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Changing Snowmelt Conditions In The Western Canadian Arctic, Matthew Y. T. Tsui 2022 Wilfrid Laurier University

Changing Snowmelt Conditions In The Western Canadian Arctic, Matthew Y. T. Tsui

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Multidecadal Changes in Spring Snowmelt in the Western Canadian Arctic

This study investigates the changes in key aspects of snowmelt in the western Canadian Arctic. Specifically, we will look at changes in the onset of snowmelt and the duration of snowmelt between 1999 and 2019, and extended air temperature between 1957 and 2019. In addition, we will look at changes in eight meteorological variables during the melt period. It was found that the onset of snowmelt occurred 14 days earlier, while the melt period ends 20 days earlier than 20 years ago. As a result, the duration of melt period ...


Assessing The Vegetation Condition Impacts Of The 2011 Drought Across The U.S. Southern Great Plains Using The Vegetation Drought Response Index (Vegdri), Tsegaye Tadesse, Brian D. Wardlow, Jesslyn F. Brown, Mark D. Svoboda, Michael J. Hayes, Brian Fuchs, Denise Gutzmer 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Assessing The Vegetation Condition Impacts Of The 2011 Drought Across The U.S. Southern Great Plains Using The Vegetation Drought Response Index (Vegdri), Tsegaye Tadesse, Brian D. Wardlow, Jesslyn F. Brown, Mark D. Svoboda, Michael J. Hayes, Brian Fuchs, Denise Gutzmer

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

The vegetation drought response index (VegDRI), which combines traditional climate- and satellite-based approaches for assessing vegetation conditions, offers new insights into assessing the impacts of drought from local to regional scales. In 2011, the U.S. southern Great Plains, which includes Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, was plagued by moderate to extreme drought that was intensified by an extended period of recordbreaking heat. The 2011 drought presented an ideal case study to evaluate the performance of VegDRI in characterizing developing drought conditions. Assessment of the spatiotemporal drought patterns represented in the VegDRI maps showed that the severity and patterns of ...


Molecular Genetic Analysis Of Stygobiotic Shrimps Of The Genus Xiphocaridinella (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae) Reveals A Connection Between Distant Caves In Central Abkhazia, Southwestern Caucasus, Ivan Marin, Ilya Turbanov 2021 A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Russia

Molecular Genetic Analysis Of Stygobiotic Shrimps Of The Genus Xiphocaridinella (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae) Reveals A Connection Between Distant Caves In Central Abkhazia, Southwestern Caucasus, Ivan Marin, Ilya Turbanov

International Journal of Speleology

Based on the morpho-genetic study of stygobiotic shrimps from the genus Xiphocaridinella Sadowsky, 1930 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae), a hydrogeological connection of a number of distant caves in Central Abkhazia of the southwestern Caucasus is satisfied, which indicates the possibility of using biospeleological studies in some cases to identify karst hydrosystems together with traditional hydrogeological methods. Moreover, a new stygobiotic atyid shrimp from the genus Xiphocaridinella, X. kelasuri sp. n., is described based on morphology and analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I DNA sequences from three distant caves. The new species is genetically divergent from relatives and phylogenetically related to Xiphocaridinella ...


Spatiotemporal Variability Of Soil Water Δ18o And Δ2h Reveals Hydrological Processes In Two Floodplain Soils, Amanda Ceming-Barbato 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Spatiotemporal Variability Of Soil Water Δ18o And Δ2h Reveals Hydrological Processes In Two Floodplain Soils, Amanda Ceming-Barbato

LSU Master's Theses

The movement of water through soil is preferential and heterogeneous. Subsurface interactions between mobile flows and the soil matrix are not uniform and are therefore difficult to predict through time and space. The use of stable isotopes of hydrogen (2H) and oxygen (18O) as conservative tracers of water movement is improving understanding of soil hydrological processes, yet field-scale observations of isotopic variability remain scarce despite implications for identifying dominant hydrologic processes. We sampled two adjacent soils at a ridge-swale topography floodplain forest to determine soil water isotopic variability at a 20 cm depth resolution in soils of differing ...


