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An Assessment Of Atmospheric And Meteorological Factors Regulating Red Sea Phytoplankton Growth, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, Mohamed A. Qurban, Emmanouil Proestakis, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova, Vassilis Amiridis, Antonis Gkikas, Eleni Marinou, Thomas Piechota, K. P. Manikandan 2018 Chapman University

An Assessment Of Atmospheric And Meteorological Factors Regulating Red Sea Phytoplankton Growth, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, Mohamed A. Qurban, Emmanouil Proestakis, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova, Vassilis Amiridis, Antonis Gkikas, Eleni Marinou, Thomas Piechota, K. P. Manikandan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study considers the various factors that regulate nutrients supply in the Red Sea. Multi-sensor observation and reanalysis datasets are used to examine the relationships among dust deposition, sea surface temperature (SST), and wind speed, as they may contribute to anomalous phytoplankton blooms, through time-series and correlation analyses. A positive correlation was found at 0–3 months lag between chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) anomalies and dust anomalies over the Red Sea regions. Dust deposition process was further examined with dust aerosols’ vertical distribution using satellite lidar data. Conversely, a negative correlation was found at 0–3 months lag between SST ...


Unusual Internal Structure Of Cm-Sized Coldwater Calcite: Weichselian Spars In Former Pools Of The Zinnbergschacht Cave (Franconian Alb/Se Germany), Detlev K. Richter, Rolf D. Neuser, Martin Harder, Hardy Schabdach, Denis Scholz 2018 Ruhr-Universität Bochum

Unusual Internal Structure Of Cm-Sized Coldwater Calcite: Weichselian Spars In Former Pools Of The Zinnbergschacht Cave (Franconian Alb/Se Germany), Detlev K. Richter, Rolf D. Neuser, Martin Harder, Hardy Schabdach, Denis Scholz

International Journal of Speleology

The investigation of the internal structure of calcite crystals is a new focus in speleothem science, especially in the range of crystallization temperatures close to 0°C. Recently found calcite spars from Zinnbergschacht Cave of the Franconian Alb (SE Germany) are ideal for multi-method investigation. The elongated calcites (up to 6 cm in length) with three to six lateral faces and basal triangular faces at the ends are observed in collapse-zones in the cave. 230Th/U-ages of 38.9 ka suggest formation during the periglacial Weichselian, between the Scandinavian and Alpine Glaciations. The δ18O and δ13 ...


Carbon Flux And Weathering Processes In Icelandic Glacial-Fed Rivers, Allison Quiroga 2018 Western Kentucky University

Carbon Flux And Weathering Processes In Icelandic Glacial-Fed Rivers, Allison Quiroga

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

An investigation into the carbon dynamics and weathering processes occurring in Icelandic glacial-fed streams was conducted during the spring to summer seasonal transition in June of 2017. Four major outlet rives were sampled from the glaciers of Gígjökull, Steinsholtsjökull, Sólheimajökull, and Falljökull. Markarfljót, the major river that Gígjökull, Steinsholtsjökull, and many other glaciers drain into, was also sampled. Longitudinal sampling occurred at all sites to capture downstream trends in the hydrogeochemistry and carbon dynamics. Distinct differences in geochemistry between glacier surface meltwater, sub-glacial waters, pro-glacial lake water, and post-mixed downstream samples were evident in the data. Glacier surface streams were ...


Iodine To Calcium Ratios In Marine Carbonates As An Indicator Of Oxygen Levels, Angela Stahl 2018 University of Rhode Island

Iodine To Calcium Ratios In Marine Carbonates As An Indicator Of Oxygen Levels, Angela Stahl

Senior Honors Projects

ANGELA STAHL (Marine Biology)

Iodine to Calcium Ratios in Marine Carbonates as an Indicator of Oxygen Levels

Sponsor: Rebecca Robinson (Graduate School of Oceanography)

The Earth goes through natural cycles of warm and cool periods. In the past,

warmer oceans during interglacial periods have been shown to hold less oxygen

in their waters compared to cooler, glacial oceans. For this research, we are

studying an area in the Eastern Tropical Pacific where it is known to have

variable concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the waters due to the influence of

the climate. Oxygen is a vital component for most organisms ...


