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A Demonstration Of The Infrared Activity Of Carbon Dioxide, Philip Sieg, William Berner, Peter Harnish, Philip C. Nelson 2019 University of Pennsylvania

A Demonstration Of The Infrared Activity Of Carbon Dioxide, Philip Sieg, William Berner, Peter Harnish, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

Before they can talk meaningfully about anthropogenic climate change, students need to grasp basic principles of natural planetary climates, for example, the key role of trace atmospheric gases in setting surface temperature. We describe a dramatic demonstration that scales well for large audiences and that requires as little as ten classroom minutes to show the crucial difference between room air and carbon dioxide gas. Beyond its significance for public policy, the demonstration can serve as a springboard to motivate discussion of important physics concepts such as rotation and vibration spectra.


Modeled And Measured Ecosystem Respiration In Maize–Soybean Systems Over 10 Years, Ming Zhan, Adam Liska, Anthony Nguy-Robertson, Andrew E. Suyker, Matthew P. Pelton, Haishun Yang 2019 Huazhong Agricultural University

Modeled And Measured Ecosystem Respiration In Maize–Soybean Systems Over 10 Years, Ming Zhan, Adam Liska, Anthony Nguy-Robertson, Andrew E. Suyker, Matthew P. Pelton, Haishun Yang

Adam Liska Papers

Crop residue is an abundant resource for the potential production of biofuels, but a better understanding of its use on net carbon emissions must be developed to mitigate climate change. This analysis combines two established crop growth models (Hybrid-Maize and SoySim) with a simple soil and crop residue respiration model to estimate daily ecosystem respiration (ERe) from maize and soybean; ERe was estimated to be the sum of CO2 emissions from the oxidation of the growing crop, crop residue, and soil organic carbon (SOC). Model-estimated CO2 fluxes from irrigated continuous maize and irrigated maize–soybean cropping systems in ...


Coupling Between Land–Ocean–Atmosphere And Pronounced Changes In Atmospheric/Meteorological Parameters Associated With The Hudhud Cyclone Of October 2014, Akshansa Chauhan, Rajesh Kumar, Ramesh P. Singh 2018 Sharda University

Coupling Between Land–Ocean–Atmosphere And Pronounced Changes In Atmospheric/Meteorological Parameters Associated With The Hudhud Cyclone Of October 2014, Akshansa Chauhan, Rajesh Kumar, Ramesh P. Singh

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

India is vulnerable to all kinds of natural hazards associated with land, ocean, biosphere, atmosphere, and snow/glaciers. These natural hazards impact large areas and the population living in the affected regions. India is surrounded by ocean on three sides and is vulnerable to cyclonic activities. Every year cyclones hit the east and west coasts of India, affecting the population living along the coasts and infrastructure and inland areas. The extent of the affected inland areas depends on the intensity of the cyclone. On 12 October 2014, a strong cyclone “Hudhud” hit the east coast of India that caused a ...


Designing A Protected Area To Safeguard Imperiled Species From Urbanization, Stephanie S. Romanach, Brad Stith, Fred A. Johnson 2018 U.S. Geological Survey, Wetland and Aquatic Research Center

Designing A Protected Area To Safeguard Imperiled Species From Urbanization, Stephanie S. Romanach, Brad Stith, Fred A. Johnson

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Reserve design is a process that can address ecological, social, and political factors to identify parcels of land needed to sustain wildlife populations and other natural resources. Acquisition of parcels for a large terrestrial reserve is difficult because it typically occurs over a long timeframe and thus invokes consideration of future conditions such as climate and urbanization changes. In central Florida, the U.S. government has authorized a new protected area, the Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge. The new refuge will host important threatened and endangered species and habitats, and will be located to allow for species adaptation from climate ...


Water, Energy, And Carbon Footprints Of Bioethanol From The U.S. And Brazil, Mesfin Mergia Mekonnen, Thiago L. Romanelli, Chittaranjan Ray, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, Adam Liska, Christopher M. U. Neale 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Water, Energy, And Carbon Footprints Of Bioethanol From The U.S. And Brazil, Mesfin Mergia Mekonnen, Thiago L. Romanelli, Chittaranjan Ray, Arjen Y. Hoekstra, Adam Liska, Christopher M. U. Neale

Adam Liska Papers

Driven by biofuel policies, which aim to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increase domestic energy supply, global production and consumption of bioethanol have doubled between 2007 and 2016, with rapid growth in corn-based bioethanol in the U.S. and sugar cane-based bioethanol in Brazil. Advances in crop yields, energy use efficiency in fertilizer production, biomass-to-ethanol conversion rates, and energy efficiency in ethanol production have improved the energy balance and GHG emission reduction potential of bioethanol. In the current study, the water, energy, and carbon footprints of bioethanol from corn in the U.S. and sugar cane in Brazil were ...


