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Spatial And Temporal Characteristics Of Historical Surface Climate Over The Northwest Territories, Canada, Bhaleka D. Persaud 2023 Wilfrid Laurier University

Spatial And Temporal Characteristics Of Historical Surface Climate Over The Northwest Territories, Canada, Bhaleka D. Persaud

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Climate change is putting many of the Northwest Territories (NWT) ecosystems, its people and animal populations at risk due to accelerated warming, permafrost thaw, and changing precipitation regimes. As the NWT continues to warm, at disproportionately higher rates when compared to the rest of Canada, threats to the stability of NWT’s ecosystems are expected to increase. Consequently, understanding how climate warming has changed historically and its implications on natural ecosystems requires point-to-region-specific, long-term climatic data to elucidate important drivers of observed changes relevant to decision makers at community, Indigenous, Territorial and Federal government levels. However, in situ climate data are …


Historical Tsunami Observability For Izu–Bonin–Mariana Sources, Walter Szeliga, Rachelle Reisinger, Breanyn T. MacInnes 2022 Central Washington University

Historical Tsunami Observability For Izu–Bonin–Mariana Sources, Walter Szeliga, Rachelle Reisinger, Breanyn T. Macinnes

Geological Sciences Faculty Scholarship

The Izu–Bonin–Mariana Subduction System (IBM) is one of the longest subduction zones in the world with no instrumental history of shallow focus, great earthquakes (Mw > 8). Over the last 50 years, researchers have speculated on the reason for the absence of large magnitude, shallow seismicity on this plate interface, exploring factors from plate age to convergence rate. We approach the question from a different point of view: what if the IBM has hosted great earthquakes and no documentable evidence was left? To address the question of observability, we model expected tsunami wave heights from nine great earthquake scenarios on the …


Relative Importance Of Radar Variables For Nowcasting Heavy Rainfall: A Machine Learning Approach, Yi Victor Wang, Seung Hee Kim, Geunsu Lyu, Choeng-Lyong Lee, Gyuwon Lee, Ki-Hong Min, Menas C. Kafatos 2022 Chapman University

Relative Importance Of Radar Variables For Nowcasting Heavy Rainfall: A Machine Learning Approach, Yi Victor Wang, Seung Hee Kim, Geunsu Lyu, Choeng-Lyong Lee, Gyuwon Lee, Ki-Hong Min, Menas C. Kafatos

Institute for ECHO Articles and Research

Highly short-term forecasting, or nowcasting, of heavy rainfall due to rapidly evolving mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) is particularly challenging for traditional numerical weather prediction models. To overcome such a challenge, a growing number of studies have shown significant advantages of using machine learning (ML) modeling techniques with remote sensing data, especially weather radar data, for high-resolution rainfall nowcasting. To improve ML model performance, it is essential first and foremost to quantify the importance of radar variables and identify pertinent predictors of rainfall that can also be associated with domain knowledge. In this study, a set of MCS types consisting of …


Hydrologic Modeling With Remote Sensing For The Estimation Of Groundwater Resources Within The Sand River Catchment, South Africa, Sophia Bakar 2022 Duquesne University

Hydrologic Modeling With Remote Sensing For The Estimation Of Groundwater Resources Within The Sand River Catchment, South Africa, Sophia Bakar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Sand River Catchment is an important tributary of the transboundary Limpopo River in South Africa, which spans Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, and Mozambique. Groundwater is a critical resource in the region, especially in the context of population growth and climate change. Data are needed for proper management of these water resources. In regions where groundwater data are sparse in time, space, or both, the most promising solutions come from satellites and hydrologic models. Regional literature suggests that the Soutpansberg Mountains, located within the Sand Catchment, are high-elevation water towers with uncertain groundwater resources. Improved understanding of groundwater resources in …


Future Colorado River Basin Drought And Surplus, Rama Bedri, Thomas Piechota 2022 Chapman University

Future Colorado River Basin Drought And Surplus, Rama Bedri, Thomas Piechota

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Historical and future drought and surplus periods in the Colorado River basin are evaluated based on eight climate scenarios. Unimpaired streamflow from 17 stations in the Colorado River are evaluated based on U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, and Coupled Modeled Intercomparison Projection 5 downscaled data from 1950–2099. Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 emission scenarios are considered for four climate models (HadGEM2-ES, CNRM-CM5, CanESM2, MI-ROC5). Drought (surplus) quantities, magnitudes, severities, and water year flows are compared for the historical and future periods. Results indicate that there is a significant difference between the historical record and future projections. The …


