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Airborne Snowsar Data At X And Ku Bands Over Boreal Forest, Alpine And Tundra Snow Cover, Hans-Peter Marshall 2022 Boise State University

Airborne Snowsar Data At X And Ku Bands Over Boreal Forest, Alpine And Tundra Snow Cover, Hans-Peter Marshall

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

The European Space Agency SnowSAR instrument is a side-looking, dual-polarised (VV/VH), X/Ku band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), operable from various sizes of aircraft. Between 2010 and 2013, the instrument was deployed at several sites in Northern Finland, Austrian Alps and northern Canada. The purpose of the airborne campaigns was to measure the backscattering properties of snow-covered terrain to support the development of snow water equivalent retrieval techniques using SAR. SnowSAR was deployed in Sodankylä, Northern Finland, for a single flight mission in March 2011 and 12 missions at two sites (tundra and boreal forest) in the winter of ...


A Transformer-Based Classification System For Volcanic Seismic Signals, Anthony P. Rinaldi, Cindy Mora Stock, Cristián Bravo Roman, Alexander Hemming 2022 Western University

A Transformer-Based Classification System For Volcanic Seismic Signals, Anthony P. Rinaldi, Cindy Mora Stock, Cristián Bravo Roman, Alexander Hemming

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Monitoring volcanic events as they occur is a task that, to this day, requires significant human capital. The current process requires geologists to monitor seismographs around the clock, making it extremely labour-intensive and inefficient. The ability to automatically classify volcanic events as they happen in real-time would allow for quicker responses to these events by the surrounding communities. Timely knowledge of the type of event that is occurring can allow these surrounding communities to prepare or evacuate sooner depending on the magnitude of the event. Up until recently, not much research has been conducted regarding the potential for machine learning ...


Geomechanical Modeling Of A Fault During Fluid Injection, Charles KW Hulls 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Geomechanical Modeling Of A Fault During Fluid Injection, Charles Kw Hulls

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The injection of fluid into rock masses as a part of industrial processes, such as hydraulic fracturing, can lead to an increase in seismic activity. The movement of the injected fluid and resulting stresses can be simulated and analyzed. One aspect of this analysis is the predicted rate of seismic activity, obtained via the Dietrich rate-and-state law and the Coulomb Failure Stress. This work produces simulations for two fracturing scenarios in the Duvernay Shale region. Model parameters, such as layer permeability and timing of fault slip, are varied to determine their impact on the model results. The simulated results show ...


Temporal Lidar Scanning In Quantifying Cumulative Rockfall Volume And Hazard Assessment: A Case Study At Southwestern Saudi Arabia, Abdullah A. Alotaibi, Norbert H. Maerz, Kenneth J. Boyko, Ahmed M. Youssef, Biswajeet Pradhan 2022 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Temporal Lidar Scanning In Quantifying Cumulative Rockfall Volume And Hazard Assessment: A Case Study At Southwestern Saudi Arabia, Abdullah A. Alotaibi, Norbert H. Maerz, Kenneth J. Boyko, Ahmed M. Youssef, Biswajeet Pradhan

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Rockfalls and unstable slopes pose a serious threat to people and property along roads/highways in the southwestern mountainous regions of Saudi Arabia. In this study, the application of terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology was applied aiming to propose a strategy to analyze and accurately depict the detection of rockfall changes, calculation of rockfall volume, and evaluate rockfall hazards along the Habs Road, Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia. A series of temporal LiDAR scans were acquired at three selected sites. Our results show that these three sites have different degrees of hazard due to their geological differences. The mean ...


Examining Κ, The High Frequency Spectral Decay Parameter, In Eastern Canada, Samantha M. Palmer 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Examining Κ, The High Frequency Spectral Decay Parameter, In Eastern Canada, Samantha M. Palmer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis examines the ground motion modeling parameter kappa (κ) in the stable continental region of eastern Canada. Kappa characterizes the decay of spectral amplitudes at high frequencies due to near-surface material de-amplification and is important in seismic hazard assessments. Kappa has significant economic and seismic safety implications for critical infrastructure such as nuclear power plants and dams.

To examine kappa in eastern Canada, a database of ground motions to analyze near-source ground motion characteristics is developed. The database consists of ground motion records from 3357 earthquakes of moment magnitude (M) ≥1.5 recorded within 150 km of 25 seismic ...


