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Ergot And Loline Alkaloid Concentrations In Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Tillers, Rebecca L. McCulley 2017 University of Kentucky

Ergot And Loline Alkaloid Concentrations In Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Tillers, Rebecca L. Mcculley

Forage Climate Change Experiment Research Data

Approximately 40 tall fescue tillers were randomly collected and frozen from each of the 20 treatment plots.

Tillers were cut at 7.6 cm above ground level and tested for the presence of the Epichloe endophyte using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Tillers from each plot were sorted into 'infected' vs 'uninfected' groups, lyophilized, and ground through a 1mm screen using a Cyclotec 1093 mill.

Ground material from the endophyte infected tillers was analyzed for ergot and loline alkaloids in the lab of Lowell Bush at the University of Kentucky, Plant and Soil Sciences Dept.

For details on alkaloid analyses see ...


High Prevalence Of Toxigenic Clostridium Difficile In Public Space Lawns In Western Australia, Peter Moono, Su Chen Lim, Thomas V. Riley 2017 Edith Cowan University

High Prevalence Of Toxigenic Clostridium Difficile In Public Space Lawns In Western Australia, Peter Moono, Su Chen Lim, Thomas V. Riley

ECU Publications Post 2013

Clostridium difficile is a well-established hospital pathogen. Recently, it has been detected increasingly in patients without hospital contact. Given this rise in community associated infections with C. difficile, we hypothesized that the environment could play an important role in transmission of spores outside the hospital. Lawn samples (311) collected in public spaces in the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia, from February to June 2016 were cultured for C. difficile. C. difficile was isolated from the samples by direct and enrichment culture, and characterized by standard molecular methods using toxin gene PCR and ribotyping. The overall prevalence of C. difficile ...


Moderator Biographies, Heart of America Grazing Conference 2017 University of Kentucky

Moderator Biographies, Heart Of America Grazing Conference

Kentucky Grazing Conference

No abstract provided.


Grazing Panel, Jeff Beasley, Trevor Toland, Ted Krauskopf 2017 Beasley Farm

Grazing Panel, Jeff Beasley, Trevor Toland, Ted Krauskopf

Kentucky Grazing Conference

No abstract provided.


Cover Crops/Annuals And Grazing, Roger Staff 2017 US Department of Agriculture

Cover Crops/Annuals And Grazing, Roger Staff

Kentucky Grazing Conference

The use of annual forages (cover crops), both summer and winter, have been utilized for several years. When cover crops first were used to extend the grazing season, it began with one to three species in a mixture. That was before the soil health benefits were being observed and discussed as they are now. There have been a wide variety of planting methods used: airplanes, helicopters, conventional and No-till drills. Some seeding methods is simply broadcast on the soils surface and lightly tilled in or just rained in depending upon the weather. Then we discovered the herbicides and amounts used ...


Mitigating The Challenges Of Grazing Lush, Spring Forages, W. Travis Meteer 2017 University of Illinois

Mitigating The Challenges Of Grazing Lush, Spring Forages, W. Travis Meteer

Kentucky Grazing Conference

During the winter season most cattle are supplemented with dry forages, grains, and co-products. This ration is balanced and delivered to cattle. Then spring comes along and cattle are put out to grass. While green grass solves a lot of problems associated with winter feeding (manure, pen maintenance, calf health, and labor demands), it can pose nutritional challenges. Lush, spring forage has three major challenges when it comes to meeting cattle nutrition requirements.


Seedhead Suppression In Tall Fescue With Chaparral Herbicide, E. S. Flynn, P. B. Burch 2017 University of Kentucky

Seedhead Suppression In Tall Fescue With Chaparral Herbicide, E. S. Flynn, P. B. Burch

Kentucky Grazing Conference

Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)) is cool-season perennial grass found in pastures throughout the Eastern US, most commonly in the transition zone. It’s tolerance to extreme temperatures, drought, poor soil fertility, heavy grazing, and pests have made it a reliable forage base for livestock pastures. Released in 1943, ‘KY-31’ tall fescue was quickly adopted by cattle producers and now inhabits an estimated 40 million acres in the US.

Soon after its adoption, cattle producers began to notice a reduction in animal performance and signs that animals were heat stressed following tall fescue consumption. These symptoms were an indication of ...


