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Implications Of An Improved Water Equation Of State For Water-Rich Planets, Chenling Huang, David R. Rice, Zachary M. Grande, Dean Smith, John H. Boisvert, Oliver Tschauner, Ashkan Salamat, Jason Steffen 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Implications Of An Improved Water Equation Of State For Water-Rich Planets, Chenling Huang, David R. Rice, Zachary M. Grande, Dean Smith, John H. Boisvert, Oliver Tschauner, Ashkan Salamat, Jason Steffen

Geoscience Faculty Publications

Water (H2O), in all forms, is an important constituent in planetary bodies, controlling habitability and influencing geological activity. Under conditions found in the interior of many planets, as the pressure increases, the H-bonds in water gradually weaken and are replaced by ionic bonds. Recent experimental measurements of the water equation of state (EOS) showed both a new phase of H-bonded water ice, ice-VIIt, and a relatively low transition pressure just above 30 GPa to ionic bonded ice-X, which has a bulk modulus 2.5 times larger. The higher bulk modulus of ice-X produces larger planets for a given mass, thereby ...


Frozen In Time: A Numerical Modeling Approach To The Study Of Ice Bearing Planetesimals Through Carbonaceous Chondrites, Jasmine M. Bayron 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Frozen In Time: A Numerical Modeling Approach To The Study Of Ice Bearing Planetesimals Through Carbonaceous Chondrites, Jasmine M. Bayron

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Icy planetesimals are significant objects of study for meteoritics, planetary science, and astrobiology due to their connections to the origins of life and liquid water on Earth. An existing closed system aqueous alteration model was adapted to simulate several scenarios involving early Solar System geologic processes occurring in an icy planetesimal interior. The model described in this work has been developed not only to test the validity of constraints currently thought to apply to CM1 parent bodies, but to directly compare the implications of these constraints for the isotopic composition and the modal mineralogy of carbonaceous chondrites. Isotopic ratios of ...


Microstructural Constraints On The Nebular And Asteroidal Histories Of Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusions From Cv3 Chondrites, Shaofan Che 2020 University of New Mexico

Microstructural Constraints On The Nebular And Asteroidal Histories Of Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusions From Cv3 Chondrites, Shaofan Che

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The petrology and mineralogy of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV3 carbonaceous chondrites have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The goal of this dissertation is twofold: (1) to gain new insights into the nebular processes, such as vapor-solid reactions, accretion, transport, that are responsible for the formation of non-igneous CAIs, and (2) to better understand the role of fluid in the secondary alteration of CAIs on the CV3 chondrite parent body. This work represents the first systematic microstructural study of CAIs from CV3 chondrites.

Chapter 2 presents the microstructural observations of primary mineralogies of fine-grained, spinel-rich inclusions (FGIs) from ...


Effects Of Terrestrial Weathering On Rare Earth Element Concentrations And Sulfur Isotopic Signatures Of Carbonaceous And Ordinary Chondrites, Ruby Virginia Patterson 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Terrestrial Weathering On Rare Earth Element Concentrations And Sulfur Isotopic Signatures Of Carbonaceous And Ordinary Chondrites, Ruby Virginia Patterson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the effects of weathering of chondrites is essential to gaining accurate and useful information about the formation of our solar system, as well as a more detailed account of the mobilization of chondritic compounds when they encounter terrestrial conditions. Elemental concentrations and stable isotope analyses of chondrites, considered to be the most primordial material in the solar system, are two tools which help unlock the weathering patterns of these specimens when they enter the earth system. However, it is not currently known exactly how time spent in the field alters rare earth element (REE) concentration or δ34S signatures within ...


Early Meteoritic Records Of Asteroidal Melt And Impact Environments, Brendt Hyde 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Early Meteoritic Records Of Asteroidal Melt And Impact Environments, Brendt Hyde

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The characterization of meteorites formed in early melt and impact environments helps deepen our understanding of the processes involved in the formation and modification of terrestrial bodies in the solar system. The main objective of this thesis is to interpret and describe a range of igneous and metamorphic environments on asteroidal bodies, through the chemical, microstructural and isotopic analysis of meteorites, and to place these in the context of evolving rocky bodies in the early protoplanetary disk. Study of the meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 869 has led to the novel discovery of a eucrite impactor clast in chondritic regolith material ...