A Review Of Fractals In Karst, Eulogio Pardo-Igúzquiza, Peter A. Dowd, Juan J. Durán, Pedro Robledo-Ardila 2018 Instituto Geológico y Minero de España (IGME)

A Review Of Fractals In Karst, Eulogio Pardo-Igúzquiza, Peter A. Dowd, Juan J. Durán, Pedro Robledo-Ardila

International Journal of Speleology

Many features of a karst massif can either be modelled using fractal geometry or have a fractal distribution. For the exokarst, typical examples include the geometry of the landscape and the spatial location and size-distribution of karst depressions. Typical examples for the endokarst are the geometry of the three-dimensional network of karst conduits and the length-distribution of caves. In addition, the hydrogeological parameters of the karst massif, such as hydraulic conductivity, and karst spring hydrographs may also exhibit fractal behaviour. In this work we review the karst features that exhibit fractal behaviour, we review the literature in which they are ...


Elevated Black Carbon Concentrations And Atmospheric Pollution Around Singrauli Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plants (India) Using Ground And Satellite Data, Ramesh Singh, Sarvan Kumar, Abhay K. Singh 2018 Chapman University

Elevated Black Carbon Concentrations And Atmospheric Pollution Around Singrauli Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plants (India) Using Ground And Satellite Data, Ramesh Singh, Sarvan Kumar, Abhay K. Singh

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The tropospheric NO2 concentration from OMI AURA always shows high concentrations of NO2 at a few locations in India, one of the high concentrations of NO2 hotspots is associated with the locations of seven coal-fired Thermal Power plants (TPPs) in Singrauli. Emissions from TPPs are among the major sources of black carbon (BC) soot in the atmosphere. Knowledge of BC emissions from TPPs is important in characterizing regional carbonaceous particulate emissions, understanding the fog/haze/smog formation, evaluating regional climate forcing, modeling aerosol optical parameters and concentrations of black carbon, and evaluating human health. Furthermore, elevated BC concentrations ...


Groundwater Contamination At Coal Ash Deposit Sites In Kentucky, Brandon Rose 2018 Murray State University

Groundwater Contamination At Coal Ash Deposit Sites In Kentucky, Brandon Rose

Scholars Week

No abstract provided.


Kentucky Flood And Flash Flood Comparison Of 1996 And 2017 Using Gis, Harrison Kelly 2018 Murray State University

Kentucky Flood And Flash Flood Comparison Of 1996 And 2017 Using Gis, Harrison Kelly

Scholars Week

No abstract provided.


Predicted Deepwater Bathymetry From Satellite Altimetry: Non-Fourier Transform Alternatives, Maxsimo Salazar 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Predicted Deepwater Bathymetry From Satellite Altimetry: Non-Fourier Transform Alternatives, Maxsimo Salazar

Dissertations

Robert Parker (1972) demonstrated the effectiveness of Fourier Transforms (FT) to compute gravitational potential anomalies caused by uneven, non-uniform layers of material. This important calculation relates the gravitational potential anomaly to sea-floor topography. As outlined by Sandwell and Smith (1997), a six-step procedure, utilizing the FT, then demonstrated how satellite altimetry measurements of marine geoid height are inverted into seafloor topography. However, FTs are not local in space and produce Gibb’s phenomenon around discontinuities. Seafloor features exhibit spatial locality and features such as seamounts and ridges often have sharp inclines. Initial tests compared the windowed-FT to wavelets in reconstruction ...


Further Evidence For The Invasion And Establishment Of Pterois Volitans (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae) Along The Atlantic Coast Of The United States, H. Scott Meister, David M. Wyanski, Joshua K. Loefer, Steve W. Ross, Andrea M. Quattrini, Kenneth J. Sulak 2018 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Marine Resources Research Institute,

Further Evidence For The Invasion And Establishment Of Pterois Volitans (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae) Along The Atlantic Coast Of The United States, H. Scott Meister, David M. Wyanski, Joshua K. Loefer, Steve W. Ross, Andrea M. Quattrini, Kenneth J. Sulak

USGS Staff -- Published Research

We document the continues population expansion of red lionfish, Pterois volitans, the first documented successful introduction of an invasive marine fish species from the western Pacific to Atlantic coastal water of the United States. Red lionfish are indigenous to the Indo-Pacific and have apparently established one or more breeding population on reefs off the southeastern United States. Fifty-nine specimens, most presumably adult red lionfish, were documented or collected on live-bottom reefs North Carolina, South Caroline, and Florida, and on a manmade structure off Georgia. Observation/collection depths and bottom water temperatures for these fish ranged from 4-99 m and 13 ...


