Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Geophysics and Seismology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1658 Full-Text Articles 2188 Authors 255500 Downloads 78 Institutions

All Articles in Geophysics and Seismology

Faceted Search

1658 full-text articles. Page 1 of 44.

Use Of Engineering Geophysics In The Design Of Highway Passing Lanes, P. Michaels 2017 Boise State University

Use Of Engineering Geophysics In The Design Of Highway Passing Lanes, P. Michaels

Paul Michaels

The addition of passing lanes has been a long standing need on Idaho Route 55. This narrow, winding road is one of the few routes that links Boise, Idaho, with destinations to the north. The roadway is bounded by a steep rising slope on the east, and a precipitous drop to the Payette River on the west. Additionally, the area is known for landslide hazards. Given these hazards and uncertainties in the subsurface geology, Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) commissioned an engineering geophysical survey to aid in the design of the passing lanes just south of Banks, Idaho.

The engineering design ...


New Gps Time Series Analysis And A Simplified Model To Compute An Accurate Seasonal Amplitude Of Tropospheric Delay, Hadis Samadi Alinia 2017 The University of Western Ontario

New Gps Time Series Analysis And A Simplified Model To Compute An Accurate Seasonal Amplitude Of Tropospheric Delay, Hadis Samadi Alinia

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Horizontal and vertical deformation of the Earth’s crust is due to a variety of different geophysical processes that take place on various spatiotemporal scales. The quality of the observations from spaced-based geodesy instruments such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) data for monitoring these deformations are dependent on numerous error sources. Therefore, accurately identifying and eliminating the dominant sources of the error, such as troposphere error in GPS signals, is fundamental to obtain high quality, sub-centimeter accuracy levels in positioning results.

In this work, I present the results of double-differenced processing of five ...


Assessment Of Earthquake Site Amplification And Application Of Passive Seismic Methods For Improved Site Classification In The Greater Vancouver Region, British Columbia, Frederick Andrew Jackson 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Assessment Of Earthquake Site Amplification And Application Of Passive Seismic Methods For Improved Site Classification In The Greater Vancouver Region, British Columbia, Frederick Andrew Jackson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is renewed interest to improve seismic microzonation mapping in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia (BC). We investigate local geology as the cause of observed variable ground shaking from the 2015 M 4.7 Vancouver Island earthquake. We observe high amplification at 4-6 Hz on thick sediment and the northern edge of the Fraser River delta, and disparities with current regional seismic microzonation mapping. Site amplification and shear-wave velocity (VS) are assessed from the first borehole earthquake recordings in BC. We also perform ambient vibration analyses at 13 new locations in southwest BC to highlight suitability of passive seismic methods ...


Petrophysical Investigations Of The Marathon Cu-Pge Deposit, Marathon, On, Hiruni Gunawardana 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Petrophysical Investigations Of The Marathon Cu-Pge Deposit, Marathon, On, Hiruni Gunawardana

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Drill core samples obtained from four mineralized zones of the Marathon Cu-PGE deposit in the Coldwell igneous complex have been investigated for their petrophysical characteristics. Remanent magnetization was used as a possible tool to reorient core samples but a drilling induced overprint magnetization dominated the record. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility was measured to provide a proxy for the petrofabric of samples obtained from oriented drill cores; a well-defined planar fabric was found to strike 177 and dip 25°W, with down-dip lineation, in excellent agreement with inferred magmatic flow direction based on 3D modeling of mineralized footwall troughs. Magnetite rich ...


The First Earthquake Site Assessments In Alberta, Canada, Joseph J. Farrugia 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The First Earthquake Site Assessments In Alberta, Canada, Joseph J. Farrugia

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A thorough characterization of the site conditions at Alberta seismic stations is a vital component in assessing seismic hazard in the province. This thesis provides the first earthquake site characterizations in Alberta, including shear-wave velocity (VS) depth profiles, estimates of the average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m (VS30) and peak frequency (fpeak), and their validation for prediction of earthquake site amplification. National Building Code of Canada site classes are limited to C and D based on VS30 estimates, with D being the predominant site class. Three empirical site amplification functions are derived ...