Fescue Tolerance Testing, Monty Kerley 2017 University of Missouri

Fescue Tolerance Testing, Monty Kerley

Kentucky Grazing Conference

Fescue toxicosis is characterized by clinical symptoms such as vasoconstriction, immunosuppression, and poor thermoregulation. Fescue toxins bind to membrane receptors of cells that control constriction of blood through capillaries responsible for heat dissipation. When cattle consume toxic tall fescue, they lose ability to move blood to their skin where heat can be lost to the environment. As they lose this ability they become more prone to heat stress. In the winter, this lack of blood flow leads to other clinical symptoms, such as fescue foot and loss of tail switch, that occur from restricted blood flow.


Research Update: Beef Cattle Management Considerations For Grazing Tall Fescue, Frank Ireland 2017 University of Illinois

Research Update: Beef Cattle Management Considerations For Grazing Tall Fescue, Frank Ireland

Kentucky Grazing Conference

It has been reported that 8 million beef cattle graze an estimated 35 million acres of endophyte-infected tall fescue in the United States with the majority of tall fescue being produced in the Midwest and southeastern regions of the United States. In the presence of the endophytic fungus, ergot alkaloids are present that when consumed by beef cattle results in decreased animal performance as measured in reduced weight gains, lower body condition scores, decreased conception rates, rough hair coats and the inability to regulate body temperatures. It has been estimated that this loss in animal performance accounts for a $600 ...


In Defense Of Soil Health, Allen R. Williams 2017 University of Kentucky

In Defense Of Soil Health, Allen R. Williams

Kentucky Grazing Conference

Soil health is a hot topic today in sustainable agriculture circles and is even becoming more popular in conventional agriculture. However, the term is often thrown around loosely, and sometimes the meaning gets muddled.


Foreword And Conference Information [2017], Matt Bunger 2017 University of Kentucky

Foreword And Conference Information [2017], Matt Bunger

Kentucky Grazing Conference

This is the front matter of the proceedings.


Closing The Water Budget In An Experimental Urban Watershed: A Comparative Assessment Of Methods For Measuring Evapotranspiration, Leana M. Weissberg, Gaboury Benoit 2017 Yale University

Closing The Water Budget In An Experimental Urban Watershed: A Comparative Assessment Of Methods For Measuring Evapotranspiration, Leana M. Weissberg, Gaboury Benoit

Yale Day of Data

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of Microbial Diversity In Disturbed Soil, Tyler G. Sanda 2017 University of Akron

Analysis Of Microbial Diversity In Disturbed Soil, Tyler G. Sanda

Honors Research Projects

This paper uses the composition and abundance of microbial species to analyze soil recovery in disturbed land. Surface mining disturbs ecological communities throughout the world. As organizations seek to reclaim these disturbed lands, a proper analysis of recovery is needed. In previous studies, recovery of disturbed land was limited to surface examinations, which do not characterize the possible unseen devastating effects of the subsoil. Soil microorganisms are extremely sensitive to environmental changes such as strip mining. It is proposed that these microorganisms may serve as better indicators of recovery post disturbance. Our analysis indicates microbial recovery, however it may not ...


Upscaling Stem To Community-Level Transpiration For Two Sand-Fixing Plants: Salix Gordejevii And Caragana Microphylla, Limin Duan, Yang Li, Xue Yan, Tingxi Liu, Xixi Wang 2017 Old Dominion University

Upscaling Stem To Community-Level Transpiration For Two Sand-Fixing Plants: Salix Gordejevii And Caragana Microphylla, Limin Duan, Yang Li, Xue Yan, Tingxi Liu, Xixi Wang

Civil & Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

The information on transpiration is vital for sustaining fragile ecosystem in arid/semiarid environment, including the Horqin Sandy Land (HSL) located in northeast China. However, such information is scarce in existing literature. The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure sap flow of selected individual stems of two sand-fixing plants, namely Salix gordejevii and Caragana microphylla, in HSL; and (2) upscale the measured stem-level sap flow for estimating the community-level transpiration. The measurements were done from 1 May to 30 September 2015 (i.e., during the growing season). The upscaling function was developed to have one dependent variable, namely ...


Water–Soil–Vegetation Dynamic Interactions In Changing Climate, Xixi Wang, Xuefeng Chu, Tingxi Liu, Xiangju Cheng, Rich Whittecar 2017 Old Dominion University

Water–Soil–Vegetation Dynamic Interactions In Changing Climate, Xixi Wang, Xuefeng Chu, Tingxi Liu, Xiangju Cheng, Rich Whittecar

Civil & Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

Previous studies of land degradation, topsoil erosion, and hydrologic alteration typically focus on these subjects individually, missing important interrelationships among these important aspects of the Earth's system. However, an understanding of water–soil–vegetation dynamic interactions is needed to develop practical and effective solutions to sustain the globe's eco-environment and grassland agriculture, which depends on grasses, legumes, and other fodder or soil-building crops. This special issue is intended to be a platform for a discussion of the relevant scientific findings based on experimental and/or modeling studies. Its 12 peer-reviewed articles present data, novel analysis/modeling approaches, and ...


Surface Soil Moisture Dynamics From Remote Sensing, Modeling, And In Situ Observations, Peter Judd Shellito 2017 University of Colorado at Boulder

Surface Soil Moisture Dynamics From Remote Sensing, Modeling, And In Situ Observations, Peter Judd Shellito

Geological Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Soil moisture content plays a central role in the coupled water and energy exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere. It also controls infiltration rates and is therefore key to predicting groundwater recharge and discharge. Land Surface Models (LSMs) use meteorologic data with parameterizations of local soil and vegetation conditions to simulate soil moisture, runoff, and turbulent fluxes. Accurate predictions of droughts, floods, crop productivity, and climate change depend on our ability to understand and model the state and dynamics of surface soil moisture.

Satellite-based remote sensing missions provides global coverage and therefore offer the potential to improve existing ...


Short-Term Effects Of Nutrients On A Barrier Island Grassland Community, Ashley Moulton 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Short-Term Effects Of Nutrients On A Barrier Island Grassland Community, Ashley Moulton

Theses and Dissertations

Increased nutrient availability globally has the potential to affect community functional composition of plants in nutrient limited environments, such as coastal grassland systems. Stability of these systems are threatened worldwide by urbanization, as well as effects of sea level rise and increased frequency and intensity of storms, and atmospheric N deposition, associated with climate change. Annual net primary productivity (ANPP), species composition, and functional traits (community weighted specific leaf area (CWSLA), leaf area index (LAI), growth form and photosynthetic pathway) were measured across four treatments to assess multiple resource limitation of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and functional community response ...


Soil Response To Cropping Sequences And Grazing Under Integrated Crop-Livestock System, Hanxiao Feng 2017 South Dakota State

Soil Response To Cropping Sequences And Grazing Under Integrated Crop-Livestock System, Hanxiao Feng

Theses and Dissertations

Integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) is helpful in diversifying a farm for improving its long-term sustainability and economic benefits. In the United States, the ICLS has been increasing in recent years because of its economic and environmental benefits. However, the impacts of ICLS on soil quality is not well documented in North Dakota. The objective of our study is to assess the impacts of cropping sequences and cattle grazing on the selected soil properties in the crop diversity and livestock integration practice. This study site was established in 2010 at the Dickinson Research Extension Center, Dickinson, North Dakota. The study design ...


Impacts Of Landscape Position And Nitrogen Fertilizer On Soils, Carbon And Nitrogen Leaching, And Greenhouse Gas Fluxes From Switchgrass Production In South Dakota, Liming Lai 2017 South Dakota State University

Impacts Of Landscape Position And Nitrogen Fertilizer On Soils, Carbon And Nitrogen Leaching, And Greenhouse Gas Fluxes From Switchgrass Production In South Dakota, Liming Lai

Theses and Dissertations

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) production for biofuels has potential economic values. It can also improve soil properties and perform better under marginal lands than the other major biomass crops. However, little is known about its potential ecological impacts assessed in terms of soils, water, and air quality in the northern Great Plains region of United States of America. The objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the impacts of nitrogen fertilization rate (N rate) and landscape position on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), bulk density (ρb), and phosphorus (P) in switchgrass field; (ii) assess the ...


Sclerocactus Wetlandicus: Habitat Characterization, Seed Germination And Mycorrhizal Analysis, Kourtney T. Harding 2017 Utah State University

Sclerocactus Wetlandicus: Habitat Characterization, Seed Germination And Mycorrhizal Analysis, Kourtney T. Harding

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Uinta Basin hookless cactus (Sclerocactus wetlandicus) is a threatened species native to Eastern Utah. The cactus is found in a landscape highly disturbed by non-renewable energy production. To understand the environmental conditions that support natural growth of this cactus, we asked whether plant communities differed in the undisturbed areas where the cactus is and is not found. We then compared undisturbed communities to those found on disturbed areas such as reclaimed well pads. Plant community characterization was accomplished with the line-point intercept method, and data were analyzed using Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling. There was no significant difference in occupied and ...


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