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The Kanarra Fold-Thrust Structure - The Leading Edge Of The Sevier Fold-Thrust Belt, Southwestern Utah: Geology Of The Intermountain West, William J. Chandonia, John P. Hogan 2023 Missouri University of Science and Technology

The Kanarra Fold-Thrust Structure - The Leading Edge Of The Sevier Fold-Thrust Belt, Southwestern Utah: Geology Of The Intermountain West, William J. Chandonia, John P. Hogan

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The multiple origins proposed for the Kanarra anticline in southwestern Utah as a drag-fold along the Hurricane fault, a Laramide monocline, a Sevier fault-propagation fold, or a combination of these process­es, serve to muddy its tectonic significance. This in part reflects the structural complexity of the exposed eastern half of the fold. The fold evolved from open and up-right to overturned and tight, is cross-cut by multiple faults, and was subsequently dismembered by the Hurricane fault. The western half of the fold is obscured because of burial, along with the hanging wall of the Hurricane fault, beneath Neogene and younger …


Operational Water Forecast Ability Of The Hrrr-Isnobal Combination: An Evaluation To Adapt Into Production Environments, Joachim Meyer, John Horel, Patrick Kormos, Andrew Hedrick, Ernesto Trujillo, S. McKenzie Skiles 2023 University of Utah

Operational Water Forecast Ability Of The Hrrr-Isnobal Combination: An Evaluation To Adapt Into Production Environments, Joachim Meyer, John Horel, Patrick Kormos, Andrew Hedrick, Ernesto Trujillo, S. Mckenzie Skiles

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Operational water-resource forecasters, such as the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) in the Western United States, currently rely on historical records to calibrate the temperature-index models used for snowmelt runoff predictions. This data dependence is increasingly challenged, with global and regional climatological factors changing the seasonal snowpack dynamics in mountain watersheds. To evaluate and improve the CBRFC modeling options, this work ran the physically based snow energy balance iSnobal model, forced with outputs from the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) numerical weather prediction model across 4 years in a Colorado River Basin forecast region. Compared to in situ, remotely sensed, …


Magnetic Anomaly Data Products Of The Central And Eastern United States, Dhananjay Ravat 2023 University of Kentucky

Magnetic Anomaly Data Products Of The Central And Eastern United States, Dhananjay Ravat

Earth and Environmental Sciences Research Data

This data set contains Central and Eastern U.S. Magnetic Anomaly, DRTP, Tilt Derivative, and Analytic Signal Amplitude Products ultimately derived from Ravat, D., Finn, C., Hill, P., Kucks, R., Phillips, J., Blakely, R., Bouligand, C., Sabaka, T., Elshayat, A., Aref, A., and Elawadi, E., 2009, A preliminary, full spectrum, magnetic anomaly grid of the United States with improved long wavelengths for studying continental dynamics--A website for distribution of data: U.S. Geological Survey Open- File Report 2009–1258, 2 p.


Precise Zircon U-Pb Dating Of The Mesoproterozoic Gawler Large Igneous Province, South Australia, Elizabeth A. Jagodzinski, Anthony J. Reid, James L. Crowley, Claire E. Wade, Stacey Curtis 2023 Geological Survey of South Australia

Precise Zircon U-Pb Dating Of The Mesoproterozoic Gawler Large Igneous Province, South Australia, Elizabeth A. Jagodzinski, Anthony J. Reid, James L. Crowley, Claire E. Wade, Stacey Curtis

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

The Mesoproterozoic Gawler Range Volcanics and Benagerie Volcanic Suite of the Gawler Craton and Curnamona Province, South Australia, together with associated intrusive magmatism, define an intracontinental, subaerial large igneous province (LIP) preserving an estimated 110 000 km3 of volcanic rock, which hosts one of the world's largest orebodies, the Fe oxide-Cu-Au-U deposit at Olympic Dam, and numerous other related Cu-Au deposits. New high-precision Chemical Abrasion Isotope Dilution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CA-TIMS) U-Pb dates on volcanic zircons allow for regional correlations between stratigraphic units of the GRV and BVS, and an understanding of how magmatic styles, temperatures, composition and …


Drivers Of Spatiotemporal Patterns Of Surface Water Inputs In A Catchment At The Rain-Snow Transition Zone Of The Water-Limited Western United States, E. Trujillo, J. McNamara 2023 Boise State University

Drivers Of Spatiotemporal Patterns Of Surface Water Inputs In A Catchment At The Rain-Snow Transition Zone Of The Water-Limited Western United States, E. Trujillo, J. Mcnamara