Measured Optical Absorption Cross Sections Of Tio, Peter Bernath 2020 Old Dominion University

Measured Optical Absorption Cross Sections Of Tio, Peter Bernath

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

A laboratory emission spectrum of TiO in the visible and near-infrared regions (476–1176 nm) has been calibrated and corrected. High-resolution experimental absorption cross sections for TiO with natural isotopic abundance are provided at a temperature of about 2300 K. These cross sections have been compared with those derived from the ExoMol line list. The experimental cross sections can be used directly as a template for cross correlation TiO detection in hot Jupiter exoplanets.


The Effect Of The 21 August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse On The Phase Of Vlf/Lf Signals, A. Rozhnoi, M. Solovieva, S. Shalimov, Dimitar Ouzounov, P. Gallagher, G. Verth, J. McCauley, S. Shelyag, V. Fedun 2019 Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow

The Effect Of The 21 August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse On The Phase Of Vlf/Lf Signals, A. Rozhnoi, M. Solovieva, S. Shalimov, Dimitar Ouzounov, P. Gallagher, G. Verth, J. Mccauley, S. Shelyag, V. Fedun

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

An experimental study of the phase and amplitude observations of sub‐ionospheric very low and low frequency (VLF/LF) signals is performed to analyze the response of the lower ionosphere during the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse in the United States of America. Three different sub‐ionospheric wave paths are investigated. The length of the paths varies from 2,200 to 6,400 km, and the signal frequencies are 21.4, 25.2, and 40.75 kHz. The two paths cross the region of the total eclipse, and the third path is in the region of 40–60% of ...


Shock Effects Recorded By The U-Pb Radiometric System In Zircons Of Apollo 17 Impact Breccias And By Raman Spectroscopy In Enstatite Meteorites, Bidong Zhang 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Shock Effects Recorded By The U-Pb Radiometric System In Zircons Of Apollo 17 Impact Breccias And By Raman Spectroscopy In Enstatite Meteorites, Bidong Zhang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Impact cratering processes and formations are ubiquitous on the rocky planets within the Solar System. The Earth-Moon system was formed by a massive planetary impact, and numerous impacts afterwards significantly reshaped the topography and lithology of the Moon surface. This dissertation focuses on studying some specific geochemical, geochronological, and geophysical signatures of impact processes preserved in lunar rocks and asteroidal meteorites.

The zircon U-Pb radiometric system is one of the most reliable geochronometers in measuring geological time. Recently, unsupported radiogenic Pb enrichment has been reported to compromise the accuracy and precision of zircon U-Pb geochronometer in terrestrial rocks. In Chapter ...


Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf, And Mn-Cr Isotope Geochemistry Of Achondrite Meteorites: Implications For The Formation Reservoirs Of Differentiated Planetesimals, Zhiguo Guo 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf, And Mn-Cr Isotope Geochemistry Of Achondrite Meteorites: Implications For The Formation Reservoirs Of Differentiated Planetesimals, Zhiguo Guo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Accretion and differentiation of planetesimals are critical steps of planetary formation. By studying achondrite meteorites, we can bring further geochemical and chronological constraints on the source and composition of materials and their evolution throughout the protoplanetary disk. Major and trace element analyses for mineral and whole-rock compositions and high-precision isotopic compositions for the short- and long-lived radiochronometers 53Mn-53Cr, 147,146Sm-143,142Nd and 176Lu-176Hf are reported for two eucrites, two diogenites, and three ungrouped achondrites. Of these, NWA 12338 is a newly classified ungrouped achondrite with an anomalously higher Δ17O ...


Ni And Fe Isotope Fractionation During Weathering And The Formation Of Ni Laterite Ore Deposits In The Philippines, Congxi Zhu 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Ni And Fe Isotope Fractionation During Weathering And The Formation Of Ni Laterite Ore Deposits In The Philippines, Congxi Zhu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Weathering processes on Ni-rich ultramafic rocks in tropical areas produce laterites that become exploitable for Ni mining. To better understand these processes, samples were collected stratigraphically with water samples from several Ni mines in the Philippines and studied for Ni and Fe isotope compositions. This study found that Ni isotope fractionation takes place during the formation of Ni-enriched minerals (goethite), when light Ni isotopes are preferentially incorporated into new minerals formed, leaving heavy Ni isotopes in groundwater. The Δ60NiLimonite-Bedrock is up to -0.19 ± 0.32‰. Even though Fe is partitioned with redox state change during these ...