Catastrophic Beach Sand Losses Due To Erosion From Predicted Future Sea Level Rise (0.5–1.0 M), Based On Increasing Submarine Accommodation Spaces In The High-Wave-Energy Coast Of The Pacific Northwest, Washington, Oregon, And Northern California, Usa, Curt D. Peterson, Don Joseph Pettit, Kara E. P. Kingen, Sandy Vanderburgh, Chuck Rosenfeld 2021 Portland State University

Catastrophic Beach Sand Losses Due To Erosion From Predicted Future Sea Level Rise (0.5–1.0 M), Based On Increasing Submarine Accommodation Spaces In The High-Wave-Energy Coast Of The Pacific Northwest, Washington, Oregon, And Northern California, Usa, Curt D. Peterson, Don Joseph Pettit, Kara E. P. Kingen, Sandy Vanderburgh, Chuck Rosenfeld

Geology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) coastline (1000 km) has been analyzed for conditions that could impact beach erosion from potential near-future (100 year) sea level rise (SLR). Heavy mineral analysis of river, beach, and shelf samples (n = 105) establish the sources of the beach deposits. River bedload discharge and intervening estuarine sinks for river sand supplies (n = 31) were normalized to the one century time interval. Twenty-six subcell beaches (657 km in combined length) were surveyed (153 profiles) for beach sand widths (20–412 m) and sand cross-sectional areas (20–1810 m2 ) above wave-cut platforms and/or 0 m ...


Recurrent Pattern Of Extreme Fire Weather In California, Rackhun Son, S-Y Simon Wang, Seung Hee Kim, Hyungjun Kim, Jee-Hoon Jeong, Jin-Ho Yoon 2021 Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology

Recurrent Pattern Of Extreme Fire Weather In California, Rackhun Son, S-Y Simon Wang, Seung Hee Kim, Hyungjun Kim, Jee-Hoon Jeong, Jin-Ho Yoon

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Historical wildfire events in California have shown a tendency to occur every five to seven years with a rapidly increasing tendency in recent decades. This oscillation is evident in multiple historical climate records, some more than a century long, and appears to be continuing. Analysis shows that this 5–7 year oscillation is linked to a sequence of anomalous large-scale climate patterns with an eastward propagation in both the ocean and atmosphere. While warmer temperature emerges from the northern central Pacific to the west coast of California, La Niña pattern develops simultaneously, implying that the lifecycle of the El Niño-Southern ...


The Impacts Of Mid-Holocene Warming On Water Quality In A Southwestern Ontario Kettle Pond, Morgan E. Peicheff 2021 Western University

The Impacts Of Mid-Holocene Warming On Water Quality In A Southwestern Ontario Kettle Pond, Morgan E. Peicheff

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


Chamoli Disaster: Pronounced Changes In Water Quality And Flood Plains Using Sentinel Data, Sansar Raj Meena, Akshansa Chauhan, Kushanav Bhuyan, Ramesh P. Singh 2021 University of Twente

Chamoli Disaster: Pronounced Changes In Water Quality And Flood Plains Using Sentinel Data, Sansar Raj Meena, Akshansa Chauhan, Kushanav Bhuyan, Ramesh P. Singh

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The Himalayan rivers are vulnerable to devastating flooding caused by landslides and outbreak of glacial lakes. On 7 February 2021, a deadly disaster occurred near the Rishi Ganga Hydropower Plant in the Rishi Ganga River, killing more than 100 people. During the event, a large volume of debris and broken glacial fragments flooded the Rishi Ganga River and washed away the Rishi Ganga Hydropower plant ongoing project. This study presents the impact of the Chamoli disaster on the water quality of Rishi Ganga River in upstream near Tapovan and Ganga River in downstream near Haridwar through remote sensing data. Five ...