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Spatial and temporal dynamics of rainfall and snowmelt (i.e., surface water inputs, SWI) control soil moisture, groundwater recharge, and streamflow at annual, seasonal, and event scales. In the rain-snow transition zone, comprising a large portion of the mountainous western United States, there is limited understanding of the sensitivity of spatiotemporal SWI dynamics across hydrologically variable water years (WYs). We modeled rainfall and snowpack dynamics in a small headwater catchment (1.8 km2) spanning the rain-snow transition in southwestern Idaho, USA, for two hydrologically distinct WYs (2011 and 2014). In wet WY 2011 and dry WY 2014, total precipitation drove …


Historical Tsunami Observability For Izu–Bonin–Mariana Sources, Walter Szeliga, Rachelle Reisinger, Breanyn T. MacInnes 2022 Central Washington University

Historical Tsunami Observability For Izu–Bonin–Mariana Sources, Walter Szeliga, Rachelle Reisinger, Breanyn T. Macinnes

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

The Izu–Bonin–Mariana Subduction System (IBM) is one of the longest subduction zones in the world with no instrumental history of shallow focus, great earthquakes (Mw > 8). Over the last 50 years, researchers have speculated on the reason for the absence of large magnitude, shallow seismicity on this plate interface, exploring factors from plate age to convergence rate. We approach the question from a different point of view: what if the IBM has hosted great earthquakes and no documentable evidence was left? To address the question of observability, we model expected tsunami wave heights from nine great earthquake scenarios on the …


Uncertainty Of Icesat-2 Atl06- And Atl08-Derived Snow Depths For Glacierized And Vegetated Mountain Regions, Ellyn M. Enderlin, Colten M. Elkin, Madeline Gendreau, H.P. Marshall, Shad O'Neel, Christopher McNeil, Caitlyn Florentine, Louis Sass 2022 Boise State University

Uncertainty Of Icesat-2 Atl06- And Atl08-Derived Snow Depths For Glacierized And Vegetated Mountain Regions, Ellyn M. Enderlin, Colten M. Elkin, Madeline Gendreau, H.P. Marshall, Shad O'Neel, Christopher Mcneil, Caitlyn Florentine, Louis Sass

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Seasonal snow melt dominates the hydrologic budget across a large portion of the globe. Snow accumulation and melt vary over a broad range of spatial scales, preventing accurate extrapolation of sparse in situ observations to watershed scales. The lidar onboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation, Satellite (ICESat-2) was designed for precise mapping of ice sheets and sea ice, and here we assess the feasibility of snow depth-mapping using ICESat-2 data in more complex and rugged mountain landscapes. We explore the utility of ATL08 Land and Vegetation Height and ATL06 Land Ice Height differencing from reference elevation datasets in two …


The Isotropic And Anisotropic Structure Of Antarctica From Seismic Inversion, Zhengyang Zhou 2022 Washington University in St. Louis

The Isotropic And Anisotropic Structure Of Antarctica From Seismic Inversion, Zhengyang Zhou

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation utilizes multiple techniques of earthquake tomography to investigate the seismic structure of the crust and mantle beneath Antarctica. The isotropic structure of the Antarctic crust and upper mantle is now constrained by several seismic studies, but until now few studies have investigated the anisotropic structure. Therefore, in this study, I focus on the anisotropic structure, which is crucial information to understanding current or historic deformation and flow patterns, as well as the organic process of Antarctica. I use the data from the seismic stations deployed on the Antarctica continent during the past 20 years, as well as other …


Cascadia Subduction Zone Earthquake Vertical Ground Acceleration Investigation And Potential Impact On Bridges In The Pacific Northwest, Rachel C. Bassil 2022 Portland State University

Cascadia Subduction Zone Earthquake Vertical Ground Acceleration Investigation And Potential Impact On Bridges In The Pacific Northwest, Rachel C. Bassil

Civil and Environmental Engineering Master's Project Reports

The effects of vertical ground accelerations during subduction zone earthquakes currently are not sufficiently understood. There are numerous case studies and evidence that effects of vertical ground accelerations can significantly impact the performance of bridges during a seismic event, but most previous research has been focused on shallow crustal earthquakes. Current bridge design codes provide little guidance for accounting for vertical ground accelerations in seismic design, in part because additional information is needed about the characteristics of vertical ground motions during Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest.

