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Groundwater Level Response To The Wenchuan Earthquake Of May 2008, Anhua He, Ramesh Singh 2018 Institute of Crustal Dynamics, CEA, China

Groundwater Level Response To The Wenchuan Earthquake Of May 2008, Anhua He, Ramesh Singh

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

We have comprehensively analysed the co-seismic response of the groundwater levels of 280 wells in mainland China that were associated with the Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) that occurred on 12 May 2008. The observed co-seismic responses can be classified as step-like changes in 138 wells, variations in 69 wells and non-responses in 73 wells. After a quantitative analysis of spatial distribution, there was no spatially coherent signal found in the step-like changes (positive values indicate a step-like rise, and negative values indicate a step-like fall), even within 300 km of the epicenter. The amplitude and the phase shift of ...


Detection, Containment And Scaling Relations Of Near Source Explosions In Granite Through Moment Tensor Representations, Mason MacPhail 2018 Southern Methodist University

Detection, Containment And Scaling Relations Of Near Source Explosions In Granite Through Moment Tensor Representations, Mason Macphail

Earth Sciences Theses and Dissertations

The Source Phenomenology Experiment (SPE) was a series of nine, single-fired chemical explosions within the Morenci Copper mine in Arizona. Its purpose was to design, detonate, record and analyze seismic waveforms from these single-fired, partially and fully contained explosions. Ground motion data from the SPE are analyzed in this study to assess the uniqueness of the source representation of these explosions and its ability to resolve yield and depth when containment and geology or physical parameters of the source region may have a range of possible values. The P-wave velocities (Vp) at the test site are well constrained by ...


Holocene Formation And Evolution Of Horn Island, Mississippi, Usa, Nina Gal 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Holocene Formation And Evolution Of Horn Island, Mississippi, Usa, Nina Gal

Master's Theses

Horn Island, one of the most stable barriers along the Mississippi-Alabama chain, provides critical habitat, helps regulate estuarine conditions in the Mississippi Sound, and reduces wave energy and storm surge for the mainland. This study integrates 2,200 km of high-resolution geophysics, 35 sediment cores, and 15 radiocarbon ages to better understand the formation and evolution of the island in response to sea-level rise, storms, and antecedent geology. The Biloxi and Pascagoula incised valleys converge at Horn Island and have played a profound role in the evolution of the system. Within the incised valleys, numerous shallow paleochannels between 4 and ...


Late Quaternary Evolution And Stratigraphic Framework Influence On Coastal Systems Along The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Usa, Robert Hollis 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Late Quaternary Evolution And Stratigraphic Framework Influence On Coastal Systems Along The North-Central Gulf Of Mexico, Usa, Robert Hollis

Master's Theses

Coastal systems in the Gulf of Mexico are threatened to reduced sediment supply, storm impacts and relative sea level rise (RSLR). The geologic record can provide insights of geomorphic threshold crossings (formation, progradation, transgression, destruction) to these forcing mechanisms to predict future barrier evolution to climate change. The stratigraphic framework and antecedent topography directly influence coastal evolution over geologic timescales. This study synthesizes ~2100km of geophysical data, 700+ sediment cores, and 63 radiocarbon dates to regionally map two sequence boundaries, multiple ravinement surfaces and fourteen depositional facies. One marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 valley’s fill provided up to 300 ...


Land Use And Land Cover Changes, And Environment And Risk Evaluation Of Dujiangyan City (Sw China) Using Remote Sensing And Gis Techniques, Biswajit Nath, Zheng Niu, Ramesh P. Singh 2018 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Land Use And Land Cover Changes, And Environment And Risk Evaluation Of Dujiangyan City (Sw China) Using Remote Sensing And Gis Techniques, Biswajit Nath, Zheng Niu, Ramesh P. Singh

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Understanding of the Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change, its transitions and Landscape risk (LR) evaluation in earthquake-affected areas is important for planning and urban sustainability. In the present study, we have considered Dujiangyan City and its Environs (DCEN), a seismic-prone area close to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (8.0 Mw) during 2007–2018. Five different multi-temporal data sets for the years 2007, 2008, 2010, 2015, and 2018 were considered for LULC mapping, followed by the maximum likelihood supervised classification technique. The individual LULC maps were further used in four time periods, i.e., 2007–2018, 2008–2018, 2010 ...


