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Meteorite Investigation And Classification, Olivia N. Benest 2022 Western University

Meteorite Investigation And Classification, Olivia N. Benest

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Several meteorites arrive on Earth every day, but only a small percentage of them are found. They are easiest to spot on deserts or frozen ice. Western has a large number of unclassified meteorites found in the Northwest Africa (NWA) and Oman deserts. These meteorites include chondrites, achondrites, irons, and even Lunar and Martian meteorites. Classifying a meteorite requires detailed examination by optical microscopy, as well as micro X-ray diffraction (µXRD), and Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), to observe their mineralogy (metal, oxide, sulfide, and silicate mineral phases), textures (e.g. chondrules, CAIs) and composition, in order to classify their petrologic ...


Implications Of An Improved Water Equation Of State For Water-Rich Planets, Chenling Huang, David R. Rice, Zachary M. Grande, Dean Smith, John H. Boisvert, Oliver Tschauner, Ashkan Salamat, Jason Steffen 2021 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Implications Of An Improved Water Equation Of State For Water-Rich Planets, Chenling Huang, David R. Rice, Zachary M. Grande, Dean Smith, John H. Boisvert, Oliver Tschauner, Ashkan Salamat, Jason Steffen

Geoscience Faculty Publications

Water (H2O), in all forms, is an important constituent in planetary bodies, controlling habitability and influencing geological activity. Under conditions found in the interior of many planets, as the pressure increases, the H-bonds in water gradually weaken and are replaced by ionic bonds. Recent experimental measurements of the water equation of state (EOS) showed both a new phase of H-bonded water ice, ice-VIIt, and a relatively low transition pressure just above 30 GPa to ionic bonded ice-X, which has a bulk modulus 2.5 times larger. The higher bulk modulus of ice-X produces larger planets for a given mass, thereby ...


Frozen In Time: A Numerical Modeling Approach To The Study Of Ice Bearing Planetesimals Through Carbonaceous Chondrites, Jasmine M. Bayron 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Frozen In Time: A Numerical Modeling Approach To The Study Of Ice Bearing Planetesimals Through Carbonaceous Chondrites, Jasmine M. Bayron

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Icy planetesimals are significant objects of study for meteoritics, planetary science, and astrobiology due to their connections to the origins of life and liquid water on Earth. An existing closed system aqueous alteration model was adapted to simulate several scenarios involving early Solar System geologic processes occurring in an icy planetesimal interior. The model described in this work has been developed not only to test the validity of constraints currently thought to apply to CM1 parent bodies, but to directly compare the implications of these constraints for the isotopic composition and the modal mineralogy of carbonaceous chondrites. Isotopic ratios of ...


An Experimental Study Of Evaporites On Titan: Implications For Lake Composition And Future Missions, Ellen Czaplinski 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Experimental Study Of Evaporites On Titan: Implications For Lake Composition And Future Missions, Ellen Czaplinski

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Titan is the only other planetary body in the solar system with liquid on the surface. With a surface temperature and pressure of 89 – 94 K and 1.5 bar (N2), respectively, Titan’s lakes are comprised of liquid hydrocarbons, predominantly methane and ethane. Over time, Titan’s lakes may evaporate, leaving behind residual deposits (evaporites). The evaporation processes and composition of the evaporites is poorly understood. I address these outstanding questions by experimentally investigating the physical and spectral properties of evaporites at Titan surface conditions using an experimental chamber.

Chapter 1 addresses the formation of ethylene evaporites. Ethylene evaporites ...


Microstructural And Microchemical Studies Of Fluid–Chondrule Interactions In A Pristine Cr Carbonaceous Chondrite And Apatite In Martian Nakhlites, Marina Martínez 2021 University of New Mexico

Microstructural And Microchemical Studies Of Fluid–Chondrule Interactions In A Pristine Cr Carbonaceous Chondrite And Apatite In Martian Nakhlites, Marina Martínez

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

PROJECT 1: Chondrites are the most primitive objects in the solar system, aggregates of the material that formed in the solar protoplanetary disk during the first 1-5 million years of its formation. However, petrographic observations indicate that most chondrites have been modified by secondary processes, including aqueous alteration, thermal metamorphism, and shock. Fortunately, a few chondrites largely escaped these processes and are considered pristine, such as the CR carbonaceous chondrite Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 99177. QUE 99177 is an excellent sample for deciphering information about the reactions that took place between unaltered anhydrous solar nebular components and water under highly ...


