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Gravitational Study Of The Hastings Salt Dome And Associated Faults In Brazoria And Galveston Counties,Texas, Francis C. Okocha 2017 Stephen F. Austin State University

Gravitational Study Of The Hastings Salt Dome And Associated Faults In Brazoria And Galveston Counties,Texas, Francis C. Okocha

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Salt domes are important geological structures because they are potential major hydrocarbon traps and have a profound effect on overlying strata in the subsurface. Over five hundred salt domes have been located on the United States Gulf Coast region, including the Hastings Salt Dome. Hastings Oil Field is located about 40.2 km (25 miles) southeast of Houston, Texas. The Hasting oil field was discovered in 1934 and it was considered the largest oil reserve on the Gulf Coast. Its peak production of 75,000 BOPD (barrels of oil per day) was recorded in 1977 and it had a cumulative ...


Structural And Stratigraphic Reconstruction Of The Whiting Dome Salt Structure In Viosca Knoll-Mississippi Canyon, Gom, Using 3d Seismic Data, Matthew R. Worrell 2017 Stephen F Austin State University

Structural And Stratigraphic Reconstruction Of The Whiting Dome Salt Structure In Viosca Knoll-Mississippi Canyon, Gom, Using 3d Seismic Data, Matthew R. Worrell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the complexities of salt tectonics is one of the most important factors regarding seismic interpretation of stratigraphy, structure, and geomorphology in the Gulf of Mexico. Evaluating the processes affecting recent mobilization of salt in the shallow, well-imaged section can help provide analogues for older, similar occurrences in the deeper section, thereby providing structural models for the autochthonous salt and its effect on stratigraphy and even potential timing and migration issues of hydrocarbons.

Progradation of delta front and shelf to slope transitional sediments has expulsed and emplaced an allochthonous salt structure (Whiting Dome) in the Viosca Knoll and Mississippi Canyon ...


Spatio-Temporal History Of Fluid-Rock Interaction In The Hurricane Fault Zone, Jace Koger 2017 Utah State University

Spatio-Temporal History Of Fluid-Rock Interaction In The Hurricane Fault Zone, Jace Koger

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Hurricane Fault is a 250-km long, west dipping, Basin and Range-bounding normal fault in SW Utah and NW Arizona that initiated in the mid-Miocene to Pliocene. It has been primarily active in the Quaternary, with slip rates of 0.2 – 0.6 mm/yr. There are multiple hot springs along its 250-km length and multiple late Tertiary-Quaternary basaltic centers broadly parallel the fault. Possible sources of hot spring fluids include deeply-circulated meteoric water that experienced water-rock exchange at high temperatures (>100 °C) and deep-seated crustal fluids. Aside from the source of modern hot spring fluids and heat, questions about ...


Developing And Testing A Model Of Site Amplification For Southern Ontario, Sebastian Braganza 2017 Western University

Developing And Testing A Model Of Site Amplification For Southern Ontario, Sebastian Braganza

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Commonly-applied methods to estimate ground-motion amplification for earthquake hazard applications in southern Ontario are highly generalized. Site amplification effects have typically been estimated by a parameter that is not well-known in the region, the time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the top 30 metres of soil; VS30. Moreover, VS30 is not well correlated with site amplification in this region. This study develops a model that can better estimate ground motions and shaking intensities in southern Ontario based on readily-available information. The model is based on a site’s peak response frequency (fpeak), which can be estimated from depth-to-bedrock. This ...


Synoptic Atmospheric Conditions, Land Cover, And Equivalent Temperature Variations In Kentucky, Dorothy Yemaa Na-Yemeh 2017 Western Kentucky University

Synoptic Atmospheric Conditions, Land Cover, And Equivalent Temperature Variations In Kentucky, Dorothy Yemaa Na-Yemeh

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Research has demonstrated that equivalent temperature (TE), which incorporates both the surface air temperature (T) and moist heat content associated with atmospheric moisture, is a better indicator of overall heat content. This thesis follows up on a study that used TE to determine the impacts of land use/land cover and air masses on the atmospheric heat content over Kentucky during the growing season (April-September). The study, which used data from the Kentucky Mesonet, reveals that moist weather types dominate the growing season and, as expected, differences between T and TE are smaller under dry atmospheric conditions ...