Assessing Ground Penetrating Radar's Ability To Image Subsurface Characteristics Of Icy Debris Fans In Alaska And New Zealand, Robert W. Jacob, Jeffrey M. Trop, R. Craig Kochel 2018 Bucknell University

Assessing Ground Penetrating Radar's Ability To Image Subsurface Characteristics Of Icy Debris Fans In Alaska And New Zealand, Robert W. Jacob, Jeffrey M. Trop, R. Craig Kochel

Faculty Journal Articles

Icy debris fans have recently been described as fan shaped depositional landforms associated with (or formed during) deglaciation, however, the subsurface characteristics remain essentially undocumented. We used ground penetrating radar (GPR) to non-invasively investigate the subsurface characteristics of icy debris fans (IDFs) at McCarthy Glacier, Alaska, USA and at La Perouse Glacier, South Island of New Zealand. IDFs are largely unexplored paraglacial landforms in deglaciating alpine regions at the mouths of bedrock catchments between valley glaciers and icecaps. IDFs receive deposits of mainly ice and minor lithic material through different mass-flow processes, chiefly ice avalanche and to a lesser extent ...


Utilizing The Hvsr Second Peak For Surface Wave Inversions In The Mississippi Embayment, Ashraf Kamal Himel 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Utilizing The Hvsr Second Peak For Surface Wave Inversions In The Mississippi Embayment, Ashraf Kamal Himel

Theses and Dissertations

Ambient noise data from 24 sites within the Mississippi Embayment were analyzed to estimate the fundamental frequency using the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method. The fundamental frequency ranged from 0.17 to 3.43 Hz for the tested sites. At seventeen of the sites, a second higher frequency HVSR peak, which ranged from 0.617 Hz to 2.154 Hz, was observed in addition to the fundamental HVSR peak. The second peak frequency in the HVSR curve has been attributed by previous researchers as either an odd harmonic of the fundamental peak or a shallow impedance contrast from ...


Robust Earthquake Site Classification Assessment At Ontario Bridge Sites., Alex Bilson Darko 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Robust Earthquake Site Classification Assessment At Ontario Bridge Sites., Alex Bilson Darko

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Canadian seismic design guidelines classify subsurface ground conditions based on the average shear-wave velocity (VS) of the upper 30 meters (VS30). We seek to optimize a robust earthquake site classification procedure for Ontario bridge sites, assessed primarily from blind comparison of non-invasive VS depth profiling techniques. Non-invasive seismic testing is performed at 10 bridge sites in southern Ontario co-located with invasive penetration and/or borehole VS measurements. Non-invasive surface wave dispersion and site amplification functions are jointly inverted to retrieve VS profiles at each site. A general correlation between corrected VS and cone tip ...


Empirical Characterization Of Induced Seismicity In Alberta And Oklahoma, Mark Novakovic 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Empirical Characterization Of Induced Seismicity In Alberta And Oklahoma, Mark Novakovic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis characterizes ground motions from induced seismic events in Alberta and Oklahoma, following an overall methodology that uses ground-motion recordings to calibrate the parameters of a seismological model. This body of work is carried out in three related studies.

In the first study, we perform a preliminary evaluation of ground motions in Alberta using thousands of observations of natural, induced and blast events of magnitude 1 to 4, recorded on a newly-deployed regional seismograph array. We evaluate the applicability of a moment magnitude (M) estimation algorithm for the events and compare the observed ground motions with expectations based on ...


