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Isolating Retrograde And Prograde Rayleigh-Wave Modes Using A Polarity Mute, Gabriel Gribler, Lee M. Liberty, T. Dylan Mikesell, Paul Michaels 2016 Boise State University

Isolating Retrograde And Prograde Rayleigh-Wave Modes Using A Polarity Mute, Gabriel Gribler, Lee M. Liberty, T. Dylan Mikesell, Paul Michaels

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Estimates of S-wave velocity with depth from Rayleigh-wave dispersion data are limited by the accuracy of fundamental and/or higher mode signal identification. In many scenarios, the fundamental mode propagates in retrograde motion, whereas higher modes propagate in prograde motion. This difference in particle motion (or polarity) can be used by joint analysis of vertical and horizontal inline recordings. We have developed a novel method that isolates modes by separating prograde and retrograde motions; we call this a polarity mute. Applying this polarity mute prior to traditional multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) analysis improves phase velocity estimation for fundamental ...


Mineral Physics Modeling Of The Effect Of Water On Crustal Seismic Velocity Ratios, Eric Lyman 2016 Utah State University

Mineral Physics Modeling Of The Effect Of Water On Crustal Seismic Velocity Ratios, Eric Lyman

Physics Capstone Project

This research explores the relationship between the presence of water (H2O) in the make up of rocks and minerals (specifically quartz) at different levels in the crust. The relationships were calculated using Perple_x software to adjust the level of the different chemical and mineral make up of the rock. The densities were calculated using the velocity of primary waves and shear waves as collected by Tony Lowry. There seems to be at least a casual link between water content and quartz content.


Isolating Retrograde And Prograde Rayleigh-Wave Modes Using A Polarity Mute, Gabriel Gribler, Lee M. Liberty, T. Dylan Mikesell, Paul Michaels 2016 Boise State University

Isolating Retrograde And Prograde Rayleigh-Wave Modes Using A Polarity Mute, Gabriel Gribler, Lee M. Liberty, T. Dylan Mikesell, Paul Michaels

Dylan Mikesell

Estimates of S-wave velocity with depth from Rayleigh-wave dispersion data are limited by the accuracy of fundamental and/or higher mode signal identification. In many scenarios, the fundamental mode propagates in retrograde motion, whereas higher modes propagate in prograde motion. This difference in particle motion (or polarity) can be used by joint analysis of vertical and horizontal inline recordings. We have developed a novel method that isolates modes by separating prograde and retrograde motions; we call this a polarity mute. Applying this polarity mute prior to traditional multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) analysis improves phase velocity estimation for fundamental ...


Using Physical And Social Sensors In Real-Time Data Streaming For Natural Hazard Monitoring And Response, Yelena Kropivnitskaya 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Using Physical And Social Sensors In Real-Time Data Streaming For Natural Hazard Monitoring And Response, Yelena Kropivnitskaya

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Technological breakthroughs in computing over the last few decades have resulted in important advances in natural hazards analysis. In particular, integration of a wide variety of information sources, including observations from spatially-referenced physical sensors and new social media sources, enables better estimates of real-time hazard. The main goal of this work is to utilize innovative streaming algorithms for improved real-time seismic hazard analysis by integrating different data sources and processing tools into cloud applications. In streaming algorithms, a sequence of items from physical and social sensors can be processed in as little as one pass with no need to store ...


Anisotropic Waveform Tomography: Application To Crosshole Data For Transversely Isotropic Media, Shaun Michael Hadden 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Anisotropic Waveform Tomography: Application To Crosshole Data For Transversely Isotropic Media, Shaun Michael Hadden

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Anisotropic Traveltime Tomography and Full Waveform Inversion were applied first to synthetic and then to real data following the development of a transversely isotropic model for handling anisotropy. Best-fitting models of seismic velocity and Thomsen's anisotropy parameters were initially obtained from traveltime tomography, and then used as the starting models for Full Waveform Inversion. The use of a Laplace transform approach effectively damps late arriving S-wave artifacts that introduce errors into the modelling process. The results of the synthetic study highlights the tradeoffs in resolution between the two parameter classes, but verify anisotropic traveltime tomography as a valid method ...