Assessing Seasonal And Spatial Variability In The Hydrogeochemistry Of Glacial Meltwater In Iceland, Anisha Tuladhar 2017 Western Kentucky University

Assessing Seasonal And Spatial Variability In The Hydrogeochemistry Of Glacial Meltwater In Iceland, Anisha Tuladhar

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A detailed comparative geochemical characterization of three different types of Iceland glacial systems was conducted during June, August, and October, 2016. The study was carried out at a total of 11 outlet glacier rivers flowing from the icecaps Vatnajökull, Eyjafjallajökull, and Mýrdalsjökull. A total of 75 grab samples were collected (25 for each sampling period). The hydrogeochemical variations of Icelandic glacial meltwater are influenced by volcanic activity, temporal changes, and geographical location, which differed between the sampling sites within the glaciers and icecaps. Lower pH range, and comparatively higher and variable specific conductivity, SO4, S and F is linked to ...


Regional Greenland Accumulation Variability From Operation Icebridge Airborne Accumulation Radar, Gabriel Lewis, Erich Osterberg, Robert Hawley, Brian Whitmore, Hans Peter Marshall, Jason Box 2017 Dartmouth College

Regional Greenland Accumulation Variability From Operation Icebridge Airborne Accumulation Radar, Gabriel Lewis, Erich Osterberg, Robert Hawley, Brian Whitmore, Hans Peter Marshall, Jason Box

CGISS Publications and Presentations

The mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) in a warming climate is of critical interest to scientists and the general public in the context of future sea-level rise. An improved understanding of temporal and spatial variability of snow accumulation will reduce uncertainties in GrIS mass balance models and improve projections of Greenland's contribution to sea-level rise, currently estimated at 0.089 ± 0.03 m by 2100. Here we analyze 25 NASA Operation IceBridge accumulation radar flights totaling > 17 700 km from 2013 to 2014 to determine snow accumulation in the GrIS dry snow and percolation zones over ...


Delineation Of Karst Geohazards Along Rm 652 Through The Use Of Ground Penetrating Radar: Culberson County, Texas, Aaron A. Eaves 2017 Stephen F Austin State University

Delineation Of Karst Geohazards Along Rm 652 Through The Use Of Ground Penetrating Radar: Culberson County, Texas, Aaron A. Eaves

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Delaware Basin is the western member of the larger Permian Basin, and is located in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas and New Mexico. The Delaware Basin hosts significant evaporite karst geohazards throughout the Gypsum Plain of the Castile Formation, where geohazards of all scales form beneath and immediately adjacent to major infrastructure throughout the region, especially Ranch-to-Market 652, including geohazards ranging from small scale dissolution of road base, to large scale cave and sinkhole development. Gypsum sourced from the Castile and Rustler formations was used to create the road base of this RM652 , which meteoric waters have easily dissolved ...


Particle Dynamics In The Rising Plume At Piccard Hydrothermal Field, Mid-Cayman Rise, Meg Estapa, J. A. Breier, C R. German 2017 Skidmore College

Particle Dynamics In The Rising Plume At Piccard Hydrothermal Field, Mid-Cayman Rise, Meg Estapa, J. A. Breier, C R. German

Meg Estapa

Processes active in rising hydrothermal plumes, such as precipitation, particle aggregation, and biological growth, affect particle size distributions and can exert important influences on the biogeochemical impact of submarine venting of iron to the oceans and their sediments. However, observations to date of particle size distribution within these systems are both limited and conflicting. In a novel buoyant hydrothermal plume study at the recently discovered high-temperature (398°C) Piccard Hydrothermal Field, Mid-Cayman Rise, we report optical measurements of particle size distributions (PSDs). We describe the plume PSD in terms of a simple, power-law model commonly used in studies of upper ...


Observations Of Carbon Export By Small Sinking Particles In The Upper Mesopelagic, Colleen A. Durkin, Meg Estapa, Ken O. Buesseler 2017 Skidmore College

Observations Of Carbon Export By Small Sinking Particles In The Upper Mesopelagic, Colleen A. Durkin, Meg Estapa, Ken O. Buesseler

Meg Estapa

Carbon and nutrients are transported out of the surface ocean and sequestered at depth by sinking particles. Sinking particle sizes span many orders of magnitude and the relative influence of small particles on carbon export compared to large particles has not been resolved. To determine the influence of particle size on carbon export, the flux of both small (11–64 μm) and large (> 64 μm) particles in the upper mesopelagic was examined during 5 cruises of the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) in the Sargasso Sea using neutrally buoyant sediment traps mounted with tubes containing polyacrylamide gel layers and tubes ...


