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Theory On Thermodynamic Constraints To Biogeochemical And Metabolic Diversity, Jordan Okie, Everett Shock 2018 Arizona State University

Theory On Thermodynamic Constraints To Biogeochemical And Metabolic Diversity, Jordan Okie, Everett Shock

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


On Biospeleothems From A Venezuelan Tepui Cave: U-Th Dating, Growth Rates, And Morphology, Joyce Lundberg, Charles Brewer-Carías, Donald A. McFarlane 2018 Carleton University

On Biospeleothems From A Venezuelan Tepui Cave: U-Th Dating, Growth Rates, And Morphology, Joyce Lundberg, Charles Brewer-Carías, Donald A. Mcfarlane

International Journal of Speleology

Seven silica biospeleothems from Cueva Charles Brewer, Chimantá Plateau, Venezuela have been successfully U-Th dated despite very low U and high detrital Th concentrations. Growth rates are low, between ~100 to ~800 µm/ka, and are greater closer to water level. Dates in unaltered material are in good stratigraphic order, but secondary silicification may compromise the U-Th system, yielding unreliable sequences of ages. Detritally-enriched layers correlate with global climate cycles of the Late Quaternary, in particular the cooler, drier phases of MIS 5d, 5a, and 4. SEM studies indicate that the peloidal material is made up of silica nano-particles assembled ...


Stylolites Cathodoluminescence Under Cross Polarized Light, Katherine Dvorak 2018 Western Michigan University

Stylolites Cathodoluminescence Under Cross Polarized Light, Katherine Dvorak

The Hilltop Review

Devil's Gate limestone under cathodoluminescence. Bright yellow and orange areas are calcite and the bright blue indicates trace minerals along the solution seam. Trace minerals left in the seam are heavy metals and other silicate minerals.


High-Dimensional Isotope Relationships, Yuyang He 2018 Louisiana State University

High-Dimensional Isotope Relationships, Yuyang He

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

High-dimensional isotope relationships describes the relationships of two or more element or position-specific (PS) elements in the same molecule or ion. It provides us more powerful tools to study reaction mechanisms and dynamics. Chapter 1 is about dual or multiple stable isotope relationship on δ-δ (or δ'-δ') space. While temporal data sampled from a closed-system can be treated by a Rayleigh Distillation Model (RDM), spatial data should be treated by a Reaction-Transport Model (RTM). Here we compare the results of a closed-system RDM to a RTM for systems with diffusional mass transfer by simulating the trajectories on nitrate's ...


Characterization Of Kelyphite Rims: Relevance To Diamond Exploration, Mallory N.G. Metcalf 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Characterization Of Kelyphite Rims: Relevance To Diamond Exploration, Mallory N.G. Metcalf

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A detailed investigation into the mineralogy and chemistry of kelyphitic rims/veins on garnets was conducted using µXRD, EPMA and Raman spectroscopy for a suite of samples from economic and non-economic kimberlites in Canada and South Africa. Mineralogy demonstrates the influence of metasomatic fluids during the reactions which produced kelyphite in all localities and was used to propose P-T regions where kelyphite could have formed. Using chemical analyses of host garnets and the mineralogy obtained for kelyphite, modified chemical reactions representing Types 1 and 2 kelyphite are provided to describe kelyphite reactions in open systems. Elastically-strained secondary garnet is common ...


The Transition From Sevier To Laramide Orogeny Captured In Upper-Plate Magmatic Structures, Eastern Transverse Ranges, Ca, Brody Friesenhahn 2018 Southern Methodist University

The Transition From Sevier To Laramide Orogeny Captured In Upper-Plate Magmatic Structures, Eastern Transverse Ranges, Ca, Brody Friesenhahn

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

The onset of the Laramide orogeny is of great tectonic significance to the geologic history of the US, but the timing and nature of the shift between Sevier and Laramide tectonics remains enigmatic. The eastern Transverse Ranges of southern California provide the opportunity to observe the effects of Laramide tectonics on the mid-crust. Wide Canyon is a north/south-trending canyon in the northern Little San Bernardino Mountains of the eastern Transverse Ranges. Al-in-hornblende thermobarometry of Needy et al. (2009) yields a projected paleodepth depth of ~20 km for Wide Canyon where Cretaceous granitoids intrude metamorphic country rock of Proterozoic age ...