Particle Swarm Transport In Porous Media, Alison R. Hoe, Laura J Pyrak-Nolte 2016 Purdue University

Particle Swarm Transport In Porous Media, Alison R. Hoe, Laura J Pyrak-Nolte

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In recent years, interest in particulate transport in the subsurface has increased with the increased use of micro-particulates in consumer products. In this research, we study particulate swarm transport through porous media that depends on the complexity of the flow paths, on the size and shape of the particles and on the physical interactions among the particles, fluids, and matrix. Specifically, we investigate the effect of pore geometry and grain wettability on swarm evolution under gravity. Swarms were composed of 3 micron polystyrene beads in either water or water with KCL (%). Two types of grains are used to simulate a ...


Lava Lake Eruptive Processes Quantified With Infrasound And Video At Mount Erebus, Antarctica, Alexander Miller 2016 Boise State University

Lava Lake Eruptive Processes Quantified With Infrasound And Video At Mount Erebus, Antarctica, Alexander Miller

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

A natural laboratory exists at Mount Erebus where strombolian activity from the lava lake is directly observed from the crater rim. Lava lake eruptions occur when pressurized bubble slugs distend the lake surface before bursting within a few tenths of a second. The unique setting presents an ideal site to quantify bubble growth through infrasound and video analysis. Two infrasound sensors and one video camera recorded eruptions ~330 m from the lava lake in 2006. Infrasound waveforms exhibit a high-amplitude bipolar pulse followed by a coda consisting of about five decaying oscillations. Video records are quantified by tracking the expanding ...


Subsidence Monitoring In Hampton Roads Using Satellites, Ben Hamlington 2016 Old Dominion University

Subsidence Monitoring In Hampton Roads Using Satellites, Ben Hamlington

July 29, 2016: The Latest in Sea Level Rise Science

No abstract provided.


Explosive Dome Eruptions Modulated By Periodic Gas-Driven Inflation, Jeffrey B. Johnson, J. J. Lyons, B. J. Andrews, J. M. Lees 2016 Boise State University

Explosive Dome Eruptions Modulated By Periodic Gas-Driven Inflation, Jeffrey B. Johnson, J. J. Lyons, B. J. Andrews, J. M. Lees

Jeffrey Lyons

Volcan Santiaguito (Guatemala) “breathes” with extraordinary regularity as the edifice's conduit system accumulates free gas, which periodically vents to the atmosphere. Periodic pressurization controls explosion timing, which nearly always occurs at peak inflation, as detected with tiltmeters. Tilt cycles in January 2012 reveal regular 26 ± 6 min inflation/deflation cycles corresponding to at least ~101 kg/s of gas fluxing the system. Very long period (VLP) earthquakes presage explosions and occur during cycles when inflation rates are most rapid. VLPs locate ~300 m below the vent and indicate mobilization of volatiles, which ascend at ~50 m/s. Rapid gas ...


A Modified Delay-Time Method For Statics Estimation With The Virtual Refraction, T. Dylan Mikesell, Kasper van Wijk, Elmer Ruigrok, Andrew Lamb, Thomas E. Blum 2016 Boise State University

A Modified Delay-Time Method For Statics Estimation With The Virtual Refraction, T. Dylan Mikesell, Kasper Van Wijk, Elmer Ruigrok, Andrew Lamb, Thomas E. Blum

Dylan Mikesell

Topography and near-surface heterogeneities lead to traveltime perturbations in surface land-seismic experiments. Usually, these perturbations are estimated and removed prior to further processing of the data. A common technique to estimate these perturbations is the delay-time method. We have developed the “modified delay-time method,” wherein we isolate the arrival times of the virtual refraction and estimate receiver-side delay times. The virtual refraction is a spurious arrival found in wavefields estimated by seismic interferometry. The new method removes the source term from the delay-time equation, is more robust in the presence of noise, and extends the lateral aperture compared to the ...


