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Gps Constraints On Deformation In Northern Central America From 1999 To 2017, Part 1 – Time-Dependent Modelling Of Large Regional Earthquakes And Their Post-Seismic Effects, A. Ellis, Charles DeMets, P. Briole, Beatriz Cosenza, Omar Flores, Shannon Graham, Marco Guzm´an-Speziale, Douglas Hernandez, Vladimir Kostoglodov, Peter LaFemina, Neal Lord, C´ecile Lasserre, H´el`ene Lyon-Caen, Manuel Rodriguez Maradiaga, Robert McCaffrey, Enrique Molina, Jeffrey Rivera, Robert Rogers, Alejandra Staller 2018 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Gps Constraints On Deformation In Northern Central America From 1999 To 2017, Part 1 – Time-Dependent Modelling Of Large Regional Earthquakes And Their Post-Seismic Effects, A. Ellis, Charles Demets, P. Briole, Beatriz Cosenza, Omar Flores, Shannon Graham, Marco Guzm´An-Speziale, Douglas Hernandez, Vladimir Kostoglodov, Peter Lafemina, Neal Lord, C´Ecile Lasserre, H´El`Ene Lyon-Caen, Manuel Rodriguez Maradiaga, Robert Mccaffrey, Enrique Molina, Jeffrey Rivera, Robert Rogers, Alejandra Staller

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

We use continuous and campaign measurements from 215 GPS sites in northern Central America and southern Mexico to estimate coseismic and afterslip solutions for the 2009 Mw = 7.3 Swan Islands fault strike-slip earthquake and the 2012 Mw = 7.3 El Salvador and Mw = 7.4 Guatemala thrust-faulting earthquakes on the Middle America trench. Our simultaneous, time-dependent inversion of more than 350 000 daily GPS site positions gives the first jointly consistent estimates of the coseismic slips for all three earthquakes, their combined time-dependent post-seismic effects and secular station velocities corrected for both the coseismic and post-seismic deformation. Our geodetic ...


Revelation Of Early Detection Of Coseismic Ionospheric Perturbations In Gps-Tec From Realistic Modelling Approach: Case Study, Dhanya Thomas, Mala S. Bagiya, Poikayil Sukumaran Sunil, Lucie Rolland, Anakuzhikkal Sudarsanan Sunil, T. Dylan Mikesell, Srinivas Nayak, Subrahmanyam Mangalampalli, Durbha Sai Ramesh 2018 Indian Institute of Geomagnetism

Revelation Of Early Detection Of Coseismic Ionospheric Perturbations In Gps-Tec From Realistic Modelling Approach: Case Study, Dhanya Thomas, Mala S. Bagiya, Poikayil Sukumaran Sunil, Lucie Rolland, Anakuzhikkal Sudarsanan Sunil, T. Dylan Mikesell, Srinivas Nayak, Subrahmanyam Mangalampalli, Durbha Sai Ramesh

CGISS Publications and Presentations

GPS-derived Total Electron Content (TEC) is an integrated quantity; hence it is difficult to relate the detection of ionospheric perturbations in TEC to a precise altitude. As TEC is weighted by the maximum ionospheric density, the corresponding altitude (hmF2) is, generally, assumed as the perturbation detection altitude. To investigate the validity of this assumption in detail, we conduct an accurate analysis of the GPS-TEC measured early ionospheric signatures related to the vertical surface displacement of the Mw 7.4 Sanriku-Oki earthquake (Sanriku-Oki Tohoku foreshock). Using 3D acoustic ray tracing model to describe the evolution of the propagating seismo-acoustic wave in ...


Impact Craters On Titan: Finalizing Titan's Crater Population, Joshua E. Hedgepeth 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Impact Craters On Titan: Finalizing Titan's Crater Population, Joshua E. Hedgepeth

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Titan is one of the most dynamic moons in the solar system. It is smaller than Earth and much colder, yet Titan is eerily similar to Earth, with rivers, rain, and seas, as well as sand seas that wrap around the equator. However, the rivers are made of hydrocarbons rather than water and the sand made of organics rather rock. We can use Titan’s impact craters to study how these processes modify the surface by comparing the craters depths, diameters and rim heights of Titan’s craters with fresh craters. Therefore, we have used the complete data set from ...