For this study, recorded seismic data from recent subduction zone …


(R1978) Heated Laminar Vertical Jet Of Psudoplastic Fluids-Against Gravity, Manisha Patel, M. G. Timol 2022 Sarvajanik College of Engineering and Technology

(R1978) Heated Laminar Vertical Jet Of Psudoplastic Fluids-Against Gravity, Manisha Patel, M. G. Timol

Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)

A heated laminar jet of Pseudo-plastic fluid flowing vertically upwards from a long narrow slit into a region of the same fluid which is at a rest and at a uniform temperature is considered. The governing non-linear Partial differential equations (PDEs) for the defined flow problem are transformed into non-linear ordinary differential equations using the effective similarity technique-one parameter deductive group theory method. The obtained non-linear coupled Ordinary differential equations are solved and the results are presented by graphs. The effect of the Prandtl number and Grashof number on the velocity and temperature of the jet flow is discussed. Also, …


Predictions And Drivers Of Sub-Reach-Scale Annual Streamflow Permanence For The Upper Missouri River Basin: 1989–2018, Kendra E. Kaiser 2022 Boise State University

Predictions And Drivers Of Sub-Reach-Scale Annual Streamflow Permanence For The Upper Missouri River Basin: 1989–2018, Kendra E. Kaiser

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

The presence of year-round surface water in streams (i.e., streamflow permanence) is an important factor for identifying aquatic habitat availability, determining the regulatory status of streams, managing land use change, allocating water resources, and designing scientific studies. However, accurate, high resolution, and dynamic prediction of streamflow permanence that accounts for year-to-year variability at a regional extent is a major gap in modeling capability. Herein, we expand and adapt the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) PRObability of Streamflow PERmanence (PROSPER) model from its original implementation in the Pacific Northwest (PROSPERPNW) to the upper Missouri River basin (PROSPERUM), a …


Using Ground Penetrating Radar To Investigate Controls On Pedogenic Calcium Carbonate Distribution In Dryland Critical Zones, Nohemi Valenzuela Garay 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Using Ground Penetrating Radar To Investigate Controls On Pedogenic Calcium Carbonate Distribution In Dryland Critical Zones, Nohemi Valenzuela Garay

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Caliche or pedogenic calcium carbonate (CaCO3) layers are a common feature of arid soils, but the environmental controls on their distribution are not fully understood. Caliche layers are thought to play an important role in shallow subsurface water storage and movement, due to their water retention capacity and ability to impede vertical water transport (Hennessy et al., 1983). Therefore, caliche distribution and stability play a role in controlling water distribution in arid lands. However, due to its largely subsurface nature, caliche can be difficult to investigate and map without significant effort. I hypothesize that noninvasive geophysical methods, such as ground-penetrating …


Reprocessing Groundwater Resistivity Surveys In The Lower Mesilla Basin, New Mexico, And Texas, Leslie Bernal 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Reprocessing Groundwater Resistivity Surveys In The Lower Mesilla Basin, New Mexico, And Texas, Leslie Bernal

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The Mesilla Basin is part of the Rio Grande Basin System. Its northern boundary is definedby the Doña Ana Mountains in New Mexico and to the south by Sierra San Blas, Sierra Almirez, and Sierra La Candelaria in Mexico, where the basin changes its name to Conejos-Médanos. It supplies water for irrigation and public use to the cities of Las Cruces, NM, El Paso, TX, and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. The southern part of the basin in the U.S. territory, known as the Lower Mesilla Basin, is bounded to the east by the Franklin Mountains, to the west by the Potrillo …


Hydrothermal Alteration Targeting And Geophysical Mineral Exploration Of Eureka And Sylvanite Mining Districts, Southwest New Mexico, Kenneth Singh 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Hydrothermal Alteration Targeting And Geophysical Mineral Exploration Of Eureka And Sylvanite Mining Districts, Southwest New Mexico, Kenneth Singh

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

As part of the southwestern North American porphyry copper province, mining of natural resources in New Mexico has historically played a crucial role in economic development for over 150 years including this project area in the Little Hatchet Mountains. The northern half of the Little Hatchet Mountains lies in Grant County and includes the Eureka Mining District (EMD) whereas the southern half is in Hidalgo County and includes the Sylvanite Mining District (SMD), 38 miles southeast of Lordsburg. The EMD, a copper and silver-lead mining district from 1880-1961, had a total estimated production from the Laramide veins of 2.9 million …


The Formation Of The 8˚20’ N Seamount Chain, East Pacific Rise, Dorsey Wanless 2022 Boise State University

The Formation Of The 8˚20’ N Seamount Chain, East Pacific Rise, Dorsey Wanless

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Near-axis seamounts provide a unique setting to investigate three-dimensional mantle processes associated with the formation of new oceanic crust and lithosphere. Here, we investigate the characteristics and evolution of the 8˚20’N Seamount Chain, a lineament of seamounts that extends ~ 175 km west of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) axis, just north of the fracture zone of the Siqueiros Transform Fault. Shipboard gravity, magnetic, and bathymetric data acquired in 2016 are utilized to constrain models of seamount emplacement and evolution. Geophysical observations indicate that these seamounts formed during four distinct episodes of volcanism coinciding with changes in regional plate motion …


Emplacement Of The Franklin Large Igneous Province And Initiation Of The Sturtian Snowball Earth, Mark D. Schmitz 2022 Boise State University