Seismic Facies Mapping For Source Rock Distribution Of The Rakopi Formation In Deep-Water Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, Sidney W. Mahanay 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Seismic Facies Mapping For Source Rock Distribution Of The Rakopi Formation In Deep-Water Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, Sidney W. Mahanay

Theses and Dissertations

The Taranaki Basin is located off the coast of the north island of New Zealand and is currently the only producing basin in New Zealand. Hydrocarbon accumulation in the Tui, Maari, and Maui fields is sourced to the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene units. Exploration of these units has extended from the continental shelf of the Taranaki Basin into the deep-water to the northwest. The Romney 3D survey and Romney–1 well are some the first public exploration projects to supply data from this area. The objective of this study is to estimate source rock quality and distribution of the Rakopi ...


Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Mining-Related Lead-Zinc Sediment Contamination, Galena River Watershed, Sw Wisconsin-Nw Illinois, Dylan Alexander King 2018 Missouri State University

Spatial And Temporal Trends Of Mining-Related Lead-Zinc Sediment Contamination, Galena River Watershed, Sw Wisconsin-Nw Illinois, Dylan Alexander King

MSU Graduate Theses

Alluvial sediments within the Galena River Watershed were severely contaminated with heavy metals by historical zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) mining operations during the early 1800s until 1979. Since the mines closed, there have been efforts to remediate on-site mine waste. However, the effectiveness of these efforts to reduce metal concentrations in stream sediments is unknown. This study compares present-day (2017) contamination trends in the Galena River Watershed to trends reported 25 years ago. A total of 415 sediment/soil samples were collected and analyzed using X-ray florescence spectrometry to determine sediment metal concentrations. The highest concentrations of zinc measured ...


The Geotraces Intermediate Data Product 2017, Reiner Schlitzer, Robert F. Anderson, Elena Masferrer Dodas, Maeve Lohan, Walter Geibert, Alessandro Tagliabue, Andrew Bowie, Gregory A. Cutter, Peter N. Sedwick, Bettina Sohst 2018 Old Dominion University

The Geotraces Intermediate Data Product 2017, Reiner Schlitzer, Robert F. Anderson, Elena Masferrer Dodas, Maeve Lohan, Walter Geibert, Alessandro Tagliabue, Andrew Bowie, Gregory A. Cutter, Peter N. Sedwick, Bettina Sohst

OEAS Faculty Publications

The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical parameters as well as aerosol and rain data characterising atmospheric trace element and isotope (TEI) sources. The TEI data in the IDP2017 are quality controlled by careful assessment of intercalibration results and ...


Hardbottom Characterization And Relationship To The Geologic Framework In Long Bay, South Carolina, Cathryn J. Wheaton 2018 Coastal Carolina University

Hardbottom Characterization And Relationship To The Geologic Framework In Long Bay, South Carolina, Cathryn J. Wheaton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hardbottom seafloor is a common element among sediment-starved portions of the inner continental shelf along the U.S. Atlantic margin. These areas are characterized by indurated sediment surfaces that are heavily altered by biological and physical processes. Long Bay, in northeastern South Carolina, offers ideal environmental conditions for hardbottom exposure with only patchy Holocene sand deposits, interspersed with extensive hardbottom areas. Here we use high-resolution multibeam bathymetry, CHIRP subbottom profiling and electrical resistivity data, along with surficial sediment samples, hardbottom thin sections, and water column radioisotope (radon-222) analysis to investigate the origin and geologic framework of a region of hardbottom ...


A Characterization Of Petrified And Mummified Wood From An Eocene Deposit In Mississippi, Nayeon Lee, Sungkwang Mun, Mark Horstemeyer, Stephen J. Horstemeyer, David J. Lang 2018 Mississippi State University

A Characterization Of Petrified And Mummified Wood From An Eocene Deposit In Mississippi, Nayeon Lee, Sungkwang Mun, Mark Horstemeyer, Stephen J. Horstemeyer, David J. Lang

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

This study experimentally investigates pieces of fossilized wood that include both mummified and petrified portions within the same pieces collected from the Red Hills Lignite Mine in Mississippi, USA. To the authors’ knowledge, having petrified and mummified regions within the same piece of wood has not been previously reported. Our study analyzes the chemical compositions, microstructures, and nanohardness to characterize the fossilized wood. The chemical analysis revealed that the composition of the mummified regions included mainly carbon, oxygen, and small amount of minerals indicating these regions were similar to currently growing wood, and the petrified regions included silicon and oxygen ...


Review Of Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards And Risk Reduction In The Modern World, Kira H. Hamman 2018 Pennsylvania State University, Mont Alto

Review Of Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards And Risk Reduction In The Modern World, Kira H. Hamman

Numeracy

Timothy H. Dixon. 2017. Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards and Risk Reduction in the Modern World. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press) 300 pp. ISBN 978-1108113663.