Synchronous Retreat Of Southeast Greenland's Peripheral Glaciers, Julia Liu, Ellyn Enderlin, Hans-Peter Marshall, Andre Khalil 2022 Boise State University

Synchronous Retreat Of Southeast Greenland's Peripheral Glaciers, Julia Liu, Ellyn Enderlin, Hans-Peter Marshall, Andre Khalil

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Recently, scientific attention has focused on estimating Greenland's dynamic mass loss through changes to flow speeds, thickness, and length on its marine outlet glaciers. For the ice sheet outlet glaciers, dynamic mass loss has been found to be highly sensitive to changes in climate and individual glacier geometry. For the ice-sheet-independent marine glaciers around Greenland's periphery, dynamic mass loss is presently overlooked. Here, we apply an open-source, automated method of measuring glacier length changes using satellite imagery, to produce highly detailed records of length changes for 135 peripheral marine glaciers in southeast Greenland. We find evidence for anomalous ...


Titaniferous-Vanadiferous, Magnetite-Ilmenite Mineralization In A Mafic Suite Within The Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex, Bihar, India, Ashmeer Mohammad, Anup K. Prasad, Kehe-u Wetsah, Mohammad Azad, Vivek Aryan, Hesham el-Askary 2022 Geological Survey of India

Titaniferous-Vanadiferous, Magnetite-Ilmenite Mineralization In A Mafic Suite Within The Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex, Bihar, India, Ashmeer Mohammad, Anup K. Prasad, Kehe-U Wetsah, Mohammad Azad, Vivek Aryan, Hesham El-Askary

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Titanium or vanadium metals or their alloys are important industrial metals/alloys. Because these resources are in short supply, the investigation of potential titaniferous-vanadiferous deposits needs special attention to bridge the supply-demand gap. The study integrates geological, geochemical, remote sensing, and geophysical data for assessing the potentiality of titaniferous-vanadiferous, magnetite-ilmenite mineralization in and around the Sudamakund and Paharpur areas, Gaya and Jehanabad districts, Bihar, India, and delineation of specific targets for detailed exploration. Field visits for large scale mapping on (1:12,500 scale) were used to conduct a reconnaissance survey for magnetite-ilmenite mineralization in parts of toposheet number 72G ...


Response Of Surface And Atmospheric Parameters Associated With The Iran M 7.3 Earthquake, Feng Jing, Ramesh P. Singh 2022 China Earthquake Administration

Response Of Surface And Atmospheric Parameters Associated With The Iran M 7.3 Earthquake, Feng Jing, Ramesh P. Singh

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Multiparameter observed from satellite, including microwave brightness temperature, skin temperature, air temperature, and carbon monoxide, have been analyzed to identify the anomalous signals associated with the M 7.3 Iran earthquake of November 12, 2017. Besides removing the multiyear variability of parameters as background, the effect of surface and atmosphere of a dust storm event in Middle East region during October 29–November 1 is considered to distinguish the possible anomalies associated with the earthquake. The characteristic behaviors of surface and atmospheric parameters clearly show the signals associated with the M 7.3 earthquake and the dust storm event. The ...


Understanding Ch4 Emissions From Compostables: An Exploration Of Local Ch4 Emissions From Landfilled Compostables And The Efficacy Of Emission Mitigation Via Anaerobic Biogas Digestion, Jordan-Yoosuf Aljbour 2022 Portland State University

Understanding Ch4 Emissions From Compostables: An Exploration Of Local Ch4 Emissions From Landfilled Compostables And The Efficacy Of Emission Mitigation Via Anaerobic Biogas Digestion, Jordan-Yoosuf Aljbour

University Honors Theses

Methane (CH4) is the second most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gas within the atmosphere, comprising ~16% of the total anthropogenic greenhouse gas composition on Earth. It has an ~12-year lifetime relative to its eventual oxidation via reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl radicals (OH), and has a 100-year indirect global warming potential (GWP) approximately ranging between 28-36 [Environmental Protection Agency, 2021]. In recent years, the observed average global concentration of atmospheric CH4 has increased by ~11.0% from 2020 (~15.3 ppb) to 2021 (~17.0 ppb) [Dlugokencky et al., 1994; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2022]. With the specter of ...


Fluid Pathways In Magmatic Fluid-Dominated Hydrothermal System: Upper Resurgent Cone, Brothers Volcano, New Zealand, Esther G. Goita 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Fluid Pathways In Magmatic Fluid-Dominated Hydrothermal System: Upper Resurgent Cone, Brothers Volcano, New Zealand, Esther G. Goita

Honors Theses

The Tonga-Kermadec Arc is an active volcanic arc located between New Zealand and Fiji. The arc expands over an approximate distance of 2530 km. The Kermadec Arc is currently host to over 30 volcanoes, the majority of which are submarine. The magmatic activity along the arc is characterized by the convergence between the Pacific and Australian plates. Brothers volcano is the most active hydrothermal system along the Kermadec arc and hosts two distinct hydrothermal systems, one magmatic fluid dominated, and the other seawater dominated, making the site perfect for studying nascent volcanogenic massive sulfide formation and fluid pathways. The International ...


