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Closing The Water Budget In An Experimental Urban Watershed: A Comparative Assessment Of Methods For Measuring Evapotranspiration, Leana M. Weissberg, Gaboury Benoit 2017 Yale University

Closing The Water Budget In An Experimental Urban Watershed: A Comparative Assessment Of Methods For Measuring Evapotranspiration, Leana M. Weissberg, Gaboury Benoit

Yale Day of Data

No abstract provided.


Toxicity Of Fluorescent Tracers And Their Degradation Byproducts, Philippe Gombert, Hugues Biaudet, René de Sèze, Pascal Pandard, Jean Carré 2017 INERIS

Toxicity Of Fluorescent Tracers And Their Degradation Byproducts, Philippe Gombert, Hugues Biaudet, René De Sèze, Pascal Pandard, Jean Carré

International Journal of Speleology

Tracer tests are frequently used to delineate catchment area of water supply springs in karstic zones. In the karstic chalk of Normandy, the main tracers used are fluorescent: uranine, sulforhodamine B, naphtionate, and Tinopal®. In this area, a statistical analysis shows that less than half of the injected tracers joins the monitored restitution points and enters the drinking water system where they undergo chlorination. Most of the injected tracers is absorbed in the rock matrix or is thrown out of the aquifer via karstic springs: then it can join superficial waters where it is degraded due to the sun and ...


Changes In Arctic Climate And Central U.S. Weather Patterns Is There A Link?, Donald A. Wilhite, Kimberly C. Morrow, Martha Shulski 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Changes In Arctic Climate And Central U.S. Weather Patterns Is There A Link?, Donald A. Wilhite, Kimberly C. Morrow, Martha Shulski

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Earlier snowmelt, decreasing soil moisture, decreased corn yields, increasing extreme precipitation events—these are some of the weather effects currently observed in the central United States that might well have their origin in the rapidly warming Arctic. These and other implications of Arctic warming were among the topics discussed at a fall 2015 workshop, Implications of a Changing Arctic on Water Resources and Agriculture in the Central U.S (Wilhite and Morrow 2016).

The United States assumed chairmanship of the Arctic Council in April 2015, making the workshop topic timely. Given the importance of the Midwest and Great Plains region ...


Why Do Different Drought Indices Show Distinct Future Drought Risk Outcomes In The U.S. Great Plains?, Song Feng, Miroslav Trnka, Michael Hayes, Yongjun Zheng 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Why Do Different Drought Indices Show Distinct Future Drought Risk Outcomes In The U.S. Great Plains?, Song Feng, Miroslav Trnka, Michael Hayes, Yongjun Zheng

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Vigorous discussions and disagreements about the future changes in drought intensity in the U.S. Great Plains have been taking place recently within the literature. These discussions have involved widely varying estimates based on drought indices and model-based projections of the future. To investigate and understand the causes for such a disparity between these previous estimates, the authors analyzed the soil moisture at the near-surface soil layer and the entire soil column, as well as the Palmer drought severity index, the Palmer Z index, and the standardized precipitation and evaporation index using the output from the Community Climate System Model ...


Biloxi Marsh Platform Response Due To Meteorological Forcing, Rachelle Thomason 2016 University of New Orleans

Biloxi Marsh Platform Response Due To Meteorological Forcing, Rachelle Thomason

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The Biloxi Marsh of the eastern Mississippi River delta plain is exposed to meteorological forces ranging from large-scale, mid-latitude cyclones to smaller scale storms and squalls. Each time that these marsh platforms are exposed to a storm event, the potential exists for either deposition or erosion to take place. This study examines the connection between wind speeds, stratigraphic composition, marsh edge morphology, and marsh edge erosion at 4 sites in the Biloxi Marsh. As much as 2.17 m of erosion were measured during the 9-month study with a maximum, averaged erosion rate of 0.03 m day-1. Shell ...