Sturgeon Chub Distributional Patterns And Habitat Use And Benthic Fish Assemblage Structure In Missouri River Tributaries Of South Dakota, Mitchell R. Magruder 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Sturgeon Chub Distributional Patterns And Habitat Use And Benthic Fish Assemblage Structure In Missouri River Tributaries Of South Dakota, Mitchell R. Magruder

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Native species of the Missouri River drainage inhabiting benthic habitats dominate state and federal lists of species at risk. Sicklefin Chub Macrhybopsis meeki and Sturgeon Chub Macrhybopsis gelida are two native Missouri River benthic minnows that are currently under review for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) due to extensive population declines and local extirpations within their native range. Substantial alterations to the Missouri River threaten Macrhybopsis spp. and other benthic fishes; however, large, less impacted tributaries in South Dakota may act as refugia for native species. The extent of Sicklefin Chub and Sturgeon Chub populations is largely …


Using Xbeach To Describe The Performance Of An Intertidal Vegetation Shoreline Stabilization Treatment, Elizabeth Winter 2022 University of South Alabama

Using Xbeach To Describe The Performance Of An Intertidal Vegetation Shoreline Stabilization Treatment, Elizabeth Winter

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this project is to predict the hydrodynamic and morphodynamics of an engineered vegetation-only shoreline restoration project in Little Lagoon, Alabama under different storm and sea level rise scenarios. Little Lagoon is a shallow, single-inlet lagoon located in Baldwin County, Alabama that has been experiencing shoreline erosion for the past 28 years. A living shoreline using vegetation only (Spartina alterniflora) was implemented in the southwest corner of the lagoon, located within Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge, to create habitat, improve water quality, and prevent future erosion. This research compares “with-project” and “without-project” hydrodynamics and morphodynamics using XBeach in …


The North Platte River Valley: The Intersectionality Between Water Quality And People, Anni Poetzl 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The North Platte River Valley: The Intersectionality Between Water Quality And People, Anni Poetzl

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The North Platte River (NPR) Valley of western Nebraska is a semi-arid watershed with row crop production, livestock production, and urban land use activity and has a population of diverse stakeholders. These land use activities contribute to the enrichment of surface waters, such as streams, which can affect human and ecosystem health, as well as economic development and recreational activities. The project objectives are to: (1) quantify the movement of dissolved inorganic nutrients from the land within the NPR Valley to the NPR via tributaries and canals, (2) identify spatiotemporal variability of nutrient limitation of periphyton growth within the NPR, …


Human And Hydrologic Influences On Nebraska's Endangered Rainwater Basin Wetlands, Sarah Thompson 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Human And Hydrologic Influences On Nebraska's Endangered Rainwater Basin Wetlands, Sarah Thompson

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Over half of wetlands in North America have been lost or degraded. Rainwater Basin (RWB) wetlands, located in south-central Nebraska, are a primary example of such loss; an estimated 90% have been destroyed by land conversion for agriculture. Remaining RWB wetlands are often embedded in row-crop fields, where they are threatened by altered surface water runoff flow, drainage features, and excess sediment inputs. Efforts at the state and federal level have been made to preserve this wetland complex due to the critical stopover habitat these wetlands provide for migratory birds. Land managers work to maintain sufficient water levels during migratory …


Geochemical And Climatic Controls On The Sulfur Cycle In Volcanic Settings: Implications For The Origin Of Sulfur-Rich Deposits Investigated By The Spirit And Opportunity Rovers On Mars, Rhianna D. Moore 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Geochemical And Climatic Controls On The Sulfur Cycle In Volcanic Settings: Implications For The Origin Of Sulfur-Rich Deposits Investigated By The Spirit And Opportunity Rovers On Mars, Rhianna D. Moore

Doctoral Dissertations

On Earth, volcanic activity with elevated sulfur (S) degassing in the presence of water leads to the formation of hydrothermal deposits enriched in S-bearing minerals. Similar processes may have been an important source of S on Mars. The landing sites of Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum investigated by the Spirit and Opportunity rovers, respectively, showed elevated SO42- [sulfate] concentrations, suggesting high- and low-temperature aqueous processes. However, the SO42- contribution from subsequent aqueous weathering of hydrothermal S deposits has been poorly constrained, thus its importance to regional S cycling in the landing sites is unclear. In this …


Increased Aerosols Can Reverse Twomey Effect In Water Clouds Through Radiative Pathway, Pradeep Khatri, Tadahiro Hayasaka, Brent N. Holben, Ramesh P. Singh, Husi Letu, Sachchida N. Tripathi 2022 Tohoku University