Impact Cratering Processes On The Earth And Moon: Meteorites, Complex Craters, And The Origin Of The Moon, Patrick Hill 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Impact Cratering Processes On The Earth And Moon: Meteorites, Complex Craters, And The Origin Of The Moon, Patrick Hill

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis seeks to understand the mechanism of hypervelocity impacts, lunar origin and geology, and stable isotope techniques and its application to lunar material. Three lunar regolith breccias, Dhofar 1673, Dhofar 1983, and Dhofar 1984, were examined. The petrography, mineralogy, isotope chemistry, and bulk chemistry of these meteorites were quantified to investigate their origin. The chemistry of the impact melt rock and bulk chemical analysis suggests sourcing from either the Feldspathic or Outer Feldspathic Highland Terranes. Given the similarities in the meteorites, and the proximal location of each find (within 500 m), this thesis proposes strong evidence for their pairing ...


Paired Bulk Organic And Individual Amino Acid Δ15n Analyses Of Bivalve Shell Periostracum: A Paleoceanographic Proxy For Water Source Variability And Nitrogen Cycling Processes, Nina M. Whitney, Beverly J. Johnson, Philip T. Dotsie, Katherine Luzier, Alan D. Wanamaker Jr. 2019 Iowa State University

Paired Bulk Organic And Individual Amino Acid Δ15n Analyses Of Bivalve Shell Periostracum: A Paleoceanographic Proxy For Water Source Variability And Nitrogen Cycling Processes, Nina M. Whitney, Beverly J. Johnson, Philip T. Dotsie, Katherine Luzier, Alan D. Wanamaker Jr.

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Developing high resolution, well-dated marine proxies of environmental, climatic, and oceanographic conditions is critical in order to advance our understanding of the ocean’s role in the global climate system. While some work has investigated bulk and compound specific stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) in bivalve shells as proxies for environmental variability, the small concentrations of nitrogen found in the organic matrix of the shell calcium carbonate (CaCO3) makes developing high resolution records challenging. This study investigates the potential of using the bulk and amino acid δ15N of bivalve periostracum, the protein layer on the outside of the shell, as a ...


Multivariate Spectral Analysis Of Crism Data To Characterize The Composition Of Mawrth Vallis, Melissa Luna 2018 Wesleyan University

Multivariate Spectral Analysis Of Crism Data To Characterize The Composition Of Mawrth Vallis, Melissa Luna

Melissa Luna

No abstract provided.


Aluminum-26: A Canonized Cosmochemical Conundrum, John Anton 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Aluminum-26: A Canonized Cosmochemical Conundrum, John Anton

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study focuses on the challenges associated with the historical development of the interpretative role of 26Al as both a thermodynamic contributor to planetesimal formation processes and an acutely precise chronometer of protoplanetary disk events. Conventional thought asserts that 26Mg concentrations can occur as isotopic excesses in meteorites and represent the daughter product of 26Al, a radioactive form of aluminum (t½ = ~0.73 ka). The greatest 26Mg concentrations generally occur in calcium aluminum inclusions (CAIs), meteoric constituents considered among the oldest known materials in the Solar System whose formation appear to predate the less refractory ...


Phase Transitions In Mgsio3 Post-Perovskite In Super-Earth Mantles, Koichiro Umemoto, Renata M. Wentzcovitch, Shunqing Wu, Min Ji, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Kai-Ming Ho 2017 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Phase Transitions In Mgsio3 Post-Perovskite In Super-Earth Mantles, Koichiro Umemoto, Renata M. Wentzcovitch, Shunqing Wu, Min Ji, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Kai-Ming Ho

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

The highest pressure form of the major Earth-forming mantle silicate is MgSiO3 post-perovskite (PPv). Understanding the fate of PPv at TPa pressures is the first step for understanding the mineralogy of super-Earths-type exoplanets, arguably the most interesting for their similarities with Earth. Modeling their internal structure requires knowledge of stable mineral phases, their properties under compression, and major element abundances. Several studies of PPv under extreme pressures support the notion that a sequence of pressure induced dissociation transitions produce the elementary oxides SiO2 and MgO as the ultimate aggregation form at ∼3 TPa. However, none of these studies have addressed ...