In Curbing Catastrophe, Timothy H. Dixon explores commonalities among natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina, the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, and the meltdown at Fukushima. He identifies communication failure between scientists and policy makers as a major culprit in the devastation that results from such events and offers strategies for improving that communication. He includes optional in-depth scientific and quantitative examinations of the events and the resulting devastation, making the book appropriate for use in teaching ...


Hydrothermal Water-Rock Reaction Modeling With Microbial Considerations: Rabbit Creek Area, Yellowstone National Park, Wy, Shanna Law 2018 Montana Tech

Hydrothermal Water-Rock Reaction Modeling With Microbial Considerations: Rabbit Creek Area, Yellowstone National Park, Wy, Shanna Law

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Water-rock reactions at depth are the main control on aqueous hydrothermal chemistries of hot springs and other thermal features. Thermophilic microbes living in the hydrothermal system are a secondary control on aqueous hydrothermal chemistries and are expected to have increasing influence as spring temperatures decrease. The Rabbit Creek area of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is an ideal case study for investigating the geologic and biologic controls on aqueous hydrothermal chemistries due to the proximity of the drill core Y-5 to geochemically diverse hydrothermal features (17.3⁰C to 92.2⁰C ± 0.1⁰C; field pH values 6.50 to 9.60 ± 0 ...


Advances In Amino Acid Analysis For Marine Related Matrices And Its Application To Coastal Shelf Settings In The Canadian Arctic, Rachel M. McMahon 2018 Old Dominion University

Advances In Amino Acid Analysis For Marine Related Matrices And Its Application To Coastal Shelf Settings In The Canadian Arctic, Rachel M. Mcmahon

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Amino acids comprise up to 50% of organic matter in cellular material and are a major fraction of oceanic organic carbon. Amino acids are also considered highly labile during organic matter recycling, making them useful proxies for organic carbon cycling. Nevertheless, analysis of individual amino acids has been burdened by lengthy derivatization and complex analysis since the 1950s. In this thesis, I describe the modification of advanced analytical techniques, developed in the biomedical field, for analysis of marine matrices which allow the determination of at least 40 amino acids without the need for lengthy sample preparation and derivatization, twice the ...


Extremely High Diversity Of Sulfate Minerals In Caves Of The Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) Related To Crater Lake And Fumarolic Activity, Andrés Ulloa, Fernando Gázquez, Aurelio Sanz-Arranz, Jesús Medina, Fernando Rull, José María Calaforra, Guillermo E. Alvarado, María Martínez, Geoffroy Avard, J. Maarten De Moor, Jo De Waele 2018 Universidad de Costa Rica

Extremely High Diversity Of Sulfate Minerals In Caves Of The Irazú Volcano (Costa Rica) Related To Crater Lake And Fumarolic Activity, Andrés Ulloa, Fernando Gázquez, Aurelio Sanz-Arranz, Jesús Medina, Fernando Rull, José María Calaforra, Guillermo E. Alvarado, María Martínez, Geoffroy Avard, J. Maarten De Moor, Jo De Waele

International Journal of Speleology

The caves of the Irazú volcano (Costa Rica), became accessible after the partial collapse of the NW sector of the Irazú volcano in 1994, offering the opportunity to investigate active minerogenetic processes in volcanic cave environments. We performed a detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of speleothems in the caves Cueva los Minerales and Cueva Los Mucolitos, both located in the northwest foothills of the main crater. Mineralogical analyses included X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, while geochemical characterization used Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) coupled to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In addition, measurements of environmental parameters in the caves, cave ...


Drip Water Measurements From Carlsbad Cavern: Implications Towards Paleoclimate Records Yielded From Evaporative-Zone Stalagmites, Victor J. Polyak, Jessica B.T. Rasmussen, Yemane Asmerom 2018 University of New Mexico

Drip Water Measurements From Carlsbad Cavern: Implications Towards Paleoclimate Records Yielded From Evaporative-Zone Stalagmites, Victor J. Polyak, Jessica B.T. Rasmussen, Yemane Asmerom

International Journal of Speleology

Stalagmites can host numerous potential climate proxies (stable and radiogenic isotopes, trace elements, annual and non-annual banding, grayscale, growth hiatuses, mineral assemblage). Reproducibility and/or integration of proxy results between one or more stalagmites will become increasingly important, and ideally, climate records generated by multiple stalagmites from the same cave or cave room are expected to be near-identical. The reality is that stalagmites from the same cave room can yield differing results to some degree, especially in cave environment zones that are evaporative. Our drip water study in an evaporative shallow-depth cave environment in Carlsbad Cavern shows that adjacent drip ...