Multivariate Spectral Analysis Of Crism Data To Characterize The Composition Of Mawrth Vallis, Melissa Luna 2018 Wesleyan University

Multivariate Spectral Analysis Of Crism Data To Characterize The Composition Of Mawrth Vallis, Melissa Luna

Melissa Luna

No abstract provided.


Study On The Surface Features Of Preg-Robbing Carbonaceous Matter During Oxidation Treatment, Mana Pourdasht 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Study On The Surface Features Of Preg-Robbing Carbonaceous Matter During Oxidation Treatment, Mana Pourdasht

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Carbonaceous gold ores have the ability to adsorb gold (I) cyanide from leach solutions during processing. This phenomenon, known as preg-robbing, is responsible for poor recoveries as the carbonaceous materials of the ore compete with activated carbon used during the leaching and adsorption phase of processing. Chemical oxidation of carbonaceous materials by different reagents has been utilized to investigate and compare the mechanism of Au (CN)2 adsorption onto carbonaceous materials prior to and following the treatment.

The procedure for characterization of the carbonaceous materials (plain and modified) in the sample combines the use of several analytical techniques and test ...


Oxic Fe(Iii) Reduction Could Have Generated Fe(Ii) In The Photic Zone Of Precambrian Seawater, Elizabeth D. Swanner, Markus Maisch, Wenfang Wu, Andreas Kappler 2018 Iowa State University

Oxic Fe(Iii) Reduction Could Have Generated Fe(Ii) In The Photic Zone Of Precambrian Seawater, Elizabeth D. Swanner, Markus Maisch, Wenfang Wu, Andreas Kappler

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Many marine Precambrian iron formations (IF) record deep anoxic seawater enriched in Fe(II) (i.e. ferruginous) overlain by mildly oxygenated surface water. This is reflected by iron-rich sediments forming in deep basins, and relatively iron-poor sediments forming in shallow, sunlit waters. Such an iron gradient is often interpreted as a redox interface where dissolved Fe(II) was oxidized and precipitated as Fe(III)-bearing minerals. As such, sedimentary iron enrichments are proxy to the progressive oxidation of the oceans through geological time. However, this interpretation is founded on the assumption that Fe(II) could not persist within an oxygenated ...


Calcium Isotopes In Natural And Experimental Carbonated Silicate Melts, Matthew Maloney 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Calcium Isotopes In Natural And Experimental Carbonated Silicate Melts, Matthew Maloney

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The calcium stable isotopic compositions of mantle-sourced rocks and minerals were investigated to better understand the carbon cycle in the Earth’s mantle. Bulk carbonatites and kimberlites were analyzed to identify a geochemical signature of carbonatite magmatism, while inter-mineral fractionation was measured in co-existing Ca-bearing carbonate and silicate minerals. Bulk samples show a range of composition deviating from the bulk silicate Earth δ44/40Ca composition indicating signatures of magmatic processes or marine carbonate addition to source materials. Δ44/40Cacarbonate-silicate values range from -0.55‰ to +1.82‰ and positively correlate with Ca/Mg ratios in ...


Effects Of Elevated Co2, Increased Nitrogen Deposition, And Plant Diversity On Aboveground Litter And Root Decomposition, Xiaoan Zuo, Johannes Knops 2018 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Effects Of Elevated Co2, Increased Nitrogen Deposition, And Plant Diversity On Aboveground Litter And Root Decomposition, Xiaoan Zuo, Johannes Knops

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Global change-induced litter decomposition strongly affects the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in grassland ecosystems. However, few studies show the interactive effects of global change factors on litter and root decomposition. We conducted a four-year grassland field experiment to examine the quality and decomposition of litter and root in a three-factorial experiment with elevated CO2, increased N deposition, and plant species richness. We found that elevated CO2 decreased the litter N content and root lignin content. N addition increased the root N content and decreased the litter lignin content. Increasing plant richness decreased the N and lignin ...