Lidar Aboveground Vegetation Biomass Estimates In Shrublands: Prediction, Uncertainties And Application To Coarser Scales, Aihua Li, Shital Dhakal, Nancy F. Glenn, Lucas P. Spaete 2017 Boise State University

Lidar Aboveground Vegetation Biomass Estimates In Shrublands: Prediction, Uncertainties And Application To Coarser Scales, Aihua Li, Shital Dhakal, Nancy F. Glenn, Lucas P. Spaete

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Our study objectives were to model the aboveground biomass in a xeric shrub-steppe landscape with airborne light detection and ranging (Lidar) and explore the uncertainty associated with the models we created. We incorporated vegetation vertical structure information obtained from Lidar with ground-measured biomass data, allowing us to scale shrub biomass from small field sites (1 m subplots and 1 ha plots) to a larger landscape. A series of airborne Lidar-derived vegetation metrics were trained and linked with the field-measured biomass in Random Forests (RF) regression models. A Stepwise Multiple Regression (SMR) model was also explored as a comparison. Our results ...


Coupling Biophysical Processes And Water Rights To Simulate Spatially Distributed Water Use In An Intensively Managed Hydrologic System, Bangshuai Han, Shawn G. Benner, John P. Bolte, Kellie B. Vache, Alejandro N. Flores 2017 Boise State University

Coupling Biophysical Processes And Water Rights To Simulate Spatially Distributed Water Use In An Intensively Managed Hydrologic System, Bangshuai Han, Shawn G. Benner, John P. Bolte, Kellie B. Vache, Alejandro N. Flores

Alejandro N. Flores

Humans have significantly altered the redistribution of water in intensively managed hydrologic systems, shifting the spatiotemporal patterns of surface water. Evaluating water availability requires integration of hydrologic processes and associated human influences. In this study, we summarize the development and evaluation of an extensible hydrologic model that explicitly integrates water rights to spatially distribute irrigation waters in a semi-arid agricultural region in the western US, using the Envision integrated modeling platform. The model captures both human and biophysical systems, particularly the diversion of water from the Boise River, which is the main water source that supports irrigated agriculture in this ...


A Machine Learning Approach To Estimation Of Downward Solar Radiation From Satellite-Derived Data Products: An Application Over A Semi-Arid Ecosystem In The U.S., Qingtao Zhou, Alejandro Flores, Nancy F. Glenn, Reggie Walters, Bangshuai Han 2017 Boise State University

A Machine Learning Approach To Estimation Of Downward Solar Radiation From Satellite-Derived Data Products: An Application Over A Semi-Arid Ecosystem In The U.S., Qingtao Zhou, Alejandro Flores, Nancy F. Glenn, Reggie Walters, Bangshuai Han

Alejandro N. Flores

Shortwave solar radiation is an important component of the surface energy balance and provides the principal source of energy for terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents a machine learning approach in the form of a random forest (RF) model for estimating daily downward solar radiation flux at the land surface over complex terrain using MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) remote sensing data. The model-building technique makes use of a unique network of 16 solar flux measurements in the semi-arid Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed and Critical Zone Observatory, in southwest Idaho, USA. Based on a composite RF model built on daily observations ...


Coupling Biophysical Processes And Water Rights To Simulate Spatially Distributed Water Use In An Intensively Managed Hydrologic System, Bangshuai Han, Shawn G. Benner, John P. Bolte, Kellie B. Vache, Alejandro N. Flores 2017 Boise State University

Coupling Biophysical Processes And Water Rights To Simulate Spatially Distributed Water Use In An Intensively Managed Hydrologic System, Bangshuai Han, Shawn G. Benner, John P. Bolte, Kellie B. Vache, Alejandro N. Flores

Shawn G. Benner

Humans have significantly altered the redistribution of water in intensively managed hydrologic systems, shifting the spatiotemporal patterns of surface water. Evaluating water availability requires integration of hydrologic processes and associated human influences. In this study, we summarize the development and evaluation of an extensible hydrologic model that explicitly integrates water rights to spatially distribute irrigation waters in a semi-arid agricultural region in the western US, using the Envision integrated modeling platform. The model captures both human and biophysical systems, particularly the diversion of water from the Boise River, which is the main water source that supports irrigated agriculture in this ...


A Machine Learning Approach To Estimation Of Downward Solar Radiation From Satellite-Derived Data Products: An Application Over A Semi-Arid Ecosystem In The U.S., Qingtao Zhou, Alejandro Flores, Nancy F. Glenn, Reggie Walters, Bangshuai Han 2017 Boise State University

A Machine Learning Approach To Estimation Of Downward Solar Radiation From Satellite-Derived Data Products: An Application Over A Semi-Arid Ecosystem In The U.S., Qingtao Zhou, Alejandro Flores, Nancy F. Glenn, Reggie Walters, Bangshuai Han

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Shortwave solar radiation is an important component of the surface energy balance and provides the principal source of energy for terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents a machine learning approach in the form of a random forest (RF) model for estimating daily downward solar radiation flux at the land surface over complex terrain using MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) remote sensing data. The model-building technique makes use of a unique network of 16 solar flux measurements in the semi-arid Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed and Critical Zone Observatory, in southwest Idaho, USA. Based on a composite RF model built on daily observations ...