Mapping Lower Austin Chalk Secondary Porosity Using Modern 3-D Seismic And Well Log Methods In Zavala County, Texas, David Kilcoyne 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Mapping Lower Austin Chalk Secondary Porosity Using Modern 3-D Seismic And Well Log Methods In Zavala County, Texas, David Kilcoyne

Theses and Dissertations

Establishing fracture distribution and porosity trends is key to successful well design in a majority of unconventional plays. The Austin Chalk has historically been referred to as an unpredictable producer due to high fracture concentration and lateral variation in stratigraphy, however recent drilling activity targeting the lower Austin Chalk has been very successful. The Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk (AC) and underlying Eagle Ford (EF) units are considered by many to act as a single hydrocarbon system, with communication between these two units largely through expulsion or dewatering fractures, extensional faults or along the AC/EF unconformity. Total porosity for the ...


Seismic Facies Mapping For Source Rock Distribution Of The Rakopi Formation In Deep-Water Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, Sidney W. Mahanay 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Seismic Facies Mapping For Source Rock Distribution Of The Rakopi Formation In Deep-Water Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, Sidney W. Mahanay

Theses and Dissertations

The Taranaki Basin is located off the coast of the north island of New Zealand and is currently the only producing basin in New Zealand. Hydrocarbon accumulation in the Tui, Maari, and Maui fields is sourced to the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene units. Exploration of these units has extended from the continental shelf of the Taranaki Basin into the deep-water to the northwest. The Romney 3D survey and Romney–1 well are some the first public exploration projects to supply data from this area. The objective of this study is to estimate source rock quality and distribution of the Rakopi ...


Geomechanical Modelling Of Induced Seismicity, Bodi Zhao 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Geomechanical Modelling Of Induced Seismicity, Bodi Zhao

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in seismicity (earthquakes) due to anthropogenic activities related to the unconventional oil and gas exploration in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and the central U.S. There are compelling evidences that hydraulic fracturing and wastewater injection operations in those areas play a key role in induced seismicity. To better understand the physical mechanisms involved, this thesis aims to explore the mechanisms responsible for occurrence of induced earthquakes: mainshock-aftershock triggering mechanism and poroelastic response. In the first approach, the obtained results indicate the relationship between the Coulomb stress changes after 4 ...


Hardbottom Characterization And Relationship To The Geologic Framework In Long Bay, South Carolina, Cathryn J. Wheaton 2018 Coastal Carolina University

Hardbottom Characterization And Relationship To The Geologic Framework In Long Bay, South Carolina, Cathryn J. Wheaton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hardbottom seafloor is a common element among sediment-starved portions of the inner continental shelf along the U.S. Atlantic margin. These areas are characterized by indurated sediment surfaces that are heavily altered by biological and physical processes. Long Bay, in northeastern South Carolina, offers ideal environmental conditions for hardbottom exposure with only patchy Holocene sand deposits, interspersed with extensive hardbottom areas. Here we use high-resolution multibeam bathymetry, CHIRP subbottom profiling and electrical resistivity data, along with surficial sediment samples, hardbottom thin sections, and water column radioisotope (radon-222) analysis to investigate the origin and geologic framework of a region of hardbottom ...


Numerical Investigation Of Strength-Reducing Mechanisms Of Mantle Rock During The Genesis Flood, Noah Cho, John Baumgardner, Jesse Sherburn, Mark Horstemeyer 2018 Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University

Numerical Investigation Of Strength-Reducing Mechanisms Of Mantle Rock During The Genesis Flood, Noah Cho, John Baumgardner, Jesse Sherburn, Mark Horstemeyer

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

This paper reports our efforts to model the effects of grain size, recrystallization, creep, and texture on overall rock strength within the Earth’s mantle during the Genesis Flood. Our study uses experimental rheological data obtained from the mineralogical literature for olivine, which is an important mantle mineral. We apply an Internal State Variable (ISV) constitutive model within the framework of the TERRA finite element code to capture the subscale structures and their associated dynamics, strength, and viscosity effects during the Flood episode. Our numerical investigations, in both 2D and 3D, that include the improved deformation model reveal even more ...