Nitrogen Isotopes Suggest A Change In Nitrogen Dynamics Between The Late Pleistocene And Modern Time In Yukon, Canada, Farnoush Tahmasebi, Fred J. Longstaffe, Grant Zazula 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Nitrogen Isotopes Suggest A Change In Nitrogen Dynamics Between The Late Pleistocene And Modern Time In Yukon, Canada, Farnoush Tahmasebi, Fred J. Longstaffe, Grant Zazula

Earth Sciences Publications

A magnificent repository of Late Pleistocene terrestrial megafauna fossils is contained in ice-rich loess deposits of Alaska and Yukon, collectively eastern Beringia. The stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope compositions of bone collagen from these fossils are routinely used to determine paleodiet and reconstruct the paleoecosystem. This approach requires consideration of changes in C- and N-isotope dynamics over time and their effects on the terrestrial vegetation isotopic baseline. To test for such changes between the Late Pleistocene and modern time, we compared δ13C and δ15N for vegetation and bone collagen and ...


An Overview Of Anorthosite-Bearing Layered Intrusions In The Archaean Craton Of Southern West Greenland And The Superior Province Of Canada: Implications For Archaean Tectonics And The Origin Of Megacrystic Plagioclase, Ali Polat, Fred J. Longstaffe, Robert Frei 2018 University of Windsor

An Overview Of Anorthosite-Bearing Layered Intrusions In The Archaean Craton Of Southern West Greenland And The Superior Province Of Canada: Implications For Archaean Tectonics And The Origin Of Megacrystic Plagioclase, Ali Polat, Fred J. Longstaffe, Robert Frei

Earth Sciences Publications

Anorthosite-bearing layered intrusions are unique to the Archaean rock record and are abundant in the Archaean craton of southern West Greenland and the Superior Province of Canada. These layered intrusions consist mainly of ultramafic rocks, gabbros, leucogabbros and anorthosites, and typically contain high-Ca (>An70) megacrystic (2–30 cm in diameter) plagioclase in anorthosite and leucogabbro units. They are spatially and temporally associated with basalt-dominated greenstone belts and are intruded by syn-to post-tectonic granitoid rocks. The layered intrusions, greenstone belts and granitoids all share the geochemical characteristics of Phanerozoic subduction zone magmas, suggesting that they formed mainly in a suprasubduction ...


Petrogenetic And Geodynamic Origin Of The Neoarchean Doré Lake Complex, Abitibi Subprovince, Superior Province, Canada, Ali Polat, Robert Frei, Fred J. Longstaffe, Ryan Woods 2018 University of Windsor

Petrogenetic And Geodynamic Origin Of The Neoarchean Doré Lake Complex, Abitibi Subprovince, Superior Province, Canada, Ali Polat, Robert Frei, Fred J. Longstaffe, Ryan Woods

Earth Sciences Publications

The Neoarchean (ca. 2728 Ma) anorthosite-bearing Doré Lake Complex in the northeastern Abitibi subprovince, Quebec, was emplaced into an association of intra-oceanic tholeiitic basalts and gabbros known as the Obatogamau Formation. The Obatogamau Formation constitutes the lower part of the Roy Group, which is composed of two cycles of tholeiitic-to-calc-alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, siliciclastic and chemical sedimentary rocks, and layered mafic-to-ultramafic sills. In this study, we report major and trace element results, and Nd, Sr, Pb and O isotope data for anorthosites, leucogabbros, gabbros and mafic dykes from the Doré Lake Complex and spatially associated basalts and gabbros of ...