Marine Threats Overlap Key Foraging Habitat For Two Imperiled Sea Turtle Species In The Gulf Of Mexico, Kristen M. Hart, Autumn R. Iverson, Ikuko Fujisaki, Margaret M. Lamont, David Bucklin, Donna J. Shaver 2018 Wetland and Aquatic Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey

Marine Threats Overlap Key Foraging Habitat For Two Imperiled Sea Turtle Species In The Gulf Of Mexico, Kristen M. Hart, Autumn R. Iverson, Ikuko Fujisaki, Margaret M. Lamont, David Bucklin, Donna J. Shaver

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Effective management of human activities affecting listed species requires understanding both threats and animal habitat-use patterns. However, the extent of spatial overlap between high-use foraging areas (where multiple marine species congregate) and anthropogenic threats is not well-known. Our modeling approach incorporates data on sea turtle spatial ecology and a suite of threats in the Gulf of Mexico to identify and map “hot spots” of threats to two imperiled turtle species. Of all 820 “high” threats grid cells, our tracked turtles foraged at least 1 day in 77% of them. Although threat data were not available outside the U.S. Exclusive ...


The Periglacial Landscape Of Mars: Insight Into The 'Decameter-Scale Rimmed Depressions' In Utopia Planitia, Arya Bina 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Periglacial Landscape Of Mars: Insight Into The 'Decameter-Scale Rimmed Depressions' In Utopia Planitia, Arya Bina

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Currently, Mars appears to be in a ‘frozen’ and ‘dry’ state, with the clear majority of the planet’s surface maintaining year-round sub-zero temperatures. However, the discovery of features consistent with landforms found in periglacial environments on Earth, suggests a climate history for Mars that may have involved freeze and thaw cycles. Such landforms include hummocky, polygonised, scalloped, and pitted terrains, as well as ice-rich deposits and gullies, along the mid- to high-latitude bands, typically with no lower than 20o N/S. The detection of near-surface and surface ice via the Phoenix lander, excavation of ice via recent impact cratering ...


Global Dynamics Of A Mutualism–Competition Model With One Resource And Multiple Consumers, Yuanshi Wang, Hong Wu, Donald L. DeAngelis 2018 School of Mathematics, Sun Yat-sen University

Global Dynamics Of A Mutualism–Competition Model With One Resource And Multiple Consumers, Yuanshi Wang, Hong Wu, Donald L. Deangelis

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Recent simulation modeling has shown that species can coevolve toward clusters of coexisting consumers exploiting the same limiting resource or resources, with nearly identical ratios of coefficients related to growth and mortality. This paper provides a mathematical basis for such as situation; a full analysis of the global dynamics of a new model for such a class of n-dimensional consumer–resource system, in which a set of consumers with identical growth to mortality ratios compete for the same resource and in which each consumer is mutualistic with the resource. First, we study the system of one resource and two ...


Ancient Convergent Losses Of Paraoxonase 1 Yield Potential Risks For Modern Marine Mammals, Wynn K. Meyer, Jerrica Jamison, Rebecca Richter, Stacy E. Woods, Raghavendran Partha, Amanda Kowalczyk, Charles Kronk, Maria Chikina, Robert K. Bonde, Daniel E. Crocker, Joseph Gaspard, Janet M. Lanyon, Judit Marsillach, Clement E. Furlong, Nathan L. Clark 2018 Department of Computational and Systems Biology, University of Pittsburgh

Ancient Convergent Losses Of Paraoxonase 1 Yield Potential Risks For Modern Marine Mammals, Wynn K. Meyer, Jerrica Jamison, Rebecca Richter, Stacy E. Woods, Raghavendran Partha, Amanda Kowalczyk, Charles Kronk, Maria Chikina, Robert K. Bonde, Daniel E. Crocker, Joseph Gaspard, Janet M. Lanyon, Judit Marsillach, Clement E. Furlong, Nathan L. Clark

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Mammals diversified by colonizing drastically different environments, with each transition yielding numerous molecular changes, including losses of protein function. Though not initially deleterious, these losses could subsequently carry deleterious pleiotropic consequences. We have used phylogenetic methods to identify convergent functional losses across independent marine mammal lineages. In one extreme case, Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) accrued lesions in all marine lineages, while remaining intact in all terrestrial mammals. These lesions coincide with PON1 enzymatic activity loss in marine species’ blood plasma. This convergent loss is likely explained by parallel shifts in marine ancestors’ lipid metabolism and/or bloodstream oxidative environment affecting PON1 ...