Geophysical Investigations Of Pyroclastic Density Current Processes And Deposit Properties At Mount St. Helens, Washington (Usa), Andrew Cleveland Gase 2017 Boise State University

Geophysical Investigations Of Pyroclastic Density Current Processes And Deposit Properties At Mount St. Helens, Washington (Usa), Andrew Cleveland Gase

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Geophysical imaging has the potential to significantly improve investigations in pyroclastic deposits, either as a means of in situ property estimation or to provide geologic context where exposures do not exist. I perform two geophysical studies set in the deposits of the 1980 eruption at Mount St. Helens, Washington (USA); the aim is to investigate the physical properties and geology of pyroclastic deposits.

Joint petrophysical modeling reveals the dependence of seismic and electromagnetic velocities in pyroclastic deposits on two-phase porosity (vesicularity and inter- granular porosity) and water-saturation. Seismic first arrival travel-time tomography, multi-channel analysis of surface waves, and multi-offset GPR ...


Earthquake Segment Boundaries And Tsunamigenic Faults Of The Kodiak Segment, Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone, Marlon D. Ramos 2017 Boise State University

Earthquake Segment Boundaries And Tsunamigenic Faults Of The Kodiak Segment, Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone, Marlon D. Ramos

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The most recent megathrust earthquake to impact the Alaska subduction zone was the M9.2 Great Alaska earthquake of 1964. This multi-segment rupture spanned over 700 km of the plate boundary and engendered both local and trans-Pacific tsunamis. The Kodiak Islands region served as the southwestern limit to rupture. The nature of past megathrust segmentation for the Alaska subduction zone has been largely hypothesized through paleoseismological methods and the Kodiak region in particular has not received a comprehensive geophysical characterization of its inferred segment boundaries.

I analyze multiple geophysical datasets (e.g. seismic reflection, earthquake, potential fields) to understand the ...


Soil-Structure Interaction Effects On The Seismic Response Of Low-Rise Eccentrically Braced Frames, Luis Gerardo Buitrago Goyez 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Soil-Structure Interaction Effects On The Seismic Response Of Low-Rise Eccentrically Braced Frames, Luis Gerardo Buitrago Goyez

Theses and Dissertations

The importance of soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects on the seismic response of

buildings has been long recognized and has been researched for over 40 years. However, SSI

analysis has only been applied in a few building projects because the fixed base condition is

considered to provide a conservative estimation for the response of buildings under seismic loads.

This assumption of a fixed base condition adopted by practitioners is not always conservative or

cost-effective, especially for rigid buildings over soft soils. Additionally, for the case of ductile

steel frames with eccentric configurations, the influence of SSI on their seismic performance has ...


Geophysical Assessment Of Kinion Lake Dam, Tim Allen Moody 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Geophysical Assessment Of Kinion Lake Dam, Tim Allen Moody

Theses and Dissertations

Geophysical methods including Capacitively-Coupled Resistivity (CCR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography/Imaging (ERT/ERI), Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) with Love and Rayleigh waves and a Full-Waveform Inversion (FWI) were performed on Kinion Lake Dam, an earth-filled embankment dam that has historically experienced significant seepage and internal erosion issues. Surveys were completed along the crest and downstream toe of the dam. Results from the surveys indicate that each method is capable of resolving the bedrock depth within 1-2 m of locations shown on previous drilling logs, though some discrepancies between the methods exist. A weathered bedrock layer is believed to have ...


Near Surface Geophysics For Lithostratigraphic Interpretation At Pedro, Benton County, Arkansas, Matthew David Ruggeri 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Near Surface Geophysics For Lithostratigraphic Interpretation At Pedro, Benton County, Arkansas, Matthew David Ruggeri

Theses and Dissertations

The roadcut on highway 412 near Pedro, Benton County, Arkansas (MArkUP site L15), has been of geological interest since its excavation in the 1980s. The roadcut is located within the Springfield Plateau and displays formations of Lower Mississippian age. The roadcut contains three mound-like features believed to be olistoliths. This thesis research work adds geophysical evidence to the geological exposure at the site. The purpose of this research is to answer the question of whether near surface seismic methods can be used to extend information at the Pedro outcrop below the ground surface. Specifically, can the top of the Middle ...