Rain Or Snow: Hydrologic Processes, Observations, Prediction, And Research Needs, James P. McNamara 2017 Boise State University

Rain Or Snow: Hydrologic Processes, Observations, Prediction, And Research Needs, James P. Mcnamara

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

The phase of precipitation when it reaches the ground is a first-order driver of hydrologic processes in a watershed. The presence of snow, rain, or mixed-phase precipitation affects the initial and boundary conditions that drive hydrological models. Despite their foundational importance to terrestrial hydrology, typical phase partitioning methods (PPMs) specify the phase based on near-surface air temperature only. Our review conveys the diversity of tools available for PPMs in hydrological modeling and the advancements needed to improve predictions in complex terrain with large spatiotemporal variations in precipitation phase. Initially, we review the processes and physics that control precipitation phase as ...


Time Domain Sar Processing With Gpus For Airborne Platforms, Dustin Lagoy 2017 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Time Domain Sar Processing With Gpus For Airborne Platforms, Dustin Lagoy

Masters Theses May 2014 - current

A time-domain backprojection processor for airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been developed at the University of Massachusetts’ Microwave Remote Sensing Lab (MIRSL). The aim of this work is to produce a SAR processor capable of addressing the motion compensation issues faced by frequency-domain processing algorithms, in order to create well focused SAR imagery suitable for interferometry. The time-domain backprojection algorithm inherently compensates for non-linear platform motion, dependent on the availability of accurate measurements of the motion. The implementation must manage the relatively high computational burden of the backprojection algorithm, which is done using modern graphics processing units (GPUs), programmed ...


Characterization Of Elastic Tensors Of Crustal Rocks With Respect To Seismic Anisotropy, Anissha Raju 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

Characterization Of Elastic Tensors Of Crustal Rocks With Respect To Seismic Anisotropy, Anissha Raju

Undergraduate Honors Theses

A wide range of minerals are stable is the Earth’s crust. Minerals belong to one of the seven crystal systems and have a wide range of densities. Hence, evaluating crustal seismic anisotropy is very complicated. Seismic anisotropy does not only depend on the types of minerals present, but rather considers mineral orientation, which is greatly dependent on the presence of Lattice Preferred Orientation (LPO), within a rock body. This study aims to investigate mineralogical role in rocks’ anisotropy and anisotropy symmetry. Hence, over 100 elastic tensors of crustal rocks was compiled from published studies from all over the world ...


Lithospheric Evaluation Of The Mid-Continental Rift System In Iowa From A Gravity And Magnetic Analysis, Moamen Mohamed Almaz 2017 Missouri State University

Lithospheric Evaluation Of The Mid-Continental Rift System In Iowa From A Gravity And Magnetic Analysis, Moamen Mohamed Almaz

MSU Graduate Theses

The Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System (MCRS) is considered one of the most important tectonic features in North America and was formed during a continental breakup event at 1.1 Ga (billion years). The MCRS is totally covered by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks except in the Lake Superior region. Consequently, the geological characteristics of the MCRS are primarily inferred from extrapolations from the outcrop areas, drill holes, and from a variety of geophysical investigations. Iowa has a large segment of the MCRS which to date has only been partially investigated geophysically with little information regarding the lower crustal and upper mantle structure ...


Detecting Overpressure Zones By Using Model Based Inversion In Kupe Field, New Zealand, Timucin Cakir 2017 Michigan Technological University

Detecting Overpressure Zones By Using Model Based Inversion In Kupe Field, New Zealand, Timucin Cakir

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Overpressure is a significant parameter during a drilling process in oil exploration. This phenomenon happens when pore pressure exceeds the limit of hydrostatic pressure in a formation and causes drastic hazards such as blow outs while drilling. This thesis focuses on the determination of possible overpressure areas and studies at three wells in Kupe Field, which is considered to be a natural-gas field in Taranaki Basin. In an effort to identify potential overpressure zones at the Kupe Field, acoustic impedance responses of 3D seismic data for three wells, along with their well log responses were evaluated.

Seismic inversion plays an ...