The Formation Of Fine-Grained Chondrule Rims In Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites, John Bigolski 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Formation Of Fine-Grained Chondrule Rims In Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrites, John Bigolski

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Fine-grained rims are ubiquitous, non-igneous, features that completely or partially envelope the majority of chondrules within the least equilibrated of the unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs). A detailed examination of such rims in 4 UOC samples less than petrologic type 3.2 was conducted in order to 1) characterize the relative distribution of rims within chondrite samples, 2) inspect differences between fine-grained rims and adjacent matrix material, 3) petrologically analyze the rims and their relationships with chondrule cores, 4) characterize an ungrouped UOC, Northwest Africa 5717, 5) conduct a microanalytical investigation of rim / matrix boundaries to discern relative chronologies of fine-grained ...


Enstatite Achondrites As Indicators Of Processes And Environments In The Early Solar System, Diego David Uribe 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Enstatite Achondrites As Indicators Of Processes And Environments In The Early Solar System, Diego David Uribe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis investigates the processes and environments of formation of the anomalous enstatite achondrites NWA 4301, Zakłodzie, and NWA 8173 to determine how they relate to other enstatite meteorites (chondrites, impact melt rocks, aubrites, and so-called “primitive enstatite achondrites”). Observations of Zakłodzie and NWA 4301 showed both meteorites may share a common parent body, but experienced different metamorphic conditions. Different zonation patterns in plagioclase, silica polymorphs and associations, and sulfide assemblages indicate Zakłodzie experienced higher metamorphic temperatures and cooled faster than NWA 4301, therefore NWA 4301 was buried deeper in the parent body relative to Zakłodzie. In NWA 8173, mineral ...


Magmatic Hydrothermal Alteration And Secondary Post-Shock Features In Martian Olivine-Phyric Basalt Northwest Africa 10416; Petrology And Geochemistry Of Primitive Achondrite Northwest Africa 11042, Zoltan Vaci 2017 University of New Mexico

Magmatic Hydrothermal Alteration And Secondary Post-Shock Features In Martian Olivine-Phyric Basalt Northwest Africa 10416; Petrology And Geochemistry Of Primitive Achondrite Northwest Africa 11042, Zoltan Vaci

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The Martian olivine-phyric basalt Northwest Africa (NWA) 10416 contains large olivine xenocrysts whose cores have been stained brown by hydrothermal alteration and whose rims are composed of pristine olivine overgrowths. Microanalysis of these olivine cores reveals various degrees of amorphization, some of which have been overprinted by terrestrial weathering, evident as part of a weathering rind along the exposed surface of the meteorite. Studies of a completely unweathered terrestrial analogue basalt from southern Colorado reveal similar features and indicate that both basalts were altered in a supersolidus magma chamber setting. The alteration features in NWA 10416 thus imply the presence ...


Catalyzed Synthesis Of Zinc Clays By Prebiotic Central Metabolites, Marcelo I. Guzman, Ruixin Zhou, Kaustuv Basu, Hyman Hartman, Christopher J. Matocha, S. Kelly Sears, Hajatollah Vali 2017 University of Kentucky

Catalyzed Synthesis Of Zinc Clays By Prebiotic Central Metabolites, Marcelo I. Guzman, Ruixin Zhou, Kaustuv Basu, Hyman Hartman, Christopher J. Matocha, S. Kelly Sears, Hajatollah Vali

Chemistry Faculty Publications

How primordial metabolic networks such as the reverse tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle and clay mineral catalysts coevolved remains a mystery in the puzzle to understand the origin of life. While prebiotic reactions from the rTCA cycle were accomplished via photochemistry on semiconductor minerals, the synthesis of clays was demonstrated at low temperature and ambient pressure catalyzed by oxalate. Herein, the crystallization of clay minerals is catalyzed by succinate, an example of a photoproduced intermediate from central metabolism. The experiments connect the synthesis of sauconite, a model for clay minerals, to prebiotic photochemistry. We report the temperature, pH, and concentration dependence ...


Stable Isotope Chemistry In Titan Haze Aerosol, Allison Wold 2017 University of Northern Iowa

Stable Isotope Chemistry In Titan Haze Aerosol, Allison Wold

Research in the Capitol

Titan, a moon of Saturn, has a thick atmosphere made up of nitrogen and a few percent methane, with a surface pressure of 1.5x that of Earth. Titan’s atmosphere is believed to be that similar to that of early Earth before the rise of O2. One significant source of information on the history and evolution of the atmosphere is the measurement of stable isotopes of elements in the molecules of major gases such as nitrogen, methane, and higher order hydrocarbons. The fractionation associated with the formation of Titan aerosol analogs are explored in the laboratory as a function ...


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