Emplacement Of The Franklin Large Igneous Province And Initiation Of The Sturtian Snowball Earth, Mark D. Schmitz

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

During the Cryogenian (720 to 635 Ma ago) Snowball Earth glaciations, ice extended to sea level near the equator. The cause of this catastrophic failure of Earth’s thermostat has been unclear, but previous geochronology has suggested a rough coincidence of glacial onset with one of the largest magmatic episodes in the geological record, the Franklin large igneous province. U-Pb geochronology on zircon and baddeleyite from sills associated with the paleo-equatorial Franklin large igneous province in Arctic Canada record rapid emplacement between 719.86 ± 0.21 and 718.61 ± 0.30 Ma ago, 0.9 to 1.6 Ma before the onset of widespread glaciation. …


The Impact Of Contact Geometry On Sea Ice Stress And Fracture At The Scale Of Ice Floes, Michael J. May 2022 Dartmouth College

The Impact Of Contact Geometry On Sea Ice Stress And Fracture At The Scale Of Ice Floes, Michael J. May

Dartmouth College Master’s Theses

Observations of stress and strain at the scale of ice floes are necessary to fill a gap in our understanding of sea ice mechanical behavior. Current climate and ice dynamics models represent ice mechanical properties using stress-strain relationships largely determined at laboratory-scale (<1m) or from regional-scale (10+km) deformation observations. The former scale does not include all mechanisms of deformation operating in the ice pack; the latter aggregates multiple modes of deformation into non-physical fluid analogies. The Sea Ice Dynamics Experiment (SIDEx) was run in Feb-Mar 2021 to fill this gap, observing stress and strain at the scale of sea ice failure processes. Here we present stress sensor observations. Stress gages (N=31) were deployed over a 4.5km2 area in the southern Beaufort Sea to observe in-situ stress. These data were analyzed in the context of deformation observations from satellite imagery and local laser and radar interferometers to explain the drivers of sea ice stress variations before and after fracture. Three case studies between 14 March and 24 March, during which fractures propagated through …


Hydrogeologic Investigation Of A Covered Karst Terrain, Joseph Peter Honings 2022 Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge

Hydrogeologic Investigation Of A Covered Karst Terrain, Joseph Peter Honings

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Increasing demand for water for agricultural use within the Dougherty Plain of the Southeastern United States has depleted surface water bodies. In karstic landscapes, such as the Dougherty Plain in southwest Georgia where the linkages between surface and ground waters are close, there is a need to understand the physical characteristics of the subsurface that allow these close linkages. Having a better understanding of the subsurface characteristics will aid numerical modeling efforts that underpin policy decisions and economic analyses. Two common features on this karstic landscape are draws and geographically isolated wetlands. Using LiDAR, aerial imagery, and ground-penetrating radar, this …


Approaches To Model Non-Uniqueness And Site Complexity For Non-Invasive Shear-Wave Depth Profiling, Christopher Boucher 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Approaches To Model Non-Uniqueness And Site Complexity For Non-Invasive Shear-Wave Depth Profiling, Christopher Boucher

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Shear-wave velocity (VS) depth profiling and associated seismic site classifications were performed at 15 sites across Metro Vancouver, British Columbia using passive seismic and surface wave methods. Inversion model parameters are constrained at each site using nearby geodata in combination with developing regression models of shear-wave velocity with depth for three primary stratigraphic units. Statistical methods such as a Bayesian Information Criterion are applied post-inversion to evaluate models between and within varying parameterizations. Data evaluation metrics, including the use of microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (MHVSRs), are applied to identify two common deviations from the simple case of normally dispersive laterally …


Infrasonic Gliding Reflects A Rising Magma Column At Mount Etna (Italy), Mariangela Sciotto, Leighton M. Watson, Andrea Cannata, Massimo Cantarero, Emanuela De Beni, Jeffrey B. Johnson 2022 Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia

Infrasonic Gliding Reflects A Rising Magma Column At Mount Etna (Italy), Mariangela Sciotto, Leighton M. Watson, Andrea Cannata, Massimo Cantarero, Emanuela De Beni, Jeffrey B. Johnson

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Infrasound is increasing applied as a tool to investigate magma dynamics at active volcanoes, especially at open-vent volcanoes, such as Mt. Etna (Italy), which are prodigious sources of infrasound. Harmonic infrasound signals have been used to constrain crater dimensions and track the movement of magma within the shallow plumbing system. This study interprets the remarkable systematic change in monotonic infrasound signals preceding a lava fountaining episode at Mt. Etna on 20 February 2021. We model the changing tones (0.7 to 3 Hz fundamental frequency) as a rise in the magma column from 172 ± 25 m below the crater rim …


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