Internal Parasites Of The Two Subspecies Of The West Indian Manatee Trichechus Manatus, Heidi Wyrosdick, Alycia Chapman, Antonio A. Mignucci-Giannoni, Carla I. Rivera-Pérez, Robert K. Bonde 2018 Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine,

Internal Parasites Of The Two Subspecies Of The West Indian Manatee Trichechus Manatus, Heidi Wyrosdick, Alycia Chapman, Antonio A. Mignucci-Giannoni, Carla I. Rivera-Pérez, Robert K. Bonde

USGS Staff -- Published Research

The West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is divided into 2 subspecies: the Antillean (T. m. manatus) and Florida (T. m. latirostris) manatees. This study reports sample prevalence of manatee parasites from populations of these 2 subspecies in different geographical locations. Although necropsy is a valuable diagnostic tool for parasite infections, the need for antemortem diagnostic techniques is important. Fecal samples collected during necropsies of Antillean manatees (n = 3) in Puerto Rico and Florida manatees (n = 10) in Crystal River, Florida, as well as from live-captured Florida manatees (n = 11) were evaluated using centrifugal flotation with sucrose and ethyl acetate sedimentation ...


Characterization Of Kelyphite Rims: Relevance To Diamond Exploration, Mallory N.G. Metcalf 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Characterization Of Kelyphite Rims: Relevance To Diamond Exploration, Mallory N.G. Metcalf

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A detailed investigation into the mineralogy and chemistry of kelyphitic rims/veins on garnets was conducted using µXRD, EPMA and Raman spectroscopy for a suite of samples from economic and non-economic kimberlites in Canada and South Africa. Mineralogy demonstrates the influence of metasomatic fluids during the reactions which produced kelyphite in all localities and was used to propose P-T regions where kelyphite could have formed. Using chemical analyses of host garnets and the mineralogy obtained for kelyphite, modified chemical reactions representing Types 1 and 2 kelyphite are provided to describe kelyphite reactions in open systems. Elastically-strained secondary garnet is common ...


Serum Proteins In Healthy And Diseased Florida Manatees (Trichechus Manatus Latirostris), J.W. Harvey, K.E. Harr, D. Murphy, M.T. Walsh, M. de Wit, R.K. Bonde 2018 Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida,

Serum Proteins In Healthy And Diseased Florida Manatees (Trichechus Manatus Latirostris), J.W. Harvey, K.E. Harr, D. Murphy, M.T. Walsh, M. De Wit, R.K. Bonde

USGS Staff -- Published Research

A major goal of this study was to determine whether serum protein fractions of healthy Florida manatees differ with age, sex, or living environments (wild versus housed). A second goal was to determine which serum protein fractions vary in diseased versus healthy manatees. Serum protein fractions were determined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Healthy adults had slightly higher total serum protein and total globulin concentrations than younger animals. This largely resulted from an increase in gamma globulins with age. Total serum protein, albumin, alpha-1 globulin, beta globulin, and total globulin concentrations were slightly higher in housed manatees compared to wild manatees ...


Breakpoint Analysis Of Modis Vegetarian Cover Change In Southern California Deserts, Rebecca Baiman 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Breakpoint Analysis Of Modis Vegetarian Cover Change In Southern California Deserts, Rebecca Baiman

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

This study applies time series breakpoint analysis to look at Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data of southern California. Past studies have looked at this desert land using Landsat data in order to analyze any changes the environment has gone through due to renewable energy development or other factors. This study develops a method for utilizing structural change models to study the DRECP land area. Focusing on breakpoints, this study found that most positive breakpoints represented years with high rainfall. Additionally, sandy washes with little vegetation did not yield any breakpoint between 2000 and 2018. This study can be used ...


Qgis Approach To Extract Fluvial Terraces For Archaeological Purposes Using Remote Sensing Data, Lia Duarte, Alberto Gomes, Ana Cláudia Teodoro, Sérgio Monteiro-Rodrigues 2018 Dep. Geosciences, Environment and Land Planning Faculty of Sciences, Rua Campo Alegre, 4169-007, Porto, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Earth Sciences Institute (ICT), Faculty of Sciences, Rua Campo Alegre, 4169-007, Porto, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Qgis Approach To Extract Fluvial Terraces For Archaeological Purposes Using Remote Sensing Data, Lia Duarte, Alberto Gomes, Ana Cláudia Teodoro, Sérgio Monteiro-Rodrigues

Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial (FOSS4G) Conference Proceedings

Fluvial terraces, normally defining flattened surfaces are significant geomorphic features that explains the presence of rivers at high altitudes and constitute the remains of the old river along the valley. In Iberia, many of these terraces preserve Paleolithic artifacts and document the presence of the first human communities. Nowadays, the increasing use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) provides the opportunity to analyze and test different approaches to study these geomorphological features. According to the literature, several algorithms from open source GIS software have been used, such as Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS) GIS. In the recent versions ...


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