Monitoring Southwest Greenland’S Ice Sheet Melt With Ambient Seismic Noise, Aurélien Mordret, T. Dylan Mikesell, Christopher Harig, Bradley P. Lipovsky, Germán A. Prieto 2016 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Monitoring Southwest Greenland’S Ice Sheet Melt With Ambient Seismic Noise, Aurélien Mordret, T. Dylan Mikesell, Christopher Harig, Bradley P. Lipovsky, Germán A. Prieto

Dylan Mikesell

The Greenland ice sheet presently accounts for ~70% of global ice sheet mass loss. Because this mass loss is associated with sea-level rise at a rate of 0.7 mm/year, the development of improved monitoring techniques to observe ongoing changes in ice sheet mass balance is of paramount concern. Spaceborne mass balance techniques are commonly used; however, they are inadequate for many purposes because of their low spatial and/or temporal resolution. We demonstrate that small variations in seismic wave speed in Earth’s crust, as measured with the correlation of seismic noise, may be used to infer seasonal ...


Applications Of Satellite Geodesy In Environmental And Climate Change, Qian Yang 2016 University of South Florida

Applications Of Satellite Geodesy In Environmental And Climate Change, Qian Yang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Satellite geodesy plays an important role in earth observation. This dissertation presents three applications of satellite geodesy in environmental and climate change. Three satellite geodesy techniques are used: high-precision Global Positioning System (GPS), the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). In the first study, I use coastal uplift observed by GPS to study the annual changes in mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet. The data show both spatial and temporal variations of coastal ice mass loss and suggest that a combination of warm atmospheric and oceanic condition drove these variations. In the second ...


Elastic Block Modeling Of Fault Slip Rates Across Southern California, Liam P. DiZio 2016 Macalester College

Elastic Block Modeling Of Fault Slip Rates Across Southern California, Liam P. Dizio

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

We present fault slip rate estimates for Southern California based on Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity data from the University NAVSTAR Consortium (UNAVCO), the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), and new campaign GPS velocity data from the San Bernardino Mountains and vicinity. Fault slip-rates were calculated using Tdefnode, a program used to model elastic deformation within lithospheric blocks and slip on block bounding faults [2]. Our block model comprised most major faults within Southern California. Tdefnode produced similar slip rate values as other geodetic modeling techniques. The fastest slipping faults are the Imperial fault (37.4±0.1 mm/yr ...


Plate Tectonics Initiation On Earth-Like Planets: Insights From Numerical And Theoretical Analysis Of Convection-Induced Lithospheric Failure, Teresa Wong 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Plate Tectonics Initiation On Earth-Like Planets: Insights From Numerical And Theoretical Analysis Of Convection-Induced Lithospheric Failure, Teresa Wong

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Plate tectonics is central to many aspects of the geology and evolution of terrestrial planets, yet it is only observed on the Earth while all other known planets are covered with a stagnant lithosphere. Plate motions on the Earth are mostly driven by the pull of subducting slabs, therefore understanding the initiation of subduction is crucial to understanding plate tectonics initiation. On a one-plate planet which lacks the forces due to plate motions, some other mechanisms will have to cause the first episode of subduction to mobilize the surface. Sublithospheric convection has been proposed as a possible mechanism that induce ...


Seismic Array Studies Of Antarctica And Madagascar, Martin James Pratt 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Seismic Array Studies Of Antarctica And Madagascar, Martin James Pratt

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The scope of this dissertation is broad, involving seismic array studies from Antarctica and Madagascar, and includes aspects of glaciology and oceanography as well as solid Earth geophysics. Chapter 2 focuses on the study of stickslip motion of the Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica. It includes methods combining seismic array and GPS time series, from ice stream based-sensors, to determine source dynamics in the framework of an earthquake source. The source characteristics are then analyzed to explain far-field seismic observations of ice stream- sourced surface waves detected throughout West Antarctica. Locations of asperities, or sticky- spots, that cause the Whillans ...


Search For An Artificially Buried Karst Cave Entrance Using Ground Penetrating Radar: A Successful Case Of Locating The S-19 Cave In The Mt. Kanin Massif (Nw Slovenia), Andrej Gosar, Teja Čeru 2016 University of Ljubljana

Search For An Artificially Buried Karst Cave Entrance Using Ground Penetrating Radar: A Successful Case Of Locating The S-19 Cave In The Mt. Kanin Massif (Nw Slovenia), Andrej Gosar, Teja Čeru

International Journal of Speleology

The S-19 Cave was with its explored depth of 177 m one of the most important caves of the Mt. Kanin massif, but after its discovery in 1974, a huge snow avalanche protection dyke was constructed across the cave entrance. To excavate the buried cave, the accurate location of the cave had to be determined first. Since the entrance coordinates were incorrect and no markers were available, application of geophysical techniques was necessary to do this. A Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) with special 50 MHz rough terrain antennas was selected as the single suitable geophysical method for the given conditions ...