Characterization And Delineation Of Karst Geohazards Along Rm652 Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Culberson County, Texas, Adam F. Majzoub 2016 Stephen F Austin State University

Characterization And Delineation Of Karst Geohazards Along Rm652 Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Culberson County, Texas, Adam F. Majzoub

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Delaware Basin of West Texas and southeastern New Mexico is the major western subdivision of the Permian Basin and a northern extension of the Chihuahuan Desert. The major evaporite unit within the Delaware Basin is the Castile Formation, which consists of gypsum/anhydrite and is highly susceptible to dissolution and karsting. Manifestations of karst within the Castile outcrop are abundant and include sinkholes, subsidence features and caves, both epigene and hypogene in origin.

Land reconnaissance surveys conducted during the summer of 2015 documented abundant karst landforms in close proximity to a major thoroughfare, RM 652, in Culberson County, Texas ...


Predicting Post-Fire Change In West Virginia, Usa From Remotely-Sensed Data, Michael Strager P. Strager, Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy, Aaron E. Maxwell 2016 West Virginia University

Predicting Post-Fire Change In West Virginia, Usa From Remotely-Sensed Data, Michael Strager P. Strager, Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy, Aaron E. Maxwell

Journal of Geospatial Applications in Natural Resources

Prescribed burning is used in West Virginia, USA to return the important disturbance process of fire to oak and oak-pine forests. Species composition and structure are often the main goals for re-establishing fire with less emphasis on fuel reduction or reducing catastrophic wildfire. In planning prescribed fires land managers could benefit from the ability to predict mortality to overstory trees. In this study, wildfires and prescribed fires in West Virginia were examined to determine if specific landscape and terrain characteristics were associated with patches of high/moderate post-fire change. Using the ensemble machine learning approach of Random Forest, we determined ...


Change Detection Of Mount Nyiragongo Post Eruption, Molly E. Karnes 2016 Murray State University

Change Detection Of Mount Nyiragongo Post Eruption, Molly E. Karnes

Scholars Week

Because of the dangerous nature of volcanic eruptions, it makes them very difficult to study, however this makes them even more important for us to study because of how much destruction they can cause in such a short amount of time. We need to study all parts of an eruption to gain more insight into the specifics of how a volcano works. Having a better understanding of how large of an area is effected by an eruption will allow governments to decide on evacuation procedures. The goal of my project is to answer a very simple question, “How can we ...


The Sudbury Impact Structure - New Insights Into The Origin And Emplacement Of The Basal Onaping Intrusion And The Parkin, Trill And Foy Offset Dykes Of The North Range, Denise Anders 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Sudbury Impact Structure - New Insights Into The Origin And Emplacement Of The Basal Onaping Intrusion And The Parkin, Trill And Foy Offset Dykes Of The North Range, Denise Anders

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The 1.85 Ga Sudbury impact structure is considered a remnant of a multi-ring basin with an estimated original diameter of 150-200 km. The so-called “Basal Onaping Intrusion” form discontinuous sheets between the Granophyre of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) and the Sandcherry Member of the Onaping Formation and had been considered part of the complex breccia series of the Onaping Formation. Based on the investigation of core and field samples from the North Range we conclude that the Basal Onaping Intrusion, in fact, are the roof rocks of the SIC and, thus, may represent the initial bulk composition of ...


Birth And Evolution Of The Rio Grande Fluvial System In The Last 8 Ma:Progressive Downward Integration And Interplay Between Tectonics, Volcanism, Climate, And River Evolution, Marisa N. Repasch 2016 University of New Mexico

Birth And Evolution Of The Rio Grande Fluvial System In The Last 8 Ma:Progressive Downward Integration And Interplay Between Tectonics, Volcanism, Climate, And River Evolution, Marisa N. Repasch

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The Rio Grande-Rio Chama (RG-RC) fluvial system has evolved dramatically over the last 8 Ma, undergoing channel migrations, drainage capture and integration events, volcanic damming, and carving and refilling of paleocanyons. Volcanism concurrent with the development of the river system provides a unique opportunity to apply multiple geochronometers to the study of its incision and drainage evolution. This paper reports 19 new 40Ar/39Ar basalt ages and 19 detrital mineral samples (zircon and sanidine) collected from RG-RC alluvium overlain by dated basalt flows in the context of a compilation of published 40Ar/39Ar basalt ages. The ...


Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, Jingfeng Xiao, Scott V. Ollinger, Steve Frolking, George Hurtt, David Y. Hollinger, Kenneth J. Davis, Yude Pan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Feng Deng, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Beverly E. Law, M. Altaf Arain, Ankur R. Desai, Andrew D. Richardson, Ge Sun, Brian Amiro, Hank Margolis, Lianhong Gu, Russell L. Scott, Peter D. Blanken, Andrew E. Suyker 2016 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, Jingfeng Xiao, Scott V. Ollinger, Steve Frolking, George Hurtt, David Y. Hollinger, Kenneth J. Davis, Yude Pan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Feng Deng, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Beverly E. Law, M. Altaf Arain, Ankur R. Desai, Andrew D. Richardson, Ge Sun, Brian Amiro, Hank Margolis, Lianhong Gu, Russell L. Scott, Peter D. Blanken, Andrew E. Suyker

Xiaoyang Zhang

The exchange of carbon dioxide is a key measure of ecosystem metabolism and a critical intersection between the terrestrial biosphere and the Earth’s climate. Despite the general agreement that the terrestrial ecosystems in North America provide a sizeable carbon sink, the size and distribution of the sink remain uncertain. We use a data-driven approach to upscale eddy covariance flux observations from towers to the continental scale by integrating flux observations, meteorology, stand age,aboveground biomass, and a proxy for canopy nitrogen concentrations from AmeriFlux and Fluxnet-Canada Research Network as well as a variety of satellite data streams from the ...


Quantifying Peat Carbon Accumulation In Alaska Using A Process-Based Biogeochemistry Model, Sirui Wang, Qianlai Zhuang, Zicheng Yu, Scott Bridgham, Jason K. Keller 2016 Purdue University

Quantifying Peat Carbon Accumulation In Alaska Using A Process-Based Biogeochemistry Model, Sirui Wang, Qianlai Zhuang, Zicheng Yu, Scott Bridgham, Jason K. Keller

Education Faculty Articles and Research

This study uses an integrated modeling framework that couples the dynamics of hydrology, soil thermal regime, and ecosystem carbon and nitrogen to quantify the long-term peat carbon accumulation in Alaska during the Holocene. Modeled hydrology, soil thermal regime, carbon pools and fluxes, and methane emissions are evaluated using observation data at several peatland sites in Minnesota, Alaska, and Canada. The model is then applied for a 10,000 year (15 ka to 5 ka; 1 ka = 1000 cal years before present) simulation at four peatland sites. We find that model simulations match the observed carbon accumulation rates at fen sites ...


Analysis And Detection Of Hfo-1234ze, Alberni V. Ruiz, Ben R. Miller 2016 California State University, San Marcos

Analysis And Detection Of Hfo-1234ze, Alberni V. Ruiz, Ben R. Miller

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Alberni Ruiz

Abstract

Refrigerants have been one of the causes of ozone depletion and the buildup of greenhouse gases in past decades. When the international agreements the Montreal Protocol, which has the goal of eliminating ozone depleting compounds, and the Kyoto protocol which has the goal of eliminating greenhouse gas emissions, where implemented they paved the way to replace past and current refrigerants with alternate compounds that are less detrimental to the atmosphere. New compounds that where green-lit by the EPA for use as refrigerants in 2011 where HFO-1234ze and HFO-1234yf, both of these compounds have a very low Global ...


Estimation Of The Instantaneous Downward Surface Shortwave Radiation Using Modis Data In Lhasa For All-Sky Conditions, Xu Lu 2016 International Development, Community and Environment

Estimation Of The Instantaneous Downward Surface Shortwave Radiation Using Modis Data In Lhasa For All-Sky Conditions, Xu Lu

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

Measuring the solar irradiance with high accuracy is the basis of PV power forecasting. Although the downward surface shortwave radiation (DSSR) data derived from satellite images are widely used in the PV industry, the instantaneity and accuracy of these data are not suitable for PV power forecasting in a short-time period. In this study, an algorithm to calculate instantaneous DSSR for all-sky conditions was developed by combining clear-sky radiative transfer model and 3D radiative transfer model using MODIS products (MOD03-07, 09). The algorithm was evaluated by ground measurements from a station in Lhasa and a reference dataset from FLASHFlux. The ...


Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy

Master's Theses

The northern Gulf of Mexico has been devastated by recent intense storms. Camille (1969) and Katrina (2005) are two notable hurricanes that made landfall in virtually the same location in Mississippi. However, fully understanding the risks and processes associated with hurricane impacts is impeded by a short and fragmented instrumental record. Paleotempestology could potentially use modern analogues from intense storms in this region to extend the hurricane record back to pre-observational time. Existing empirically based models can back-calculate surge heights over coastal systems as a function of transport distance, particle settling velocity, and gravitational acceleration. We collected cores in a ...


Cl In The Early Solar System, Jeffrey Williams 2016 University of New Mexico

Cl In The Early Solar System, Jeffrey Williams

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The early solar nebula is thought to have been a turbulent disk of dust and gas. An unknown mechanism caused the disk to collapse, such as a nearby super nova. This collapse led to high temperatures and high particle densities at the mid-plane of the disk. An unknown mechanism caused the temperature in local area to become hot enough to cause some material to melt –creating the first igneous material of the solar system. These melt spherules, called chondrules, cooled and accreted together with dust and ice to form larger bodies called chondrites. Once the chondritic bodies were of sufficient ...


Applying Newton’S Law Of Cooling When The Target Keeps Changing Temperature, Such As In Stratospheric Ballooning Missions, James Flaten, Kaye Smith, Erick Agrimson 2016 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities / MN Space Grant

Applying Newton’S Law Of Cooling When The Target Keeps Changing Temperature, Such As In Stratospheric Ballooning Missions, James Flaten, Kaye Smith, Erick Agrimson

2016 Academic High Altitude Conference

Newton’s Law of Cooling describes how a “small” system, such as a thermometer, comes to thermal equilibrium with a “large” system, such as its environment, as a function of time. It is typically applied when the environment is in thermal equilibrium and the conditions are such that the thermal decay time for the thermometer is a constant. Neither of these conditions are met when measuring environmental (i.e. atmospheric) temperature using a thermometer mounted in a payload lofted into the stratosphere under weather balloons. In this situation the thermometer is in motion so it encounters layer after layer of ...


Inter- And Intra-Annual C And N Isotopic Variability Of C3 And C4 Grasses In A Temperate-Humid Dune Environment, Roshni R. Patel 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Inter- And Intra-Annual C And N Isotopic Variability Of C3 And C4 Grasses In A Temperate-Humid Dune Environment, Roshni R. Patel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Seasonal and annual variations in foliar δ13C and δ15N of a C3 grass Ammophila breviligulata and a C4 grass Calamovilfa longifolia from the sand dunes of Pinery Provincial Park in southern Ontario, Canada were investigated to assess isotopic variability at a single site within a temperate-humid climatic zone. This work quantifies seasonal δ13C and δ15N variation, tests for correlation of δ13C and δ15N with weather parameters, and evaluates the isotopic responses of these grasses to location within the dune system. Throughout the 2014 growing season, there ...


The Spatial Distribution And Origins Of Sandstone Monoliths In The Swauk Watershed, Kittitas County, Wa, Rebeca Becerra, Daniel O'Dell 2016 CWU

The Spatial Distribution And Origins Of Sandstone Monoliths In The Swauk Watershed, Kittitas County, Wa, Rebeca Becerra, Daniel O'Dell

Symposium Of University Research and Creative Expression (SOURCE)

Large groups of gigantic sandstone and conglomerate monoliths populate the Swauk Watershed of northern Kittitas County. These monoliths rest on side slopes in the watershed and distinctively project from their surroundings. The origins of these features are unknown. We studied these monoliths in the field by mapping their spatial distribution, describing their morphology and composition, and measuring their orientation and sizes in order to determine their origins. We used Google Earth and topographic maps to locate the monoliths and map their distribution. Interpretations were based from field work data and past research. Our field results show commonalities between the features ...


Mammoth Cave National Park's 10th Research Symposium: Celebrating Diversity Of Research In The Mammoth Cave Region, Shannon R. Trimboli Editor 2016 Western Kentucky University, MCICSL

Mammoth Cave National Park's 10th Research Symposium: Celebrating Diversity Of Research In The Mammoth Cave Region, Shannon R. Trimboli Editor

Shannon Trimboli

No abstract provided.


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