An Investigation Into The Origin, Composition, And Commercial Significance Of A Sedimentary Subsalt Formation: Keathley Canyon, Gulf Of Mexico, David Aaron Brassieur 2016 University of New Orleans, New Orleans

An Investigation Into The Origin, Composition, And Commercial Significance Of A Sedimentary Subsalt Formation: Keathley Canyon, Gulf Of Mexico, David Aaron Brassieur

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Sub-salt oil and gas formations in deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico are high priority targets. Advances in seismic processing allow for high-resolution, below-salt imaging. Understanding the modes of salt emplacement provide insight into sub-salt traps and potential drilling hazards.

A sub-salt sedimentary unit lies in the Keathley Canyon protraction. Autosutures created the transport-parallel lineaments of the upper surface of the unit. In addition, highly variable sediment aggradation rates created ramps, flats, and basal cutoffs along the base of the allochthon as salt and sediment competed for space. Seismic models identify modes of salt emplacement, salt/sediment interactions, and mechanisms responsible ...


Using Near-Infrared Photography To Better Study Snow Microstructure And Its Variability Over Time And Space, Jesse Raymond Dean 2016 Boise State University

Using Near-Infrared Photography To Better Study Snow Microstructure And Its Variability Over Time And Space, Jesse Raymond Dean

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The methods typically used to study snow stratigraphy, microstructure, and variability are expensive, cumbersome, and often highly subjective. Near-infrared (NIR) photography is a low-cost, portable tool to rapidly collect high-resolution, objective measurements of snow microstructure and variability. To expand its application, an active-source NIR flash was introduced to the traditionally passive-source method. NIR imagery was collected alongside proven snowpit methods such as manual observation, Snow Fork wetness, and Snow Micro-Penetrometer hardness profiles. NIR photography was also deployed in five pits along a 10.6 km transect in Grand Mesa, CO, to track stratigraphy variations in space. The NIR flash was ...


Using Infrasound Waves To Monitor Tropospheric Weather And Crater Morphology Changes, Hugo David Ortiz 2016 Boise State University

Using Infrasound Waves To Monitor Tropospheric Weather And Crater Morphology Changes, Hugo David Ortiz

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Infrasound waves generated during volcanic eruptions and recorded near the vent are used to study both changing atmospheric conditions and volcano eruption source characteristics. Infrasound data were recorded for a 32 month period at Volcán Tungurahua (Ecuador) by a five-station network located within 6.5 km from the vent. Infrasound detections made through cross-network correlation indicate cyclic eruptive behavior, which is corroborated by reports from the Ecuadorian monitoring agency. Cross-network correlation lag times are used to compute _10 m resolution infrasound source positions, which take into account NOAA models of local wind and temperature. Variable infrasound-derived source locations suggests source ...


Microstructural Analysis Of Thermoelastic Response, Nonlinear Creep, And Pervasive Cracking In Heterogeneous Materials, Alden C. Cook 2016 University of Maine

Microstructural Analysis Of Thermoelastic Response, Nonlinear Creep, And Pervasive Cracking In Heterogeneous Materials, Alden C. Cook

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is concerned with the development of robust numerical solution procedures for the generalized micromechanical analysis of linear and nonlinear constitutive behavior in heterogeneous materials. Although the methods developed are applicable in many engineering, geological, and materials science fields, three main areas are explored in this work. First, a numerical methodology is presented for the thermomechanical analysis of heterogeneous materials with a special focus on real polycrystalline microstructures obtained using electron backscatter diffraction techniques. Asymptotic expansion homogenization and finite element analysis are employed for micromechanical analysis of polycrystalline materials. Effective thermoelastic properties of polycrystalline materials are determined and compared ...


Impact Of Spatial Averaging On Radar Reflectivity At Internal Snowpack Layer Boundaries, N. Rutter, H.P. Marshall, K. Tape, R. Essery, J. King 2016 Northumbria University

Impact Of Spatial Averaging On Radar Reflectivity At Internal Snowpack Layer Boundaries, N. Rutter, H.P. Marshall, K. Tape, R. Essery, J. King

CGISS Publications and Presentations

Microwave radar amplitude within a snowpack can be strongly influenced by spatial variability of internal layer boundaries. We quantify the impact of spatial averaging of snow stratigraphy and physical snowpack properties on surface scattering from near-nadir frequency-modulated continuous- wave radar at 12–18 GHz. Relative permittivity, density, grain size and stratigraphic boundaries were measured in-situ at high resolution along the length of a 9 m snow trench. An optimal range of horizontal averaging (4–6 m) was identified to attribute variations in surface scattering at layer boundaries to dielectric contrasts estimated from centimetre-scale measurements of snowpack stratigraphy and bulk layer ...


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