The Undeniable Attraction Of Lunar Swirls, Cierra Waller, Dhananjay Ravat 2018 University of Kentucky

The Undeniable Attraction Of Lunar Swirls, Cierra Waller, Dhananjay Ravat

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Lunar swirls are complex patterns on the Moon with distinct brightness signatures and magnetic characteristics. Current research has suggested that the formation of lunar swirls relies on local magnetic fields to shield impinging solar wind, based on a shift in electromagnetic wavelength peaks related to solar radiation and space weathering. Our research combined recent models and methods to characterize these anomalies at the surface of the Moon, exploring the effects of field strength and position. We have produced a high resolution map of a famous swirl named Reiner Gamma using magnetic dipole modeling. These maps and models are considered when ...


Imaging The Subsurface: The Effect Of Logjams On Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange, Teodora Mitroi, Megan Doughty, Jackie Randall, Kamini Singha 2018 Georgia State University

Imaging The Subsurface: The Effect Of Logjams On Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange, Teodora Mitroi, Megan Doughty, Jackie Randall, Kamini Singha

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Conventional methods of quantifying subsurface interactions in streams are often insufficient in characterizing hydrological processes and demand better techniques to measure complex dynamics. Point-measurements are incomplete and do not provide direct data on hyporheic exchange, a mixing of surface and subsurface water under and around a stream capable of influencing ecosystem processes. Fortunately, geophysical techniques can improve analysis of the hyporheic zone. For the first time in a field setting, we apply electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to a mountainous stream below a channel-spanning logjam to estimate the extent of hyporheic exchange. Previous studies suggest logjams increase hydraulic resistance and drive ...


Postseismic Restoration Of The Ecological Environment In The Wenchuan Region Using Satellite Data, Zhibin Huang, Min Xu, Wei Chen, Xiaojuan Lin, Chunxiang Cao, Ramesh Singh 2018 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Postseismic Restoration Of The Ecological Environment In The Wenchuan Region Using Satellite Data, Zhibin Huang, Min Xu, Wei Chen, Xiaojuan Lin, Chunxiang Cao, Ramesh Singh

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Using Landsat remote-sensing data combined with geological information extracted from ALOS and Sentinel-1A radar data, the ecological environment was evaluated in the years 2007, 2008, 2013, and 2017 through gray correlation analysis on the basis of the construction of the pressure-state-response model. The main objective of this research was to assess the ecological environment changes in Wenchuan County before and after the earthquake, and to provide reference for future social development and policy implementation. The grading map of the ecological environment was obtained for every year, and the ecological restoration status of Wenchuan County after the earthquake was evaluated. The ...


The Cyrilka Cave—The Longest Crevice-Type Cave In Czechia: Structural Controls, Genesis, And Age, Jan Lenart, Martin Kašing, Petr Tábořík, Natalia Piotrowska, Jacek Pawlyta 2018 University of Ostrava

The Cyrilka Cave—The Longest Crevice-Type Cave In Czechia: Structural Controls, Genesis, And Age, Jan Lenart, Martin Kašing, Petr Tábořík, Natalia Piotrowska, Jacek Pawlyta

International Journal of Speleology

The Cyrilka Cave is the second longest pseudokarst cave and the longest crevice-type cave in Czechia. Developed within the headscarp area of a deep-seated landslide, the cave became a focus of scientific research in recent years when new passages were discovered. Structural analysis provided a general tectonic plan of the cave, as well as more detailed data on geometry and kinematics of the relaxed rock massif. The primary structure of NNE- to ENE-striking bedding is broken by a system of NNE-striking fissures interconnected by two continuous ENE-striking dextral fracture zones. Abundant signs of recent sinistral strike-slips within the rock massif ...