Dense-Array Teleseismic Imaging Of The Southern Albuquerque Basin, Tori S. Finlay 2018 University of New Mexico

Dense-Array Teleseismic Imaging Of The Southern Albuquerque Basin, Tori S. Finlay

Earth and Planetary Sciences ETDs

The southern Albuquerque basin is a complex area of high extension, multiple orogenies, and ongoing uplift from a midcrustal magma body in which geophysical coverage is sparse. In this thesis, I capitalize on recent innovations in dense-array processing techniques to create virtual source reflection profiles from five teleseismic events during the deployment of the Sevilleta array. The Sevilleta array consisted of ~800 vertical component nodes with ~300 m spacing deployed for 10 days in February of 2015. Virtual source reflection profiles are created by using the free surface of the earth as a virtual seismic source, yielding profiles that mimic ...


Review Of Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards And Risk Reduction In The Modern World, Kira H. Hamman 2018 Pennsylvania State University, Mont Alto

Review Of Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards And Risk Reduction In The Modern World, Kira H. Hamman

Numeracy

Timothy H. Dixon. 2017. Curbing Catastrophe: Natural Hazards and Risk Reduction in the Modern World. (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press) 300 pp. ISBN 978-1108113663.

In Curbing Catastrophe, Timothy H. Dixon explores commonalities among natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina, the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, and the meltdown at Fukushima. He identifies communication failure between scientists and policy makers as a major culprit in the devastation that results from such events and offers strategies for improving that communication. He includes optional in-depth scientific and quantitative examinations of the events and the resulting devastation, making the book appropriate for use in teaching ...


Eleven Years Of Mountain Weather, Snow, Soil Moisture And Streamflow Data From The Rain–Snow Transition Zone – The Johnston Draw Catchment, Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed And Critical Zone Observatory, Usa, James P. McNamara 2018 Boise State University

Eleven Years Of Mountain Weather, Snow, Soil Moisture And Streamflow Data From The Rain–Snow Transition Zone – The Johnston Draw Catchment, Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed And Critical Zone Observatory, Usa, James P. Mcnamara

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Detailed hydrometeorological data from the rain-to-snow transition zone in mountain regions are limited. As the climate warms, the transition from rain to snow is moving to higher elevations, and these changes are altering the timing of downslope water delivery. To understand how these changes impact hydrological and biological processes in this climatologically sensitive region, detailed observations from the rain-to-snow transition zone are required. We present a complete hydrometeorological dataset for water years 2004 through 2014 for a watershed that spans the rain-to-snow transition zone (https://doi.org/10.15482/usda.adc/1402076). The Johnston Draw watershed (1.8km2), ranging ...


Integrated Geophysical Methods To Characterize Subsidence In Butte, Montana, U.S.A., Kristen Prudhomme 2018 Montana Tech

Integrated Geophysical Methods To Characterize Subsidence In Butte, Montana, U.S.A., Kristen Prudhomme

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Geophysical investigations, designed to characterize unique subsidence features of unknown natural origin, provide imaging analysis of potential causes of subsidence. Recent subsidence in the alluvial plain in Butte, Montana is unrelated to historic mining in the area. This study aims to utilize a combined application of shallow electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), self-potential (SP), and frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) methods in order to develop a better understanding of the particular set of hydrogeological and environmental conditions that contribute to this unique phenomena. Geophysical measurements provide lateral and vertical variations of electrical resistivity in the subsurface to a depth of 10 m while ...