Coupling Biophysical Processes And Water Rights To Simulate Spatially Distributed Water Use In An Intensively Managed Hydrologic System, Bangshuai Han, Shawn G. Benner, John P. Bolte, Kellie B. Vache, Alejandro N. Flores 2017 Boise State University

Coupling Biophysical Processes And Water Rights To Simulate Spatially Distributed Water Use In An Intensively Managed Hydrologic System, Bangshuai Han, Shawn G. Benner, John P. Bolte, Kellie B. Vache, Alejandro N. Flores

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Humans have significantly altered the redistribution of water in intensively managed hydrologic systems, shifting the spatiotemporal patterns of surface water. Evaluating water availability requires integration of hydrologic processes and associated human influences. In this study, we summarize the development and evaluation of an extensible hydrologic model that explicitly integrates water rights to spatially distribute irrigation waters in a semi-arid agricultural region in the western US, using the Envision integrated modeling platform. The model captures both human and biophysical systems, particularly the diversion of water from the Boise River, which is the main water source that supports irrigated agriculture in this ...


Using Bolide Airwaves To Estimate Meteoroid Source Characteristics And Window Damage Potential, Nayeob Gi 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Using Bolide Airwaves To Estimate Meteoroid Source Characteristics And Window Damage Potential, Nayeob Gi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

We examined the far-field infrasonic signals produced by 78 bolides simultaneously detected by U.S. government sensors to determine the mechanisms responsible for interstation spreads in infrasound signal period. These signal period spreads lead to large variances in source energy estimates. Our analysis suggests that while acoustic source height contributes to some extent to the variance in signal periods, the range from the source to the station and in particular station noise plays a more significant role.

By simulating the near-field weak shocks from a suite of well-observed energetic fireballs, we have empirically estimated how often fireball shocks produce overpressure ...


Investigation Of Wing Crack Formation With A Combined Phase-Field And Experimental Approach, Sanghyun Lee, Jacqueline E. Reber, Nicholas W. Hayman, Mary F. Wheeler 2017 University of Texas at Austin

Investigation Of Wing Crack Formation With A Combined Phase-Field And Experimental Approach, Sanghyun Lee, Jacqueline E. Reber, Nicholas W. Hayman, Mary F. Wheeler

Jacqueline Reber

Fractures that propagate off of weak slip planes are known as wing cracks and often play important roles in both tectonic deformation and fluid flow across reservoir seals. Previous numerical models have produced the basic kinematics of wing crack openings but generally have not been able to capture fracture geometries seen in nature. Here we present both a phase-field modeling approach and a physical experiment using gelatin for a wing crack formation. By treating the fracture surfaces as diffusive zones instead of as discontinuities, the phase-field model does not require consideration of unpredictable rock properties or stress inhomogeneities around crack ...


Uncertainty In A Geophysical Survey For A Bridge Foundation Design, Paul Michaels 2017 Boise State University

Uncertainty In A Geophysical Survey For A Bridge Foundation Design, Paul Michaels

Paul Michaels

In the preparation stage of a bridge replacement located in Boise Idaho, the Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) commissioned a geophysical survey to address uncertainties in the soil profile across the river. Differing site conditions can impact the final design and cost of a project. To address the geologic uncertainties under the planned bridge replacement, the refraction method was selected. Selection of a geophysical method bears its own risk. Refractions are used to map the top of the competent geologic formation below those soils incapable of supporting the structure. The refraction method requires that P-wave velocity increase at the boundary to ...


Isolating Retrograde And Prograde Rayleigh-Wave Modes Using A Polarity Mute, Gabriel Gribler, Lee M. Liberty, T. Dylan Mikesell, Paul Michaels 2017 Boise State University

Isolating Retrograde And Prograde Rayleigh-Wave Modes Using A Polarity Mute, Gabriel Gribler, Lee M. Liberty, T. Dylan Mikesell, Paul Michaels

Paul Michaels

Estimates of S-wave velocity with depth from Rayleigh-wave dispersion data are limited by the accuracy of fundamental and/or higher mode signal identification. In many scenarios, the fundamental mode propagates in retrograde motion, whereas higher modes propagate in prograde motion. This difference in particle motion (or polarity) can be used by joint analysis of vertical and horizontal inline recordings. We have developed a novel method that isolates modes by separating prograde and retrograde motions; we call this a polarity mute. Applying this polarity mute prior to traditional multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) analysis improves phase velocity estimation for fundamental ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress