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Measurements Of Geomagnetic Declination (1685-1910) Using Land Surveys, Lidar, And Stone Walls, John W. Delano PhD 2019 University at Albany, State University of New York

Measurements Of Geomagnetic Declination (1685-1910) Using Land Surveys, Lidar, And Stone Walls, John W. Delano Phd

Atmospheric and Environmental Science Faculty Scholarship

Nearly 1200 kilometers of boundaries surveyed in 1685-1910, upon which stone walls were subsequently built, were measured using high-resolution LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) in the northeastern United States (New Hampshire and New York). The geomagnetic declinations at the time of the original land surveys of those stone wall-defined boundaries have been determined and compared with (i) current geophysical models (i.e., gufm1, IGRF12; United States Historical Declinations-USHD), and (ii) measured declinations (Bauer, 1902). With the exception of lower declinations (i.e., 1.5° eastward) in 1775-1810, the results of this study are in good agreement with gufm1 and IGRF12 ...


Effectiveness Of Four Water-Bearing Zones Of The Glacierized Basin In Meltwater Runoff Modeling, Umesh K. Haritashya 2019 University of Dayton

Effectiveness Of Four Water-Bearing Zones Of The Glacierized Basin In Meltwater Runoff Modeling, Umesh K. Haritashya

Umesh K. Haritashya

Meltwater runoff modeling from glacierized basins needs several input data, including total meltwater contributing area. This study utilizes optical remote sensing data to assess glacierized basins in the central Himalayas where snow and glaciers contribute substantially to the water resources. Result shows that there are four main water-bearing zones in the basin: (a) dry snow, (b) wet snow, (c) exposed glacial ice, and (d) debris-covered glacial ice, and it is possible to differentiate and map these zones and their spatio-temporal variations from satellite sensor data. These zones can then be incorporated in meltwater runoff modeling as separate entities because they ...


Engaging The Greater Lafayette Community In A Journey Through The Earth Sciences: Purdue’S Eaps Earth Science Passport Day Event, Dara Laczniak, Bradley Garczynski 2019 Purdue University

Engaging The Greater Lafayette Community In A Journey Through The Earth Sciences: Purdue’S Eaps Earth Science Passport Day Event, Dara Laczniak, Bradley Garczynski

Engagement & Service-Learning Summit: Connecting Through Listening & Scholarship

No abstract provided.


A Theoretical Model Of Underground Dipole Antennas For Communications In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Xin Dong, Christos Argyropoulos, Suat Irmak 2019 Purdue University

A Theoretical Model Of Underground Dipole Antennas For Communications In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Xin Dong, Christos Argyropoulos, Suat Irmak

Faculty Publications

The realization of Internet of Underground Things (IOUT) relies on the establishment of reliable communication links, where the antenna becomes a major design component due to the significant impacts of soil. In this paper, a theoretical model is developed to capture the impacts of change of soil moisture on the return loss, resonant frequency, and bandwidth of a buried dipole antenna. Experiments are conducted in silty clay loam, sandy, and silt loam soil, to characterize the effects of soil, in an indoor testbed and field testbeds. It is shown that at subsurface burial depths (0.1-0.4m), change in soil ...


Including Variability Across Climate Change Projections In Assessing Impacts On Water Resources In An Intensively Managed Landscape, Bangshuai Han, Shawn G. Benner, Alejandro N. Flores 2019 Ball State University

Including Variability Across Climate Change Projections In Assessing Impacts On Water Resources In An Intensively Managed Landscape, Bangshuai Han, Shawn G. Benner, Alejandro N. Flores

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

In intensively managed watersheds, water scarcity is a product of interactions between complex biophysical processes and human activities. Understanding how intensively managed watersheds respond to climate change requires modeling these coupled processes. One challenge in assessing the response of these watersheds to climate change lies in adequately capturing the trends and variability of future climates. Here we combine a stochastic weather generator together with future projections of climate change to efficiently create a large ensemble of daily weather for three climate scenarios, reflecting recent past and two future climate scenarios. With a previously developed model that captures rainfall-runoff processes and ...