Integrated Geophysical Analysis In The Northeastern Gulf Of Mexico, Mei Liu 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Integrated Geophysical Analysis In The Northeastern Gulf Of Mexico, Mei Liu

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

The formation of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) relates to the breakup of Pangea and opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. The tectonic history of the basin is still being debated due to lack of geological constraints. This project addresses the crustal architecture in the northeastern GoM from integrative analysis of multiple geophysical datasets to provide constraints for the tectonic reconstruction.

The objectives of this study are: 1) to delineate various tectonic zones (continental and oceanic domains) and map the boundary between them, 2) to derive physical properties of the subsurface rocks, 3) to map the major tectonic structures in ...


Infrasound Tornillos Produced By Volcán Cotopaxi’S Deep Crater, J. B. Johnson, M. C. Ruiz, H. D. Ortiz, L. M. Watson, G. Viracucha, P. Ramon, M. Almeida 2018 Boise State University

Infrasound Tornillos Produced By Volcán Cotopaxi’S Deep Crater, J. B. Johnson, M. C. Ruiz, H. D. Ortiz, L. M. Watson, G. Viracucha, P. Ramon, M. Almeida

CGISS Publications and Presentations

We characterize and interpret a new type of infrasound signal originating from the summit of Volcán Cotopaxi (Ecuador) that was primarily observed between September 2015 and March 2016, following the 2015 eruptive period. This infrasound waveform is a slowly decaying sinusoid with exceptional low-frequency (fp = 0.2 Hz) and high quality factor (Q = ~10) and resembles the shape of tornillo seismic waveforms. The repeating events, occurring about once per day in early 2016, are stable in frequency content, and we attribute them to excitation of a vertical-walled crater, with radius of about 125mand length of 300 m. Spectral properties ...


Seismic Imaging Of The Main Frontal Thrust In Nepal Reveals A Shallow Décollement And Blind Thrusting, Rafael V. Almeida, Judith Hubbard, Lee Liberty, Anna Foster, Soma Nath Sapkota 2018 Nanyang Technological University

Seismic Imaging Of The Main Frontal Thrust In Nepal Reveals A Shallow Décollement And Blind Thrusting, Rafael V. Almeida, Judith Hubbard, Lee Liberty, Anna Foster, Soma Nath Sapkota

CGISS Publications and Presentations

Because great earthquakes in the Himalaya have an average recurrence interval exceeding 500 yr, most of what we know about past earthquakes comes from paleoseismology and tectonic geomorphology studies of the youngest fault system there, the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). However, these data are sparse relative to fault segmentation and length, and interpretations are often hard to validate in the absence of information about fault geometry. Here, we image the upper two km of strata in the vicinity of the fault tip of the MFT in central Nepal (around the town of Bardibas) applying a pre-stack migration approach to two ...


Joint Geodetic And Seismic Analysis Of Englacial And Subglacial Hydraulic Effects On Surface Crevassing Near A Seasonal, Glacier-Dammed Lake On Gornergletscher, Switzerland, Louis Stephen Garcia 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Joint Geodetic And Seismic Analysis Of Englacial And Subglacial Hydraulic Effects On Surface Crevassing Near A Seasonal, Glacier-Dammed Lake On Gornergletscher, Switzerland, Louis Stephen Garcia

LSU Master's Theses

Glacial outburst floods are difficult to predict and threaten human life. These events are characterized by rapid draining of glacier-dammed lakes via the sub/englacial hydraulic network to the proglacial stream. The glacier-dammed lake on Gornergletscher in Switzerland, which fills and drains each summer, provides an opportunity to study this hazard. For three drainages (2004, 2006, and 2007), icequakes (IQ) are tracked as well as on-ice GPS movement. The seasonal seismic networks had 8 – 24 three-component stations and apertures of about 300 – 400 m on the glacier surface. The seasonal GPS arrays contained 4 – 8 GPS antennae on the glacier ...