Increased Aerosols Can Reverse Twomey Effect In Water Clouds Through Radiative Pathway, Pradeep Khatri, Tadahiro Hayasaka, Brent N. Holben, Ramesh P. Singh, Husi Letu, Sachchida N. Tripathi

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Aerosols play important roles in modulations of cloud properties and hydrological cycle by decreasing the size of cloud droplets with the increase of aerosols under the condition of fixed liquid water path, which is known as the first aerosol indirect effect or Twomey-effect or microphysical effect. Using high-quality aerosol data from surface observations and statistically decoupling the influence of meteorological factors, we show that highly loaded aerosols can counter this microphysical effect through the radiative effect to result both the decrease and increase of cloud droplet size depending on liquid water path in water clouds. The radiative effect due to …


Technical Note: On Uncertainties In Plant Water Isotopic Composition Following Extraction By Cryogenic Vacuum Distillation, Haoyu Diao, Philipp Schuler, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Matthias Saurer, Marco M. Lehmann 2022 Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL

Technical Note: On Uncertainties In Plant Water Isotopic Composition Following Extraction By Cryogenic Vacuum Distillation, Haoyu Diao, Philipp Schuler, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Matthias Saurer, Marco M. Lehmann

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Recent studies have challenged the interpretation of plant water isotopes obtained through cryogenic vacuum distillation (CVD) based on observations of a large 2H fractionation. These studies have hypothesized the existence of an H-atom exchange between water and organic tissue during CVD extraction with the magnitude of H exchange related to relative water content of the sample; however, clear evidence is lacking. Here, we systematically tested the uncertainties in the isotopic composition of CVD-extracted water by conducting a series of incubation and rehydration experiments using isotopically depleted water, water at natural isotope abundance, woody materials with exchangeable H, and organic materials …


Arcmap Basics: Wpes, How Do I...? Quick Guide, Bea E. Van Dam 2022 University of Maine

Arcmap Basics: Wpes, How Do I...? Quick Guide, Bea E. Van Dam

Non-Thesis Student Work

This document is a quick guide to performing common geospatial tasks in ArcMap 10.x (ArcGIS Desktop) for new users. Covered are basic navigation of the ArcMap window; importing, opening, querying, editing, and exporting data; and map preparation. In many cases, there are multiple ways to accomplish different tasks; presented here are the methods the author finds easiest or most straightforward. Mouse click sequences and menu/tool layout may differ if using previous versions of ArcMap.


Hydrological Drought Forecasting Using A Deep Transformer Model, Amobichukwu C. Amanambu, Joann Mossa, Yin-Hsuen Chen 2022 University of Florida

Hydrological Drought Forecasting Using A Deep Transformer Model, Amobichukwu C. Amanambu, Joann Mossa, Yin-Hsuen Chen

University Administration Publications

Hydrological drought forecasting is essential for effective water resource management planning. Innovations in computer science and artificial intelligence (AI) have been incorporated into Earth science research domains to improve predictive performance for water resource planning and disaster management. Forecasting of future hydrological drought can assist with mitigation strategies for various stakeholders. This study uses the transformer deep learning model to forecast hydrological drought, with a benchmark comparison with the long short-term memory (LSTM) model. These models were applied to the Apalachicola River, Florida, with two gauging stations located at Chattahoochee and Blountstown. Daily stage-height data from the period 1928–2022 were …


Hydrogeologic Investigation Of A Covered Karst Terrain, Joseph Peter Honings 2022 Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge

Hydrogeologic Investigation Of A Covered Karst Terrain, Joseph Peter Honings

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Increasing demand for water for agricultural use within the Dougherty Plain of the Southeastern United States has depleted surface water bodies. In karstic landscapes, such as the Dougherty Plain in southwest Georgia where the linkages between surface and ground waters are close, there is a need to understand the physical characteristics of the subsurface that allow these close linkages. Having a better understanding of the subsurface characteristics will aid numerical modeling efforts that underpin policy decisions and economic analyses. Two common features on this karstic landscape are draws and geographically isolated wetlands. Using LiDAR, aerial imagery, and ground-penetrating radar, this …


Flow Regime Evolution Of A Major Cave System In The Eastern Alps (Hirlatzhöhle, Dachstein), Lukas Plan, Gottfried Buchegger, Eva Kaminsky, Gabriella Koltai, Tanguy Racine, Jacek Szczygieł 2022 Karst- and Cave Group, Natural History Museum Vienna, Austria

Flow Regime Evolution Of A Major Cave System In The Eastern Alps (Hirlatzhöhle, Dachstein), Lukas Plan, Gottfried Buchegger, Eva Kaminsky, Gabriella Koltai, Tanguy Racine, Jacek Szczygieł