Petrology And Geochemistry Of The Tasse Mantle Xenoliths Of The Canadian Cordillera: A Record Of Archean To Quaternary Mantle Growth, Metasomatism, Removal, And Melting, Ali Polat, Robert Frei, Fred J. Longstaffe, Derek J. Thorkelson, Eyal Friedman 2018 University of Windsor

Petrology And Geochemistry Of The Tasse Mantle Xenoliths Of The Canadian Cordillera: A Record Of Archean To Quaternary Mantle Growth, Metasomatism, Removal, And Melting, Ali Polat, Robert Frei, Fred J. Longstaffe, Derek J. Thorkelson, Eyal Friedman

Earth Sciences Publications

Mantle xenoliths hosted by the Quaternary Tasse alkaline basalts in the Canadian Cordillera, southeastern British Columbia, are mostly spinel lherzolite originating from subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The xenoliths contain abundant feldspar veins, melt pockets and spongy clinopyroxene, recording extensive alkaline metasomatism and partial melting. Feldspar occurs as veins and interstitial crystal in melt pockets. Melt pockets occur mainly at triple junctions, along grain boundaries, and consist mainly of olivine, cpx, opx and spinel surrounded by interstitial feldspar. The Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic compositions of the xenoliths indicate that their sources are characterized by variable mixtures of depleted MORB mantle and ...


Environmental Monitoring And Peat Assessment Using Multivariate Analysis Of Regional-Scale Geochemical Data, Jennifer M. McKinley, Eric Grunsky, Ute Mueller 2018 Edith Cowan University

Environmental Monitoring And Peat Assessment Using Multivariate Analysis Of Regional-Scale Geochemical Data, Jennifer M. Mckinley, Eric Grunsky, Ute Mueller

ECU Publications Post 2013

A compositional multivariate approach was used to analyse regional-scale soil geochemical data obtained as part of the Tellus Project generated by the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland. The multi-element total concentration data presented comprise X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses of 6862 rural soil samples collected at 20-cm depth on a non-aligned grid at one site per 2km2" role="presentation">2km2. Censored data were imputed using published detection limits. Each soil sample site was assigned to the regional geology map, resulting in spatial data for one categorical variable and 35 continuous variables comprised of individual and amalgamated elements. This paper examines the ...


Chemical And Statistical Analysis Of Karst Groundwater Basin Signatures - Springfield, Mo, Benjamin E. Lockwood 2018 Missouri State University

Chemical And Statistical Analysis Of Karst Groundwater Basin Signatures - Springfield, Mo, Benjamin E. Lockwood

MSU Graduate Theses

Springfield, MO is located on the Springfield Plateau physiographic province. The Springfield plateau contains a number of Mississippian aged units and is mainly capped by the Burlington-Keokuk Formation. The Burlington-Keokuk is a highly fossiliferous limestone with nodular and interbedded chert. Beneath the Burlington-Keokuk lies the Elsey, Reeds Spring, and Pierson Formations respectively which comprise the Springfield Plateau aquifer hydrostratigraphic unit. Within the Springfield Plateau aquifer, a well-developed karst system includes springs, sinkholes, and caves. The Springfield Plateau aquifer is the predominant source for springs and seeps in the Springfield area. The purpose of this study was to understand the differences ...


Evidence For Ephemeral Middle Eocene To Early Oligocene Greenland Glacial Ice And Pan-Arctic Sea Ice, Aradhna Tripati, Dennis Darby 2018 Old Dominion University

Evidence For Ephemeral Middle Eocene To Early Oligocene Greenland Glacial Ice And Pan-Arctic Sea Ice, Aradhna Tripati, Dennis Darby

OEAS Faculty Publications

Earth's modern climate is defined by the presence of ice at both poles, but that ice is now disappearing. Therefore understanding the origin and causes of polar ice stability is more critical than ever. Here we provide novel geochemical data that constrain past dynamics of glacial ice on Greenland and Arctic sea ice. Based on accurate source determinations of individual ice-rafted Fe-oxide grains, we find evidence for episodic glaciation of distinct source regions on Greenland as far-ranging as ~68°N and ~80°N synchronous with ice-rafting from circum-Arctic sources, beginning in the middle Eocene. Glacial intervals broadly coincide with ...