Landscape Analysis Of Soil Methane Flux Across Complex Terrain, Kendra E. Kaiser, Brian L. McGlynn, John E. Dore 2018 Boise State University

Landscape Analysis Of Soil Methane Flux Across Complex Terrain, Kendra E. Kaiser, Brian L. Mcglynn, John E. Dore

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Relationships between methane (CH4) fluxes and environmental conditions have been extensively explored in saturated soils, while research has been less prevalent in aerated soils because of the relatively small magnitudes of CH4 fluxes that occur in dry soils. Our study builds on previous carbon cycle research at Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, Montana, to identify how environmental conditions reflected by topographic metrics can be leveraged to estimate watershed scale CH4 fluxes from point scale measurements. Here, we measured soil CH4 concentrations and fluxes across a range of landscape positions (7 riparian, 25 upland), utilizing topographic and seasonal ...


Steering Operational Synergies In Terrestrial Observation Networks: Opportunity For Advancing Earth System Dynamics Modelling, Roland Baatz, Pamela L. Sullivan, Li Li, Samantha R. Weintraub, Henry W. Loescher, Michael Mirtl, Peter M. Groffman, Diana H. Wall, Michael Young, Tim White, Hang Wen, Steffen Zacharias, Ingolf Kühn, Jianwu Tang, Jérôme Gaillardet, Isabelle Braud, Alejandro N. Flores, Praveen Kumar, Henry Lin, Teamrat Ghezzehei, Julia Jones, Henry L. Gholz, Harry Vereecken, Kris Van Looy 2018 Forschungszentrum Jülich

Steering Operational Synergies In Terrestrial Observation Networks: Opportunity For Advancing Earth System Dynamics Modelling, Roland Baatz, Pamela L. Sullivan, Li Li, Samantha R. Weintraub, Henry W. Loescher, Michael Mirtl, Peter M. Groffman, Diana H. Wall, Michael Young, Tim White, Hang Wen, Steffen Zacharias, Ingolf Kühn, Jianwu Tang, Jérôme Gaillardet, Isabelle Braud, Alejandro N. Flores, Praveen Kumar, Henry Lin, Teamrat Ghezzehei, Julia Jones, Henry L. Gholz, Harry Vereecken, Kris Van Looy

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Advancing our understanding of Earth system dynamics (ESD) depends on the development of models and other analytical tools that apply physical, biological, and chemical data. This ambition to increase understanding and develop models of ESD based on site observations was the stimulus for creating the networks of Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER), Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs), and others. We organized a survey, the results of which identified pressing gaps in data availability from these networks, in particular for the future development and evaluation of models that represent ESD processes, and provide insights for improvement in both data collection and model integration ...


Characterization Of Ground Deformation Associated With Shallow Groundwater Processes Using Satellite Radar Interferometry, Xie Hu 2018 Southern Methodist University

Characterization Of Ground Deformation Associated With Shallow Groundwater Processes Using Satellite Radar Interferometry, Xie Hu

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Shallow groundwater processes maylead to ground deformation and even geohazards. With the features of day-and-night accessibility and large-scale coverage, time-series interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has proven a useful tool for mapping the deformation over various landscapes at cm to mm level with weekly to monthly updates. However, it has limitations such as, decorrelation,atmospheric artifacts, topographic errors, andunwrapping errors, in particular for the hilly, vegetated, and complicated deformation patterns. In this dissertation, I focus on characterizing the ground deformation over landslides, aquifer systems, and mine tailings impoundment, using the designed advanced time-series InSAR strategy, as well as theinterdisciplinary knowledge ...


Determining Principal Stress Orientations And Magnitudes In The Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Louis Quinones 2018 Southern Methodist University

Determining Principal Stress Orientations And Magnitudes In The Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Louis Quinones

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Since 2008, the Fort Worth Basin in northern Texas has experienced over 30 M3.0+ earthquakes, including one M4.0. Earthquakes have primarily occurred on Precambrian basement faults and within the overlying Ellenburger limestone unit, which is the primary wastewater disposal formation used in the basin. The most productive earthquake sequences (Azle, Irving- Dallas, and Venus) have been recorded using local seismic networks containing a mix of SMU broadband, IRIS short period, and USGS NetQuakes stations and by regional seismic networks operated under the Advanced National Seismic System and the Texas Seismic Network (TexNet).

Using the data recorded by the ...


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