Effects Of Spatial And Temporal Variability In Surface Water Inputs On Streamflow Generation And Cessation In The Rain–Snow Transition Zone, Ernesto Trujillo 2022 Boise State University

Effects Of Spatial And Temporal Variability In Surface Water Inputs On Streamflow Generation And Cessation In The Rain–Snow Transition Zone, Ernesto Trujillo

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Climate change affects precipitation phase, which can propagate into changes in streamflow timing and magnitude. This study examines how the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall and snowmelt affects discharge in rain–snow transition zones. These zones experience large year-to-year variations in precipitation phase, cover a significant area of mountain catchments globally, and might extend to higher elevations under future climate change. We used observations from 11 weather stations and snow depths measured from one aerial lidar survey to force a spatially distributed snowpack model (iSnobal/Automated Water Supply Model) in a semiarid, 1.8 km2 headwater catchment. We ...


Reconceptualizing The Hyporheic Zone For Nonperennial Rivers And Streams, Kendra E. Kaiser 2022 Boise State University

Reconceptualizing The Hyporheic Zone For Nonperennial Rivers And Streams, Kendra E. Kaiser

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Nonperennial streams dominate global river networks and are increasing in occurrence across space and time. When surface flow ceases or the surface water dries, flow or moisture can be retained in the subsurface sediments of the hyporheic zone, supporting aquatic communities and ecosystem processes. However, hydrological and ecological definitions of the hyporheic zone have been developed in perennial rivers and emphasize the mixing of water and organisms from both the surface stream and groundwater. The adaptation of such definitions to include both humid and dry unsaturated conditions could promote characterization of how hydrological and biogeochemical variability shape ecological communities within ...


Investigating The Thermodynamics And Seismic Profile Of The Europan Hydrosphere Through Pure-Water Modeling And Saltwater Experiments, Samantha Rosenfeld 2022 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Investigating The Thermodynamics And Seismic Profile Of The Europan Hydrosphere Through Pure-Water Modeling And Saltwater Experiments, Samantha Rosenfeld

Honors Theses

We explore the properties of the hydrosphere on Europa involving both a modeling technique and experimental methods. We perform a computational analysis of the thermodynamic properties for an ideal, pure-water Europan ice shell using a Python programming framework called SeaFreeze. We create four models assuming surface temperatures of either 50 K or 140 K and ice shell thicknesses of either 3 km or 30 km. We observe mostly linear trends for the density and seismic wave velocities with respect to depth and find that surface temperature has the greatest effect on the models. Simultaneously, we experimentally investigate the phase diagram ...


Pronounced Changes In Thermal Signals Associated With The Madoi (China) M 7.3 Earthquake From Passive Microwave And Infrared Satellite Data, Feng Jing, Lu Zhang, Ramesh P. Singh 2022 China Earthquake Administration

Pronounced Changes In Thermal Signals Associated With The Madoi (China) M 7.3 Earthquake From Passive Microwave And Infrared Satellite Data, Feng Jing, Lu Zhang, Ramesh P. Singh

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Thermal variations in surface and atmosphere observed from multiple satellites prior to strong earthquakes have been widely reported ever since seismic thermal anomalies were discovered three decades ago. These thermal changes are related to stress accumulation caused by the tectonic activities in the final stage of earthquake preparation. In the present paper, we focused on the thermal changes associated with the 2021 Madoi M 7.3 earthquake in China and analyzed the temporal and spatial evolution of the Index of Microwave Radiation Anomaly (IMRA) and the Index of Longwave Radiation Anomaly (ILRA) based on 8-year microwave brightness temperature (MWBT) and ...


Murphy Scale: A Locational Equivalent Intensity Scale For Hazard Events, Yi Victor Wang, Antonia Sebastian 2022 Chapman University

Murphy Scale: A Locational Equivalent Intensity Scale For Hazard Events, Yi Victor Wang, Antonia Sebastian

Institute for ECHO Articles and Research

Empirical cross-hazard analysis and prediction of disaster vulnerability, resilience, and risk requires a common metric of hazard strengths across hazard types. In this paper, the authors propose an equivalent intensity scale for cross-hazard evaluation of hazard strengths of events for entire durations at locations. The proposed scale is called the Murphy Scale, after Professor Colleen Murphy. A systematic review and typology of hazard strength metrics is presented to facilitate the delineation of the defining dimensions of the proposed scale. An empirical methodology is introduced to derive equivalent intensities of hazard events on a Murphy Scale. Using historical data on impacts ...