Spatial Analysis Of Landscape Characteristics, Anthropogenic Factors, And Seasonality Effects On Water Quality In Portland, Oregon, Katherine Gelsey, Daniel Ramirez 2021 Portland State University

Spatial Analysis Of Landscape Characteristics, Anthropogenic Factors, And Seasonality Effects On Water Quality In Portland, Oregon, Katherine Gelsey, Daniel Ramirez

REU Final Reports

Urban areas often struggle with deteriorated water quality as a result of complex interactions between landscape factors such as land cover, use, and management as well as climatic variables such as weather, precipitation, and atmospheric conditions. Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) has been introduced as a strategy to reintroduce pre-development hydrological conditions in cities, but questions remain as to how GSI interacts with other landscape factors to affect water quality. We conducted a statistical analysis of six relevant water quality indicators in 131 water quality stations in four watersheds around Portland, Oregon using data from 2015 to 2021. Indiscriminate of station ...


Long-Term Hydrological Impacts Of Historical Logging On Recent Hydro-Geomorphic Conditions, Big Barren Creek Watershed, Mark Twain National Forest, Shoukat Ahmed 2021 Missouri State University

Long-Term Hydrological Impacts Of Historical Logging On Recent Hydro-Geomorphic Conditions, Big Barren Creek Watershed, Mark Twain National Forest, Shoukat Ahmed

MSU Graduate Theses

Despite their important role of headwater watersheds as a buffer for upland soil and vegetation disturbances, there has been little research about the effects of historical logging practices on present-day watershed hydrology and channel form. Middle Big Barren Creek (MBBC) watershed (48 km2 ) drains Mark Twain National Forest in the Ozark Highlands and was heavily logged from 1880 to 1920, reducing native shortleaf pine forest by 90%. Additionally, the frequency of intense rainfall events has increased in the region over the past 30 years. In this study, field surveys and hydrologic/hydraulic modeling were used to evaluate the historical timber ...


A Typology Of Drought Decision Making: Synthesizing Across Cases To Understand Drought Preparedness And Response Actions, Amanda E. Cravens, Jen Henderson, Jack Friedman, Nina Burkardt, Ashley E. Cooper, Tonya Haigh, Michael Hayes, Jamie McEnvoy, Stephanie Paladino, Adam K. Wilke, Hailey Wilmer 2021 Fort Collins Science Center

A Typology Of Drought Decision Making: Synthesizing Across Cases To Understand Drought Preparedness And Response Actions, Amanda E. Cravens, Jen Henderson, Jack Friedman, Nina Burkardt, Ashley E. Cooper, Tonya Haigh, Michael Hayes, Jamie Mcenvoy, Stephanie Paladino, Adam K. Wilke, Hailey Wilmer

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Drought is an inescapable reality in many regions, including much of the western United States. With climate change, droughts are predicted to intensify and occur more frequently, making the imperative for drought management even greater. Many diverse actors – including private landowners, business owners, scientists, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and managers and policymakers within tribal, local, state, and federal government agencies – play multiple, often overlapping roles in preparing for and responding to drought. Managing water is, of course, one of the most important roles that humans play in both mitigating and responding to droughts; but, focusing only on “water managers” or “water ...


Right Side Up: Payment For Ecosystem Services On Privately Owned Grasslands In Nebraska, Kyle Martens 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Right Side Up: Payment For Ecosystem Services On Privately Owned Grasslands In Nebraska, Kyle Martens

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Grasslands are an important ecological and economic resource in the United States. As part of a natural system, these landscapes can provide income for ranching operations and employment in rural communities; habitat for grassland plants, animals, and migratory species; and offer other services not always readily observed such as improved soil health, clean water, and carbon sequestration. Despite the overarching benefits, the conversion of grasslands to other uses remains widespread throughout much of the remaining Great Plains ecosystem.

Shifting from livestock ranching to another land use often reflects a tipping point. This occurs when the alternative land use is perceived ...