Monitoring Southwest Greenland’S Ice Sheet Melt With Ambient Seismic Noise, Aurélien Mordret, T. Dylan Mikesell, Christopher Harig, Bradley P. Lipovsky, Germán A. Prieto 2016 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Monitoring Southwest Greenland’S Ice Sheet Melt With Ambient Seismic Noise, Aurélien Mordret, T. Dylan Mikesell, Christopher Harig, Bradley P. Lipovsky, Germán A. Prieto

CGISS Publications and Presentations

The Greenland ice sheet presently accounts for ~70% of global ice sheet mass loss. Because this mass loss is associated with sea-level rise at a rate of 0.7 mm/year, the development of improved monitoring techniques to observe ongoing changes in ice sheet mass balance is of paramount concern. Spaceborne mass balance techniques are commonly used; however, they are inadequate for many purposes because of their low spatial and/or temporal resolution. We demonstrate that small variations in seismic wave speed in Earth’s crust, as measured with the correlation of seismic noise, may be used to infer seasonal ...


Complex Rupture Of The M6.3 2015 March 10 Bucaramanga Earthquake: Evidence Of Strong Weakening Process, P. Poli, G. A. Prieto, C. Q. Yu, M. Florez, H. Agurto-Detzel, T. D. Mikesell, G. Chen, V. Dionicio, P. Pedraza 2016 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Complex Rupture Of The M6.3 2015 March 10 Bucaramanga Earthquake: Evidence Of Strong Weakening Process, P. Poli, G. A. Prieto, C. Q. Yu, M. Florez, H. Agurto-Detzel, T. D. Mikesell, G. Chen, V. Dionicio, P. Pedraza

Dylan Mikesell

We use seismic waves for a magnitude 6.3 intermediate-depth (160 km) earthquake in the Bucaramanga Nest, Colombia, to infer a complex rupture process with two distinct stages, characterized by different rupture velocities possibly controlled by the evolution of strength on the fault. Our integrated data processing permitted to precisely characterize the multistage rupture and the presence of a strong weakening event. The resulting seismic radiation is interpreted as resulting from an extreme weakening due to a cascading thermal shear runaway, with an initial inefficient radiation process followed by a fast and dynamic efficient rupture. Our results imply dynamic complexity ...


Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou 2016 Nanjing University

Effects Of Changes In Moisture Source And The Upstream Rainout On Stable Isotopes In Precipitation – A Case Study In Nanjing, Eastern China, Y. Tang, H. Pang, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Shuang-Ye Wu, S. Hou

Shuang-ye Wu

In the Asian monsoon region, variations in the stable isotopic composition of speleothems have often been attributed to the "amount effect". However, an increasing number of studies suggest that the "amount effect" in local precipitation is insignificant or even non-existent. To explore this issue further, we examined the variability of daily stable isotopic composition (δ18O) in precipitation from September 2011 to November 2014 in Nanjing, eastern China. We found that intra-seasonal variations of δ18O during summer were not significantly correlated with local rainfall amount but could be linked to changes in the moisture source location and rainout processes in the ...


Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu 2016 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

Reconstruction Of The Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) Palaeotopography In The Upper Yangtze Region, Linna Zhang, Junxuan Fan, Qing Chen, Shuang-Ye Wu

Shuang-ye Wu

Reconstruction of the Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) palaeotopography in South China is important for understanding the distribution pattern of the Hirnantian marine depositional environment. In this study, we reconstructed the Hirnantian palaeotopography in the Upper Yangtze region based on the rankings of the palaeo-water depths, which were inferred according to the lithofacies and biofacies characteristics of the sections. Data from 374 Hirnantian sections were collected and standardized through the online Geobiodiversity Database. The Ordinary Kriging interpolation method in the ArcGIS software was applied to create the continuous surface of the palaeo-water depths, i.e. the Hirnantian palaeotopography. Meanwhile, the line transect ...


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