An Interdisciplinary Approach To Understanding Volcanoes And Their Processes, Katherine Cosburn 2022 University of New Mexico

An Interdisciplinary Approach To Understanding Volcanoes And Their Processes, Katherine Cosburn

Physics & Astronomy ETDs

To better understand volcanoes and their processes is important from both a fundamental science perspective and for hazard monitoring purposes. The complexity and limitations we face in pursuing such a science are numerous and this dissertation explores how an interdisciplinary approach combining physics, computer science, and volcanology can address this complexity in a straightforward and meaningful way. This is achieved through various modelling techniques across three studies: (1) a first-order analytic modelling of stratovolcano topographic shape, (2) the use of a Bayesian joint inversion on gravity and novel cosmic-ray muon measurements for imaging flat-lying subsurface density anomalies, and (3) the ...


Characterization Of Quaternary Stratigraphy In The Mississippi Sound To Evaluate The Influence Of Geologic Heterogeneity On Submarine Groundwater Transport And Discharge, Zachary Peoples 2022 Mississippi State University

Characterization Of Quaternary Stratigraphy In The Mississippi Sound To Evaluate The Influence Of Geologic Heterogeneity On Submarine Groundwater Transport And Discharge, Zachary Peoples

Theses and Dissertations

Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) through seafloor sediments is gaining recognition as an important component of coastal water quality. Stratigraphic features creating geologic heterogeneity, such as incised paleochannels, may influence preferential pathways for SGD. The central Mississippi Sound is underlain by paleochannels that were incised into Pleistocene sediments while the area was subaerially exposed during the last glacial maximum and are now buried by transgressive Holocene deposits. In this thesis, newly collected chirp, previously published seismic reflection, and sediment core data are used to characterize the three-dimensional structure of the Holocene-Pleistocene contact. Results indicate that Pleistocene paleochannels cross-cut the study area ...


Using Geologic Principles And Data To Create A Symphony For Wind Ensemble, Thomas J. Davis 2022 Eastern Washington University

Using Geologic Principles And Data To Create A Symphony For Wind Ensemble, Thomas J. Davis

2022 Symposium

Geology and geologic processes have featured in many pieces of classical music such as Alan Hovhaness’ symphonic works after Mt. St. Helens and Glacier Peak but these pieces are impressionistic and only take general inspiration from the geology of their subjects. This paper describes the creation of Tectonics (2021) a piece which incorporates and describes many geologic principles and processes, such as mantle convection, through the musical form of cannon, the formation of fold and thrust belts whose cross sections are directly visually recreated in the score, and the physical dynamics of earthquake waves demonstrated through variations of pitch and ...


Feasibility Assessment On Use Of Proximal Geophysical Sensors To Support Precision Management, Sophia M. Becker 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Feasibility Assessment On Use Of Proximal Geophysical Sensors To Support Precision Management, Sophia M. Becker

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Soil property maps provide information for field management activities such as irrigation, fertilization, and seeding. Many on-the-go proximal geophysical sensors have been developed in recent decades that can help map agricultural fields without dense soil sampling. To utilize these technologies most profitably in precision management, scientists and precision agriculture dealers must better understand sensors’ performances in given field conditions and the economic value of different proximal soil sensing methods. Chapter two reports the study that was conducted at three sites in North Dakota, United States to strengthen understanding of the usefulness of different proximal geophysical data types in agricultural contexts ...


Characterization And Evolution Of The Professor Valley Pennsylvanian Salt Body (Paradox Basin, Ut) Using Gravity And Magnetotellurics, Derek Scott 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

Characterization And Evolution Of The Professor Valley Pennsylvanian Salt Body (Paradox Basin, Ut) Using Gravity And Magnetotellurics, Derek Scott

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Syndepositional halokinetic movement of the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, UT & CO behaved as a control over the development of depositional systems during the Late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic periods (Trudgill, 2011). Understanding the controls on halokinetic evolution in the area serves as an invaluable outcrop analogue for similar subsurface salt bodies in petroleum-bearing basins and provides key insights for hydrocarbon exploration in salt basins world wide. Professor Valley, located 15 miles Northeast of Moab, UT is situated between the Fisher Valley (Onion Creek) and Cache/Salt Valley salt walls. It includes an anomalous, isolated 0.5 km² ...


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