Seismic Monitoring And Baseline Microseismicity In The Rome Trough, Eastern Kentucky, N. Seth Carpenter, Andrew S. Holcomb, Zhenming Wang, John B. Hickman, Edward W. Woolery 2019 University of Kentucky

Seismic Monitoring And Baseline Microseismicity In The Rome Trough, Eastern Kentucky, N. Seth Carpenter, Andrew S. Holcomb, Zhenming Wang, John B. Hickman, Edward W. Woolery

Kentucky Geological Survey Report of Investigations

In the central and eastern United States, felt earthquakes likely triggered by fluid injection from oil and gas production or wastewater disposal have dramatically increased in frequency since the onset of the unconventional shale gas and oil boom. In the Rome Trough of eastern Kentucky, fracture stimulations and wastewater injection are ongoing and occur near areas of historical seismic activity. Unlike in surrounding and nearby states (Ohio, West Virginia, and Arkansas), in Kentucky, no seismic events related to subsurface fluid injections have been reported as felt or detected by regional seismic networks, including the Kentucky Seismic and Strong-Motion Network.

Oil ...


An Update Of Seismic Monitoring And Research In The Vicinity Of The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: January 2013–December 2017, Zhenming Wang, Edward W. Woolery, N. Seth Carpenter 2019 University of Kentucky

An Update Of Seismic Monitoring And Research In The Vicinity Of The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: January 2013–December 2017, Zhenming Wang, Edward W. Woolery, N. Seth Carpenter

Kentucky Geological Survey Report of Investigations

From January 2013 to December 2017, the Kentucky Geological Survey monitored earthquakes and conducted research on seismic hazards in the vicinity of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a former uranium enrichment facility, in western Kentucky. Fifteen earthquakes with magnitude greater than 3.0 occurred in the area during this period, and data were collected from the Central U.S. Seismic Observatory and the vertical seismic array at the gaseous diffusion plant. This monitoring improved our understanding of seismic-wave propagation through thick sediments and ground-motion site effects, as well as fault locations in the New Madrid Seismic Zone, ground-motion attenuation, and ...


Probability Of Streamflow Permanence Model (Prosper): A Spatially Continuous Model Of Annual Streamflow Permanence Throughout The Pacific Northwest, K. E. Kaiser 2019 Boise State University

Probability Of Streamflow Permanence Model (Prosper): A Spatially Continuous Model Of Annual Streamflow Permanence Throughout The Pacific Northwest, K. E. Kaiser

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed the PRObability of Streamflow PERmanence (PROSPER) model, a GIS raster-based empirical model that provides streamflow permanence probabilities (probabilistic predictions) of a stream channel having year-round flow for any unregulated and minimallyimpaired stream channel in the Pacific Northwest region, U.S. The model provides annual predictions for 2004–2016 at a 30-m spatial resolution based on monthly or annually updated values of climatic conditions and static physiographic variables associated with the upstream basin. Predictions correspond to any pixel on the channel network consistent with the medium resolution National Hydrography Dataset channel network stream ...


Insar Simulations For Swot And Dual Frequency Processing For Topographic Measurements, Gerard Masalias Huguet 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Insar Simulations For Swot And Dual Frequency Processing For Topographic Measurements, Gerard Masalias Huguet

Masters Theses

In Earth remote sensing precise characterization of the backscatter coefficient is important to extract valuable information about the observed target. A system that eliminates platform motion during near-nadir airborne observations is presented in this thesis, showing an improvement on the accuracy of measurements for a Ka- band scatterometer previously developed at Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MIRSL). These very same results are used to simulate the reflectivity of such targets as seen from a spaceborne radar and estimate height errors based on mission-specific geometry. Finally, data collected from a dual-frequency airborne interferometer com- prised by the Ka-band system and an S-band ...


Groundwater Level Response To The Wenchuan Earthquake Of May 2008, Anhua He, Ramesh Singh 2018 Institute of Crustal Dynamics, CEA, China

Groundwater Level Response To The Wenchuan Earthquake Of May 2008, Anhua He, Ramesh Singh

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

We have comprehensively analysed the co-seismic response of the groundwater levels of 280 wells in mainland China that were associated with the Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) that occurred on 12 May 2008. The observed co-seismic responses can be classified as step-like changes in 138 wells, variations in 69 wells and non-responses in 73 wells. After a quantitative analysis of spatial distribution, there was no spatially coherent signal found in the step-like changes (positive values indicate a step-like rise, and negative values indicate a step-like fall), even within 300 km of the epicenter. The amplitude and the phase shift of ...