Causes And Characteristics Of Electrical Resistivity Variability In Shallow (<4 M) Soils In Taylor Valley, East Antarctica, William S. Gutterman 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Causes And Characteristics Of Electrical Resistivity Variability In Shallow (<4 M) Soils In Taylor Valley, East Antarctica, William S. Gutterman

LSU Master's Theses

The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are characterized as a polar desert environment. Soils in the region are typically very dry (<1% soil water by weight) and remain frozen for most of the year. Increases in air temperature and incoming solar radiation during the austral summer generate meltwater from glaciers, ground ice, and snow patches supplying moisture to soils and altering the physical and chemical makeup of the subsurface. Previous studies have utilized airborne electromagnetic surveys (AEM) to analyze groundwater systems in the deep subsurface but have not yet examined soil moisture in the shallow (<4 m) subsurface. Here, I used electrical resistivity data from two AEM surveys (2011 and 2018) and soil geochemical data from three transects to characterize the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties in the near-subsurface of lower Taylor Valley. Soil resistivities from 2011 and 2018 range from 33.2 Ωm to 3535 Ωm with low elevations of <100 meters above sea level (masl) typically displaying the lowest resistivities and high elevations displaying greater resistivities. Liquid brine fractions were empirically estimated from electrical resistivity values using Archie’s Law and range from 0.3% to 68.2% for soils with resistivities <200 Ωm. Additionally, soil transect data show greater percentages of fine-grained sediments (<63 µm) exist at elevations <100 masl where soil resistivities begin decreasing. Resistivity variability in the subsurface is ultimately controlled by the site history, local and regional climate, soil salinity, soil moisture, soil lithology.


Quo Vadis Lakes Azuei And Enriquillo: A Future Outlook For Two Of The Caribbean Basin's Largest Lakes, Mahrokh Moknatian, Michael Piasecki 2021 CUNY Hunter College

Quo Vadis Lakes Azuei And Enriquillo: A Future Outlook For Two Of The Caribbean Basin's Largest Lakes, Mahrokh Moknatian, Michael Piasecki

Publications and Research

Lakes Azuei (LA) and Enriquillo (LE) on Hispaniola Island started expanding in 2005 and continued to do so until 2016. After inundating large swaths of arable land, submerging a small community, and threatening to swallow a significant trade route between the Dominican Republic and Haiti; worries persisted at how far this seemingly unstoppable expansion would go. The paper outlines the approach to a look forward to answer this question vis-à-vis climate change scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It uses numerical representations of the two lakes, and it examines how the lakes might evolve, deploying three ...


Soil Morphology And Carbon Stocks Of Deflation Basin Wetlands In Eastern Nebraska, Usa, Aubrey Grace Kemper 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Soil Morphology And Carbon Stocks Of Deflation Basin Wetlands In Eastern Nebraska, Usa, Aubrey Grace Kemper

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Wetlands contribute important ecosystem services such as water filtration and storage, wildlife habitat, and carbon sequestration. The objective of this study is to compare the soil morphology and the carbon and nitrogen stocks between the upland, basin edge, and basin floor in playa wetlands of eastern Nebraska. This work was conducted in three deflation basin wetlands in the Todd Valley, a loess-mantled, former course of the Platte River, in eastern Nebraska. Soil morphological descriptions were evaluated to two meters’ depth using cores collected along three transects from the upland to the basin floor in three basins, carbon and nitrogen stocks ...


A Study Of Stable Isotopes In Snow On Mt. Hood, Oregon, Maya Felix 2021 Portland State University

A Study Of Stable Isotopes In Snow On Mt. Hood, Oregon, Maya Felix

University Honors Theses

Over the 2020-2021 Winter, event-based and end-of-season snow samples were collected on Mt. Hood near Government Camp, OR and analyzed for their stable isotopic compositions of 18O and 2H. It was found that surficial snow collected through the winter had higher variation in isotopic values than samples from a snow pit collected in spring. This suggests homogenization occurred in the snowpack over the season from snow metamorphism, sublimation, and/or melting. Homogenization of the snowpack will likely become more pronounced as temperatures increase and rain falls more often than snow due to climate change. Research that utilizes the ...