Climate Change And Curtailment: Evaluating Water Management Practices In The Context Of Changing Runoff Regimes In A Snowmelt-Dominated Basin, Amy L. Steimke, Bangshuai Han, Jodi S. Brandt, Alejandro N. Flores 2018 Boise State University

Climate Change And Curtailment: Evaluating Water Management Practices In The Context Of Changing Runoff Regimes In A Snowmelt-Dominated Basin, Amy L. Steimke, Bangshuai Han, Jodi S. Brandt, Alejandro N. Flores

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Hydrologic scientists and water resource managers often focus on different facets of flow regimes in changing climates. The objective of this work is to examine potential hydrological changes in the Upper Boise River Basin, Idaho, USA in the context of biophysical variables and their impacts a key variable governing administration of water resources in the region in an integrated way. This snowmelt-dominated, mountainous watershed supplies water to a semi-arid, agriculturally intensive, but rapidly urbanizing, region. Using the Envision integrated modeling framework, we created a hydrological model to simulate hydrological response to the year 2100 using six alternative future climate trajectories ...


Imaging Spectroscopic Analysis Of Biochemical Traits For Shrub Species In Great Basin, Usa, Yi Qi, Susan L. Ustin, Nancy F. Glenn 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Imaging Spectroscopic Analysis Of Biochemical Traits For Shrub Species In Great Basin, Usa, Yi Qi, Susan L. Ustin, Nancy F. Glenn

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

The biochemical traits of plant canopies are important predictors of photosynthetic capacity and nutrient cycling. However, remote sensing of biochemical traits in shrub species in dryland ecosystems has been limited mainly due to the sparse vegetation cover, manifold shrub structures, and complex light interaction between the land surface and canopy. In order to examine the performance of airborne imaging spectroscopy for retrieving biochemical traits in shrub species, we collected Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer—Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) images and surveyed four foliar biochemical traits (leaf mass per area, water content, nitrogen content and carbon) of sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata) and bitterbrush ...


Predicted Deepwater Bathymetry From Satellite Altimetry: Non-Fourier Transform Alternatives, Maxsimo Salazar 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Predicted Deepwater Bathymetry From Satellite Altimetry: Non-Fourier Transform Alternatives, Maxsimo Salazar

Dissertations

Robert Parker (1972) demonstrated the effectiveness of Fourier Transforms (FT) to compute gravitational potential anomalies caused by uneven, non-uniform layers of material. This important calculation relates the gravitational potential anomaly to sea-floor topography. As outlined by Sandwell and Smith (1997), a six-step procedure, utilizing the FT, then demonstrated how satellite altimetry measurements of marine geoid height are inverted into seafloor topography. However, FTs are not local in space and produce Gibb’s phenomenon around discontinuities. Seafloor features exhibit spatial locality and features such as seamounts and ridges often have sharp inclines. Initial tests compared the windowed-FT to wavelets in reconstruction ...


Reverse-Time Migration From Rugged Topography To Image Ground-Penetrating Radar Data In Complex Environments, John H. Bradford, Janna Privette, David Wilkins, Richard Ford 2018 Boise State University

Reverse-Time Migration From Rugged Topography To Image Ground-Penetrating Radar Data In Complex Environments, John H. Bradford, Janna Privette, David Wilkins, Richard Ford

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

In ground-penetrating radar (GPR) imaging, it is common for the depth of investigation to be on the same order as the variability in surface topography. In such cases, migration fails when it is carried out from a datum after the application of elevation statics. We introduce a reverse-time migration (RTM) algorithm based on the second-order decoupled form of Maxwell’s equations, which requires computation of only the electric field. The wavefield extrapolation is computed directly from the acquisition surface without the need for datuming. In a synthetic case study, the algorithm significantly improves image accuracy over a processing sequence in ...


