paul J. Hanson, Yiqi Luo 2022 Northern Arizona University

Evaluating Alternative Ebullition Models For Predicting Peatland Methane Emission And Its Pathways Via Data–Model Fusion, Shuang Ma, Lifen Jiang, Rachel M. Wilson, Jeff P. Chanton, Scott Bridgham, Shuli Niu, Colleen M. Iversen, Avni Malhotra, Jiang Jiang, Xingjie Lu, Jason Keller, Xiaofeng Xu, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Paul J. Hanson, Yiqi Luo

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Understanding the dynamics of peatland methane (CH4) emissions and quantifying sources of uncertainty in estimating peatland CH4 emissions are critical for mitigating climate change. The relative contributions of CH4 emission pathways through ebullition, plant-mediated transport, and diffusion, together with their different transport rates and vulnerability to oxidation, determine the quantity of CH4 to be oxidized before leaving the soil. Notwithstanding their importance, the relative contributions of the emission pathways are highly uncertain. In particular, the ebullition process is more uncertain and can lead to large uncertainties in modeled CH4 emissions. To improve model simulations of ...


Evaluating Alternative Ebullition Models For Predicting Peatland Methane Emission And Its Pathways Via Data–Model Fusion, Shuang Ma, Lifen Jiang, Rachel M. Wilson, Jeff P. Chanton, Scott Bridgham, Shuli Niu, Colleen M. Iversen, Avni Malhotra, Jiang Jiang, Xingjie Lu, Yuanyuan Huang, Jason Keller, Xiaofeng Xu, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Paul J. Hanson, Yiqi Luo 2022 Northern Arizona University

Evaluating Alternative Ebullition Models For Predicting Peatland Methane Emission And Its Pathways Via Data–Model Fusion, Shuang Ma, Lifen Jiang, Rachel M. Wilson, Jeff P. Chanton, Scott Bridgham, Shuli Niu, Colleen M. Iversen, Avni Malhotra, Jiang Jiang, Xingjie Lu, Yuanyuan Huang, Jason Keller, Xiaofeng Xu, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Paul J. Hanson, Yiqi Luo

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Understanding the dynamics of peatland methane (CH4) emissions and quantifying sources of uncertainty in estimating peatland CH4 emissions are critical for mitigating climate change. The relative contributions of CH4 emission pathways through ebullition, plant-mediated transport, and diffusion, together with their different transport rates and vulnerability to oxidation, determine the quantity of CH4 to be oxidized before leaving the soil. Notwithstanding their importance, the relative contributions of the emission pathways are highly uncertain. In particular, the ebullition process is more uncertain and can lead to large uncertainties in modeled CH4 emissions. To improve model simulations of CH4 emission and its pathways ...


Connections Between Interglacial Variation And Lithological Variability Within Midland Basin Permian Shale Rocks In Martin County, Texas, Helen Rice Hammon 2022 Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge

Connections Between Interglacial Variation And Lithological Variability Within Midland Basin Permian Shale Rocks In Martin County, Texas, Helen Rice Hammon

LSU Master's Theses

The Upper Pennsylvanian (323.2–289.9 Ma) and Lower Permian (289.9-251 Ma), (Wolfcamp and Spraberry formations) interval of the Midland Basin, West Texas, contains a mixed succession of shale, carbonate, and siltstone/sandstone lithofacies that accumulated in a deep-water marine environment under variable hydrographic restrictions. The heterogenous stratigraphy found in the Wolfcamp and Spraberry formation was formed in response to variations in sea level and a transition from a glacial to an interglacial climate during the Early Permian. These fluctuations left behind alternating beds of mudstone and carbonate, interwoven with thin sandstone beds. Because the Wolfcamp and Spraberry ...


Investigation Of Sulphide-Poor Gold Mineralization At The Deep A Zone, Kiena Complex, Québec, Stephanie A. Kobylinski 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Investigation Of Sulphide-Poor Gold Mineralization At The Deep A Zone, Kiena Complex, Québec, Stephanie A. Kobylinski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Kiena Complex is located halfway between Malartic and Val d’Or in Québec, within the Abitibi Greenstone belt in the Superior Province. This study examined mineralization at the Kiena Complex using detailed core logging, geochemical analysis of wall rock, petrography, EPMA, and gold deportment studies. The analysis and interpretations indicate that the unique sulphide-poor gold-rich quartz veins of the Deep A Zone at the Kiena Complex contain 500 μm2) are located at the contact of quartz and corroded albite grains, and fine gold grains (5-500 μm2) are hosted within the corroded albite.


Connections Between Interglacial Variation And Lithological Variability Within Midland Basin Permian Shale Rocks In Martin County, Texas, Helen Rice Hammon 2022 Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge

Connections Between Interglacial Variation And Lithological Variability Within Midland Basin Permian Shale Rocks In Martin County, Texas, Helen Rice Hammon

LSU Master's Theses

The Upper Pennsylvanian (323.2–289.9 Ma) and Lower Permian (289.9-251 Ma), (Wolfcamp and Spraberry formations) interval of the Midland Basin, West Texas, contains a mixed succession of shale, carbonate, and siltstone/sandstone lithofacies that accumulated in a deep-water marine environment under variable hydrographic restrictions. The heterogenous stratigraphy found in the Wolfcamp and Spraberry formation was formed in response to variations in sea level and a transition from a glacial to an interglacial climate during the Early Permian. These fluctuations left behind alternating beds of mudstone and carbonate, interwoven with thin sandstone beds. Because the Wolfcamp and Spraberry ...


The Mineralogy And Geochemistry Of Illinois Basin Paleosols: Recognizing Detrital, Pedogenic, And Diagenetic Minerals, Julia A. McIntosh 2022 Southern Methodist University

The Mineralogy And Geochemistry Of Illinois Basin Paleosols: Recognizing Detrital, Pedogenic, And Diagenetic Minerals, Julia A. Mcintosh

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

The geochemical compositions of minerals in paleosols are assumed to be homogenous and attained through chemical weathering processes during episodes of pedogenesis in the geologic past. As such, the geochemical composition of minerals from paleosols may be used to reconstruct ancient climates and environments. One problem with this assumption is that paleosols were initially clastic sedimentary rocks or substrate prior to pedogenesis, thus it is likely that some portion of the paleosol is still composed of detrital minerals. Secondly, conditions may change in a sedimentary basin as the basin is buried and later uplifted, potentially triggering new mineralization or transformation ...


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