Detection, Containment And Scaling Relations Of Near Source Explosions In Granite Through Moment Tensor Representations, Mason MacPhail 2018 Southern Methodist University

Detection, Containment And Scaling Relations Of Near Source Explosions In Granite Through Moment Tensor Representations, Mason Macphail

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

The Source Phenomenology Experiment (SPE) was a series of nine, single-fired chemical explosions within the Morenci Copper mine in Arizona. Its purpose was to design, detonate, record and analyze seismic waveforms from these single-fired, partially and fully contained explosions. Ground motion data from the SPE are analyzed in this study to assess the uniqueness of the source representation of these explosions and its ability to resolve yield and depth when containment and geology or physical parameters of the source region may have a range of possible values. The P-wave velocities (Vp) at the test site are well constrained by ...


Optical Micro-Seismometer Based On Evanescent Field Perturbation Of Whispering Gallery Modes, Jaime Da Silva 2018 Southern Methodist University

Optical Micro-Seismometer Based On Evanescent Field Perturbation Of Whispering Gallery Modes, Jaime Da Silva

Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertations

This thesis proposes a light-weight, compact, and accurate optical micro-seismometer that could be used in many applications, such as planetary exploration. The sensor proposed here is based on the principle of whispering gallery optical mode (WGM) resonance shifts of a dielectric micro-resonator due to disturbances of its evanescent field. The micro-seismometer could be used in place of the traditional bulky seismometers. The design of a waveguide-resonator and mechanical structure to disturb the evanescent field are presented. A proof-of-concept a seismometer model that uses a 5µm ring resonator is numerically tested with actual seismic data. The results show that a WGM-based ...


Holocene Formation And Evolution Of Horn Island, Mississippi, Usa, Nina Gal 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Holocene Formation And Evolution Of Horn Island, Mississippi, Usa, Nina Gal

Master's Theses

Horn Island, one of the most stable barriers along the Mississippi-Alabama chain, provides critical habitat, helps regulate estuarine conditions in the Mississippi Sound, and reduces wave energy and storm surge for the mainland. This study integrates 2,200 km of high-resolution geophysics, 35 sediment cores, and 15 radiocarbon ages to better understand the formation and evolution of the island in response to sea-level rise, storms, and antecedent geology. The Biloxi and Pascagoula incised valleys converge at Horn Island and have played a profound role in the evolution of the system. Within the incised valleys, numerous shallow paleochannels between 4 and ...


Late Quaternary Evolution And Stratigraphic Framework Influence On Coastal Systems Along The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Usa, Robert Hollis 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Late Quaternary Evolution And Stratigraphic Framework Influence On Coastal Systems Along The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Usa, Robert Hollis

Master's Theses

Coastal systems in the Gulf of Mexico are threatened to reduced sediment supply, storm impacts and relative sea level rise (RSLR). The geologic record can provide insights of geomorphic threshold crossings (formation, progradation, transgression, destruction) to these forcing mechanisms to predict future barrier evolution to climate change. The stratigraphic framework and antecedent topography directly influence coastal evolution over geologic timescales. This study synthesizes ~2100km of geophysical data, 700+ sediment cores, and 63 radiocarbon dates to regionally map two sequence boundaries, multiple ravinement surfaces and fourteen depositional facies. One marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 valley’s fill provided up to 300 ...


Land Use And Land Cover Changes, And Environment And Risk Evaluation Of Dujiangyan City (Sw China) Using Remote Sensing And Gis Techniques, Biswajit Nath, Zheng Niu, Ramesh P. Singh 2018 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Land Use And Land Cover Changes, And Environment And Risk Evaluation Of Dujiangyan City (Sw China) Using Remote Sensing And Gis Techniques, Biswajit Nath, Zheng Niu, Ramesh P. Singh

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Understanding of the Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change, its transitions and Landscape risk (LR) evaluation in earthquake-affected areas is important for planning and urban sustainability. In the present study, we have considered Dujiangyan City and its Environs (DCEN), a seismic-prone area close to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (8.0 Mw) during 2007–2018. Five different multi-temporal data sets for the years 2007, 2008, 2010, 2015, and 2018 were considered for LULC mapping, followed by the maximum likelihood supervised classification technique. The individual LULC maps were further used in four time periods, i.e., 2007–2018, 2008–2018, 2010 ...