Iron Isotope Fractionation During Fe(Ii) Oxidation Mediated By The Oxygen-Producing Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus Pcc 7002, Elizabeth S. Swanner, Timm Bayer, Wenfang Wu, Likai Hao, Martin Obst, Anneli Sundman, James Martin Byrne, F. M. Michel, I. C. Kleinhanns, A. Klapper, R. Schoenberg 2017 Iowa State University

Iron Isotope Fractionation During Fe(Ii) Oxidation Mediated By The Oxygen-Producing Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus Pcc 7002, Elizabeth S. Swanner, Timm Bayer, Wenfang Wu, Likai Hao, Martin Obst, Anneli Sundman, James Martin Byrne, F. M. Michel, I. C. Kleinhanns, A. Klapper, R. Schoenberg

Elizabeth D. Swanner

In this study, we couple iron isotope analysis to microscopic and mineralogical investigation of iron speciation during circumneutral Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) precipitation with photosynthetically produced oxygen. In the presence of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002, aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) is oxidized and precipitated as amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide minerals (iron precipitates, Feppt), with distinct isotopic fractionation (ε56Fe) values determined from fitting the δ56Fe(II)aq (1.79‰ and 2.15‰) and the δ56Feppt (2.44‰ and 2.98‰) data trends from two replicate experiments. Additional Fe(II) and Fe(III) phases were detected using microscopy ...


Abiotic- And Biotic-Formation Of Manganese Oxides And Their Fate In Environmental Systems, Haesung Jung 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Abiotic- And Biotic-Formation Of Manganese Oxides And Their Fate In Environmental Systems, Haesung Jung

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Manganese (hydr)oxide (Mn (hydr)oxide) minerals are ubiquitous in aquatic and terrestrial environments. These minerals have high surface areas and are highly sorptive and redox active. From decades of accumulated knowledge about natural redox cycling, we have found that Mn (hydr)oxides play critical roles as electron donors and acceptors in elemental geochemical cycling and biological metabolisms in nature. Thus, Mn (hydr)oxides have garnered increasing interest to understand natural systems. Considering the variety of redox reactions with Mn (hydr)oxides in nature, it is also expected that there should be diverse pathways to form Mn (hydr)oxides through ...


Phosphate Speleothems In Caves Developed In Iron Ores And Laterites Of The Carajás Mineral Province (Brazil) And A New Occurrence Of Spheniscidite, Alan R.L. Albuquerque, Rômulo S. Angélica, Daniele F. Gonçalves, Simone P.A. Paz 2017 Universidade Federal do Pará

Phosphate Speleothems In Caves Developed In Iron Ores And Laterites Of The Carajás Mineral Province (Brazil) And A New Occurrence Of Spheniscidite, Alan R.L. Albuquerque, Rômulo S. Angélica, Daniele F. Gonçalves, Simone P.A. Paz

International Journal of Speleology

The Carajás Mineral Province has one of the largest concentrations of caves in Brazil, and its iron ore is among the country’s main exports. As a result of iron ore intense extraction, new environmental policies have been implemented. In an attempt to balance economic activity and environmental conservation, an inventory and a relevance-based classification of caves were implemented in 2008 as criteria for environmental licensing of mining ventures. This implementation motivated the present study of phosphate speleothems in Carajás’ caves developed in ferriferous rocks. The objectives of this study are to describe the phosphate minerals and their formation processes ...


Soil-Grapevine Interactions: Insight From Verdicchio In The Marche Wine Region, Italy, Megan Luna Barlow 2017 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Soil-Grapevine Interactions: Insight From Verdicchio In The Marche Wine Region, Italy, Megan Luna Barlow

Theses and Dissertations

Verdicchio is a white grape varietal notably grown in the Marche wine region of east-central Italy within two Denominazione Origine Controllata (DOCs); Castelli di Jesi and Matelica, located less than 50 km apart. Jesi lies in the Apennine foothills near the coast of the Adriatic Sea and produces a smooth wine noted with apple-pear undertones and crisp, clean acidity. Conversely, Matelica is located in a synclinal valley of a fold-and-thrust belt and produces stronger wine with penetrating floral aromas and bold acidity. While macro-climatic variations do exist between DOCs, this research focuses on geological variations, specifically variations in soil composition ...


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