Microstructural Constraints On The Nebular And Asteroidal Histories Of Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusions From Cv3 Chondrites, Shaofan Che 2020 University of New Mexico

Microstructural Constraints On The Nebular And Asteroidal Histories Of Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusions From Cv3 Chondrites, Shaofan Che

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The petrology and mineralogy of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV3 carbonaceous chondrites have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The goal of this dissertation is twofold: (1) to gain new insights into the nebular processes, such as vapor-solid reactions, accretion, transport, that are responsible for the formation of non-igneous CAIs, and (2) to better understand the role of fluid in the secondary alteration of CAIs on the CV3 chondrite parent body. This work represents the first systematic microstructural study of CAIs from CV3 chondrites.

Chapter 2 presents the microstructural observations of primary mineralogies of fine-grained, spinel-rich inclusions (FGIs) from ...


Mars 2020: A Step Closer To The Red Planet, Kevin Ng, Matthew Khargie, Omadevi Singh, Sashi Singh, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Rajendra Persaud 2020 Brooklyn Technical High School

Mars 2020: A Step Closer To The Red Planet, Kevin Ng, Matthew Khargie, Omadevi Singh, Sashi Singh, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Rajendra Persaud

Publications and Research

This research paper primarily focuses on the NASA Mars 2020 mission, but will also revisit and discuss past rover missions. As the Mars 2020 mission is ongoing, some information will be updated accordingly. For decades, humans have dreamed of the colonization of Mars for many reasons, such as some similarities shared by Earth and Mars or the close proximity to our planet. In fact, dozens of films, books, and articles have been written, especially in the past 2 decades, about the possibility. As technology advances, we develop newer equipment to hopefully make this possibility into a reality. Of course, placing ...


Human Health And Wellness In Space: A Review Of Common Effects, Current Research, And Methods Of Prevention, Sonnet Xu, Rajendra Persaud, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Jasmin Budhan 2020 Troy High School

Human Health And Wellness In Space: A Review Of Common Effects, Current Research, And Methods Of Prevention, Sonnet Xu, Rajendra Persaud, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Jasmin Budhan

Publications and Research

Space poses a threat to space crew wellness, where microgravity, isolation, radiation, and other conditions exert strain on human health. This study explores the changes to the human body in space and how it contributes to major threats to health during spaceflights. The effects of the hostile environment of outer space are all examined here, along with resultant changes to behavior, physiology, and the difficulty of remote diagnosis for health treatment in space. This review also considers the implications to the human cartilage, brain, and eyes along with the various other hazards and physiological alterations.

Human health in space is ...


Microgravity And Its Bearing With Space Flight-Related Research, Farhan Tanvir, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Rajendra Persaud, Jeff Guan 2020 Bronx High School for the Sciences

Microgravity And Its Bearing With Space Flight-Related Research, Farhan Tanvir, Nazrul I. Khandaker, Rajendra Persaud, Jeff Guan

Publications and Research

This study investigates the unique properties and applications of microgravity in the context of spaceflight research. Understanding and harnessing the behaviors of a microgravity environment opens up the doors to long-term space travel and consequently, future missions to other planets within our solar system. More specifically, simulating and conducting experiments in microgravity environments helps us explore its effects on the various necessary tasks and behaviors that are carried out during spaceflight. The most immediate and pronounced effects of microgravity are on human physiology. In particular, studies have shown that prolonged exposure to microgravity can result in a 20% decrease in ...


Effects Of Terrestrial Weathering On Rare Earth Element Concentrations And Sulfur Isotopic Signatures Of Carbonaceous And Ordinary Chondrites, Ruby Virginia Patterson 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Terrestrial Weathering On Rare Earth Element Concentrations And Sulfur Isotopic Signatures Of Carbonaceous And Ordinary Chondrites, Ruby Virginia Patterson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the effects of weathering of chondrites is essential to gaining accurate and useful information about the formation of our solar system, as well as a more detailed account of the mobilization of chondritic compounds when they encounter terrestrial conditions. Elemental concentrations and stable isotope analyses of chondrites, considered to be the most primordial material in the solar system, are two tools which help unlock the weathering patterns of these specimens when they enter the earth system. However, it is not currently known exactly how time spent in the field alters rare earth element (REE) concentration or δ34S signatures within ...