Crustal Composition Beneath Southern Idaho: Insights From Teleseismic Receiver Functions, Thomas Branson Harper 2018 Boise State University

Crustal Composition Beneath Southern Idaho: Insights From Teleseismic Receiver Functions, Thomas Branson Harper

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Receiver functions derived from teleseismic earthquakes contain seismic amplitude and velocity information that relate to compositional changes within the Earth’s crust and upper mantle. The receiver function waveform is a combination of P-S converted waves that have reverberated within the lithosphere. Although the largest seismic velocity boundary is found at the base of the crust, I explore the use of lower amplitude receiver function arrivals that represent smaller velocity contrasts within the crust. In my thesis, I calculate and model receiver functions via a Metropolis algorithm approach to extract seismic velocity distributions in the lithosphere. I use the results ...


Volcano Infrasound Monitoring With Applications For Statistical Forecasting Of Explosions At Sakurajima (Japan), Matthew R. VonLintig 2018 Boise State University

Volcano Infrasound Monitoring With Applications For Statistical Forecasting Of Explosions At Sakurajima (Japan), Matthew R. Vonlintig

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Volcanic eruptions are powerful natural phenomena that often occur unpredictably in time and magnitude. Nearby communities are put at risk during volcanic unrest; however, when hazards are well understood and clearly defined risk can be mitigated. This thesis addresses the problem of forecasting the likelihood of future explosive volcanic behavior by monitoring ongoing eruptive history with infrasound. I parameterize inter-event temporal behavior to determine the eruption controlling processes is material failure opposed to changes in magma and volatile supply.

I analyze data from Sakurajima, a type-example open volcano, using two local (4 km from the vent) microphone arrays, which recorded ...


Assessing Ground Penetrating Radar's Ability To Image Subsurface Characteristics Of Icy Debris Fans In Alaska And New Zealand, Robert W. Jacob, Jeffrey M. Trop, R. Craig Kochel 2018 Bucknell University

Assessing Ground Penetrating Radar's Ability To Image Subsurface Characteristics Of Icy Debris Fans In Alaska And New Zealand, Robert W. Jacob, Jeffrey M. Trop, R. Craig Kochel

Faculty Journal Articles

Icy debris fans have recently been described as fan shaped depositional landforms associated with (or formed during) deglaciation, however, the subsurface characteristics remain essentially undocumented. We used ground penetrating radar (GPR) to non-invasively investigate the subsurface characteristics of icy debris fans (IDFs) at McCarthy Glacier, Alaska, USA and at La Perouse Glacier, South Island of New Zealand. IDFs are largely unexplored paraglacial landforms in deglaciating alpine regions at the mouths of bedrock catchments between valley glaciers and icecaps. IDFs receive deposits of mainly ice and minor lithic material through different mass-flow processes, chiefly ice avalanche and to a lesser extent ...


Utilizing The Hvsr Second Peak For Surface Wave Inversions In The Mississippi Embayment, Ashraf Kamal Himel 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Utilizing The Hvsr Second Peak For Surface Wave Inversions In The Mississippi Embayment, Ashraf Kamal Himel

Theses and Dissertations

Ambient noise data from 24 sites within the Mississippi Embayment were analyzed to estimate the fundamental frequency using the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method. The fundamental frequency ranged from 0.17 to 3.43 Hz for the tested sites. At seventeen of the sites, a second higher frequency HVSR peak, which ranged from 0.617 Hz to 2.154 Hz, was observed in addition to the fundamental HVSR peak. The second peak frequency in the HVSR curve has been attributed by previous researchers as either an odd harmonic of the fundamental peak or a shallow impedance contrast from ...


Robust Earthquake Site Classification Assessment At Ontario Bridge Sites., Alex Bilson Darko 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Robust Earthquake Site Classification Assessment At Ontario Bridge Sites., Alex Bilson Darko

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Canadian seismic design guidelines classify subsurface ground conditions based on the average shear-wave velocity (VS) of the upper 30 meters (VS30). We seek to optimize a robust earthquake site classification procedure for Ontario bridge sites, assessed primarily from blind comparison of non-invasive VS depth profiling techniques. Non-invasive seismic testing is performed at 10 bridge sites in southern Ontario co-located with invasive penetration and/or borehole VS measurements. Non-invasive surface wave dispersion and site amplification functions are jointly inverted to retrieve VS profiles at each site. A general correlation between corrected VS and cone tip ...


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