Development Of A Flash Drought Intensity Index, Jason A. Otkin, Yafang Zhong, Eric D. Hunt, Jordan I. Christian, Jeffrey B. Basara, Hanh Nguyen, Matthew C. Wheeler, Trent W. Ford, Andrew Hoell, Mark Svoboda, Martha C. Anderson 2021 University of Wisconsin - Madison

Development Of A Flash Drought Intensity Index, Jason A. Otkin, Yafang Zhong, Eric D. Hunt, Jordan I. Christian, Jeffrey B. Basara, Hanh Nguyen, Matthew C. Wheeler, Trent W. Ford, Andrew Hoell, Mark Svoboda, Martha C. Anderson

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Flash droughts are characterized by a period of rapid intensification over sub-seasonal time scales that culminates in the rapid emergence of new or worsening drought impacts. This study presents a new flash drought intensity index (FDII) that accounts for both the unusually rapid rate of drought intensification and its resultant severity. The FDII framework advances our ability to characterize flash drought because it provides a more complete measure of flash drought intensity than existing classification methods that only consider the rate of intensification. The FDII is computed using two terms measuring the maximum rate of intensification (FD_INT) and average drought ...


Water Quality Threats, Perceptions Of Climate Change And Behavioral Responses Among Farmers In The Ethiopian Rift Valley, Tewodros R. Godebo, Marc A. Jeuland, Christopher J. Paul, Dagnachew L. Belachew, Peter G. McCornick 2021 Tulane University

Water Quality Threats, Perceptions Of Climate Change And Behavioral Responses Among Farmers In The Ethiopian Rift Valley, Tewodros R. Godebo, Marc A. Jeuland, Christopher J. Paul, Dagnachew L. Belachew, Peter G. Mccornick

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

This work aims to assess water quality for irrigated agriculture, alongside perceptions and adaptations of farmers to climate change in the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). Climate change is expected to cause a rise in temperature and variability in rainfall in the region, reducing surface water availability and raising dependence on groundwater. The study data come from surveys with 147 farmers living in the Ziway–Shala basin and water quality assessments of 162 samples from groundwater wells and surface water. Most groundwater samples were found to be unsuitable for long term agricultural use due to their high salinity and sodium adsorption ...


Characterization Of Surface Geology And Hydrogeology In The Upper Ulua River Basin, Honduras, C. Renee Sparks, Issac J. Jacques, Cheryl L. Verbree, Thomas J. Timmermans, Stuart Dykstra 2021 Calvin University

Characterization Of Surface Geology And Hydrogeology In The Upper Ulua River Basin, Honduras, C. Renee Sparks, Issac J. Jacques, Cheryl L. Verbree, Thomas J. Timmermans, Stuart Dykstra

The Compass: Earth Science Journal of Sigma Gamma Epsilon

This research includes a hydrogeologic assessment in and around La Union, Honduras to determine the contribution of groundwater to the surface water system and understand the geological control of groundwater storage and movement. Field methods were employed and focused on spring characterization, geochemical signatures, and structural data. Field data was gathered, and locations determined using cellular-integrated GPS signal and the Fulcrum mapping software mobile application. During the summer of 2017, data on 111 geologic points and 34 water points were collected to understand the hydrogeology of the region. Streams and springs were monitored for pH, flow characteristics and conductance as ...


Quantifying The Contribution Of Solid Precipitates To The Total Alkalinity In A Coal-Mine Discharge, Lili Lei, Dorothy Vesper 2021 West Virginia University

Quantifying The Contribution Of Solid Precipitates To The Total Alkalinity In A Coal-Mine Discharge, Lili Lei, Dorothy Vesper

Presentations

Flocculates and precipitates from coal mine drainage (CMD) are an integral part of the geochemical setting in mining-impacted streams. The precipitates may be very small, amorphous, and, depending on their chemistry, play a role in the storage and release of alkalinity. To evaluate the potential impact of CMD-solids on alkalinity, we conducted various tests using model and natural solids. Laboratory measurements of alkalinity are operationally defined by a titration to a fixed pH. When the solid-solution mixtures were tested using the standard alkalinity measurement method, no alkalinity could be detected; however, a possible reason for that was that the standard ...


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