An Experimental Investigation Of Liquid Hydrocarbons In A Simulated Titan Environment, Kendra Farnsworth 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Experimental Investigation Of Liquid Hydrocarbons In A Simulated Titan Environment, Kendra Farnsworth

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Saturn’s moon, Titan, has surface conditions (89–94 K, 1.5-bar atmosphere) that permit lakes of methane, ethane, and dissolved atmospheric nitrogen. The effects of atmospheric nitrogen on methane-ethane liquid properties is poorly understood, leading to uncertainty in Titan modeling. I address this question by experimentally investigating the physical properties of methane-ethane liquids under a 1.5-bar nitrogen atmosphere in a simulated Titan environmental chamber.

Chapter 1 addresses nitrogen dissolution kinetics in Titan’s liquid hydrocarbons. I found an exponential increase in nitrogen quantity and diffusion coefficients with increasing methane mol%. I find that Titan’s liquids are likely ...


Early Meteoritic Records Of Asteroidal Melt And Impact Environments, Brendt Hyde 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Early Meteoritic Records Of Asteroidal Melt And Impact Environments, Brendt Hyde

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The characterization of meteorites formed in early melt and impact environments helps deepen our understanding of the processes involved in the formation and modification of terrestrial bodies in the solar system. The main objective of this thesis is to interpret and describe a range of igneous and metamorphic environments on asteroidal bodies, through the chemical, microstructural and isotopic analysis of meteorites, and to place these in the context of evolving rocky bodies in the early protoplanetary disk. Study of the meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 869 has led to the novel discovery of a eucrite impactor clast in chondritic regolith material ...


Measured Optical Absorption Cross Sections Of Tio, Peter Bernath 2020 Old Dominion University

Measured Optical Absorption Cross Sections Of Tio, Peter Bernath

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

A laboratory emission spectrum of TiO in the visible and near-infrared regions (476–1176 nm) has been calibrated and corrected. High-resolution experimental absorption cross sections for TiO with natural isotopic abundance are provided at a temperature of about 2300 K. These cross sections have been compared with those derived from the ExoMol line list. The experimental cross sections can be used directly as a template for cross correlation TiO detection in hot Jupiter exoplanets.


The Effect Of The 21 August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse On The Phase Of Vlf/Lf Signals, A. Rozhnoi, M. Solovieva, S. Shalimov, Dimitar Ouzounov, P. Gallagher, G. Verth, J. McCauley, S. Shelyag, V. Fedun 2019 Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow

The Effect Of The 21 August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse On The Phase Of Vlf/Lf Signals, A. Rozhnoi, M. Solovieva, S. Shalimov, Dimitar Ouzounov, P. Gallagher, G. Verth, J. Mccauley, S. Shelyag, V. Fedun

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

An experimental study of the phase and amplitude observations of sub‐ionospheric very low and low frequency (VLF/LF) signals is performed to analyze the response of the lower ionosphere during the 21 August 2017 total solar eclipse in the United States of America. Three different sub‐ionospheric wave paths are investigated. The length of the paths varies from 2,200 to 6,400 km, and the signal frequencies are 21.4, 25.2, and 40.75 kHz. The two paths cross the region of the total eclipse, and the third path is in the region of 40–60% of ...


Shock Effects Recorded By The U-Pb Radiometric System In Zircons Of Apollo 17 Impact Breccias And By Raman Spectroscopy In Enstatite Meteorites, Bidong Zhang 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Shock Effects Recorded By The U-Pb Radiometric System In Zircons Of Apollo 17 Impact Breccias And By Raman Spectroscopy In Enstatite Meteorites, Bidong Zhang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Impact cratering processes and formations are ubiquitous on the rocky planets within the Solar System. The Earth-Moon system was formed by a massive planetary impact, and numerous impacts afterwards significantly reshaped the topography and lithology of the Moon surface. This dissertation focuses on studying some specific geochemical, geochronological, and geophysical signatures of impact processes preserved in lunar rocks and asteroidal meteorites.

The zircon U-Pb radiometric system is one of the most reliable geochronometers in measuring geological time. Recently, unsupported radiogenic Pb enrichment has been reported to compromise the accuracy and precision of zircon U-Pb geochronometer in terrestrial rocks. In Chapter ...


Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf, And Mn-Cr Isotope Geochemistry Of Achondrite Meteorites: Implications For The Formation Reservoirs Of Differentiated Planetesimals, Zhiguo Guo 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf, And Mn-Cr Isotope Geochemistry Of Achondrite Meteorites: Implications For The Formation Reservoirs Of Differentiated Planetesimals, Zhiguo Guo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Accretion and differentiation of planetesimals are critical steps of planetary formation. By studying achondrite meteorites, we can bring further geochemical and chronological constraints on the source and composition of materials and their evolution throughout the protoplanetary disk. Major and trace element analyses for mineral and whole-rock compositions and high-precision isotopic compositions for the short- and long-lived radiochronometers 53Mn-53Cr, 147,146Sm-143,142Nd and 176Lu-176Hf are reported for two eucrites, two diogenites, and three ungrouped achondrites. Of these, NWA 12338 is a newly classified ungrouped achondrite with an anomalously higher Δ17O ...


Ni And Fe Isotope Fractionation During Weathering And The Formation Of Ni Laterite Ore Deposits In The Philippines, Congxi Zhu 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Ni And Fe Isotope Fractionation During Weathering And The Formation Of Ni Laterite Ore Deposits In The Philippines, Congxi Zhu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Weathering processes on Ni-rich ultramafic rocks in tropical areas produce laterites that become exploitable for Ni mining. To better understand these processes, samples were collected stratigraphically with water samples from several Ni mines in the Philippines and studied for Ni and Fe isotope compositions. This study found that Ni isotope fractionation takes place during the formation of Ni-enriched minerals (goethite), when light Ni isotopes are preferentially incorporated into new minerals formed, leaving heavy Ni isotopes in groundwater. The Δ60NiLimonite-Bedrock is up to -0.19 ± 0.32‰. Even though Fe is partitioned with redox state change during these ...


Impact Cratering Processes On The Earth And Moon: Meteorites, Complex Craters, And The Origin Of The Moon, Patrick Hill 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Impact Cratering Processes On The Earth And Moon: Meteorites, Complex Craters, And The Origin Of The Moon, Patrick Hill

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis seeks to understand the mechanism of hypervelocity impacts, lunar origin and geology, and stable isotope techniques and its application to lunar material. Three lunar regolith breccias, Dhofar 1673, Dhofar 1983, and Dhofar 1984, were examined. The petrography, mineralogy, isotope chemistry, and bulk chemistry of these meteorites were quantified to investigate their origin. The chemistry of the impact melt rock and bulk chemical analysis suggests sourcing from either the Feldspathic or Outer Feldspathic Highland Terranes. Given the similarities in the meteorites, and the proximal location of each find (within 500 m), this thesis proposes strong evidence for their pairing ...


Multivariate Spectral Analysis Of Crism Data To Characterize The Composition Of Mawrth Vallis, Melissa Luna 2018 Wesleyan University

Multivariate Spectral Analysis Of Crism Data To Characterize The Composition Of Mawrth Vallis, Melissa Luna

Melissa Luna

No abstract provided.


Aluminum-26: A Canonized Cosmochemical Conundrum, John Anton 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Aluminum-26: A Canonized Cosmochemical Conundrum, John Anton

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study focuses on the challenges associated with the historical development of the interpretative role of 26Al as both a thermodynamic contributor to planetesimal formation processes and an acutely precise chronometer of protoplanetary disk events. Conventional thought asserts that 26Mg concentrations can occur as isotopic excesses in meteorites and represent the daughter product of 26Al, a radioactive form of aluminum (t½ = ~0.73 ka). The greatest 26Mg concentrations generally occur in calcium aluminum inclusions (CAIs), meteoric constituents considered among the oldest known materials in the Solar System whose formation appear to predate the less refractory ...


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