International Journal of Speleology

The 116 km-long and 1560 m-deep Hirlatzhöhle is one of the major cave systems in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA; Austria). It is located in the NW part of the Dachstein, an extensive karst massif encompassing 576 km² with its highest point at 2995 m a.s.l. In contrast to most other caves in the NCA, Hirlatzhöhle comprises old (epi)phreatic passages located up to 1 km above the base level as well as two modern major drainage systems. The aim of this study is to define the palaeo- and the active flow conditions in combination with speleogenesis, and the age of …


Population Health Metrics During The Early Stages Of The Covid-19 Pandemic: Correlative Pilot Study, Marie A. Severson, David A. Cassada, Victor C. Huber, Daniel D. Snow, Lisa M. McFadden 2022 University of South Dakota

Population Health Metrics During The Early Stages Of The Covid-19 Pandemic: Correlative Pilot Study, Marie A. Severson, David A. Cassada, Victor C. Huber, Daniel D. Snow, Lisa M. Mcfadden

Faculty Publications from The Water Center

Background: COVID-19 has caused nearly 1 million deaths in the United States, not to mention job losses, business and school closures, stay-at-home orders, and mask mandates. Many people have suffered increased anxiety and depression since the pandemic began. Not only have mental health symptoms become more prevalent, but alcohol consumption has also increased during this time. Helplines offer important insight into both physical and mental wellness of a population by offering immediate, anonymous, cheap, and accessible resources for health and substance use disorders (SUD) that was unobstructed by many of the mandates of the pandemic. Further, the pandemic also …


Perceptions Of Earth Science Using Assistive And Supportive Technologies By Students Who Are Blind Or Visually Impaired, Rhea G. Miles, Alana Zambone, Alex Manda 2022 East Carolina University

Perceptions Of Earth Science Using Assistive And Supportive Technologies By Students Who Are Blind Or Visually Impaired, Rhea G. Miles, Alana Zambone, Alex Manda

Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities

Students with blindness or visual impairments (BVI) need to participate in scientific laboratory experiences at the K12 level to be successful in college-level science courses. These K12 level students need instruction to actively conduct science experiments and not only allow sighted students to conduct them. While it may be a challenge, with appropriate assistive and supportive technologies, students with BVI can be successful in conducting scientific investigations to address Next Generation Science Standards. The Discoveries in Earth Science (DES) program provides engaging accommodations adaptive to the needs of elementary, middle, and high school grade students with BVI to successfully prepare …


Enrofloxacin And Sulfamethoxazole Sorption On Carbonized Leonardite: Kinetics, Isotherms, Influential Effects, And Antibacterial Activity Toward S. Aureus Atcc 25923, Chanat Chokejaroenrat, Chainarong Sakulthaew, Khomson Satchasataporn, Daniel D. Snow, Tarik E. Ali, Mohammed A. Assiri, Apichon Watcharenwong, Saksit Imman, Nopparat Suriyachai, Torpong Kreetachat 2022 Kasetsart University

Enrofloxacin And Sulfamethoxazole Sorption On Carbonized Leonardite: Kinetics, Isotherms, Influential Effects, And Antibacterial Activity Toward S. Aureus Atcc 25923, Chanat Chokejaroenrat, Chainarong Sakulthaew, Khomson Satchasataporn, Daniel D. Snow, Tarik E. Ali, Mohammed A. Assiri, Apichon Watcharenwong, Saksit Imman, Nopparat Suriyachai, Torpong Kreetachat

Faculty Publications from The Water Center

Excessive antibiotic use in veterinary applications has resulted in water contamination and potentially poses a serious threat to aquatic environments and human health. The objective of the current study was to quantify carbonized leonardite (cLND) adsorption capabilities to remove sulfamethoxazole (SMX)- and enrofloxacin (ENR)-contaminated water and to determine the microbial activity of ENR residuals on cLND following adsorption. The cLND samples prepared at 450oC and 850oC (cLND450 and cLND550, respectively) were evaluated for structural and physical characteristics and adsorption capabilities based on adsorption kinetics and isotherm studies. The low pyrolysis temperature of cLND resulted in a …


Acid Mine Drainage In The Shamokin Creek Watershed: A Spatial Analysis Of Economic And Environmental Consequences Of Coal Mining, Ben Shimer 2022 Bucknell University

Acid Mine Drainage In The Shamokin Creek Watershed: A Spatial Analysis Of Economic And Environmental Consequences Of Coal Mining, Ben Shimer

Student Project Reports

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