Quantifying Factors That Influence Road Deicer Retention And Export In A Multi-Landuse Upstate New York Watershed, David Joseph Saba 2018 Binghamton University--SUNY

Quantifying Factors That Influence Road Deicer Retention And Export In A Multi-Landuse Upstate New York Watershed, David Joseph Saba

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

Chloride contamination of streams and groundwater has become a prevalent issue throughout urbanizing areas in the last half century, particularly in northern latitudes where deicing salts are applied to roadways. This study determined how deicer impacted runoff disperses through sub-urban and urban areas on seasonal and multi-year scales. Chloride concentration changes were then modelled under varying pollutant loading scenarios through an integrated catchment model (INCA-Cl).

Six in-stream conductivity/stage/temperature sondes, recording at 15-minute intervals, were installed within the small (~9.6 km2) Fuler Hollow Creek multi-landuse watershed in Broome County NY and monitored over a 1-year period. Weekly grab ...


Chemical And Statistical Analysis Of Karst Groundwater Basin Signatures - Springfield, Mo, Benjamin E. Lockwood 2018 Missouri State University

Chemical And Statistical Analysis Of Karst Groundwater Basin Signatures - Springfield, Mo, Benjamin E. Lockwood

MSU Graduate Theses

Springfield, MO is located on the Springfield Plateau physiographic province. The Springfield plateau contains a number of Mississippian aged units and is mainly capped by the Burlington-Keokuk Formation. The Burlington-Keokuk is a highly fossiliferous limestone with nodular and interbedded chert. Beneath the Burlington-Keokuk lies the Elsey, Reeds Spring, and Pierson Formations respectively which comprise the Springfield Plateau aquifer hydrostratigraphic unit. Within the Springfield Plateau aquifer, a well-developed karst system includes springs, sinkholes, and caves. The Springfield Plateau aquifer is the predominant source for springs and seeps in the Springfield area. The purpose of this study was to understand the differences ...


Recent Climate Warming Drives Ecological Change In A Remote High-Arctic Lake, Lineke Woelders, Jan Lenaerts, Kimberley Hagemans, Keechy Akkerman, Thomas B. van Hoof, Wim Z. Hoek 2018 INSTAAR, University of Colorado Boulder

Recent Climate Warming Drives Ecological Change In A Remote High-Arctic Lake, Lineke Woelders, Jan Lenaerts, Kimberley Hagemans, Keechy Akkerman, Thomas B. Van Hoof, Wim Z. Hoek

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

The high Arctic is the fastest warming region on Earth, evidenced by extreme near-surface temperature increase in non-summer seasons, recent rapid sea ice decline and permafrost melting since the early 1990’s. Understanding the impact of climate change on the sensitive Arctic ecosystem to climate change has so far been hampered by the lack of time-constrained, high-resolution records and by implicit climate data analyses. Here, we show evidence of sharp growth in freshwater green algae as well as distinct diatom assemblage changes since ~1995, retrieved from a high-Arctic (80 °N) lake sediment record on Barentsøya (Svalbard). The proxy record approaches ...


An Assessment Of Atmospheric And Meteorological Factors Regulating Red Sea Phytoplankton Growth, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, Mohamed A. Qurban, Emmanouil Proestakis, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova, Vassilis Amiridis, Antonis Gkikas, Eleni Marinou, Thomas Piechota, K. P. Manikandan 2018 Chapman University

An Assessment Of Atmospheric And Meteorological Factors Regulating Red Sea Phytoplankton Growth, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, Mohamed A. Qurban, Emmanouil Proestakis, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova, Vassilis Amiridis, Antonis Gkikas, Eleni Marinou, Thomas Piechota, K. P. Manikandan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study considers the various factors that regulate nutrients supply in the Red Sea. Multi-sensor observation and reanalysis datasets are used to examine the relationships among dust deposition, sea surface temperature (SST), and wind speed, as they may contribute to anomalous phytoplankton blooms, through time-series and correlation analyses. A positive correlation was found at 0–3 months lag between chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) anomalies and dust anomalies over the Red Sea regions. Dust deposition process was further examined with dust aerosols’ vertical distribution using satellite lidar data. Conversely, a negative correlation was found at 0–3 months lag between SST ...


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