Gps Constraints On Deformation In Northern Central America From 1999 To 2017, Part 1 – Time-Dependent Modelling Of Large Regional Earthquakes And Their Post-Seismic Effects, A. Ellis, Charles DeMets, P. Briole, Beatriz Cosenza, Omar Flores, Shannon Graham, Marco Guzmán-Speziale, Douglas Hernandez, Vladimir Kostoglodov, Peter LaFemina, Neal Lord, Cécile Lasserre, Hélène Lyon-Caen, Manuel Rodriguez Maradiaga, Robert McCaffrey, Enrique Molina, Jeffrey Rivera, Robert Rogers, Alejandra Staller 2018 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Gps Constraints On Deformation In Northern Central America From 1999 To 2017, Part 1 – Time-Dependent Modelling Of Large Regional Earthquakes And Their Post-Seismic Effects, A. Ellis, Charles Demets, P. Briole, Beatriz Cosenza, Omar Flores, Shannon Graham, Marco Guzmán-Speziale, Douglas Hernandez, Vladimir Kostoglodov, Peter Lafemina, Neal Lord, Cécile Lasserre, Hélène Lyon-Caen, Manuel Rodriguez Maradiaga, Robert Mccaffrey, Enrique Molina, Jeffrey Rivera, Robert Rogers, Alejandra Staller

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

We use continuous and campaign measurements from 215 GPS sites in northern Central America and southern Mexico to estimate coseismic and afterslip solutions for the 2009 Mw = 7.3 Swan Islands fault strike-slip earthquake and the 2012 Mw = 7.3 El Salvador and Mw = 7.4 Guatemala thrust-faulting earthquakes on the Middle America trench. Our simultaneous, time-dependent inversion of more than 350 000 daily GPS site positions gives the first jointly consistent estimates of the coseismic slips for all three earthquakes, their combined time-dependent post-seismic effects and secular station velocities corrected for both the coseismic and post-seismic deformation. Our geodetic ...


Revelation Of Early Detection Of Coseismic Ionospheric Perturbations In Gps-Tec From Realistic Modelling Approach: Case Study, Dhanya Thomas, Mala S. Bagiya, Poikayil Sukumaran Sunil, Lucie Rolland, Anakuzhikkal Sudarsanan Sunil, T. Dylan Mikesell, Srinivas Nayak, Subrahmanyam Mangalampalli, Durbha Sai Ramesh 2018 Indian Institute of Geomagnetism

Revelation Of Early Detection Of Coseismic Ionospheric Perturbations In Gps-Tec From Realistic Modelling Approach: Case Study, Dhanya Thomas, Mala S. Bagiya, Poikayil Sukumaran Sunil, Lucie Rolland, Anakuzhikkal Sudarsanan Sunil, T. Dylan Mikesell, Srinivas Nayak, Subrahmanyam Mangalampalli, Durbha Sai Ramesh

CGISS Publications and Presentations

GPS-derived Total Electron Content (TEC) is an integrated quantity; hence it is difficult to relate the detection of ionospheric perturbations in TEC to a precise altitude. As TEC is weighted by the maximum ionospheric density, the corresponding altitude (hmF2) is, generally, assumed as the perturbation detection altitude. To investigate the validity of this assumption in detail, we conduct an accurate analysis of the GPS-TEC measured early ionospheric signatures related to the vertical surface displacement of the Mw 7.4 Sanriku-Oki earthquake (Sanriku-Oki Tohoku foreshock). Using 3D acoustic ray tracing model to describe the evolution of the propagating seismo-acoustic wave in ...


Impact Craters On Titan: Finalizing Titan's Crater Population, Joshua E. Hedgepeth 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Impact Craters On Titan: Finalizing Titan's Crater Population, Joshua E. Hedgepeth

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Titan is one of the most dynamic moons in the solar system. It is smaller than Earth and much colder, yet Titan is eerily similar to Earth, with rivers, rain, and seas, as well as sand seas that wrap around the equator. However, the rivers are made of hydrocarbons rather than water and the sand made of organics rather rock. We can use Titan’s impact craters to study how these processes modify the surface by comparing the craters depths, diameters and rim heights of Titan’s craters with fresh craters. Therefore, we have used the complete data set from ...


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